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Building a semantic graph in Intelligence Essay, Neo4j. This blog was orginally posted by one of our speakers Jesus Barrasa HERE. There are two key characteristics of RDF stores (aka triple stores): the when, first and by far the most relevant is that they represent, store and query data as a graph . Intelligence And Age. The second is Michael The King Essay, that they are semantic , which is a rather pompous way of saying that they can store not only data but also explicit descriptions of the meaning of that data. The RDF and Essay linked data community often refer to these explicit descriptions as ontologies. In case you’re not familiar with the hysterectomy bilateral salphingo, concept, an Intelligence, ontology is a machine readable description of when hippie era a domain that typically includes a vocabulary of terms and some specification of and Age Essay how these terms inter-relate, imposing a structure on the data for Jackson: The King such domain. This is also known as a schema. In this post both terms schema and ontology will be used interchangeably to refer to these explicitly described semantics.
Making the semantics of your data explicit in an ontology will enable data and/or knowledge exchange and interoperability which will be useful in some situations. In other scenarios you may want use your ontology to run generic inferencing on your data to derive new facts from existing ones. Another similar use of explicit semantics would be to run domain specific consistency checks on and Age, the data which is the specific use that I’ll base my examples on in this post. The list of possible uses goes on but these are some of the most common ones. Right, so let’s clarify what I mean by domain specific consistency because it is quite different from when hippie, integrity constraints in the relational style. I’m actually talking about the definition of rules such as “if a data point is connected to a Movie through the ACTED_IN relationship then it’s an Intelligence and Age, Actor” or “if a User is connected to a BlogEntry through a POSTED relationship then it’s an ActiveUser” . We’ll look first at how to stylistic choices express these kind of consistency checks and then I’ll show how they can be applied in three different ways: Controlling data insertion into the database at a transaction level by checking before committing that the state in which a given change leaves the database would still be consistent with the semantics in the schema, and rolling back the transaction if not. Using the Intelligence, ontology to drive a generic front end guaranteeing that only bamboo data that keeps the Intelligence and Age Essay, graph consistent is added through such front end. Running ‘a-posteriori’ consistency checks on datasets to identify domain inconsistencies. Inspector Important. While the previous two could be considered preventive, this approach would be corrective. And Age. An example of calls important quotes this could be when you build a data set (a graph in our case) by bringing data from different sources and you want to check if they link together in a consistent way according to some predefined schema semantics. My main interest in this post is to explore how the notion of a semantic store can be transposed to a -at least in theory- non semantic graph database like Neo4j . This will require a simple way to store schema information along with ordinary data in a way that both can be queried together seamlessly.
This is not a problem with Neo4j+Cypher as you’ll see if you keep reading. We will also need a formalism, a vocabulary to express semantics in Neo4j, and in Intelligence and Age, order to do that, I’ll pick some of the primitives in Society, OWL and RDFS to come up with a basic ontology definition language as you will see in the next section. I will show how to use it by Intelligence modelling a simple domain and prototyping ways of checking the consistency of the data in your graph according to the defined schema. Defining an Michael, RDFS/OWL style ontology in Neo4j. The W3C recommends the use of RDFS and OWL for the definition of Intelligence Essay ontologies. For my example, I will use a language inspired by these two, in inspector calls, which I’ll borrow some elements like owl:Class , owl:ObjectProperty and owl:DatatypeProperty , rdfs:domain and rdfs:range , etc. If you’ve worked with any of these before, what follows will definitely look familiar. Let’s start with brief explanation of the main primitives in our basic schema definition language: A Class defines a category which in Intelligence and Age, Neo4j exists as a node label. A DatatypeProperty describes an bamboo, attribute in Neo4j (each of the individual key-value pairs in Essay, both nodes or relationships) and choices an ObjectProperty describes a relationship in Neo4j. The domain and Intelligence and Age range properties in an ontology are used to further describe ObjectProperty and DatatypeProperty definitions. In the case of an ObjectProperty , the total hysterectomy bilateral salphingo oophorectomy, domain and and Age range specify the bamboo, source and the target classes of the nodes connected by instances of the Intelligence, ObjectProperty . Similarly, in the case of a DatatypeProperty , the domain will specify the class of nodes holding values for such property and the range , when present can be used to specify the XMLSchema datatype of the property values values.
Note that because the property graph model accepts properties on relationships, the choices, domain of a DatatypeProperty can be an ObjectProperty , which is not valid in the RDF world (and actually not even representable without using quite complicated workarounds, but this is another discussion). If you have not been exposed to the RDF model before this can all sound a bit too ‘meta’ so if you have time (a lot) you can find a more detailed description of the Intelligence and Age Essay, different elements in hippie, the OWL language reference or probably better just keep reading because it’s easier than it may initially seem and most probably the examples will help clarifying things. All elements in the schema are identified by URIs following the RDF style even though it’s not strictly needed for our experiment. What is definitely needed is a reference to how each element in the ontology is actually used in the Neo4j data and this name is stored in the label property. Finally there is a comment with a human friendly description of the and Age Essay, element in question. If you’ve downloaded Neo4j you may be familiar by now with the movie database. You can load it in your neo4j instance by running :play movies on your browser. I’ll use this database for my experiment; here is a fragment of the ontology I’ve built for it. Bamboo. You can see the Person class , the Intelligence and Age Essay, name DatatypeProperty and the ACTED_IN ObjectProperty defined as described in the previous paragraphs.
The whole code of the ontology can be found in the github repository jbarrasa/explicitsemanticsneo4j. Grab it and run it on your Neo4j instance and when era you should be able to visualise it in the Neo4j browser. It should look something like this: You may want to Intelligence write your ontology from scratch in Cypher as I’ve just done but it is also possible that if you have some existing OWL or RDFS ontologies (here is an Michael Jackson:, OWL version of the same movies ontology) you will want a generic way of translating them into Neo4j ontologies like the previous one, and Intelligence that’s exactly what this Neo4j stored procedure does. So an alternative to running the previous Cypher could be to Jackson: Of Pop deploy and run this stored procedure. Intelligence. You can use the ontology directly from github as in the fragment below or use a file://.
URI if you have the ontology in your local drive. Checking data consistency with Cypher. So I have now a language to describe basic ontologies in Essay, Neo4j but if I want to use it in any interesting way (other than visualising it colorfully as we’ve seen), I will need to Intelligence and Age Essay implement mechanisms to exploit schemas defined using this language. The good thing is that by following this approach my code will be generic because it works at the schema definition language level. Abdominal Hysterectomy Oophorectomy. Let’s see what that means exactly with an example. A rule that checks the Intelligence, consistent usage of relationships in a graph could be written in Cypher as follows: This query scans the important quotes, data in and Age Essay, your DB looking for ilegal usage of relationships according to your ontology. If in your ontology you state that ACTED_IN is a relationship between a Person and a Movie then this rule will pick up situations where this is not true. Let me try to describe very briefly the semantics it implements.
Since our schema definition language is choices, inspired by RDFS and OWL, it makes sense to follow their standard semantics. Our Cypher works on the :DOMAIN relationship. The :DOMAIN relationship when defined between an ObjectProperty p and Intelligence and Age Essay a Class c , states that any node in stylistic, a dataset that has a value for that particular property p is an Intelligence Essay, instance of the class c . So for example when I state (actedin_op)-[:DOMAIN]-(person_class), I mean that Persons are the Stereotyping, subject of the ACTED_IN predicate, or in Intelligence, other words, if a node is connected to another node through the ACTED_IN relationship, then it should be labeled as :Person because only a person can act in a movie. Was The. Ok, so back to my point on generic code. This consistency check in Cypher is completely domain agnostic. There is no mention of Person, or Movie or ACTED_IN… it only uses the primitives in the ontology definition language ( DOMAIN, DatatypeProperty, Class , etc.). This means that as long as a schema is defined in terms of these primitives this rule will pick up eventual inconsistencies in a Neo4j graph. It’s kind of a meta-rule. Ok, so I’ve implemented a couple more meta-rules for consistency checking to play with in this example but I leave it to you, interested reader, to experiment and extend the set and/or tune it to your specific needs. Also probably worth mentioning that from the point of view of performance, the previous query would rank in the top 3 most horribly expensive queries ever. Intelligence. It scans all relationships in all nodes in the graph… but I won’t care much about this here, I’d just say that if you were to implement something like this to work on large graphs, you would most likely write some server-side java code probably something like this stored procedure, but that’s another story.
Here is another Cypher rule very similar to the previous one, except that it applies to relationship attributes instead. The semantics of the :DOMAIN primitive are the same when defined on chopsticks, DatatypeProperties (describing neo4j attributes) or on ObjectProperties (describing relationships) so if you got the idea in Intelligence, the previous example this will be basically the same. If I run this query on Jackson:, the movie database I should get no results because the Essay, data in Michael The King Of Pop Essay, the graph is consistent with the Intelligence and Age, ontology: Only persons act in movies, only movies have titles, only persons have date of birth, and so on. But we can disturb this boring peace by bamboo inserting a node like this: This is wrong, we are setting a value for Intelligence Essay attribute rating on a property where a rating does not belong. If we now re-run the previous consistency check query, it should produce some results: Our ontology stated that the rating property was exclusive of the :REVIEWED relationship, so our data is now inconsistent with that. I can fix the problem by unsetting the value of the total bilateral oophorectomy, property with the following Cypher and get the graph back to a consistent state.
Right, so I could extend the meta-model primitives by Intelligence and Age Essay adding things like hierarchical relationships between classes like RDFS’s SubClassOf or even more advanced ones like OWL’s Restriction elements or disjointness relationships but my objective today was to introduce the concept, not to define a full ontology language for Neo4j. In general, the choice of the schema language will depend on the level of expressivity that one needs in the schema. In the RDF world you will decide whether you want to use RDFS if your model is simple or OWL if you want to express more complex semantics. The cost, of course, is more expensive processing both for reasoning and consistency checking. Similarly, if you go down the DIY approach that we are following here, keep in chopsticks, mind that for every primitive added to your language, the Intelligence and Age Essay, corresponding meta-rules, stored procedures or any alternative implementation of its semantics, will be required too.
The use of meta-data definition languages with well defined semantics is pretty powerful as we’ve seen because it enables the when was the era, construction of general purpose engines based only on the language primitives that are reusable across domains. Examples of Intelligence Essay this idea are the set of Cypher rules and the stored procedure linked above. You can try to reuse them on other neo4j databases just by defining an ontology in the language we’ve used here. Finally, the combination of this approach with the fact that the schema definition itself is The King, stored just as ordinary data, we get a pretty dynamic setup, because storing Classes, ObjectProperties, etc. Intelligence. as nodes and relationships in Michael Jackson: Essay, Neo4j means that they may evolve over time and that there are no precompiled rules or static/hardcoded logic to detect consistency violations. This is precisely the kind of approach that RDF stores follow. In addition to Intelligence and Age Essay storing data as RDF triples and offering query capabilities for Michael The King it, if you make your model ontology explicit by using RDFS or OWL, you get out of the box inferencing and consistency checking. Consistency checking at transaction level.
So far we’ve used our ontology to drive the execution of meta-rules to check the consistency of a data set after some change was made (an attribute was added to Essay a relationship in Stereotyping Society, our example). Intelligence Essay. That is one possible way of Michael Essay doing things (a posteriori check) but I may want to Essay use the Stereotyping in TodayВґs Essay, explicit semantics I’ve added to the graph in Neo4j in a more real-time scenario. As I described before, I may want transactions to be committed only if they leave our graph in a consistent state and Intelligence and Age Essay that’s what these few lines of python do. The logic of the consistency check is on the client-side, which may look a bit strange but my intention was to make the whole thing as explicit and clear as I possibly could. The check consists of running the whole set of individual meta-rules defined in the previous sections one by one and breaking if any of them picks up an total abdominal, inconsistency of any type.
The code requires the meta-rules to be available in the Neo4j server and the way I’ve done it is by storing each of them individually as ConsistencyCheck nodes with the Cypher code stored as a property. Something like this: The code of the Cypher meta-rule in the cccypher property has been truncated in this snippet but you can view the whole lot in Intelligence and Age Essay, github. Now the when hippie, transaction consistency checker can grab all the meta-rules and cache them (line 25 of the python code) with this simple query: that returns the Intelligence and Age, batch of individual meta-rules to be run. Something like this: The code can be tested with different Cypher fragments. If I try to populate the graph with data that is when was the, consistent with the Intelligence Essay, schema then things will go smoothly: Now if I try to update the graph in inconsistent ways, the meta-rules should pick this up. Was The Era. Let’s try to Essay insert a node labeled as :Thing with an attribute that’s meant to be used by Person nodes: Or link an existing actor (:Person) to something that is not a movie through the :ACTED_IN relationship: I can try also to update the Stereotyping Society Essay, labels of a few nodes, causing a bunch of inconsistencies: Again a word of warning about the implementation. My intention was to Intelligence Essay make the example didactic and easy to stylistic choices understand but of course in a real world scenario you would probably go with a different implementation, most certainly involving some server-side code like this stored proc.
An option would be to write the logic of running the consistency checks and either committing or rolling back the transaction as an unmanaged extension that you can expose as a ‘consistency-protected’ Cypher HTTP endpoint and invoke it from your client. Consistency check via dynamic UI generation. Another way of guaranteeing the and Age, consistency in the data in your graph when it is manually populated through a front-end is to build a generic UI driven by your model ontology. Let’s say for example that you need to generate a web form to populate new movies. Well, you can retrieve both the structure of your form and when era the data insertion query with this bit of Cypher: Again, a generic (domain agnostic) query that works on your schema. The query takes a parameter ‘className’. When set to ‘Movie’, you get in the response all the info you need to generate your movie insertion UI.
Here’s a fragment of the json structure returned by Neo4j. Intelligence Essay. With this simple example, I’ve tried to Of Pop prove that it’s relatively straightforward to model and store explicit domain semantics in Intelligence and Age, Neo4j, making it effectively a semantic graph. I too often hear or read the ‘being semantic’ as a key differentiator between RDF stores and other graph databases. By explaining exactly what it means to ‘be semantic’ and experimenting with how this concept can be transposed to a property graph like Neo4j, I’ve tried to show that such a difference is not an essential one. I’ve focused on using the hippie, explicit semantics to run consistency checks in a couple of different ways but the concept could be extended to other uses such as automatically inferring new facts from existing ones, for instance.
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100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Need a great argument topic? Below I give over 100 ideas. And Age Essay? You'll write faster and calls important quotes, easier if you pick a topic based on: Knowledge: Picking a topic you already know a lot about Intelligence Essay, can make research faster and easier. Interest: Picking a question you want to in TodayВґs Essay, know more about and Age Essay, can make this paper more interesting. Important? Available Sources: I give links to many sources.
Check those for articles first and if you find some, your work is Essay half done. I also save you time by giving you links to videos and Jackson: The King Of Pop Essay, sample student essays. Check out my guides for writing papers too. Good luck! If you get a good grade, be sure to come back and tell me! 1. Instructions for how to Intelligence and Age, (and how not to) pick a topic. 2. Lists of topic ideas (in the categories of food and health, obesity and dieting, recycling and the environment, families and relationships, and hysterectomy bilateral salphingo oophorectomy, science and technology, with videos and many links to research and Intelligence and Age, student essay examples.
3. Total Bilateral Salphingo? Step-by-step instructions for how to Essay, write your essay. Hysterectomy Salphingo Oophorectomy? Choosing a topic that everyone is talking about makes writing an argument essay easier. Intelligence And Age? Make sure you choose a question that doesn't have an answer people already agree on. Pick a reader that doesn't agree with you, so that you are not preaching to Stereotyping in TodayВґs Society, the choir. It also helps if the Intelligence and Age Essay topic is choices something everyone has an opinion about: this will make it easier to get examples to back up your essay, either from articles or from people you interview. Finally, you probably want to pick a topic that is interesting to you and that you care about. Steer clear of overused topics like abortion, gun control, and the death penalty. And Age Essay? For one thing, your instructor has already read far too many of these essays and is not only probably bored with the topic, but also has already heard everything you might say. Moreover, although those may seem like easy topics, they really aren't, because most people are set in their ways about these issues and it is hard to think of an argument that might change their minds. Is Deforestation Worth it?
Do the was the economic benefits of Intelligence and Age Essay cutting down forests outweigh the environmental damage? What is Love? What kind of love leads to a lasting relationship? Stay-at-Home Dad: Is it a good idea for a father to raise his children full-time? What causes a man to become a stay-at-home dad and can it work out important well for a family? Hunger Hurts: Should Americans think and do more about the hunger faced by people around the world? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese?
What can be done to help children maintain a healthy weight? How can people lose weight and keep it off? Is weight gain caused by genetics, environment, or some other factor? How do naturally thin people stay that way? What is the and Age Essay relationship between food, exercise, and weight?
Are low carbohydrate diets (like the Society Paleo, Adkins, and South Beach diets) really the best? Do planned-meal diets like Jenny Craig and Nutrisystem really work to help people keep weight off? Why are Weight Watchers and other calorie-counting diets often considered the best by doctors? Is controlling weight really a matter of and Age Essay calories in, calories out? What is the best diet for important quotes a young adult? Can vegetarian diets be healthy?
Why are so many people now choosing to go on gluten-free diets? Is sugar really bad for you? Does restricting the size of soft drinks that can be sold really help health? Should schools have vending machines that sell sodas, candy, and other bad snacks? What can schools do to promote better health in Intelligence Essay, students? Does intermittent fasting really help you to Society, be more fit? How can morbidly obese people lose weight safely? Is the T.V. show The Biggest Loser helpful in Intelligence and Age, motivating people to be healthy? Does the when was the era show create negative or positive feelings about morbidly obese people? Does it exploit the contestants? What causes anorexia?
How can it be prevented? How can you help an anorexic friend? Why are more young men becoming anorexic? What is morbid obesity? How does morbid obesity affect a person's health? What should we do about the cost of healthcare for Essay overweight people?
Should there be a greater insurance premium for people who are obese? Is surgery a good method for bamboo people to Intelligence, lose weight? Are sugar substitutes helpful for dieting? Is fat really bad for you? Is a low fat diet the best?
Research Articles on Society Obesity and Essay, Dieting. Here are some professional articles and Michael Jackson: The King Of Pop Essay, websites that can help you start. Intelligence And Age? Many of these articles contain links to other sources also. Long Term Weight Loss Maintenance, by calls quotes Rena R. Wing and Suzanne Phelan, in American Society for Clinical Nutrition (2005). The National Weight Control Registry. An account of over 10,000 individuals who have lost significant amounts of weight and kept it off for long periods of time.
Overweight and Obesity. U.S. government reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diet Topic Articles from Psychology Today . What can we do to help people around the world have clean water to drink? Is hunting good or bad for and Age the environment? Should the horns of wild rhinos be removed to total hysterectomy bilateral oophorectomy, prevent them from being poached?
Can we protect wild areas and animals by Intelligence and Age promoting eco-tourism? Should the government discourage or regulate oil drilling in important quotes, the gulf of Mexico? What are the dangers of fracking? Does recycling really make a difference? Should all states adopt a deposit on soft drink bottles and cans in order to promote recycling? Should schools require students to bring refillable containers for water and other beverages rather than disposable ones? Should supermarkets charge for plastic bags in order to encourage the and Age use of reusable bags? Should your city (or campus) do more to encourage recycling?
What causes people to litter? What could motivate people to clean up after themselves? What causes earthquakes? What can we do to reduce death or damage from earthquakes? Or how can we better predict them? Does being a vegetarian or vegan help the environment? Can using LED lights make a difference?
How can composting help save the environment? What is hazardous household waste and why is it important not to throw it in the regular trash? What is deforestation? How does it happen? Can it be stopped? What is fracking? Is fracking worth the risks? Does fracking hurt drinking water?
What is a carbon footprint? How can we change our carbon footprint? What are the dangers for people living in cities like Beijing with high pollution? Is nuclear energy really safe? What should be done with nuclear waste? What is the Stereotyping in TodayВґs Society Essay best way to handle our trash? Are landfills a good idea?
Where can we use solar, wind, and other alternative energy sources effectively? What is the best way to encourage alternative energy use? (Government regulations? Incentives? Helping companies that produce these products? Advertising?) The World Bank on and Age Essay Environment: Information and stylistic choices, research about environmental issues around the world. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: On the science and technology page, find research and information under different topics like water, pesticides, or ecosystems.
Discover Magazine: Search the environmental topics page for your topic. U.S. Government Recycling and Conservation: Statistics and information. Should mothers stay home with their children? Do long distance relationships work? How can divorce be prevented? Is divorce something that kids can recover from? Are teenage marriages a good idea?
Should teenagers that get pregnant keep their children? How can you get out of the Intelligence friend zone? How can you know you are in an abusive relationship? Why do people stay in important quotes, abusive relationships? What are the effects of domestic violence on and Age Essay children? Who should do the chores in Essay, a family?
What are helicopter parents and how do they help or harm their children? Is it good to Intelligence, be an only child? Is doing sports together a good thing for families? How have video games impacted family life? Why do some people treat their pets as family members? Is this a good or bad thing? How important are grandparents to children today? How does interracial adoption affect a family? Are large families better for children? How does birth order affect children?
Do older people make better parents? Have cell phones and inspector calls important, social media made families closer or not? How should (or shouldn't) you use social media in a dating relationship? How long should people date before they become engaged? What makes people have a happy, long-lasting marriage?
Are the expectations raised by romantic movies damaging to Intelligence and Age, real relationships? Are Beauty Pageants Good for Kids? What is nanotechnology and how has it already changed our lives? How will nanotechnology affect dentistry or medicine? How can nanotechnology be helpful in Stereotyping in TodayВґs Society, developing new types of computers, cell phones, or data storage? Does using cell phones make people more or less connected? Do cell phones cause a cancer risk? What should the Intelligence Essay laws be concerning the use of cell phones while driving? Have social media and when hippie, texting hurt or improved the Intelligence and Age lives of teenagers? Why are children better at understanding new technology than their parents are? Do violent video games cause people to act out violently?
Should schools use video games as a teaching tool? Can students study better using digital textbooks than they can by using books, pens, and paper? Will paper and books become obsolete? What is the difference between reading on Michael Jackson: The King a screen and reading a book? Should everyone wear a microchip with their personal information to Intelligence and Age, avoid identity and credit card theft? Should parents be able to Society, choose the genetics of and Age Essay their children? Are smart watches going to total hysterectomy bilateral, replace cell phones? What is the next big leap in technology? Which is better, the PC or the Mac?
If we can help people live longer through technology, should we? Is there a balance between quantity and quality of Intelligence Essay life? How can 3-D printers be used effectively? SciTech Daily: Science and important, new technology news and research reports. MIT Technology Review: Massachusetts Institute of Technology's website for explaining new technologies. If you want to write a quick and easy argument paper, follow these simple steps: Pick a topic question from the lists above.
Decide your answer to the question (this is your beginning thesis). Write down everything you know about the Intelligence Essay topic. Talk to your friends or family to find out what they know, have heard, or have read recently about the topic (have them give you the source if they know it). Look at abdominal bilateral some of the research articles or web sites about that topic. Look back at your question and and Age, refine your answer. After gathering information, you may want to change it. Write down three or more best reasons for your answer (these are your topic ideas for the body of your essay). Using those reasons, look at the articles you've read or the ideas you've already written down for in TodayВґs Essay some evidence to Intelligence and Age, support those reasons (this is the backup evidence for each topic sentence). Write your outline, then follow it to stylistic choices, write your paper. Do you have to and Age, do research for your paper? 100 Great Psychology Research Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 2. Inspector? Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas.
by Virginia Kearney 8. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Essay, Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 129. Michael The King Essay? This is a great resource. I've just entered into college, and didn't know where to begin writing my first argumentative essay. Thanks so much - voted up :) Do you know or have you written of anything to do with the and Age argumentative essay of should smoking be banned because I have to do essays with research and I need some reliable sites. Virginia Kearney 4 weeks ago from United States. Michael Of Pop? Hi Aashi! I'm glad that younger students are finding my work too. And Age? Although I now teach college students, I started my career teaching in your grade for several years. I will have to put together some topics for primary grade students.
Until then, you might want to look at my High School Topics, which have many ideas which are good for your age too. I am in primary school in grade 6 and I want some good topics for primary students. Essay? Good job making this page. I don't know what to do at first. Intelligence And Age? I was clueless and was browsing for answers but none of them made sense except for this. Thank you very much!
I think the ideas are wonderful and are very helpful! I am a Junior in chopsticks, high school and and Age Essay, I have to write an choices, argumentative paper. Your insight on how to do so has been extremely helpful. I wanted to thank you for your intelligence on how to write an argumentative paper. Thanks! This website was very useful for picking out a topic for my essay. Intelligence Essay? Again, thank you for helping me out!
King of Stuff 8 months ago. I find this website very interesting and helpful. Thank you for making it! Your tips on inspector quotes writing essays is really helping me out. Mr. Intelligence? fluffypants 8 months ago. I love this article. Choices? You have helped me with my school essay. Essay? Thank you! letter pile 8 months ago.
I LOVE this website. Thank you so much for writing it! It has helped me so much! Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from inspector calls United States. Hi Nataly! You are welcome to shift the focus of the Intelligence and Age Essay questions to whether governments should take action. My questions and topic ideas are just a starting point. Abdominal Hysterectomy Bilateral? I teach my students that there are a variety of ways to solve problems and one of those is by and Age Essay having governments or larger groups take action.
However, I want my students to The King, focus more on how they and their audience can personally take responsibility and action, so often my questions are more locally written. In my class, I focus on having my students address a very particular audience in their persuasive essays because effective arguments come from really thinking carefully about the viewpoint of the other person and developing points that would persuade that person. In my class, I do allow TedTalks as sources if the student is using other sources as well. However, I don't think all professors do accept that type of source. Most people who do TedTalks have written out their arguments in papers or books, so I'd suggest you research to see if there is an online paper you can cite as well. I find your lists great and really appreciate the Intelligence and Age Essay idea of providing useful links. Still, I would rather shift the focus of some questions so that they ask students to think more globally, from the point of view of the bamboo chopsticks state and the society. For example, should the state take actions to Intelligence and Age, prevent high rate of divorces, which ones?
Are people in developed states responsible for providing water and bamboo chopsticks, food to the starving people around the globe?, etc. I also wanted to Essay, ask you if TedTalks videos are officially recognized as credible resources. Have you ever heard of any cases when professors forbid to use it? Thank you for in TodayВґs Society Essay a good work! Hulya Gulyurt 9 months ago. This helped me so much with my homework, thank you! Great Efforts . Well done. should guns be allowed on school campus. Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States.
This is an interesting topic idea bojoi--and definitely one that would be controversial. I'd love to hear how you would develop your thesis. preetyradd 14 months ago. i think this is Essay cool i got a good grade on my essay thanks. Kanwal asif 14 months ago. Thank u so much God bless u. Virginia Kearney 17 months ago from United States. Inspector Quotes? Glad this will help you three keys! ThreeKeys 17 months ago from Australia. Im about to try out your suggestions in this great article. Im excited to Essay, see what the outcome will be in how I take a more pointed or comprehensive approach in a written debate so to speak.
Thanks so much! Thank you it is stylistic choices really helpful. Thank you so much for the topics. Trisha Roberts 3 years ago from Rensselaer, New York. Love the Intelligence Essay great ideas! Absolutely love the list you shared with us. Thank you so much for this Article! Kalai 3 years ago from Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Inspector? Sometimes i find that the most easy or obvious topic the Essay hardest to Jackson: The King Of Pop Essay, argue about. The less the words the greater the headache.
When we prepare for debates, each word has the and Age ability to make or break the case. Rae Saylor 3 years ago from when was the hippie era Australia. What an Intelligence and Age, interesting range of ideas and tips! Massive thanks for writing this, pal! Voted up :) Eiddwen 3 years ago from Wales. A great hub Victoria ;thanks for Stereotyping Essay sharing and I vote up. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago.
This is very useful to those who must teach essay writing (and to and Age Essay, those who must write them). I know I will be using this next time I teach English Comp. Bamboo Chopsticks? Voted up++ ExpectGreatThings 3 years ago from Illinois. Wow! This is Intelligence a very impressive list and great instructions. I like how you were able to write the questions without giving away your position on each topic. Era? - Ginger. Eric Dierker 3 years ago from Spring Valley, CA. U.S.A. Very interesting. Fun ideas and great food for thought.
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Management Models for Resolving Conflict in the Workplace. By Melissa McDowell, Kim Coleman, Amy Raines, Wayne Seay, and Steve Sullivan. II. Causes of Essay Conflict in the Workplace. a. Different Work Methods. b. Different Goals. e. Different Viewpoints or Perspectives. III.
Effects of Conflict in the Workplace. IV. Theories on Conflict Management. a. The Circle of Conflict. b. Conflict Resolution Model. V. Why Conflict Management is Important. VI.
How Big Corporations Deal with Conflict. a. Identify the in TodayВґs, Problem. b. Propose Several Possible Solutions. c. Evaluate Each Alternative. d. Determine the Best Solution.
e. Implement the Alternative. f. Intelligence And Age! Continually Evaluate the Solution. VII. Strategies for Minimizing Conflict. b. Communicate Expectations. c. Encourage Teamwork.
Conflict, when properly managed, is a positive source of competitiveness and collaboration in a workplace. Total Bilateral Oophorectomy! On the other hand, when unmanaged, conflict can create division, low morale, and chaos in the same environment. Executives and managers must learn to identify constructive conflict and manage it effectively. Conversely, leadership must identify negative conflict and Intelligence, deal with it decisively and completely. For leaders to manage conflict effectively, they must understand all aspects of it. Identifying the causes and exploring the abdominal bilateral salphingo oophorectomy, effects of conflict is critical. Fortunately, managers can adopt strategies for minimizing conflict and learn useful ways to arrive at solutions by observing conflict management practices in successful corporations. Understanding and identifying the Essay, sources of conflict as well as positive and negative aspects of important conflict is the first step to Intelligence and Age Essay, good leadership.
Causes of Conflict in the Workplace. All managers and executives at some time have had to deal with conflict. The way that each one handles discord is a determining factor of calls quotes success. Initially, he or she must communicate to gain a clear understanding of Essay what is actually causing the conflict. Rebecca Hastings explains the need for inspector important communication in the workplace in “Conflict Management Contributes to Communication.” Hastings states that most conflicts stem from poor communication in which one party misinterprets the words or actions of another party.
She notes that communication problems are particularly exaggerated when departments are competing for resources or when they have unique subcultures. A critical step in solving conflict is for managers to understand that communication is Essay, one of Stereotyping Society Essay its roots (Hastings). With that in mind, Hastings addresses some of the key issues that can trigger conflict. Different work methods. Employees often have the same goal but different approaches for achieving it. Neither employee’s approach may be incorrect, nor may one approach be less productive than the other may. As Hastings notes, the ownership of the approach, or idea, is what gives each employee pride. When approaches collide, a simple step toward resolution is for managers to encourage employees to develop more fully their approaches.
Next, managers should ask employees to propose their respective plans and review them as a group. Intelligence And Age! According to Hastings, employees will find that often a combination of the Jackson: Of Pop, approaches is Intelligence and Age, actually the best solution. Often in organizations, separate business units may drive towards different goals. For example, the goal of a security controls department is to ensure the security of the corporation and its customers. This goal often affects performance and work output to other business units, such as one that focuses on generating revenue. As an executive or manager, it is imperative that goals be set at the corporate level and fully communicated to bamboo, all areas of business. Jeff Weiss and Intelligence and Age Essay, Jonathan Hughes write, “One of the most effective ways senior managers can help resolve cross-unit conflict is by giving people the Stereotyping in TodayВґs Society Essay, criteria for making trade-offs when the Essay, needs of different parts of the business are at odds with one another” (96). Therefore, if executives and managers communicate goals and criteria effectively, two things will happen in this scenario. Chopsticks! First, business units will understand the basic role and importance of security.
Second, security will understand how corporate decisions impact revenue. Clearly, management can overcome differences in goals through effective communication. Differences between employees’ and Intelligence and Age, managers’ personalities often are a source of issues. People are sometimes annoyed by calls important, one another simply because of their looks or actions. A person’s inherent biases are often contributing factors. Because everyone has biased opinions, management should not expend resources attempting to change them. However, avoiding personality conflicts altogether can significantly affect productivity. “When two team members don’t get along, they tend to exert a bare minimum of effort on one another’s behalf. This has a negative effect on your project, as well as on team morale” (Robinson). As a result, effective leaders must understand employee biases and personality differences and partner teams and individuals to Intelligence and Age Essay, maximize productivity.
Stress is a huge motivator of conflict. Every employee has a breaking point, and every employee will reach his or her breaking point at some time or another. Stereotyping Society Essay! On a good day, employees can let issues and differences roll off their backs. However, as stress from home and Essay, work deadlines collide, often tempers will flare. “When increased stress levels are combined with time pressures, good people reach the limits of composure and when era, civil behavior,” writes Anna Maravelas (23). Intelligence And Age! With that in mind, leaders must learn to recognize the warning signs of stress in each employee and was the hippie, attempt to alleviate it. Offering employees something as simple as a break or, in more severe cases, an afternoon off can go a long way toward relieving work-related stress. Different viewpoints or perspectives. Individual perspectives are what give a business environment its edge. Intelligence! In fact, “clashes between parties are the crucibles in inspector calls important quotes, which creative solutions are developed,” write Weiss and Intelligence, Hughes (97).
As a result, employers are looking for diversity in bamboo chopsticks, people in order to ensure different perspectives are considered. Leaders in and Age Essay, this situation must carefully and bamboo, clearly listen to and understand the different perspectives. This one area can be the trickiest for managers. Since managers also have persp ectives, often perspectives different from their own are misunderstood or pushed aside. Intelligence Essay! Managers and leaders must remember that at inspector important least some of their employees will likely have different perspectives.
Effects of Conflict in the Workplace. In addition to understanding the causes of conflict, managers need to understand its effects. The effects of conflict in and Age, the workplace are often wide reaching and consuming. Further, they can be useful and beneficial or destructive and stylistic, damaging. Intelligence Essay! Effective leaders must differentiate between conflict that will boost productivity and build stronger teams and conflict that will decrease output and hinder teamwork. Clearly, managers must resolve conflict and channel it into positive competition and Society, collaboration.
One of the most damaging effects of workplace conflict is the personal toll it takes on employees. Research clearly shows that employees routinely take their work home with them. A recent poll at Williams Energy asked 75 employees, “How often do you bring work home with you?” Interestingly, 58% responded that they bring work home with them weekly, 11% bring work home only monthly, and 10% bring work home daily. In addition, 21% respondents said that they never bring work home with them. Intelligence And Age Essay! When the poll asked the same 75 people how often conflict and stress at home causes them to lose sleep or feel anxiety, 91% responded, “Often, at bamboo least weekly.” The results of these two polls clearly show that employees take their work home with them a significant amount of time.
While taking work home has a damaging effect on employees, ineffectively managed conflict also affects employees personally through: · Decreased job satisfaction. In addition to taking a personal toll on employees, conflict also has adverse effects on the workplace. Consider these benefits of managed conflict compared to the damage resulting from Intelligence Essay, “out of control” conflict: Out of Control Conflict. Strengthens relationships and builds teamwork.
Damages relationships and discourages cooperation. Encourages open communication and cooperative problem-solving. Results in bamboo, defensiveness and hidden agendas. Resolves disagreements quickly and increases productivity. Wastes time, money and human resources. Deals with real issues and concentrates on win-win resolution. Focuses on fault-finding and blaming. Makes allies and diffuses anger. Creates enemies and hard feelings. Airs all sides of an issue in Intelligence and Age, a positive, supportive environment. Is frustrating, stress producing and energy draining.
Calms and focuses toward results. Is often loud, hostile and chaotic. *Adapted from “Managing Workplace Conflict” – www.mala.ca. The importance of managing conflict is evident. Reducing the negative effects and increasing the positive impacts is critical in a balanced workplace. Choices! Leaders must skirt the fine line of reducing conflict and allow conflict to and Age Essay, foster good results. Chopsticks! Clearly, leadership must manage some conflict to reduce its impact while allowing some conflict to remain unmanaged in order to increase overall results. *Concept by Steve Sullivan, Conflict Management Team member. Theories on Conflict Management.
There are perhaps as many theories for managing conflict as there are types of conflict. Ranging from formal models to more simple problem-solving techniques, these theories offer many creative approaches to resolving conflict in various settings. Possibly the most important part of the conflict resolution process is using the most appropriate resolution for the conflict at Intelligence and Age hand. To be sure, using the was the hippie era, wrong antidote to attempt to cure an Intelligence ailment is a waste of time and resources. The following overview of Stereotyping Society some conflict management theories may aid in selection of the and Age, most effective management tool(s). The Circle of Conflict. Author Gary T. Furlong provides one of the most comprehensive sources for conflict resolution models in hysterectomy salphingo, his book The Conflict Resolution Toolbox: Models Maps for Analyzing, Diagnosing, and Resolving Conflict . The Circle of Conflict is a model offered by Furlong and focuses on the various causes, or drivers, of conflict. According to this model, the six most common drivers of Intelligence Essay conflict are: Values—one’s belief systems, ideas of right versus wrong, etc. Relationships—stereotypes, poor or failed communications, repetitive negative behaviors, etc.
Externals/Moods—factors unrelated to the conflict, psychological or physiological issues of parties in conflict. Data—lack of information, misinformation, too much information, data collection problems. Interests—each party’s wants, needs, desires, fears, or concerns. Structure—limitations on resources like time and money, geographical constraints, organizational structure, authority issues (Furlong 30) Furlong’s Circle of Conflict resembles a pie graph divided into six equal parts in which values, relationships, and externals/moods drivers appear in the top half and Michael Jackson: Of Pop Essay, data, interests, and structure drivers appear in the bottom half of the graph (see figure below). Intelligence And Age Essay! The main premise of this model is inspector calls, that conflict can be more easily resolved if discussions are focused on drivers in the bottom half of the Intelligence and Age Essay, circle (data, interests, and structure).
According to Furlong, concentrating on these drivers—things over which parties have some control—offers a more direct path toward managing the stylistic, dispute. Furlong contends that when conflicting parties allow their discussion to stray into drivers in the top half of the circle (values, relationships, and externals/moods), conflict will likely escalate. Because these drivers represent areas that are not generally within a party’s control, it is best to Intelligence Essay, avoid them. Society Essay! Changing another’s perceptions of perceived past wrongs or dealing with external issues would make any disagreement worsen. Conversely, individuals in conflict can work together to change data problems, allay another’s fears, and overcome geographical constraints. These drivers are in the bottom portion of the Intelligence Essay, circle of conflict, where, according to Furlong, most of the real resolution work should focus. The Conflict Resolution Model. In his book, Overcoming the Five Dysfunctions of Jackson: Essay a Team , Patrick Lencioni presents another conflict resolution model. Lencioni’s model is a series of concentric circles centered around a point of conflict (see figure below). This model proposes four different types of obstacles that prevent issues from being resolved. According to Lencioni, the obstacles closest to the center of the Intelligence, model—i.e., the issue—are the easiest barriers to overcome, with obstacles becoming increasingly more difficult to overcome as one moves outward from the center of the bamboo chopsticks, model.
These barriers include: · Informational obstacles (circle closest to the issue or conflict)—the easiest issues for Intelligence Essay most people to discuss; individuals must exchange information, facts, opinions, and perspectives if they want to move toward resolution. · Environmental obstacles (the next circle out)—the atmosphere in which the conflict is abdominal salphingo oophorectomy, taking place; the physical space, office politics, individual moods, and company culture can all have an effect on Intelligence the resolution process. · Relationship obstacles (the next circle out)—issues between the people involved in the conflict; prior unresolved legacies or events among the parties, their reputation, or even position in the organization may affect how people work through conflict. · Individual obstacles (the outermost circle)—issues that are specific to each person in the conflict; individual experiences, IQ, EQ, knowledge, self-esteem, and even values and motives all play a part in causing and eventually resolving conflict (Lencioni 125). Lencioni explains that the key to this model is to understand that these obstacles exist during discussions. When a conflict arises because of a particular obstacle, the group should consider the model to when was the hippie era, decide whether to address the issue.
Lencioni contends that if parties choose not to address and resolve an issue, they should agree not to let it affect their ability to resolve the larger conflict. Lencioni also states that obstacles at the outside of the and Age, circle are more difficult to resolve, largely because they involve personalities and other issues that are not easy to change. In this way, this conflict resolution model resembles Furlong’s Circle of Conflict model as they both reveal hot-button issues managers should avoid when attempting to resolve conflict. Certainly, the issues toward the outside of the circle in Lencioni’s model and those in the top half of Furlong’s model are the most challenging. Parties that are able to talk about these types of issues must trust each other because doing so involves some type of when personal risk (Lencioni 127). Clearly, the and Age Essay, methods available to resolve conflicts are numerous.
There is certainly no right or wrong way to solve a problem. What is right for inspector important quotes one conflict may be wrong for Intelligence and Age another; it all depends on the situation and variables involved. The two conflict resolution models presented here illustrate that conflict most often happens when the emphasis is on differences between people. Stylistic Choices! In their book Dealing With People You Can’t Stand , authors Dr. Rick Brinkman and Dr. Rick Kirschner cleverly describe it this way, “United we stand, divided we can’t stand each other” (38). In short, when people concentrate on what they have in common with one another instead of their differences, relationships run smoothly and conflict is significantly minimized. Why Conflict Management Is Important. The plain and simple truth about conflict is that it has both good and bad effects. The type of conflict and its management determines a positive or negative outcome. If not properly managed, conflict can be destructive and ruin employee relationships.
Unmanaged conflict can create bad feelings in people who experience it as well as those who merely observe it (Royer). Contrary to the common belief that conflict is and Age Essay, limited to a disruptive effect, a number of researchers acknowledge substantial benefits. In fact, conflict can be a driving force of bamboo chopsticks change. When managed correctly, conflict produces the and Age, following results: new ideas for changing organizations, solving of continuous problems, a chance for Michael Essay workers to expand their capabilities, and the introduction of creativity into thoughts about organizational problems (Bowditch Buono). With that said, managers and supervisors must realize the importance of and Age allowing constructive conflict.
At the same time, management must swiftly and effectively confront conflict that is detrimental to the organization. It is important to abdominal salphingo, manage conflict, especially in the workplace. Intelligence And Age Essay! Doctor Tony Fiore, a certified anger management trainer and licensed psychologist, said, “The effects of conflict in the workplace are widespread and costly. Its prevalence, as indicated in three serious studies, shows that 24-60% of management time and energy is spent dealing with anger. This leads to in TodayВґs, decreased productivity, increased stress among employees, hampered performance, high turnover rate, absenteeism at its worst, violence, and death” (Fiore). Unmanaged and negative conflict has human costs, economic costs, and organizational costs, contends Eric Brahm. A doctor in the field of political science, Brahm suggests that conflict costs organizations in many significant ways. “First, there are the direct costs, including such things as fees paid to and Age, lawyers and other professionals for their intervention. Second, conflict often has significant productivity costs in terms of the bamboo, value of lost time to the organization. It diverts worker attention from normal duties.
Absenteeism often increases due to conflict. What is more, conflict often reduces motivation and increases turnover. Third, conflict can have continuity costs – namely, it can cause damage to ongoing relationships that wrecks the feeling of community in organizations. Fourth, conflict has emotional costs for those involved” (Brahm). Clearly, it is Intelligence and Age, imperative to manage negative conflict in the workplace constructively.
Poorly managed conflict causes deteriorated employee and team performance levels, reduced productivity, and interruptions in employee relationships (Bowditch Buono). Additional unfavorable impacts caused to when was the era, organizations are increased absenteeism and employee stress, high turnover rates, and monetary losses associated with professional fees such as attorneys and court costs. Lastly, it is important to Intelligence and Age, mention one important note about negative conflict and inspector calls, employees. Employees who are overstressed and have peer relation problems at work oftentimes carry those problems home. Intelligence And Age! Negative conflict affects organizations, but it ultimately carries over into one’s home life. How Big Corporations Deal with Conflict. Large companies that manage conflict effectively employ several strategies, including negotiation, incrementalism, mediation, and effective communication. Michelle Maiese describes negotiation as “a discussion between two or more disputants who are trying to chopsticks, work out a solution to their problem” (1).
Further, she indicates negotiation “can occur at a personal, corporate, or international (diplomatic) level.” Parties usually negotiate when they “wish to create something new that neither could do on Intelligence Essay his or her own, or to resolve a problem or dispute between them” (Maiese 2). Was The! Parties that negotiate typically “prefer to search for agreement rather than fight openly, give in, or break off contact” (Maiese 1). And Age Essay! When dealing with conflict, large corporations negotiate by salphingo, “swapping data and trying to influence one another” in a process of give-and-take (Maiese 8). According to Maiese, corporations have a chance of Intelligence and Age resolving conflict through negotiation as long as both sides project a willingness to in TodayВґs Society, compromise. Another strategy used by large corporations to and Age, manage conflict is incrementalism, which involves developing solutions over time. “It is almost impossible for inspector calls important one person or even one group of people to come in and Age Essay, and, in abdominal salphingo, a relatively short period of time, help the Intelligence and Age Essay, parties find a solution. Solutions need to Stereotyping in TodayВґs Society Essay, be developed slowly over Intelligence and Age a long time period, with many people working independently and in concert, to bring about Of Pop transformation of the Intelligence and Age, conflict from a destructive one to a constructive one, and eventually to The King Essay, a resolved situation,” claims Heidi Burgess (1). Burgess suggests that even when the overall conflict cannot be resolved, the situation will improve incrementally. “These incremental steps will benefit small parts of the and Age Essay, conflict system immediately and eventually can work together to facilitate the transformation of the wider conflict” (Burgess, Burgess and Maiese).
A third strategy of large corporations for conflict management is bamboo chopsticks, mediation. Christopher Honeyman and Nita Yawanarajah describe mediation as “a non-adversarial process in which a third-party neutral assists in resolving a dispute between two or more other parties.” They claim the Intelligence and Age Essay, mediator’s role is “to facilitate communication between the parties, assist them in focusing on the real issues of the dispute, and generate options that meet the interests or needs of all relevant parties in an effort to quotes, resolve the conflict.” Mediation is a tool used within large corporations to resolve issues and to assign responsibility for specific problems. It differs from arbitration, “where the intermediary listens to the arguments of both sides and makes a decision for the disputants,” as a mediator helps parties “to develop a solution themselves” (Honeyman and Yawanarajah). In short, “the mediator is primarily a ‘process person,’ helping the parties define the Intelligence and Age, agenda, identify and reframe the issues, communicate more effectively, find areas of total hysterectomy oophorectomy common ground, negotiate fairly, and Intelligence and Age Essay, hopefully, reach an agreement” (Honeyman and Yawanarajah). Another strategy used by large corporations to manage conflict is effective communication. Donna Bellafiore stresses the importance of effective communication as she describes six critical steps for total hysterectomy bilateral salphingo conflict resolution. Bellafiore indicates that the resolution process begins with a discussion “to understand both sides of the problem.” In this stage, it is imperative that both sides clearly define the Intelligence and Age, outcomes they want. “Define the things that you both agree on, as well as the ideas that have caused the disagreement. Abdominal Salphingo Oophorectomy! It is important to listen actively to Intelligence Essay, what the other is saying, use ‘I’ statements, and avoid blame” (Bellafiore). Propose several possible solutions . Bellafiore describes the second stage as “the brainstorming phase” during which “the points that everyone agrees on and the was the era, shared goals” are communicated. During brainstorming, parties record any potential approaches to the problem they can envision without considering the feasibility of the ideas. “Aim toward quantity of ideas rather than quality during this phase, and let creativity be your guide,” advises Bellafiore. Evaluate each alternative . Bellafiore suggests then analyzing each approach to the problem one by one, “considering the pros and cons of the remaining solutions.” She recommends that parties repeat the process “until the list is narrowed down to one or two of the best ways of handling the problem.” Bellafiore stresses the importance of honesty at this phase and cautions that solutions will likely involve compromise.
Determine the Intelligence and Age Essay, best solution . Bellafiore encourages parties to choose the most mutually acceptable solution, even if it is not perfect for either party. “As long as it seems fair and there is a mutual commitment to Society Essay, work with the decision, the conflict has a chance for resolution,” she writes. To implement the alternative, parties should first “agree on the details of what each party must do,” writes Bellafiore. In addition, they should determine “what to and Age Essay, do in case the chopsticks, agreement starts to break down” (Bellafiore). Continually evaluate the solution . Bellafiore suggests that managers should view conflict resolution as an and Age ongoing process. “Make it a point to ask the other person from time to time how things are going. Something unexpected might have come up, or managers may have overlooked some aspect of the problem. Your decisions should be seen as open to revision, as long as the revisions are agreed upon mutually” (Bellafiore). Strategies for Minimizing Conflict.
Clearly, conflict among coworkers is impossible to eliminate. However, many managers recognize key strategies that can successfully minimize the era, negative effects of conflict in the workplace. Managers who respect their employees are more likely to gain the respect of their employees. Likewise, companies that claim respect as a corporate value will reinforce it through corporate practices. Anna Maravelas illustrates the critical role of respect in conflict resolution in the following scenario. Hours of Intelligence constant dissension had left executives exhausted and disconnected (203). Bamboo! Then a mediator stepped in and asked them to Intelligence and Age Essay, share things they respected about one another. As they did so, positive energy replaced negativity, building a platform of conflict resolution that transcended “pettiness and irritability” (204-205). Renowned management guru W. Edwards Deming touches on the relationship between conflict and respect when he calls for stylistic choices the elimination of numerical quotas to measure a day’s work.
Deming found that where quotas exist, peer pressure and animosity become prevalent among coworkers as people take a back seat to numbers. Further, he found that when managers ask employees to solve problems—such as finding ways to save the Intelligence and Age, company money—instead of was the hippie era imposing mandatory quotas, they experience different results. Intelligence And Age! In short, employees express “enhanced feelings of loyalty and pride in their company [as] their ideas [are] accepted” (Walton 79). Clearly, “a system that fosters an atmosphere of receptivity and recognition is far preferable to one that measures people by the numbers they turn out” and is less likely to incite conflict (Walton 79). Communicating expectations can affect employees at several levels. Stylistic! If managers fail to communicate expectations effectively through job descriptions and delegation, employees will likely overlook important tasks. Thus, “assuming somebody else is taking care of something” is Intelligence, a surefire way to incite conflict, says communications consultant Bob Gemignani (Weinstein). Margery Weinstein suggests that to conquer conflict, managers must “clearly communicate work priorities and responsibilities.” In addition, effective managers must “provide feedback on stylistic choices how well employees follow through” (Weinstein). Intelligence And Age! Likewise, managers should solicit feedback from employees. “To manage conflict effectively you must . . . create an open communication environment . . Inspector Calls! . by Intelligence and Age Essay, encouraging employees to talk about work issues” (Berkeley). Not only is communicating expectations important for resolving task and interpersonal conflict, but it is also an integral part of quotes leadership training (Stevens).
In essence, communicating “information, goals, and expectations leads to trust and confidence” (Stevens). Clearly, communicating expectations can minimize conflict by clearing up misconceptions about task roles and instilling trust and confidence in Intelligence and Age, leadership. According to Craig Stevens, the force a company exerts to solve problems is found in a critical combination of teamwork and communication. Further, each individual on when a team should replicate the team in terms of “team mission, team goals, and team agenda” (Stevens). When conflicts arise, the and Age Essay, individuals no longer share “the same personal mission, goals, and agenda” (Stevens). Deming illustrates how the breakdown in when era, teamwork fosters conflict in “the parable of the and Age Essay, shoes” (Walton 74-75). Deming sets the story in a shoe factory where technicians developed a revolutionary product for which sales staff received thousands of orders. Inspector Important! Because the designers and sales staff failed to consult the manufacturing department, the company was unable to fulfill orders. As a result, customers were alienated because “departments [had] different goals and [did] not work together as a team to solve problems” (Walton 74). Weinstein attests to Intelligence and Age, the value of teamwork. “Employees should be able to go to a team meeting rife with disagreement and bamboo, emerge ready to unanimously support the team’s final decision,” she writes. Clearly, effective teamwork reduces conflict in the workplace.
Empowering the workforce can help minimize conflict as it makes people part of the solution when problems arise. As people become empowered, they begin to develop “an ownership attitude” in which they see conflict resolution as directly affecting their own bottom lines (Hersey, Blanchard, and Johnson 223). Like teamwork, the process of empowerment closely ties to communication. As a result, companies that “share the secrets . . . what is really happening” take a critical step toward empowering people (Hersey, Blanchard, and Johnson 223). Corporations that treat people as partners tend to more openly discuss a conflict, which leads to a more creative atmosphere. Because “creativity and learning require . Intelligence And Age! . . seeing and doing things in total hysterectomy, new ways,” people are more apt to interject new ideas in an environment where differences are accepted (Perlow 5). In addition, as people are empowered in Intelligence and Age, their decision-making, their work becomes more motivating. As a result, they are more “committed to their work” and are more apt to work through conflicts on their own (Schwarz 328). Clearly, empowering people can help managers minimize conflict.
Dealing with conflict in the workplace may be the most important function that leadership must learn to handle . As a result, effective conflict management is the staple of choices good leadership. Because conflict management is quickly becoming the Intelligence and Age Essay, most critical and time-consuming aspect of management, managers must be prepared. With the right understanding and the right decisions, managers are equipped to channel all conflict in the workplace into constructive conflict. Clearly, conflict—both positive and negative—is here to stay. However, armed with the techniques and understandings outlined above, managers can use conflict as a tool.
Addressing conflict in Essay, the workplace is no longer a task to be avoided. Instead, leaders can embrace conflict as the mark of Intelligence Essay a productive workplace environment . Bellafiore, Donna. “Interpersonal Conflict and Effective Communication.” DRB Alternatives, Inc. 3 September 2007 . www.drbalternatives.com/articles/cc2.html . Bowditch, J.L., and abdominal salphingo, A.F. Buono. A Primer on Organizational Behavior. Intelligence! 4 th ed.
New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1997. Brinkman, Dr. Rick and Jackson: The King Of Pop Essay, Dr. Intelligence And Age! Rick Kirschner. Dealing with People You Can’t Stand: How to Bring Out the Best in People at Their Worst. New York: McGraw- Hill, 1994. Burgess, Heidi, Guy Burgess, and Michelle Maiese. “Incrementalism.” www.BeyondIntractability .org . 3 September 2007. http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/incrementalism/
Fiore, Tony. “Resolving Workplace Conflict: Four Ways to a Win-Win Solution.” Business Know-How Online. 1999 – 2007. 05 September 2007 http://businessknowhow.com/manage/resolve.htm. Furlong, Gary T. The Conflict Resolution Toolbox: Models and Maps for Analyzing, Diagnosing, and Resolving Conflict. Ontario: Wiley and Sons, 2005. Hastings, Rebecca. “Conflict Management Contributes to Communication.” SHRM Online Diversity Focus, January 2007. Stylistic! 3 September 2007 www.shrm.org. Hersey, Paul, Kenneth H. And Age Essay! Blanchard, and Dewey E. Bamboo Chopsticks! Johnson. Management of Organizational Behavior.
8th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001. Hughes, Jonathon, and Jeff Weiss. Intelligence Essay! “Want Collaboration? Accept – And Actively Manage – Conflict.” Harvard Business Review. Trevecca Nazarene University 2007. Lencioni, Patrick. Inspector Calls! Overcoming the Five Dysfunctions of Intelligence and Age Essay a Team: A Field Guide. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005. Malaspina University-College. “Managing Workplace Conflict.” 3 September 2007 http://www.mala.ca/conflict/index.asp.
Maravelas, Anna. How to inspector calls, Reduce Workplace Conflict and Stress. And Age Essay! Franklin Lakes, NJ: Career Press, 2005. Perlow, Leslie A. When You Say Yes But Mean No. New York: Crown Business, 2003.
Robinson, Scott. “Learning to Play Well Together: Negotiating Personality Conflicts.” TechRepublic.com 24 February 2003. 15 September 2007 http://articles.techrepublic.com/5100-22-1049635.html. Schwarz, Roger. The Skilled Facilitator. New York: Wiley, 2002. Stevens, Craig A. “Phase 1 of the Linked Management Models: The Mobile of Excellent Management.” westbrookstevens.com. Stylistic! 27 August 2007 http://www.westbrookstevens.com/step_1.htm. University of California, Berkeley. “Chapter 15: Managing Conflict.” Guide to Managing Human Resources. www.berkeley.edu.
27 August 2007 http://hrweb.berkeley.edu/guide/conflict.htm. Walton, Mary. And Age Essay! The Deming Management Method. New York: Berkley, 1986. Keys to Successful Leadership during Times of Conflict and/or Change. Physical and Psychological Effects of Workplace Conflicts. By Diane Booker, Pamela Cohea, Chris Cook, and inspector important, Janine Helton (TNU 2007) Human beings are fascinating and individualistic creatures. Everyday these extraordinary creatures come together in the workplace to earn a living for their very existence. As a result, work related conflict becomes a normal part of human interaction.
However, some people do not handle stress as well as others. Our society and the health care industry are beginning to realize the effects of conflict stress. Researchers are examining the correlation between workplace stress and its effect on the well being of employees. Stress can have a negative impact on people’s lives and health. Therefore, conflicts can escalate into disturbing situations for Intelligence Essay individuals. This can cause serious health problems. This article is about workplace conflicts and the effect it can have on one’s health.
Conflict in the Workplace. Conflicts at was the work can arise daily. Some of the root causes for employee stress are the distribution of job assignments, the administration of Intelligence and Age Essay processes and procedures throughout the work environment, meeting work deadlines, and team member interactions. One of the greatest stress factors is caused when an employee thinks that he/she has been treated unfairly. Employers need to be aware of their responsibilities and roles in creating stressful situations within the Michael The King Essay, workplace. Managers need to be fair and consistent when dealing with every employee.
They need to Intelligence Essay, set a tone of organizational openness and trust that will help to alleviate problems. Research on the Topic. Researchers have begun to study the correlation between conflicts in abdominal salphingo oophorectomy, the workplace and employee well being. Some companies are looking to develop Stress Risk Assessments and Workplace Health Programs for their employees. And Age Essay! The article, “Association of Chronic Work Stress, and Psychiatric Disorders,” published by a group of British doctors, explains the evaluation process. The first step in stylistic, each of the programs is to administer a short questionnaire to employees. The questionnaire allows the management of the organization to learn more about their specific stress factors. After the Intelligence, completion of the questionnaires, researchers are able to analyze the data. Bamboo Chopsticks! This information allows them to identify individuals with high potential for stress related problems within their organization. Such questionnaires should include a process to measure employee perceptions of jobs, organizational commitment, and overall health.
Once the Intelligence and Age, data is abdominal, collected, researchers can identify ways to improve stressful situations within the Intelligence, workplace. These methods have allowed some organizations to develop initiatives to address sources and symptoms of job stress (1). Dr. Inspector Calls Quotes! Carol Dewa believes that there is a link between psychiatric disorders and work-related stress (1). She conducted a study in Canada to test this theory. Essay! The study included 22,118 working respondents from the Canadian Community Health Group.
The results showed that thirty-one percent of respondents experienced chronic work stress. Hippie! This stress led to at least one chronic physical or psychiatric disorder among those affected. Study conclusions showed the presence of chronic work stress appears to amplify the effects of other disorders. Intelligence And Age Essay! The study also found that workplace related anxieties are often associated with sick leave requests (1). As a result, excessive absenteeism abounds and negatively affects the overall productivity of the organization. Successful Ways to implement Team Problem Solving Techniques. The first thing that an organization should do is to create a Problem Solving Team. Stereotyping In TodayВґs! The team should include members of management and those employees directly working in Intelligence, day-to-day organizational operations. The people who do the work are the most knowledgeable about problems within their work area. Listed are steps a team can take in identifying and addressing stress producing problems within any organization.
Identify the factors that create or contribute to the problem (brainstorming). Conduct investigations into Stereotyping in TodayВґs Society, the direct causes. Conduct fact-finding surveys and time studies. Analyze data and create a summary report. Conduct team meetings with employees, communicate the findings, and introduce the action plan for improvement. Organizations need to recognize that workplace stress can have a negative impact on the health and Essay, well being of their workforce. Choices! Likewise, managers need to be aware of Essay situations that cause conflict and stress. Total Salphingo Oophorectomy! They must learn techniques and and Age, skills necessary to manage these scenarios successfully. The results will be beneficial to both organizations, as well as employees. Studies have shown that happy and content employees are productive and creative allowing them to calls quotes, be the best in their business.
In light of this information, how do organizations produce content employees who are productive and creative? How can leaders harness such human resources and Intelligence and Age, use them to create strong teams? Authors, Craig A. Stevens and Michael Moore, have written a fictional story that answers such questions. Their book, Geronimo Stone: His Music, His Love, and the Mobile of Excellent Management , contains many management principles practical for real life application. Stevens serves as President, and Moore as Vice President of Marketing, at the Westbrook Stevens consulting firm. Together they bring to their work, years of business management expertise, and a passion for teaching. As stated in Stereotyping Society Essay, their book, Stevens has taught extensively on both the and Age Essay, undergraduate and graduate levels.
Additionally, he has “worked with every level of management” in “organizations of every size” (167). Likewise, Moore possesses much expertise, and has extensive experience in the music industry. Among many accomplishments, he has received recognition for important “motivating successful teams and Essay, imaginative problem solving” (168). Bamboo! In this literary collaboration, the Intelligence and Age Essay, authors have pooled their expansive business knowledge. What results, is a book useful for leaders in all fields. In Geronimo Stone , the main character, Tommy Stone, faces the challenge of saving his late uncle’s music company. Tommy has long realized the business is in TodayВґs Society Essay, vulnerable due to his uncle’s shortsighted management philosophy. Upon the death of and Age Essay its’ dynamic leader, the stylistic choices, weakened organization becomes the target of a hostile takeover attempt. As the story unfolds, Tommy learns that his late uncle had realized, too late, the secrets of successful management.
It now falls to him to implement the new management plan and save his family’s business. “The Mobile of Excellent Management” The original ideas of Dr. Jerry Westbrook are the basis for the secrets of successful management highlighted in the book (162). With these ideas expounded upon, Craig A. Stevens uses them to Intelligence and Age, create the story’s pivotal management model.
Stevens titles his model, “The Mobile of Excellent Management.” Structured as a hanging model, successful management finds balance under the hand of effective leadership. After examination of the model, one discovers that Stevens emphasizes seven key management attributes. They are: leadership, culture, customer focus, team building, problem solving, continuous improvement, and performance measures. The following graphic illustrates how these attributes find support and balance within the management framework. The model suggests that leadership plays a profound role in successful management. As twenty-first century companies are increasingly required to bamboo chopsticks, face changes of every kind, adaptable leaders are indispensable. In their text, Management of Organizational Behavior , Paul Hersey, Kenneth H. Blanchard, and Dewey E. Johnson explore the and Age Essay, face of modern management theory.
They suggest that, “leadership and management of organizations have never been more challenging” (1). Further, they assert, “leaders must be able to diagnose, adapt, and chopsticks, communicate… in Intelligence and Age, order to meet the needs of a rapidly changing and challenging world” (6). Stevens and Moore describe leaders as able “to empower organizational structures that lead the company to success” (29). Team Building and Problem Solving. One of the most vital functions a leader performs is the inspector important, building of strong employee work teams. Successful leaders recognize that an organization’s pool of human resources is its’ most important asset. Ken Hendrix, CEO of ABC Supply, has used this belief to create enormous success for his company. When Hendrix takes over Essay a new venture, he strives to maintain the existing workforce. Salphingo! In Maria Bartiromo’s article in the September 2007 issue of Essay The Reader’s Digest, Hendrix describes his philosophy.
He states: “It’s a fact that employees have a lot to offer. When I buy a business – and this is choices, a business that might be failing – I talk to the forklift operator or the warehouse guy. I’ll say, ‘If you were running this business, what would you do?’ And he tells me ninety-five percent of Intelligence what has to be changed for inspector calls that business to be successful” (72-73). This commitment to team building is also found in Stevens’ book within the “Mobile of and Age Essay Excellent Management.” Geronimo Stone states, “We have known since time began that people working together get more done than people working alone” (86). Recognizing that well-led teams help to create strong organizations is important to effective management. So is learning the secrets of problem solving in order to Michael Jackson: Of Pop Essay, maintain team strength. Stevens and Moore describe this management step as the and Age, “tool box” of the work team (99). They explain, “think of problem-solving in the broader sense as the skills and core competencies needed to do a good job” (102).
Naturally, a team with superior problem solving skills will translate into a more effective and happier workforce. Managers who seek to build such skills will ultimately be reducing workplace conflict and employee stress. As Mary Walton suggests in The Deming Management Method , many companies become weak by bearing the everyday concerns of business. This focus on the immediate prevents them from adequately investing in bamboo, the company’s long-range future (55). As a result, employees are less secure. Conversely, Walton suggest, “When employees are working for Intelligence Essay a company that is investing for the future, they will feel more secure and less likely to look for bamboo chopsticks jobs in companies that appear more promising” (55). By applying the management principles taught in Geronimo Stone , managers will be helping to Intelligence Essay, strengthen their companies for the future. As Ken Hendrix has discovered, highly competent employees who possess excellent problem solving skills are extremely beneficial. Such empowered employees share with management a vision that enables a company to Jackson: The King Of Pop, succeed. Essay! The book, The Search for Meaning in bamboo chopsticks, the Workplace by Thomas H. Naylor, William H. Willimon, and Intelligence Essay, Rolf Osterberg, examines the bilateral salphingo, concept of employee empowerment. The authors quote Peter Block, saying, “Empowerment embodies the belief that the answer to the latest crisis lies within each of us and therefore we all buckle up for the adventure” (154).
This attitude, corporally shared, creates a sense of teamwork that goes far in building workplace security. Consequently, secure employees are both creative and productive. Once empowered, they are able to excel to become exemplary within their fields. Deliberately and intelligently managing teams leads to many positive results. Among them are the and Age Essay, adoption of stylistic choices a shared vision, greater potential for future success, and the creation of an empowered workforce. Just as the Intelligence and Age Essay, fictional Tommy Stone discovered, real life managers must learn to implement effective management principles. In doing so, their companies will become stronger and their employees will be content. Human Behavior in the Organizational Environment. In order to hippie, implement effective management principles, managers need an understanding of human behavior within workplace settings.
Experts define organizational behavior as an academic discipline concerned with describing, understanding, predicting, and controlling human behavior in an organizational environment. The field is particularly concerned with group dynamics, how individuals relate to and Age Essay, and participate in groups, how leadership is exercised, how organizations function, and how change is effected in organizational settings (Gale 1). In years past, the organizational environment was structured and demanding. It has now changed to an environment that listens to Michael The King, and understands the needs of Intelligence and Age Essay employees. To gain better understanding, early contributors Douglas McGregor, Chris Argyris, and Rensis Likert enhanced the theory of behavior.
They researched various avenues in choices, which to Intelligence and Age Essay, recognize employee performance as it relates to business. The work of these scholars forged the inspector calls important quotes, discipline of organizational behavior, as we know it today. Douglas McGregor, the creator of Intelligence and Age “Theory X” and “Theory Y,” assumed that “Theory X” people were lazy. Such people, he believed, possessed personal goals that ran counter to the organization’s goals. As a result, he concluded that managers had to control people through external factors. In an organization, this meant close supervision and guidance so that management could ensure high performance. The “Theory Y” philosophy made assumptions based on greater trust in others. This theory held the inspector quotes, belief that human beings were more mature, self-motivated and self-controlled than “Theory X” assumed (Hersey, Blanchard, and Johnson 60). Chris Argyris also made a strong case for reducing the amount of organizational control. He believed constraints of organizational structure on people were self-defeating to organizational goals of effectiveness and efficiency.
Rensis Likert proposed that managers would be most effective using a supportive approach. This meant creating a work environment in which the individual sees their experiences in terms of Essay their values, goals, expectations, and aspirations. Such an when was the hippie environment would contribute to Essay, and maintain an employee’s sense of stylistic choices personal worth and importance (Bence 14). In order for organizational behavior to be successful, one must also review the behaviors associated with groups. Group behavior entails various concepts associated with team development and the behaviors associated with this process.
The main factors in Intelligence, team development involve the importance of inspector calls rapport, trust, and etiquette. Intelligence And Age Essay! When these elements are absent, conflict tends to arise. The conflict perspective focuses on forces in society that promote competition and change. Assumptions are that conflict in society happens over competition for limited resources. Social change is an expected feature of conflict in Stereotyping Society, society. Such conflict occurs as groups with differing degrees of power compete for scarce resources. Power itself may also be a scarce resource. And Age Essay! Inequalities of race, gender, class, or age can all result in power inequities and conflict. Stereotyping! People possessing power attempt to preserve their privilege to and Age, benefit themselves and protect their status and property. Additionally, within small group interactions, conflict may take place due to personality clashes, resistance to change, and many other factors. Left unchecked, these factors have the potential to keep the team from achieving success.
Studies have shown that personality differences seem to be the common denominator that creates team member conflict. People are more than willing to cite examples of how personalities have affected team performances. These examples reveal themselves in two ways. First, how personalities have made life in an organization unbearable and, secondly, how one has contributed to an enjoyable experience (Ratzburg 1). To avoid these types of clashes, organizations should impose development interventions. Interventional plans help to increase awareness of sources of conflict, and increase diversity awareness and skills. Such plans may lead to changes such as job rotation, temporary assignments, permanent transfers, and dismissal if needed (Bulleit 10). As a manager, it is imperative to identify certain behaviors within the work environment and when was the hippie, within teams. Understanding organizations and their effective functioning requires the development of a comprehensive view of human behavior.
Possessing a strong knowledge of organizational behavior is an asset that will prepare employees for Essay leadership roles. Such knowledge is essential for meeting the challenges and uncertainty that confront today’s organizations. The Drivers of Change. Perhaps one of the most challenging problems organizations face today is how to effectively handle workplace change. Most people are content within their comfort zones and tend to rely on the status quo.
That is, until management introduces sweeping changes through downsizing or rightsizing. Such changes are likely to rattle the chopsticks, foundations of operating procedures. They are necessary, however, in Intelligence Essay, order to bring about a more effective and efficient organization. This particularly relates to the organization’s bottom line. Linked Management Model Phase III, “Understanding the Drivers of Change” An organization's internal environment is comprised of its systems and its people. The structure of the organization's activities, interactions, and sentiments are always subject to in TodayВґs Essay, what constitutes a change. In this regard, change is either an act or a process. Any change in and Age, activities, interactions, or sentiments will produce some change in the other two as well (Westbrook Stevens 3). There can be changes to an organization's external environment, which do not necessarily relate to a change of staff, management, or procedures. International and domestic events can produce cause and effect relationships to the drivers of change.
Likewise, so can government restrictions and regulations. There are always driving and bamboo chopsticks, restraining forces in an evolving organization that relate to Intelligence, possibilities of total hysterectomy bilateral salphingo oophorectomy change. These forces can clash and cause conflict. Below is and Age, Craig A. Steven's diagram of Phase 3 of The Linked Management Models. “Conflict can be viewed as a difference in perspectives” (Fernandez 1).
No two individuals are likely to see any one thing the same way. As a result, conflict and tension can naturally arise at times. Especially, if one individual sees the need for change and the other is content with the bamboo, status quo. There are two views of conflict. One is the Intelligence and Age Essay, traditional view that conflict is bad and people should avoid it. The other is the human relationship view that believes that conflict is Stereotyping Society Essay, natural.
This view maintains that embracing diversity is healthy, but only when energy and and Age Essay, creativity remain properly harnessed. Perhaps, based on a contingency theory, both views are correct at inspector calls important the appropriate time. And Age Essay! It is the inspector calls, unhealthy conflict that one should avoid. It is not always healthy or good to be in continuous conflict. Even when conflict is beneficial for Intelligence and Age Essay generating creativity, too much of a good thing is too much indeed. The following are ways of preventing and managing conflict: #9679; Help the team focus on the task and stay on track. #9679; Be mindful of other people's styles.
#9679; Make suggestions on how to proceed. #9679; Ask questions to clarify expectations, issues, and possible directions to inspector calls important, take. #9679; Help find needed resources. #9679; Provide constructive feedback. #9679; Help team members plan how to implement their agreement. #9679; Help team members evaluate their efforts and Intelligence Essay, make needed changes. #9679; Set ground rules for discussion. #9679; Teach reflective listening skills to team members. #9679; Teach meditation skills.
Historically negotiation simply means that one party wins, and the other party loses. Today there are many wrongs in Stereotyping Society, every right and Intelligence and Age, vice-versa. The following are suggested principles for negotiation that foster a “win-win” solution: #9679; View participants as problem solvers. #9679; Separate the people from the problems. #9679; Be soft on in TodayВґs Society the people, hard on the problem. #9679; Focus on the interests, not on positions or the bottom line. #9679; Help participants create multiple options for Essay mutual gain. #9679; Use objective criteria. #9679; Reason and be open to hippie, reason; yield to principles, not to pressure. Team Problem Solving Modes. Teams develop characteristics that set them apart from other teams.
Any work team may have its own rituals and traditions that make it a unique work unit. These characteristics are much like family characteristics. They establish cohesiveness and group identity. “Just as leaders have styles - so do teams have modes or patterns of behavior as perceived by others.” (Hersey, Blanchard, Johnson 328). There are four problem-solving modes for various group situations. First, there is the Crisis Mode. In the Crisis Mode, a team is facing a situation that requires significant amounts of task behavior. There should be plenty of what, when, where, and how information.
Due to Intelligence Essay, the need for abdominal salphingo oophorectomy this kind of and Age Essay information, there is not much room for relationship behavior. Behaviors, such as discussion, take a back seat. The very nature of crises makes this the best approach for problem solving. The danger is that many organizations treat every situation as if it is a crisis. (Hersey, Blanchard, Johnson 328) The second problem-solving mode is the important quotes, Organizational Problem-Solving Mode. When in this mode, high amounts of both task and relationship behaviors are needed. Intelligence And Age! Leaders must place considerable emphasis on Stereotyping in TodayВґs Society structuring team activities and motivating team members. (Hersey, Blanchard, Johnson 329). They should also spell out tasks, ask members for ideas, and encourage conversation in order to assure a productive team meeting.
The Interpersonal Problem-Solving Mode is a high relationship-low task approach. After a problem presents, cliques develop that serve to disrupt the team. Intelligence And Age Essay! Employing strong relationship behaviors helps to in TodayВґs Essay, increase interaction of all team members. (Hersey, Blanchard, Johnson 329). In the Routine Procedural Mode, “emphasis is on getting the job done through performing the assigned roles with a minimum of structuring activities and socio emotional support.” There is low task and relationship behavior in this mode. Intelligence Essay! An experienced cohesive team can always accomplish its mission effortlessly in this mode. It only chopsticks comes down to who does what. (Hersey, Blanchard, Johnson 329). New Training Programs and Techniques for and Age Individuals and Groups. A diverse workforce, characterized by organizational drivers of change, is Stereotyping Essay, drawing attention to interpersonal conflicts among workers. Teams do not always work effectively, and change may not accomplish everything intended. “According to a recent Accountemps survey, executives spend more than nine weeks each year resolving personality clashes between employees.”(Brown 1).
Such clashes undermine morale. Competition and complex communication barriers create conditions that generate the need for new training and employee development. “Conflict management is the ability to manage every-day situations that involve personal interactions involving difference of opinion. And Age! It differs from conflict resolution, where successful resolution means that the issue is Michael The King Of Pop, totally resolved and finished.” (Brown 1). Aside from and Age Essay, methods of arbitration or involvement of hippie era costly legal action, conflict mediation moves toward worker empowerment. And Age Essay! This involves using the abdominal bilateral oophorectomy, services of and Age Essay a mediator, such as, a human resource professional. Essay! Training for all employees that includes conflict resolution is Essay, available and popular today. Casey and Casey suggest self-esteem training to aid in the process of conflict management.
They also suggest the when hippie, use of Intelligence Essay drama and role-play to engage learners in clarifying the issues. This helps in constructing solutions to conflict situations (Brown 1). Audience participation in when was the era, conflict resolution is also used. “Other techniques include using posters to promote conflict resolution, detailing ways to Intelligence, handle anger, engaging in active listening, and practicing “win-win” strategies.” If employees do not have the skills to work in teams, teamwork can become disastrous. Modern training is Michael Jackson: Of Pop, most popular with sales staffs and project managers, but applies to and Age Essay, all situations. The types of modern classes available are as follows: #9679; Team member training. #9679; Team leader training. #9679; Databased team oriented problem solving. #9679; Effective meeting management skills.
There are a number of Stereotyping in TodayВґs various methods for training. The most popular methods are as follows: #9679; Problem solving real world situations. #9679; Experimental learning exercises. #9679; Group interactive discussions. #9679; Electronic collaboration process. In today’s rapidly changing workplace environments, conflict and change are formidable challenges to meet. Intelligence And Age! Both have the potential to greatly impact an organization’s workforce, and, ultimately, its bottom line. Managers must possess an understanding of human behavior and an ability to create healthy, secure work environments. They must also be able to meet the needs of individual employees, while still achieving organizational goals. Stylistic Choices! Exemplary leaders understand that excellent management principles are vital for keeping pace in a rapidly changing world.
They know these principles are the tools that help to create empowered employees and strong organizations. Bartiromo, Maria. “The Roofer’s Son.” The Reader’s Digest . Sept. 2007: 71-74. Dewa, Carolyn S. Ph.D., M.P.H., Goldner, Elliot M.D., M.H.Sc., Kooehoorn, Mieke Ph.D., and Intelligence, Lin, Elizabeth. Ph.D. www.selfgrowth.com/stress.html.
Hersey, Paul, Kenneth H. Blanchard, and in TodayВґs Society, Dewey E. Johnson. Management of Intelligence and Age Essay Organizational Behavior . Prentice Hall: New Jersey 2001. LaMontague, Anthony D. and Noblet, Andrew. The Role of Workplace Health Promotion in hippie era, Addressing Job Stress Sept 2005 http://heapro.oxfordjournals.org. Linden, Michael and Muschalla, Beate. Research Group Psychosomatic Rehabilitation Aug 2006 http://www.sciencedirect.com.
Mind Tools, LTD. Problem Solving Techniques. Intelligence And Age Essay! Cause and total hysterectomy salphingo, Effect Diagram. 1995-2007 Edition http://www.mindtools.com. Naylor, Thomas H., William H. Willimon, and Rolf Osterberg. The Search for Meaningin the Workplace . Eugene: Wipf and Stock, 2002.
Stevens, Craig A., and Intelligence and Age, Michael Moore. Geronimo Stone: His Music, His Love, and the Mobile of Excellent Management . Coral Springs: Llumina, 2006. www.geronimostone.com. Walton, Mary. The Deming Management Method . New York: Berkley, 1986. Sponsors and Services. Microsoft Partner Service and Products. MS Partner Services. MS Products Discounts. Excellent Managemen t. Connecting Investment Capital With Entrepreneurs and Sound Businesses.
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