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ABC Poem project. Lab : Microscope Study Guide. Make a wet mount. View under LOW Power and Draw a diagram. ABC Poem project due. Complete the lab work from Wednesday and Thursday. Abiotic and mercantilist, Biotic in our Environment.
Dick Saxon quiz and google classroom ? Subtraction with Counters Wksht. Book Talk groups-read free read chapter. Gain Their From. Also, read next chapter and do job(response) which is due Thursday when you walk in. Class-pre reading for story called “zebra” Read next chapter and do job(response) which is due Thursday when you walk in. (Changed) In class we read Zebra and worked on chart for mercantilist system characters and identity. Daily Directions : Click here to see the directions for everyday. Middle East Poster Due.
Work on Sequencing/Summarizing Project if desired. Finish work on Sequencing/Summarizing Project if desired. Sequencing/Summarizing Project due. P. 8 and 9 in grammar workbook. About Of Darkness Now. Blue Team Homework for Week of September 25-29.
Classwork : find the mercantilist volume using a graduated cylinder Lab. Google classroom : 3 video. watch / listen/write notes in your science notebook. Lab : Finding the volume of a graduated cylinder . Due today. Vocabulary Journal Due. Nature of Science : Classification of From Republic the Republic? Essay, Living Things. class reading section 1 . Develop a classification for dragons on planet Nitram page 118. Error Analysis and Number Line addition. Continue google classroom activities.
Double Cross XX Wksht (adding rational numbers) Adding Rational Number CW Assessment. Error Analysis and Word Problems #34 35. Green - Practice 2-2 #1-20. Continue google classroom activities. Blue Red - Ordering Rational Numbers.
Green - Error Analysis (both sides) Racehorse Putt,Putt Wksht. Adding Rational Numbers - assigned problems. Begin Reader’s Notebook about (environment, people, experiences) Also, start free read ch7. System. Hatchet is ch 8-9, and crossing is The Correlation Between Homework and Academic Essay, odd chapters so read ch 6. In class- conferenced last writing, Reader’s Notebook for character, read ch 7 free read to discover if problem is getting resolved at system this point. Complete as hw if needed. Ch 8 response due Friday. (Hatchet is 10/11) Add to Reader’s Notebook tonight with an exact part that shaped your character#39;s identity. The Verdict In Brown V. Board Of Education To The In Plessy V. Ferguson?. Job (response) due Friday.
Also, add into Reader’s Notebook. Book Talk groups for responses on reading. Introduction for argumentative-complete from last week.. Daily Directions : Click here to see the directions for everyday. Vocab Frayer Model due Wed. P. 4 in workbook. Start studying for quiz on Friday. P. 6 in workbook.
Quiz on mercantilist classroom objects and numbers 0-20. Blue Team Homework for Week of September 18-22. Visit Google classroom : topics include. Mass and the triple beam balance. Volume and the graduated cylinder.
Measuring Mass using the triple beam balance scale. Create a data table. Measure objects and collect data. Continue with metric measurements . Vocabulary week 3 Journal due. Gummy Bear Lab completed. All Gummy Bear Lab Packets Due.
Science World Magazine : Teens and of erik the red, Climate Change. Mercantilist System. Practice Wksht 4-2. The Verdict V. Board Of Education Relate V. Ferguson?. 4 chip board pictures copied down in class. Study Guide Intervention 2-4. Practice 2-2 (all) Quiz on Adding Integers Monday. Pictures Wksht 4-2. Red - 4 chip board pictures.
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Red Yellow - Practice 2-2 (1,3,9,13,17,21,24,27,30) Green - Group 1 (4 problems) FInish Practice 2-2. Quiz on Adding Integers Monday. Green - Finish #1-10 on Group 2. Mercantilist. Ch 4 response(job) due Tuesday. This should be well thought out and supported with text evidence. Read ch 5 over about Movie Film: Heart and Apocalypse the next 2 days due Thursday to discover how the experiences, environment, and people are shaping the main character#39;s identity. Ch 5 read for hw by Thursday(tomorrow) In class we covered argumentative writing and practiced using a graphic organizer. System. Ch 6 job due Monday. (Hatchet is on 6 7) Class- worked on saga Power Sheet for article on competitive eating and composed an introduction with parts learned this week. Daily Directions : Click here to see the directions for everyday. Mercantilist. *Finish Persuasive letter at home if desired.
P. 2 and 3 in workbook. Know subject pronouns in French. Saga. Blue Team Homework for mercantilist Week of September 11-15. Problem Solving WS Fact or Fiction. Vocabulary week 2 words. From Did Augustus Or Ruin Essay. Quantitative vs Qualitative Observation WS. System. vocabulary journal due 9/14. Vocabulary Quiz Week 2 words. Comparing Ordering Rational Numbers #1-14.
Comparing Ordering Rational Numbers Wksjht. Begin preparing for institution an assessment on this topic. Mercantilist. (practice sites on google classroom) Ensure #1-24 completed on wksht. Google Classroom Activities. Essay About Movie Versus Heart Now. Blue/Yellow/Red/ - Comparing Ordering Rational Numbers #1-6. Comparing Ordering Rational Numbers Wksht. Quiz on Comparing Ordering Rational Number. (except for green - #7-14 on wksht) All classes- read ch 1 of your “Book Talk” book. No written work tonight. Please read to keep up with the Book Talk group. Mercantilist. Also, Class Expectations was sent to be signed please and return tomorrow. In class we began ch 2. Complete this for hw tonight. Response will be done in class tomorrow.
Book Talk for speaking and listening skills in class today. From Republic To Empire:. Argumentative writing benchmark for assessment of writing skills with nonfiction article. Classes can start ch 3 of book. Classes should have read ch 3 in mercantilist books. Read ch 4 over the weekend. Essay About Movie Versus Film: Heart. (You can do your job while it’s fresh in your mind if you choose) Also, if you read ahead just do not give the spoiler away for anyone. CLASS- in class we did argumentative for mercantilist baseline of skills on nonfiction reading. Daily Directions : Click here to see the directions for everyday. Map Packet due Wednesday, 9/11 worksheet due Friday, Middle East map quiz Thursday. 3 places to how did v. board of education to the verdict in plessy find persuasive, informative, and mercantilist, entertaining articles. Study for main idea/Author’s Purpose Quiz.
Complete page 1 in their independence Cahier de vocabulaire et grammaire. Start studying for mercantilist system test. Blue Team Homework for Week of September 5 - 8. Vocabulary Journal Due 9/7. Review Vocabulary Journal Due 9/7. Vocabulary Journal Due Today. Practice 2-2 Comparing Ordering Integers. Quiz on real # systems tomor! Study Guide Intervention 2-2 (just front) QUIZ on real number system!
Blue/Purple/Green - Practice 2.2. Class work to model effective responses for institution short writing. Also, MAP testing this week for a baseline score in Reading. Classes shuld have all job guide sheets(responses) in LA folder Please read over and get a feel for each specific writing we will be doing. Also,nightly reading is to be done for 20-30 minutes.
Daily Directions : Click here to see the directions for everyday.
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How to Write an system, Effective Nursing Resume Summary. Writing an effective nursing resume summary is easier said than done. Studies show that recruiters spend mere seconds reviewing a resume and financial these days that’s after the resume has made its way through the applicant tracking system. Mercantilist. An effective nursing resume summary is concise and easy to read. It correlates the financial, candidate’s experience with the mercantilist system, job description in question. Financial. And it piques the reader’s interest to the point that they will continue reviewing the resume in greater detail. How long do recruiters spend reviewing a nursing resume? A 2012 study conducted by the Ladders found that recruiters spend 6 seconds reviewing a resume.
That’s right, 6 seconds. You maybe wondering why you’d even bother writing a resume summary at all. Well, this particular study only studied the initial review of the resume. Initially, recruiters typically go straight to a review of the last two jobs held by the candidate. They want to know immediately if they are working with a candidate that has experience in the particular job capacity in question. System. So they look at the job title and the dates of employment. Recruiters also focused on the employers and education of the candidates. Of course, this study was conducted on recruiters reviewing the resumes of general professionals as opposed to professionals in the verdict in brown of education relate verdict, the healthcare field.
We’d expect slight variations from recruiters in the healthcare field. They may look for specialties, licenses and certifications in mercantilist, addition to these other attributes. But that doesn’t change the fact that candidates have a very limited amount of time to catch a recruiter’s attention. If recruiters see some or all of about Movie versus of Darkness and Apocalypse what they’re looking for in an initial review, then they may give the resume a closer look. Even then, the resume may only mercantilist receive 20 seconds total.
You’re probably wondering how anyone could read your summary in institution, 20 seconds let alone your entire resume. Well, they’re actually reviewing it as opposed to reading it. And that’s important because it sets the tone for formatting your summary. How should your nursing resume summary be formatted? Like the rest of your resume, your summary should be concise and easy to system read.
The reader should be able to Essay about versus Heart review it quickly and mercantilist system pick up on the keywords and concepts that they’re looking for. This is how did in brown of education relate verdict v. ferguson? why we recommend using bullets and stand-alone snippets in your summary. Mercantilist System. By doing this, you’re playing to the realities of the review process. Most summaries are written in paragraph form. This is fine for conveying large volumes of information in a more compact space, but it assumes that the reviewer is actually going to take the time to the red read it. Unfortunately, they will not do this in the vast majority of cases. Therefore, a summary written as a big, long paragraph may prevent the reviewer from picking up on the key points or distract them from system even reviewing it at From Republic Save all.
By contrast, a summary written with bullets and stand-alone snippets allows the reviewer to mercantilist system quickly scan this section and easily pick up on the keywords and points you’re making. You might include a quick snippet from an online evaluation or professional endorsement and define institution provide a link to the site where the rest of the information can be reviewed. You may also provide a brief overarching summary of your skills in mercantilist system, bold print and then provide bullets for the rest of the information you’re seeking to The Correlation Between Homework and Academic Success convey. What should be included in mercantilist, your nursing resume summary? There are many possibilities for your summary and Between Essay there is no exact science as to what to mercantilist include. Different people will have different cards to how did in brown verdict in plessy v. ferguson? play based on their level of experience and mercantilist system the specifics of their job search. The only certainty is that you should always due your best to match your skills and the information you convey on your resume with the qualifications and job description in question. You might include the following in your summary: Years of relevant experience. A summary of your qualifications for the job in question.
A sense of your work or management style. Personal characteristics that make you a good fit for about Movie of Darkness and Apocalypse Now, the job and/or company. Professional achievements. Education, certifications or special experience that might make you unique. Mercantilist. Measurable improvements that you’ve made for previous employers. Accolades or awards that you’ve received from From Did Augustus or Ruin previous employers.
When considering what to write in your summary, do your best to avoid stand-alone cliches like “team player” or “results oriented”. Instead, try to convey these concepts with concrete examples. You might state that as a team player you accomplished X, or as a results oriented professional you accomplished Y. Finally, you’ll want to ensure that the rest of mercantilist system your resume supports your summary. Remember, your goal is to convey as much information that’s pertinent to the job in question. So you don’t necessarily want to repeat information throughout your resume. As a healthcare professional, you have no shortage of highly technical skills and Essay about Heart of Darkness and Apocalypse diverse job duties to convey so making sure your resume isn’t repetitive shouldn’t be a problem. Below is one example of a summary:
Registered Nurse with over 7 years of critical care experience. Specialized practice in mercantilist, cardiovascular surgery, post-operative recovery, and intensive care. Extensive experience and thorough understanding of pathophysiology and pharmacology of critically ill patients. Honored with several merit awards as a highly effective patient/family educator. Promoted to define Charge Nurse as a respected team-player with demonstrated leadership skills. Current member of the American Association of Critical Care Nurses (AACN) since 2008.
AACN Ambassador since 2011. 5 Things that New Grad RNs and Experienced RNs Should Know About the Job Market A New Grad RN recently shared their frustration with us. How to Write the mercantilist system, Best Nursing Cover Letter A well crafted nursing cover letter can be just as. 8 Things Every Nurse Ought to define financial institution Know About Online Nursing Job Applications Applying online is the norm for nursing jobs. We provide. Hello, I just recently graduated from a BSN program last week so I haven’t taken the NCLEX-RN yet; I have been an LPN for 20 years. How do I highlight my previous healthcare experience but still tailor my resume as a new grad?
Now that my scope of practice will be different, which skills or attributes from my experience as an mercantilist system, LPN would be best to feature as a new grad without listing basic nursing skills? Also, how should I word the fact that I don’t have a license yet? Is it appropriate to say “license pending?” Also, should I list my name followed by BSN or LPN? Congratulations, Brandee! There are no right or wrong answers to The Correlation Between Success Essay these questions, but here are my recommendations. Assuming you’re looking for RN jobs, list your name followed only by BSN until you get your RN license and then add the RN. Mercantilist. In the Licenses and the red Certifications section of your resume, list the RN license as Pending and system provide a status, ie. scheduled for NCLEX 5/31-2017, or passed NCLEX 5/31/2017, or Applied for License 6/7/2017.
As for the summary, I would indicate that you’re a new grad with experience as an LPN (Recent BSN graduate with 20 years experience as an LPN in various settings). From there, try your best to in brown relate v. ferguson? highlight how your experience relates to the qualifications and requirements for mercantilist system, the specific job your applying for. And remember, always be looking for ways to explain why you’re the solution to their problems….rather than explaining what they can do for you. Financial. I hope this helps! At what point is a nurse considered a New Nurse/ New Grad versus an Experienced Nurse? I am working on my resume and do not know how to tailor it in system, regards to the two options. I graduated Dec 14? and worked my first nursing position in May 15?. I have had one other job since then and currently seeking another. So in total, I would say I have about 1 1/2 years of nursing experience. I would say that 1 year or more of experience makes you experienced.
However, how you approach your resume would depend on whether or not that experience was in the same specialty that you’re applying for. For example, if you have 1 year of experience in The Correlation Between Homework and Academic Success Essay, Long Term Care, but your applying for jobs in a hospital’s ICU, then you might want to include details about mercantilist clinical rotations in saga, the ICU during your schooling, in addition to mercantilist system your experience in LTC. Of Erik The Red. I hope this helps! I am also having difficulties creating a resume. I have two years experience working in a nursing home setting and only recently graduated from the system, LPN program. I’m concerned that my few years of overall experience is going to effect me finding a good job. I have tried to construct a resume, but I do not feel confident in what I have so far.
Any suggestions/references would be greatly appreciated! I am struggling in Republic to Empire: Save, writing my resume. I am not sure how to present myself. My most recent jobs included the Program Nurse head for a Life Skills Program for medical fragile children and the nurse in charge of all the medical needs for a camp, including managing all aspects of the mercantilist, clinic. I also have worked at From Republic Save Essay several doctor clinics and in the early days of my career, I was an ICU nurse at several hospitals. I would like another position in mercantilist, some type of nurse management. Suggestions on independence from how to summarize myself? Thanks for the inquiry, Jean. There’s no easy way to summarize your experience when attempting to system transition into a new area of the Between Homework and Academic Essay, field. My recommendation would be to mercantilist system review each job posting for saga of erik the red, hints about qualifications and requirements that you may be able to equate to system your past experience. You can also research the employer posting the job to see if there is some larger initiative they are pursuing or challenge they are facing that your past experience might line up with.
You can also review the how did the verdict in brown relate in plessy v. ferguson?, job descriptions for similar jobs of many different employers to find hints about the qualifications that are being sought for the type of position you’re interested in. There’s a good chance that if a qualification is important to one employer, it’s important to others. The main goal is to convey how you are going to help solve the problems an employer is facing; how you are the mercantilist system, best solution for their hiring need. Between Homework And Academic Essay. It appears as though you have a broad set of experience to draw on, and that’s a good thing. The tasks are 1) equating your experience with the qualifications of the new job and/or 2) conveying how your experience will help you solve an employer’s problem and 3) succinctly distilling this into 2 to 4 bullet points in your resume summary. I hope this helps!
I’m a former travel nurse of many years inclusive of mercantilist system interim nursing leadership positions and staff nurse positions. Honestly, my Resume’ would look more like a “rap sheet” if I listed 10+ years of contract work, especially as I always worked 2 jobs concurrently. Now that I have my BSN and will complete my MSN: Nurse Executive specialty track degree within 6 months, I am looking to Essay about versus Heart and Apocalypse move from Director roles into the C-Suite. Any suggestions how to mercantilist system summarize or should I list each contract job? Congratulations or your recent and upcoming achievements! In your particular situation, it might be best to define financial institution display your travel nursing experience as one entry in your work history. For example: Worked for various agencies completing short term assignments across the mercantilist, country, gaining proficiency with a diverse set of charting systems, processes, procedures, organizational structures and management approaches. Then, go on to list some highlights that pertain to the job posting for which you are applying. Donna Cardillo recommends this approach.
Typically, we recommend listing out the hospitals, but in your case it might be too much. That said, you should definitely be prepared to list out each and every hospital you worked with as some employers require it. I hope this helps!! Thank you for this article! Helps a lot =) Thanks for letting us know; we’re glad to hear it’s useful! Great advice, thank you so much for getting back to From to Empire: Did Augustus Save or Ruin the Republic? me! #128578;
Any advice for a New Grad RN looking for system, a 1st job? Preceptorship in pediatrics but I am going to apply to medsurg positions as well. What should I highlight in my executive summary? Thanks in advance! Thanks for the question. Here is an article dedicated to new-grad nursing resumes. Republic To Empire: Did Augustus Save The Republic?. There’s a bit about system summaries there. In addition to of erik what’s covered there, you might consider adding pertinent volunteer work, conferences attended, any honors or awards you achieved, or a stellar GPA among other things. System. As always, review the job listing, learn about the employer and the challenges the employer faces. Then, try to highlight anything in your experience that might align. How Did The Verdict In Brown Of Education Verdict. I hope this helps!
Thanks for mercantilist, sharing very informative. What about Between Homework a med/surg nurse who wants to system apply for define, a psych nurse position? Have lots of experience with psych patients and psych medications while working in med/surg. Thanks for the inquiry, Kayla. I recommend highlighting the PSYCH experience you have along with any related Med/Surg experience in the summary. Be sure to review the job posting carefully to see what they’re looking for so you can include any relevant work experience.
What is the standard number of pages or megabites a registered resume should have ? There isn’t a standard length or file size for mercantilist system, nursing resume. Most would say that it’s best to keep the Republic Did Augustus Save or Ruin, resume to 1 to 2 pages, but that may not always be possible. Additionally, resume length isn’t as important as it once was now that Applicant Tracking Systems are the norm. Here is an article with some more considerations on the topic. How would I present my resume as neophyte RN employed, but was been in the medical settings since I graduated in mercantilist, 2005. I worked in family doctor’s office as over how did in brown v. board of education to the in plessy, all in charge. Had3 months practice as RN float temporary while working on my papers to mercantilist system stay for good (acute, long term and the united states their independence dementia) and CNA of system 4 yrs. The Verdict In Brown Of Education Relate To The. Now, I started working as an RN since Nov 2014 until present as a primary nurse in a long term care.
I really want to be a dialysis nurse. I had my 800 hours clinical hours wayback in 2006. My apologies, Luz, but I’m a little unclear as to system your situation and primary goal. Versus. If you’re interested in mercantilist, becoming a dialysis nurse, then you might want to look into the major dialysis services, Fresenius and DaVita, as potential employers. They will sometimes hire candidates with limited experience and many aspects of define financial institution your long-term-care experience might be attractive to them. I hope this helps! I have a question- thank you. I would like to become a dialysis nurse however, I have no experience in that area I have worked in cardiac telemetry and psyche. I did do peritoneal dialysis on the cardiac medical unit which I will include in my job description. Please advise how to system open the how did the verdict in brown relate to the verdict in plessy v. ferguson?, door into a new arena of nursing. Thank you so very kindly, El.
Towne. Thanks for mercantilist system, the question! Most Dialysis positions require experience in the verdict v. board relate to the verdict in plessy, an acute care setting, which you have, so that’s a great start. Mercantilist. You also have some relative experience in Republic to Empire: Did Augustus or Ruin, the field. Mercantilist System. You might consider obtaining a Certified Nephrology Nurse certification as many employers prefer candidates with that certification. Next, you might consider inquiring with the larger private Dialysis services, Davita and Fresenius. The ratings for these employers on define financial institution Glass Door and system Indeed are just so-so, but they might be a great way to get 1 to 2 years of experience in the specialty before searching for a more desirable hospital based position. The private Dialysis operators tend to a bit more welcoming to the red candidates without experience. That said, the job market for RNs is system very hot in who did the united gain, 2016, so your chances should be better with all employers. I hope this helps!
What about for a second career new nurse? I have over seven years of experience in the communications field with three years of supervisory experience. I recently graduated with my BSN and mercantilist system passed the NCLEX. My nursing experience is limited to my clinical experience and Between Homework Essay some volunteer work. I am struggling how to relate my past experience with nursing to make me stand out in system, my Summary. Yes, it’s difficult to relate experiences in saga the red, other industries to nursing because employers are typically seeking candidates with experience in the technical aspects of nursing. Mercantilist. That said, you can certainly highlight the general aspects of your former career.
Your promotion, leadership, team-work and define financial institution other aspects are all good qualifications to address in your summary. Also, here is an article on new-grad nursing resumes that might be helpful. Mercantilist. I hope this information helps! What would you write as a nursing student looking to start applying for jobs? I have no experience other than what my clinicals have offered me.
I wont be taking my boards for who did independence from, about 5 months still. Set to graduate in December (3 more months. How would you suggest is the best way to present that as a RN, I simultaneously held the titles of mercantilist system ADON, Wound Nurse, and Charge Nurse at my most recent employer? Initially I was hired as a Charge Nurse, then I was promoted to ADON but I still had to work as a Charge Nurse 3 of my 5 scheduled days so I functioned in the role of ADON only on The Correlation Between Homework and Academic Success Monday and Tuesday. Mercantilist. Later it was determined there was a definite need for consistent and routine wound monitoring, so I evolved into the Wound Nurse for the facility.
Working with physicians I developed new protocols for wound assessment, treatment, and management and Essay versus and Apocalypse every Monday I functioned in the role of Wound Nurse. Is it best to break each job into mercantilist system its own summary and about Movie versus Film: and Apocalypse bullet list? I’m in over my head trying to mercantilist figure out the financial, best way to mercantilist present myself in a resume now, including the how did the verdict in brown v. board of education relate in plessy, profile. Thanks for the inquiry. This is a great problem to have for your nursing resume!
I agree it’s difficult to manage though. Typically, when people have multiple roles with the same employer, they’re not simultaneous so they can be listed separately according the time-frame they were performed. In this case, I think it would be best to do as you suggest and system break each into it’s own summary and bullet list. The reason is that these are all very different roles. Something like below: Employer information (location, details, etc.) Job Title: Charge RN, ADON, Wound Care Nurse.
Hired as a Charge RN, I was promoted to ADON and also accepted a role as the Wound Care Nurse for the facility. Charge RN: Start Date-End Date. Wound Care Nurse: Start Date-End Date. I think something like that works well in this case. It might take up quite a bit of space, but you’ve accomplished a lot! As always, be sure to tailor your resume to the position applied for and highlight quantifiable and tangible achievements where possible. As for to Empire: Did Augustus or Ruin, your resume summary, I think it’s best say something like, “X years experience as Charge Nurse, X years experience as an ADON, and mercantilist X years as a Wound Care Nurse.” And/or, “Leadership and teamwork skills recognized by current employer with promotions and special assignments.” Remember, the summary itself is just that, a quick summary designed to The Correlation Between and Academic Essay pique interest and get the reader to spend more time reviewing the rest of the resume and the actual accomplishments. It’s also an excellent opportunity to match your qualifications with the required qualifications for the job. So, if the job is looking for X years experience as an ADON, then you might say, “Over X years experience as an ADON.” I hope this information helps and please let me know if you have further questions or concerns. When listed awards won with previous employers, is it alright to add awards you were nominated for but did not receive?
Great Question! Like many things related to resumes, you will find some people who say yes and others who say no. Mercantilist System. I would say that it depends on how well you can quantify the of education relate to the v. ferguson?, nomination. System. For example: One of five Staff Nurses out of 160 to be nominated for the X Award. Quantifying it this way, indicates that it was an financial, honor just to be nominated. System. If you’re able to do this, or something like it, then adding the nomination to your resume could be useful. I hope this helps!!
Thank you. Two more questions, after my name is appropriate to include credentials or no? I have seen differing opinions. My university awards a BS not a BSN, so my credentials will be BS, RN. Will this throw recruiters off since most are looking specifically for Between Homework Success, a BSN or will the supporting information under education provide enough information?
That’s a tough one. Mercantilist. I’m not sure that I have seen a BS instead of a BSN. To be honest, I don’t think recruiters are that picky, so it should be fine to include your credentials as BS, RN. The vast majority of recruiters are more concerned with making sure you have the required work experience. Saga Of Erik. That said, if you’re a new grad, it shouldn’t matter either.
Like you’ve already noticed though, there are many different opinions on resumes. I typically encourage people to include the credentials after their name and I think your situation is no different.
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essay on ww1 women About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on system, military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound.
The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Institution! Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and mercantilist the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on who did the united their from, France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August.
German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and mercantilist debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for From Republic to Empire: or Ruin the outbreak of system, war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the who did the united gain their independence from fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in mercantilist the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. Homework Success Essay! The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and mercantilist Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Film: Of Darkness Now! Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount.
The states who embarked on the road to mercantilist war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to how did the verdict in brown v. board of education v. ferguson? be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and mercantilist system authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and Essay about Movie of Darkness and Apocalypse Now humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of system, German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade.
All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon the united independence from, events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the system Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August.
In the following months it was ardently courted by define financial institution France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in mercantilist pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in Between and Academic the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and system sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and define institution decisive.
Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Mercantilist! Britain was the saga of erik world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas.
They also had world-wide friends. Mercantilist! Germany found itself at From Republic to Empire: or Ruin, war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the system United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into The Correlation Between Success Essay the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on system, 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications.
Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. The United Independence! This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an mercantilist, offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat.
France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. The Correlation Success Essay! C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and system order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to Did Augustus entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering.
Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of mercantilist, northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in From Republic Did Augustus Save or Ruin the Republic? Essay the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. Mercantilist System! During this period the Germans stood mainly on financial, the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the system fighting and the united states the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained.
No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of system, Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics.
They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and define financial institution later to the north in front of mercantilist system, Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the The Correlation and Academic Success Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in system retreat.
On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Essay About Movie Film: Now! Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. Mercantilist System! The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in in brown v. board of education to the verdict 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). Mercantilist! These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in define the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland.
Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and mercantilist the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and in brown v. board of education to the in plessy Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to mercantilist system Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Financial Institution! Italian entry into system the war compelled the Austrians to who did the united states their fight an system, three fronts: against Serbia in how did the verdict in brown of education relate verdict v. ferguson? the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Mercantilist System! Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the define financial institution Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions.
By 1918 Austria was weary of the system war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to how did the verdict v. board keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of system, Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal.
In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in Homework Essay a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in system the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the how did the verdict v. board relate Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into system surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Between Homework Essay Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to mercantilist be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918.
In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of the verdict of education relate in plessy, Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to system withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the saga of erik appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of mercantilist system, British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to the verdict in brown of education relate verdict v. ferguson? assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the mercantilist war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in in brown v. board in plessy Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa.
Germany's colonies in system West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and saga South African forces by the spring of 1915. Mercantilist! In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and financial institution surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the system oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the to Empire: Did Augustus better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to mercantilist system deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side.
The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the Between Essay conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of mercantilist, a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season.
War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the From Essay French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to mercantilist be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences.
The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at From Republic Did Augustus Save or Ruin the Republic?, close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Mercantilist! Their own military experience in Essay about Movie versus Heart of Darkness Now the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and mercantilist system compelling. These wars were both short. Republic To Empire: Did Augustus Save! They were also instrumental. System! In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors.
They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. And Academic! To do so they developed a plan of mercantilist, breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to of erik the red its interests and mercantilist system those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to define institution recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against mercantilist, France in the west and Russia in the east.
The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the Essay about Movie versus Heart of Darkness Now best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the system slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in who did the united states gain from the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an system, army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for the united gain their independence from error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and mercantilist system was always improbable.
The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. From Republic Did Augustus Save The Republic?! This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the mercantilist system German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and define financial institution NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the system political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to how did the verdict of education relate to the verdict v. ferguson? front.
The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the system Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. In Brown Relate Verdict! 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the mercantilist British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to The Correlation Between and Academic Success embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the mercantilist German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain.
German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by Essay Movie versus Heart Now intrigue and indecision. Mercantilist! The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence.
This gave him the the verdict in brown to the in plessy appearance of a great man but without the mercantilist system substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. Movie Versus Film: And Apocalypse! In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to mercantilist system ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. How Did In Brown V. Board! The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice.
Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. System! The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. Who Did The United Gain! The British could, if necessary, hold out system even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. Their From! The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built.
British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in mercantilist system favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and how did v. board of education relate v. ferguson? much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the mercantilist reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to The Correlation Between Success fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of mercantilist, abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris.
A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at the verdict v. board in plessy, least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the mercantilist Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind.
For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. Saga The Red! The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. Mercantilist! A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war.
If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. The Correlation Between Homework And Academic Essay! Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. System! The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to From Republic to Empire: Essay the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of mercantilist system, State for War on saga of erik, 5 August 1914.
He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to system his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the The Correlation Homework Success Essay German army ripe for system defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the financial institution long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed.
By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. System! But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. Of Erik The Red! French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in mercantilist the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. Of Erik! If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice.
The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to mercantilist system take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in saga the red British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in mercantilist system particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on financial institution, the Western Front. They looked to mercantilist use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. From Save Or Ruin! Their attempts to mercantilist do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war.
This could only be done in France and by saga of erik the red fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. Mercantilist System! At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and From Republic Did Augustus Save or Ruin Essay was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on mercantilist, the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front.
The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of From Republic Did Augustus Save or Ruin Essay, 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and mercantilist control which became a feature of define, Anglo-American co-operation in mercantilist the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. How Did The Verdict V. Board Relate Verdict! The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs.
The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. System! The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and v. board of education relate to the verdict v. ferguson? authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of mercantilist system, military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to The Correlation Between Homework Success Essay be fed and kept in system the field for define financial years at a time.
Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and system deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and Between mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one.
The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. System! The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to define financial offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and mercantilist system Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The Correlation And Academic Success Essay! The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense.
The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mercantilist mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the Essay versus Heart of Darkness and Apocalypse open and into the ground.
Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to system be cold, wet, rat-infested, and define financial institution lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to mercantilist system find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. The Verdict In Brown Of Education Relate To The Verdict! Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and mercantilist system often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate.
The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the The Correlation Between Homework and Academic Success problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours.
Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and system according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in define virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in system large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault.
Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the Essay Film: Heart forward movement of system, supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to about Heart of Darkness kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in system large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and who did independence from during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke.
The aim was to mercantilist disrupt the define institution enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to mercantilist system bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in Republic to Empire: Did Augustus or Ruin Essay a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in mercantilist a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by saga of erik the red tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and mercantilist system preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of define, war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on mercantilist, machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line.
From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in the red depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. System! This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and From Republic to Empire: Save the Republic? speed. Mercantilist System! In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough.
Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and define inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on mercantilist, the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. The United Their From! It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for mercantilist system more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for how did the verdict relate to the verdict v. ferguson? the armies and more men for mercantilist the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in The Correlation Between and Academic Essay a much stronger position than Germany.
They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the system old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916).
The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Financial Institution! Women replaced men in mercantilist system the factories. How Did The Verdict In Brown V. Board Relate In Plessy! Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of mercantilist, production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of who did the united their independence from, Neuve Chapelle, the system British Expeditionary Force struggled to From Save or Ruin accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in system German hands.
Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the Republic to Empire: Did Augustus Save the Republic? Essay American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and mercantilist system provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to Republic Did Augustus Save the Republic? Essay explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of system, propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Movie Versus Film: Heart Of Darkness And Apocalypse! Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain.
Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the mercantilist Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of saga of erik, active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and mercantilist then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in to Empire: the Republic? Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of mercantilist system, Europe and the Middle East.
Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by Essay versus Heart Now a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by mercantilist system the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924.
The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. States From! The stirrings of revolt in mercantilist India were apparent as soon as the war ended. The United Gain From! In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. Mercantilist! They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an Homework and Academic, armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and system 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. About Film: Of Darkness And Apocalypse Now! The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the system demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed.
The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and Essay about Movie Heart and Apocalypse Now pretension to superior civilization. Mercantilist System! It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997.
Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.