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Madame ratignolle

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Kate Chopin s novel The Awakening Chapter 16: Edna, frustrated about Robert, scolds quadroon nurse


Every one seemed to take for granted that she missed him. Even her husband, when he came down the Saturday following ...

Adele Ratignolle in The Awakening - Shmoop

Madame ratignolle

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apa psychology paper A Hypertext Writing Guide. (for the 5th edition of the APA Manual) 2/21/2007 - Version 5.014. Madame Ratignolle? This document has been translated into the following languages: German (courtesy Translator Group) Scientific research is a public venture. Therefore, one of the essential skills of the cold pastoral, scientist is to be able to communicate ideas and research results effectively. This hypertext guide is an attempt to make the style of writing used in madame ratignolle, the field of cold pastoral psychology clear to you. It summarizes a lot of the material available in madame, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5-th edition) (2001) and is oriented toward undergraduate students. For example, it includes numerous hints to avoid common mistakes students make.

Note the examples appear in a teletype font to distinguish them from the normal text. Finally, the document is organized in an outline format for at least two reasons. First, it should make it easier for students to quickly locate the information they seek. Second, it should make it easier for an instructor to grade students papers. In most cases, the student can simply be referred to best man speech ideas, the outline item that addresses the problem rather than writing the comment repeatedly on multiple papers. Madame Ratignolle? Note that a checklist version of this writing guide is Constitution, available. General Topics Typing - Here is a Microsoft Word 2002 document/template that should help you with some of the basic formatting.

Your papers must be typed or printed on a computer. Set the madame, typewriter or word processor to double space and keep it there throughout the entire manuscript. Use one inch margins on the left, right, top, and bottom of the page. These margins are wide in of the police, order to leave room for reviewer's comments. Use normal paragraphs in which the first line is madame, indented five characters for all paragraphs in the manuscript except the focused, abstract, block quotes, titles and headings, subheadings, references, table titles, notes, and figure captions. Use a 12 point font. In other words, there should be 10 typed characters per inch. Single space after sentence terminators (i.e., '.', '?', '!'). Capitalize the first letter following a colon if the madame ratignolle, clause following the colon is a complete sentence.

Make sure the text is left aligned and not justified. With left aligned text, the left margin forms a straight line and the right margin is of the, ragged. With justified text both the left and madame right margins form a straight line. Do not hyphenate (split) words at the end of a line. Finally, just staple or clip the finished product (do not bother with fancy folders, etc.). Writing in General You must use complete sentences.

The first sentence of An Essay a paragraph must be independent (able to stand on its own). For example consider While these studies are important, there is. This sentence would be correct in the middle of a paragraph, but as the first sentence, it should more appropriately read, While studies of the effects of whatever on whatever else are important, there is. Try not to use slang (e.g., . put a damper on. ). Do not use contractions. Ratignolle? That is, instead of it's , use it is . If you are doubtful about the spelling of a word, do not guess.

Look up the correct spelling in an appropriate reference source (e.g., Merriam-Webster.com). Proofread the copy that you submit and do correct minor typographical errors, formatting, spelling, or even the wording, with a pencil. Ideas? These corrections are inevitable and madame ratignolle will communicate that you are serious about your work. Style Details in General Study this handout. When in doubt about after a detail, check with the Publication Manual of the ratignolle, American Psychological Association . Assume you are writing the solution, paper for submission to madame, a scientific journal. A lot of the Essay, formatting details can be learned by carefully modeling another APA journal article. Madame? It would be a good idea to acquire a few fairly recent articles, because the format was revised in 1995. Try the Psychological Record or The Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society . Both of these journals publish relatively short articles that are not too complicated. Avoid excessive use of the cold pastoral, terms I , me , and my , as well as the phrase personally speaking.

Avoid the use of sexist language. For example, consistently referring to a person as a him or he when it is madame, just as likely for the person to be a she or a her , is sexist. However, using (s)he or him/her all of the time can also be awkward. If you phrase it right, you can often use the word person instead. Avoid using 'empty words' or words which serve no purpose. For example, In the Smith (1990) study it was found that. should read more like Smith (1990) found that. Generally speaking, use past tense in the bomb creative writing, the abstract, introduction, and method. Results and discussion sections can be in the present tense.

Get friends to ratignolle, read it. If they cannot understand it, then it needs work. If you cannot get a friend to read it, then try to read it yourself making believe that you are naive. Abbreviations When abbreviating any terms, spell them out the first time (in both the abstract and the politics police again in the body of the manuscript, if need be). For example, The Sexual Opinion Survey (SOS) was used to. Do not use too many abbreviations. Whereas one, two, or three can be helpful, four or five can be confusing.

You will often see the following Latin abbreviations used: The order of the sections of the manuscript are as follows: Title Page See an example title page. Madame? The manuscript page header is the first thing that appears on the title page. It consists of the first two or three words of the title and is followed by the page number. It is used by the editors and reviewers to Essay, identify the pages of the manuscript. It is placed in madame ratignolle, the upper right hand corner of all pages of the focused, manuscript (except for any figures). Thus, the manuscript page header should appear as the first line of the title page, right justified with the number '1' either double spaced below it or 5 spaces to the the right of it. If you are using a word processor, you can have it put this manuscript page header on all pages automatically. The running head comes next and is no more than 50 characters (including punctuation and spaces). It typically consists of a couple of madame ratignolle key words from the title.

Type this running head flush left and in all capital letters. For example, Running head: ABORTION ATTITUDES IN COLLEGE STUDENTS (note that the 'R' in police, running is capitalized, but the 'h' in head is madame ratignolle, not). Creative Writing? Choosing a title. The title should summarize the main idea of the paper in 10-12 words. A good recipe to madame, work with when reporting the results of an experiment is (Dependent Variable) as a Function of (Independent Variable) or The Effects of best ideas (Independent Variable) on (Dependent Variable) . Another option is to use the main finding as the madame ratignolle, title, for example, Prenatal Alcohol Impairs Passive Avoidance Learning in Rats . With other types of research you should try to include the variables of interest in the title (and be careful not to imply causality). Also, it is a good idea to include the species if you're working with animals or some details about the after the bomb creative, type of population if you're working with humans. When typing the title, center it on the page and capitalize only the madame ratignolle, first letter of important words. On the next double spaced line is the author's name and on creative writing the next double spaced line is the madame ratignolle, institutional affiliation. For the purposes of this class, I would also like you to include something like In partial fulfillment of the man speech ideas brother, requirements for ratignolle PSY389, Instructor's Name, and best man speech the Date . Abstract The abstract page is madame ratignolle, Page 2. Center the word Abstract on this page, then begin typing on the very next double-spaced line (i.e., do not insert any extra blank lines here).

Type this section as a single (double spaced) paragraph in block format (i.e., do not use indentation). The purpose of this section is to provide a brief and best comprehensive summary of the study. It is very important because it is all that many people will read. It should include a brief description of the problem being investigated, the methods used, the results, and their implications. It should be accurate (do not include information here that is not in the body of the manuscript), self-contained (spell out madame abbreviations), concise (120 word maximum), and specific (begin this section with the most important information and limit it to the four or five most important concepts, findings, or implications of the study). Of The? As part of the theme of being concise, use digits for all numbers except when they begin a sentence. Avoid citing references in madame ratignolle, the abstract. Paraphrase rather than quoting.

Use active rather than passive voice (but without personal pronouns), for example, use Researchers instructed participants to . . . Focused? , rather than, Participants were given instructions to . . . Use past tense for procedures and present tense for results. It is a good idea to write this section last (after all of the other sections are written). You might try taking the lead sentences from the madame ratignolle, various sections of the manuscript and integrating them. Introduction The introduction begins on Page 3. Groups Essay? Start this page by ratignolle, retyping your title (centered), then begin typing the section (on the next double spaced line) using normal (5 space indented) paragraphs. Do not type the word Introduction . The main purpose of this section is to tell the reader why you performed the study. In other words, you have to inform the reader of the research question and indicate why it is important, and how it is unique when compared to after the bomb creative writing, previous studies. It starts out broad and becomes more and ratignolle more specific.

For example, you might begin by cold pastoral, defining any relevant terms. Then go on to review the relevant literature. Avoid an exhaustive and historical review. Then go on to make clear the connection between previous research and the present work. Madame Ratignolle? You might include any hypotheses and the rationale for them. The final paragraph usually contains a statement which clearly and explicitly states why the study was performed, such as The purpose of this study was to. or The present study was designed to Essay, investigate the. Be especially careful not to use a sentence of this type earlier in your introduction. Thus, this section should contain an absolute minimum of four paragraphs: the general introduction, the literature review, the connection of the present study to the literature and the explicit statement of purpose.

Methods Do not purposely start a new page for this section. Simply center the madame, word Method and continue typing on the very next double-spaced line (i.e., do not insert any extra blank lines here). The purpose of this section is to describe in detail how you performed the study. Someone should be able to replicate your study based on the information you provide in this section. Make it sound professional, that is, do not make it sound like a class project. Assume you are writing for submission to a scientific journal. Avoid unnecessary details like the data were displayed on the computer screen and recorded on the data sheet(s) . This is after writing, similar to the empty word problem described in ratignolle, I.C.6. For an experiment, this section is typically divided into Pressure groups, four subsections: subjects, apparatus, design, and procedure. The order of design followed by ratignolle, procedure is arbitrary. In other words, you could have the procedure come before the Pressure, design. Sometimes researchers combine the design and procedure sections, however, in an experimental psychology or research methods class, a separate design section is typically required.

For a survey study (i.e., one in which the madame ratignolle, participants are simply asked a set of questions), the design section is not necessary (and the survey itself may be included as an appendix). Best Man Speech Brother? Subjects/Participants This section is madame, labeled as subjects or participants depending on whether animals or humans are used in the study. If animals are used, use the term subjects. If humans are used, use the term participants. Do not purposely start a new page for this section. Type the appropriate title for this subsection flush with the the politics, left margin and italicize it. On the next line, begin typing normal paragraphs. Indicate who participated in the study, how many, and how were they selected. With human subjects, be sure to address the issue of informed consent. Include any details which are relevant to the study.

For animals, include the gender, age, strain, weight. For humans, include the gender, age, race/ethnicity, and, when appropriate, the socioeconomic status, disability status, sexual orientation, etc. If the subjects were human, what type of reward or motivation was used to encourage them to participate? Apparatus Do not purposely start a new page for this section. Type the word Apparatus flush with the madame ratignolle, left margin and italicize it. On The? On the next line, begin typing normal paragraphs. Describe what materials were used and how they functioned in the study. If you use a piece of madame ratignolle equipment, you must give the model number, company, and state where the company resides (as a two-letter abbreviation).

You must give the dimensions (and perhaps other descriptive details) of any important items used in the study. Standard equipment such as furniture, stopwatches, pencils and on the Constitution paper, can usually be mentioned without providing a lot of details. In fact, you may often simply mention these items in madame ratignolle, passing as part of the procedure. Be careful not to groups Essay, describe procedures in this section. You should make clear what purpose the ratignolle, apparatus served, but do not give a lot of details on man speech ideas brother the use of the apparatus at this point.

One hint in this regard is to avoid using action verbs in this section. Design Do not purposely start a new page for this section. Type the word Design flush with the left margin and italicize it. On the ratignolle, next line, begin typing normal paragraphs. Describe the An Essay on the, design and clearly spell out the independent and madame dependent variables. Indicate what the levels of the independent variables were, and whether the solution focused, factor(s) were repeated, matched, or independent. Describe how the subjects were assigned to groups. Madame? Describe any control procedures used. Procedure Do not purposely start a new page for focused this section. Type the word Procedure flush with the madame ratignolle, left margin and An Essay Constitution italicize it.

On the next line, begin typing normal paragraphs. Carefully summarize each step in madame ratignolle, the execution of the study. Indicate what a typical test, trial, or session involved. Describe any phases that the the politics police, study had or any instructions that the subjects received. When referring to groups, try to use descriptive labels. For example, instead of saying Group 1 or the experimental group , you might say the drugged group . Another technique in this regard is to use abbreviations that emphasize meaning. For example, There were three groups, including, the control group which received 0 mg/kg of morphine (M0), a low dose group receiving 1 mg/kg of morphine (M1), and a high dose group receiving 4 mg/kg of morphine (M4). Madame Ratignolle? Results Do not purposely start a new page for this section. Simply center the word Results and man speech ideas continue typing on the very next double-spaced line (i.e., do not insert any extra blank lines here).

Look carefully at the results. That is, take a good hard look at all those numbers you collect. Think of different ways to summarize them (describe), as well as to madame ratignolle, make sense of them (analyze). You might find my Psychological Statistics Site helpful. This section will be easier to write if you make any tables and/or figures you intend to use first. Briefly state the main findings in words.

That is, first give a general description, then go into the details. When presenting the results of of the statistical tests, give descriptive statistics before the corresponding inferential statistics. In other words, give means and/or percentages (perhaps referring to a table or figure), before talking about the results of any statistical tests you performed. When presenting means, it is reasonable to ratignolle, use one additional digit of accuracy than what is man speech, contained in the raw data. In other words, if the raw data consisted of whole numbers, then the ratignolle, means should contain one decimal place. When presenting nominal or ordinal data, give the cold pastoral, percents rather than frequencies (since percents are independent of the sample size). The general format for presenting an madame inferential statistic is: Statistic (df) = value, probability = value. Note that exact p values are preferred. Also, if the computer output says the An Essay, probability is .0000, then report it as .001. When possible, include some statistical estimate of effect size. When actually presenting the results, try to emphasize the meaning of the statistics.

That is, clearly describe what it is you are testing and what significance means for the variables involved. See some examples of the madame ratignolle, correct way to present the results of several common statistical tests. Do not discuss the implications of the results in this section. Do not talk about the meaning of the alpha level or the null hypothesis, and what chance factors have to do with it. Since you are writing for the scientific community, you can assume the reader will have a working knowledge of Constitution statistics. Madame Ratignolle? If you are presenting a lot of material here, you may wish to employ subheadings (as is cold pastoral, done in ratignolle, the methods section).

These subheadings should have meaning and relevance to cold pastoral, the data and should help to organize your presentation of it. In other words, they should not be organized by the type of analysis employed. Madame Ratignolle? Since this is not expected by cold pastoral, the reader, it is a good idea to madame ratignolle, precede the subheadings with a paragraph informing the reader of the logical organization of this section. In cases where the reader would expect something to be significant and it is not, you should address the issue. Do not provide raw data unless, for some reason, you require a single subject approach. Cold Pastoral? Be careful with the word prove. Since statistical tests are based on probability and can be in error, they do not really prove anything. You can only use wording that implies causality if you actually manipulated the independent variable (i.e., performed an ratignolle experiment).

For example, suppose you manipulated whether subjects received a drug (while employing appropriate control procedures, etc.) and Essay found a significant difference in memory performance (with the madame ratignolle, drug users performing more poorly than nonusers). In this case, you would be able to conclude that the drug caused the difference in memory ability; it impaired it. As another example, suppose that you compared drug use (as determined from the results of a survey) with memory ability and found a correlation (greater use went along with poorer memory performance). Cold Pastoral? Since correlation doesn't say much about causality, we could only conclude that there is a relationship between drug use and memory ability. Discussion Do not purposely start a new page for this section.

Simply center the word Discussion and continue typing on the very next double-spaced line (i.e., do not insert any extra blank lines here). The purpose of this section is to evaluate and interpret the results, especially with respect to the original research question. Start off with a brief, non-technical summary of the results. In other words, tell the reader about the main findings without using statistical terminology. Then go on to discuss the implications of the results. In other words, whatever was found needs to madame ratignolle, be discussed. It is also important to discuss how the results relate to the literature you cited in the introduction. In other words, emphasize any theoretical consequences of the of the, results. You might (or might not) also mention any limitations of the study and any suggestions for future research in this section. Finally, you need an ending paragraph in which you make a final summary statement of the conclusions you have drawn. You are also encouraged, when appropriate, to comment on the importance and relevance of your findings.

How are your findings related to the big picture? Thus, this section should contain an madame absolute minimum of three paragraphs: the non-technical summary, discussion of the Essay, results and ratignolle their implications, and the concluding paragraph. References Start on a new page. Center the word References at the top. As usual, double space. Any citations made in the manuscript must be presented in this section and vice versa. That is, if something is not cited in after the bomb, the text, then it should not appear in this section. In still other words, this is not a bibliography. In any of the madame ratignolle, previous sections, whenever you say something like studies have shown you must provide a citation. This section tells the reader where they can find these citations. This section is alphabetized by last name (of the first author involved in the study).

A hanging indent is employed for each reference, that is, the first line is not indented and the rest are five-space indented. Essay? For each author, give the last name followed by madame, a comma and solution the first (and middle) initials followed by periods. Separate multiple authors with commas and the last author with the ratignolle, ampersand ('') rather than the word and. After the author(s) comes the year (in parentheses and followed by a period). For a journal reference, italicize the title of the journal and the volume number. Note that issue numbers are typically not included. Also, capitalize the important words of the journal title. After The Bomb Creative? For a book reference, just italicize the title.

Only capitalize the first word of the title. Do include the city, state (as a two-letter abbreviation without periods), and the publisher's name. See the example reference section. Madame Ratignolle? It provides several types of references, including: Single and multiple author, journal articles, book, and best man speech brother book chapter, web page, as well as a government document. Other Sections After the above sections come any tables, the madame ratignolle, page(s) with the groups Essay, figure captions, and madame finally any figures, respectively. Each belongs on a separate page (multiple figure captions can appear on one page however). Tables and the figure captions page have a manuscript page header and page number just like all the other typed pages. Note that figures are not typed, and so do not have a manuscript page header and page number. Tables and figures should be able to stand alone (i.e., you should not have to read the manuscript to be able to understand a table or figure).

A big help in this regard is the man speech ideas brother, table title or the figure caption. Use these wisely to ratignolle, explain what is going on Essay in the table or figure. In other words, do not be afraid to be a little bit verbose in your table titles and ratignolle figure captions. Tables and figures should not duplicate the same information. Likewise, you should not repeat the data point values in the politics, a table or figure in the text of the manuscript. Tables and figures are more expensive to madame ratignolle, include in the manuscript than text.

Therefore, if you include one, it should include a reasonable number of best man speech ideas data points. In other words, if you only have a few data points to present, do it in the text of the manuscript rather than in a table or figure. Tables and figures are most often used to present results, but may also be used to present other information, such as the design or a theoretical schema. If you include a table or figure, you must introduce it in the text of the results section (e.g., Table 1 displays the. ) and describe to the reader what should be seen in it. Tables See an example table. Madame Ratignolle? Note that APA style tables do not contain any vertical lines, so do not draw them in Pressure groups Essay, or use your word processor to madame, generate them. Type the table number and then (on the next double spaced line) type the creative, table title flush left and italicized.

Note that there are no periods used after the table number or title. There are different ways to ratignolle, format tables. Your best bet is to set the tabs for Pressure groups Essay the table or to use your word processor's table generating ability. When using columns with decimal numbers, make the decimal points line up. Figure Captions See an madame ratignolle example figure captions page. An Essay On The? Start on a new page. Center the phrase Figure Captions at the top.

Each figure caption is typed flush left in block format. The word 'figure' and the number are italicized, for example, Figure 1. The effects of.

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17 for #039;17: Top players who stayed in college in madame ratignolle 2017. College Football 24/7's 17 for '17 series continues with a look at the 17 best college football players who bypassed a chance to Pressure apply for early entry into the 2017 NFL Draft, a group that makes up a strong core of the game's seniors and fourth-year juniors returning this fall. Among last year's top returners, every one of them was selected in the 2017 NFL Draft, including three first-round picks (Jonathan Allen, Tre'Davious White, O.J. Howard). 17 Photos Total. Ric Tapia/Associated Press. Blanding has been a tackling machine at madame, UVA since becoming a starter as a true freshman, and best man speech he's within striking distance of Jamie Sharper's school record for career tackles (435; Blanding has 358). As for his draft status, however, it's Blanding's coverage ability that will draw scouts' attention this fall. Ratignolle! Safeties who can clean up against the run aren't hard to focused find; those who can lock down tight ends and madame ratignolle slot receivers are in much shorter supply. Of The Police! NFL.com analyst Bucky Brooks liked what he saw from Blanding last year. Rogelio V. Madame Ratignolle! Solis/Associated Press.

Vanderbilt doesn't often lose underclassmen to cold pastoral the draft, but it happened in January when LB Zach Cunningham made the jump, and he nearly had company. Webb, who already has broken Zac Stacy's school record for career and single-season rushing yards, announced his decision immediately after VU's Independence Bowl loss to madame N.C. State. Webb ran for 1,283 yards last year and man speech ideas brother his 3,345-yard career total already ranks 21st in SEC history. Chris Pietsch/Associated Press. Nagging injuries slowed Freeman considerably last year, and he just didn't look quite like the back who slashed through opponents for 1,836 yards in 2015.

After his off-year, coming back to school was a logical decision that gives him a chance to play like he did in 2015 as a lasting impression for scouts. Although in announcing his return, Freeman instead cited as his reason to ratignolle return a desire to finish his education and play for new Ducks coach Willie Taggart. Charlie Neibergall/Associated Press. Jewell's decision to return will not only give the Hawkeyes another year with the An Essay, anchor of their defense, but will allow Jewell to graduate in the fall as well. His feedback from the madame, NFL College Advisory Committee suggested he remain in solution school, and the senior took heed. He led Iowa with 124 tackles last season and in pass breakups (9). Madame Ratignolle! He was also a Butkus Award finalist and cold pastoral would be Iowa's first Butkus winner if he takes home the honor in 2017. Michael Conroy/Associated Press.

Notre Dame's promising left tackle offered some refreshing honesty about his decision to return to college: He simply didn't believe he was ready for the pros. One part of madame ratignolle his game he'll look to cold pastoral improve is in the area of false starts; he committed nine of them last year. But a premature jump to the NFL is one false start that can't be corrected. Andy Manis/Associated Press. Just as center Pat Elflein decided to stay with the Buckeyes the year before, Price made the same decision for 2017 and cited Elflein's decision as a model for his own. Madame Ratignolle! But he certainly had the kind of resume that would make a jump to the NFL tempting. Price was a first-team All-Big Ten pick, an AFCA first-team All-American and a team captain with 41 consecutive starts. Police! David Zalubowski/Associated Press. Lotulelei's return was big news for the Utes' run defense. He's a 310-pound interior anchor who is tough to move at the point of attack and can penetrate for big plays as well. But 2016 wasn't the way to go out, as he was hampered by injury.

Coming back gives him a chance to show scouts peak performance in his exit year. Madame! Orlin Wagner/Associated Press. 10. James Washington, WR, Oklahoma State. Pressure! Oklahoma State got one of the nation's elite receivers back when Washington decided to stick around. He's built more like a running back than a receiver at 6-foot and 205 pounds, but he plays taller than that when competing for madame jump balls downfield. Last year, he caught 71 passes for 1,380 yards and 10 TDs.

Rogelio V. Solis/Associated Press. Nobody could blame Chubb if he had come out for the politics of the the draft after the year he had as a junior in madame ratignolle 2016. He notched 22 tackles for An Essay loss (fourth in the FBS) and 10.5 sacks, earning the Wolfpack's Defensive MVP honor. Citing a desire to be selected first-team All-ACC, along with achieving team goals, the younger brother of madame ratignolle Detroit Lions LB Brandon Chubb decided one more year of college was in order. Elaine Thompson/Associated Press. Cold Pastoral! To whatever extent the early draft entries of madame Sidney Jones, Budda Baker and after writing Elijah Qualls stung the madame, Huskies defense, Vea's decision to groups Essay stay helped stop the bleeding. Madame! He made 39 tackles and five sacks last year, impressive production for a 350-pound interior lineman, and best man speech ideas will draw plenty of scouting attention this fall as one of the Pac-12's top defenders. Ratignolle! Former UW defensive line coach Jeff Choate reportedly saw Vea as more talented than Cleveland Browns 2015 first-round pick Danny Shelton, who also played at Washington. Ryan Kang/Associated Press. Less than a week before the deadline for cold pastoral underclassmen to declare for the draft, Falk sent music to madame the ears of Cougars fans in announcing he would return as a fifth-year senior.

That meant a guy who already has over 10,000 career passing yards would lead Mike Leach's Air Raid offense for one more go-round. Two Pac-12 coaches with NFL coaching experience, UCLA's Jim Mora and Stanford's David Shaw, are believers in Falk's NFL potential. Another year in Pullman will surely make believers of more. The Bomb! Charlie Neibergall/Associated Press. Nobody can say the son of the madame, late former NFL starter Orlando Brown isn't big enough for the NFL; he's 6-foot-8, 360 pounds, and knows how to carry it on An Essay on the Constitution, the field. Madame Ratignolle! He was a first-team All-Big 12 pick last year, but said in December: I'll be an Oklahoma Sooner until I get a first-round grade.

Brody Schmidt/Associated Press. 5. Mason Rudolph, QB, Oklahoma State. Rudolph's return ensures another dynamic offense in Stillwater and gives him another year to brother help scouts evaluate how well he could make the transition from OSU's fast-paced spread offense to a pro-style system. Madame! He now enters his third year as a starter having thrown for 49 touchdowns over after creative writing, the last two years. He applied for ratignolle feedback from the NFL College Advisory Committee, but announced his decision to return during Oklahoma State's preparations for the Alamo Bowl.

Carlos Osorio/Associated Press. 4. Harold Landry, DE, Boston College. After! One of only two edge rushers listed here, Landry led the ratignolle, nation last year in sacks (16.5) and the politics of the forced fumbles (7). But stats alone don't make anyone a first-round draft pick, and both Landry and coach Steve Addazio cited Landry's desire to be a first-rounder as one reason for madame ratignolle his return. He's undersized at 6-foot-3, 250 pounds, but his quickness and ability to finish plays in the backfield will have scouts playing close attention to the Eagles' senior. David J. Phillip/Associated Press.

Scarbrough told College Football 24/7 in January that he had decided to return to Alabama in 2017, describing the decision as an easy one. Perhaps it was -- after all, he didn't even play much over the first half of the season -- but in his breakthrough game (180 yards vs. Washington in a College Football Playoff semifinal) he looked readily capable of making the jump. At 240 pounds, he brings thunderous power to the Crimson Tide backfield. He'll be a fourth-year junior this fall, but comes off a broken leg suffered in Pressure Essay the title game against Clemson.

Alonzo Adams/Associated Press. Oklahoma's star quarterback is back for one final season, citing a desire to win a third consecutive Big 12 title for the Sooners and make another run at a College Football Playoff berth. At 6-foot-1, 210 pounds, he's not the prototypical size for an NFL quarterback. But NFL.com analyst Bucky Brooks likes his arm talent, and he'll get plenty of madame chances to show it off again this fall. Ryan Kang/Associated Press. At one point, Allen decided he would enter the 2017 NFL Draft, and there was certainly plenty of pressure to do so -- after all, half a dozen reps from a top agency shared his living room to watch the An Essay, CFP title game. He changed his mind, though, and the result has been a palpable offseason scouting buzz for the Cowboys' gunslinger.

There's plenty of madame ratignolle anticipation for his season-opening performance against a Big Ten foe in Iowa. Scouts will flock to Laramie this fall, and rightfully so.

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The Heroic Deed: Myth and Revolution. According to legend, the last words of Che Guevara before his execution were “I know you've come to kill me. Ratignolle! Shoot coward, you are only going to man speech ideas brother kill a man.” What Che meant here was that the cause of revolution would live on despite his death. Whether or not the myth is true, the meaning behind it has inspired revolutionaries throughout the world. Madame Ratignolle! In certain ways, the myth surrounding Che Guevara has been just as important as the truth. In fact, myths provide a crucial underpinning to solution focused how ideology and society is able to madame ratignolle function. Police! Myths play a major role not only in society, but in radical political movements, as was recognized by the French syndicalist Georges Sorel and the Peruvian communist Jose Carlos Mariategui. And despite the scientific pretensions of much of the left, myths also supply inspiration, passion and faith to militants in the course of struggle.

Before discussing the role of myth on madame, the left, we need to have some idea of how myth works in police, the world. According to Joseph Campbell, a scholar of myths, mythology performs four functions in human society. The first one is the madame ratignolle, mystical function where “Myth opens the world to focused the dimension of mystery, to the realization of the ratignolle, mystery that underlies all forms.” [1] The universe is full of cold pastoral wonder, glory and mystery that we lie in awe before. These mysteries lie beyond the realm of human experience and cannot be captured in our ordinary language. Yet the symbols and rituals of madame ratignolle mythology are a way to address and make sense of solution this reality that lies beyond our comprehension. The second function of madame ratignolle myth, Campbell says, is cosmological. Constitution! Myth in this sense can be thought of madame as a form of proto-science, showcasing how the solution, universe works by providing explanations for the creation of the world, the origin of human life, the change of seasons, etc. In modern society, the cosmological function is taken over more and more by science. However, Campbell states that myths and ratignolle science don't come into conflict, rather science pushes to the edge of the politics police mystery, to that which can never be known, such as the source of life. Campbell identifies the third function of madame ratignolle myth as its sociological function of focused “supporting and validating a certain social order.” [2] This purpose of myth can vary greatly depending upon the particular society.

We can naturally expect feudal society to consider usury and the pursuit of profit to be vices, while capitalist society would look upon them as virtues. Naturally, the myths of a reigning social order, such as capitalism, promote that system and its values. Madame! Yet even within different capitalist societies, the role of myth can vary greatly. Let us expand on this. For example, the predominant myths in the United States promote individualism, the solution, American Dream and white supremacy. The founding myth is that the American Revolution brought “freedom and democracy.” Yet this revolution in actuality was marked by limited popular involvement (mainly among the madame ratignolle, white and male population) that created institutions to Pressure solidify the rule of a new local ruling class based upon ratignolle expansionism, genocide and slavery. This legacy of the cold pastoral, American Revolution has made it quite easy to be used, obsessively so, by American leaders to ratignolle promote the dominant values of capitalist society which is reflected in the working class.

The reality of the American Revolution has in fact made it difficult to be embraced by those advocating egalitarian change. On the other hand, French society, while also capitalist, has a far more economistic class consciousness ethic among the best man speech brother, working class than in the USA. Modern France owes its origin to madame ratignolle the Revolution of 1789 which was a massive social upheaval from below (far surpassing the American Revolution) that brought radical changes that conflicted with the bourgeois leadership. While the reigning social order in France can be traced to 1789, there is an ambivalence in the embrace of the values of the revolution by the ruling class. Political figures may revere the “Republic” but there is no corresponding civil worship of its “founding fathers” (as can be found in the United States).

Although conservatives can wrap themselves in the Tricolor, the slogan “Liberte, egalite, fraternite” can easily be appropriated by opponents of capitalism such as socialists, communists, and Constitution anarchists. Mythology, just like ideology, serves the role of initiating and interpellating individuals into subjects. The reigning myths associated with them in society such as the American Dream or Christian values, are not merely mistaken ideas or examples of “false consciousness,” but rather they exist in material practices (such as schools or churches). Madame! According to Louis Althusser, “Ideology does not exist in the ‘world of ideas’ conceived as a ‘spiritual world’. Ideology exists in institutions and the practices specific to them. We are even tempted to say, more precisely: ideology exists in apparatuses and of the the practices specific to them.” [3] Ideology (such as myths) exists through the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISA), even though they are private – churches, schools, families, etc, they still reinforce the rule of the dominant class through ideology. We can see this in the example of Christian fundamentalism, whose adherents not only believe in madame ratignolle, God, pray and attend church.

As Althusser says, “If he believes in Duty, he will have the corresponding attitudes, inscribed in ritual practices ‘according to the correct principles’.” [4] Thus, a Christian fundamentalist is likely to be an American patriot who waves the flag, raises their children to revere the institutions and laws of the An Essay, country (so long as they are in conformity with family values), serve in the military, etc. Yet whereas it was the church that was dominant in feudal society, Althusser identifies the school as the ratignolle, main ISA in modern society. [5] At school, students learn not only skills such as reading and writing, but socialization in the reigning values and culture of after the bomb society, so that they can eventually become “good” and “obedient” citizens. In other words, the school serves to prepare most students to be obedient workers who accept the myths and values of ratignolle society and accept their subordinate station in life as natural. We should not look at the interpellation of creative writing subjects through the madame ratignolle, ISAs as denying human agency (which is a common objection to Althusser). Best Man Speech Ideas Brother! The ISAs are necessary not only because it takes more than repressive force for the ruling order to maintain its power (although they will rely upon that as a last resort), but since class struggle never ceases. “Just as the class struggle never ceases, so the madame, dominant class's combat to unify existing ideological elements and groups Essay forms never ceases. This amounts to saying the dominant ideology can never completely resolve its own contradictions, which are a reflection of the class struggle - although its function is to resolve them.” [6] Ideology and madame myths remain a battleground. The same Christian fundamentalists may consider themselves to be patriotic Americans who believe in free enterprise, but if they are on strike on a picket line, they will no doubt react with hostility to scabs. Or the Pressure groups, fundamentalists may attend a Tea Party rally to protest a more “liberal” or “socialistic” government that they see as drifting away from or betraying “true” American values. Even the non-Marxist Campbell argues that what counts in terms of authority figures such as judges, Presidents, or generals is not who they are individually. It doesn't matter if the President is an adulterer or underhanded, he still is to madame be saluted and respected because of the role he plays in society.

As Campbell says, when you respect Presidents, “you're not responding to them as personalities, you're responding to them in their mythological roles.” [7] According to Campbell, the President should not be corrupt, rather he needs to understand that to perform the on the Constitution, mythological role required of him, that “he has to sacrifice his personal desires and ratignolle even life possibilities to brother the role that he now signifies.” [8] The mythological role of the President is reflected in how the “Founding Fathers” such as Washington and madame ratignolle Jefferson or later Presidents like Abraham Lincoln are revered. We can see the mythological role played out in the Presidential campaign of candidates, whether Bush, Clinton, or Sanders, who are portrayed as fighting and standing for ideas, “America” (portrayed with slight variations in meaning). Madame! It doesn't matter that all this is a total fabrication, what matters is that the role the President, regardless of the of the police, individual, plays as a force of social cohesion and in promoting the myths and ideology of America. Thus, in order for the mythological role of President to function, it takes interpellated citizens who accept it on the one hand and an individual candidate who (at least appears to) to forfeit their own wants and needs for the greater good of the country. The President thus becomes the literal embodiment of the nation.

The last function of myth that Campbell identifies is its pedagogical role: “how to live a human lifetime under any circumstances. Myths can teach you that.” [9] Human beings regardless of the madame, society they live in, go through different stages in life — moving from childhood to of the police adulthood with new responsibilities that can include marriage and madame family. There are different rites and rituals that are expected to go through to learn how to ideas function as responsible and ethical members of society, whether by madame graduating from creative, college, going to communion or a bar mitzvah. The values taught are naturally colored by class, so that the rituals of ratignolle a feudal Church are different than those of a business school. Campbell's four functions of myth apply to the bomb socialist movements as well.

As we shall see later, when discussing Mariategui, even though socialism is madame, founded on materialistic and scientific principles, myths, symbols, and rituals play key roles in on the, teaching militants how to ratignolle live, fight and to die as comrades for the communist ideal. One of the major influences on Mariategui's Marxism and his understanding of myth came from the work of the French syndicalist theorist, Georges Sorel. Solution! Mariategui hailed Sorel as an ratignolle equal of Lenin for undertaking “the true revision of Marxism, in the sense of the renovation and cold pastoral continuation of the work of Marx. ” [10] Sorel was praised for returning socialism to the “original sentiment of class struggle, as a protest against parliamentary pacification, bourgeoisified socialism,” that was found in reformist socialism. Lastly, Mariategui said, Sorel established “the religious, mystical, metaphysical character of socialism” which proved that “the strength of revolutionaries is not in their science; it is in their faith, in madame, their passion, in their will. It is a religious, mystical, spiritual force.” [11] Mariategui drew upon Sorel's understanding of myth and his voluntaristic ethos to An Essay on the inform his own creative and ratignolle non-dogmatic Marxism.

However, Sorel himself remains highly controversial, and his writings on the power of best man speech myth and defense of violence, expressed most clearly in Reflections on Violence , have inspired not only Marxists such as Mariategui and Antonio Gramsci, but fascists such as Benito Mussolini. Sorel was originally an engineer by training, turned to Marxist politics following his early retirement in the 1890s. He contributed to a number of Marxist journals and was involved in supporting Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish military officer falsely accused of treason. However, Sorel did not adhere to the determinism found within the ratignolle, Second International that explained history and the behavior of people through their economic motives. Sorel took up the defense of Marxism against those he perceived as vulgarizers because to him, the moral content was vital. [12] Sorel was convinced that Marxist theory needed to be renewed and revised particularly in best ideas, regards to its understanding of economics, morality and human action. To that end, Sorel cast an admiring eye on the work of the Italian Marxist Antonio Labriola and briefly to the German Eduard Bernstein during the madame ratignolle, revisionist controversy. Labriola was praised for his defense of historical materialism and Marxism as a theory of action. [13] Sorel commended Labriola for breaking with the economic determinism of Marxism and stressing the importance of ethics. [14] As part of Sorel's own revision of An Essay on the Marxism, he came to the conclusion that the labor “theory of value. no longer has any scientific usefulness and . . . gives rise to a great many misunderstandings.” [15] Labriola never contemplated his own writings being used to declare Marxist economics obsolete, so he broke relations with Sorel. Sorel's defense of madame ratignolle Dreyfus was informed by the moral desire to defend the notions of truth and justice.

That same moral concern would later find its way into his Reflections on Violence and the importance of mobilizing myths. Following the acquittal of Pressure groups Essay Dreyfus, Sorel felt betrayed by the outcome since it only benefited opportunistic, careerists and parliamentary socialists. Sorel was repulsed by the reformist politics of Jean Jaures and Alexander Millerand, the latter of madame whom entered a government of “republican defense.” Sorel was alarmed at what he perceived to be the statism and Jacobinism found in man speech ideas brother, the government. He believed that the autonomy of socialism risked being lost in the quick sand of opportunism and corruption of bourgeois politics. [16] The Affair had not raised the revolutionary elan of the proletariat, but smothered it. Sorel believed that any revolution must destroy the institutions and values of ratignolle liberal democracy that was leading civilization towards decadence. To Sorel, the parliamentarism, gradualism, opportunism and reformism found in the parties of the Second International led him to conclude that “the anarchists were right about this, and that, in entering into bourgeois institutions, revolutionaries have been transformed by adopting the spirit of these institutions: all the parliamentary deputies agree that there is very little difference between a representative of the bourgeoisie and a representative of the proletariat.” [17] Sorel's criticism of the dominant orthodoxy of official Marxism was echoed in the syndicalist movements that developed in opposition to it. Syndicalist unions emerged in France, such as the General Confederation of Workers (CGT), which eschewed any form of cold pastoral political action, reliance on direct action, and a general strike by workers to usher in the revolution. Following 1906, there was an madame upsurge of labor unrest in France that led to strikes among postal workers, railway workers and numerous others. In 1909, the strikes caused the government, led by the ex-Blanquist Georges Clemenceau to call in the army, who fired upon An Essay on the Constitution the workers. [18] By this time, Sorel had embraced syndicalism and madame ratignolle attempted to theorize the movement in Reflections on Violence . In this work, Sorel completed his revision of cold pastoral Marxism, expunging any hint of determinism or its use as a method to understand the laws of the ratignolle, capitalism.

Sorel also embraced Henri Bergson's theories of the irrational and An Essay Constitution the power of intuition, along with Nietzsche's ethics of revolt and the contempt for established morality. For Sorel, Marxism was reduced to madame ratignolle the class struggle, and its central tenets were to be interpreted as myths. In contrast to Pressure groups Essay the “garrulous and lying” parliamentary socialists, Sorel praised the madame, syndicalist movement as the “great educative force that contemporary society has at the politics of the, its disposal for madame, preparing the work of the future.” [19] Central to syndicalism was that it was a reflection of the revolutionary general strike which produces an “entirely epic state of after creative writing mind” that turns the “men of today into madame ratignolle the free producers of tomorrow working in workshops where there are no masters.” [20] These workers would be transformed, through their steeling in the “economic epic” of modern factories and by participating in the general strike where the proletariat organizes itself for battle, separating itself distinctly from the other parts of the nation, and regarding itself as the great motive power of history, all other social considerations being subordinated to that of combat; it is the politics police, very clearly conscious of the glory which will be attached to its historical role and of the heroism of its militant attitude; it longs for the final contest in which it will give proof of the whole measure of its valor. [21] These heroic workers had no need to plan of battle for the conquest of state power, rather their victory and the downfall of capital would result from the emergence in the working class of a new heroic mentality and the passion of violence, which inspired by the myth of the general strike. After the cataclysmic battle, the madame ratignolle, workers, now transformed into producers would erect on its ashes a new civilization. To Sorel, whereas once the bourgeoisie, “was still, in the great majority, animated by Essay the conquering, insatiable and madame pitiless spirit which, at the beginning of the modern epoch, had characterized the creators of best ideas brother new industries and the discoverers of unknown lands,” it had now degenerated and “become almost as stupid as the nobility of the eighteenth century.” [22] Sorel's argument hinges on the contention that myth encloses the “whole of madame socialism in the general strike. [which sees] in each strike a model, a test, a preparation for the great final upheaval.” [23] Although other Marxist theorists of the general strike such as Rosa Luxemburg saw its ethical power in preparing the proletariat for combat, it seen by solution focused her as a specific tactic, not a universal theory of revolution. Madame! Nor did Luxemburg ever deny the necessity of Marxist theory for the proletariat or fetishize violence. For Sorel, there was no way to historically or practically disprove the validity of the ideas, general strike because it was myth that was “secure from all refutation.” [24] No matter how valid science or criticism, it was could not shake the faith of people in myths such as religion or the general strike. A myth cannot be refuted “since it is, at ratignolle, bottom, identical to the convictions of a group, being the expression of these convictions in the language of movement; and it is, in consequence, un-analyzable into parts which could be placed on the plane of historical descriptions.” [25] A myth was beyond reason and analysis. Myths like the after the bomb creative, general strike were important to Sorel because they are “are almost pure; they allow us to understand the activity, the ratignolle, sentiments and the ideas of the masses as they prepare themselves to enter on a decisive struggle; they are not descriptions of focused things but expressions of a will to act.” [26] Thus a myth in madame, the modern world is a tool of combat that can inspire people to destroy the existing order.

Yet Sorel distinguished a myth from utopia because the latter was an intellectual product which is the politics, a combination of imaginary institutions having sufficient analogies to real institutions for the jurist to be able to reason about them; it is a construction which can be broken into parts and of which certain pieces have been shaped in such a way that they can (with a few alterations) be fitted into future legislation. [27] A utopia can be refuted by showing that it is ratignolle, incompatible with “the necessary conditions of modern production.” [28] Thus, Sorel detached Marxism from any analysis of society or rationality and solution replaced theory with revolutionary myths that were needed to bring forth apocalyptic violence. Socialism in Sorel's mind was little different than religion by encouraging a new morality among people. [29] Revolutionary myths could provide this in a way that reason and Marxist materialism could not. The myth of the general strike was an ratignolle inexhaustible source of regeneration that would serve as a catalyst for new rituals, symbols, legends and focused creation to enable the proletariat to affirm and link themselves to something transcendent and eternal. Despite the boundless faith and confidence that Sorel showed in the syndicalist movement, it did not live up to his expectations. Sorel moved away from syndicalism and the proletariat, flirting briefly with the French extreme right. Before his death in 1922, Sorel's political passions were rekindled by ratignolle both Mussolini (who claimed Sorel as an Pressure groups inspiration) and Lenin. The syndicalist movements of Europe and the United States, despite major strikes, was unable to madame overthrow the bourgeois state.

Neither did syndicalist movement survived the challenge of World War I, with the majority either capitulating to patriotic sentiments or being suppressed. Syndicalism also proved to be utterly deficient in solution, regards to madame the role of the party and the question of state power. In the end, no general strike anywhere brought down the rule of Pressure Essay capital, ultimately proving that syndicalism failed the test of power. It was the Bolshevik Party, organized by revolutionary communists, who were able to revitalize Marxism in madame, 1917 by leading a successful revolutionary seizure of best man speech ideas brother power and establishing a new order in Russia. Bolshevik success was built on the concept of a revolutionary party, the unity of theory and practice and the example of soviets.

These ideas would inspire communists around the ratignolle, world, such as Jose Carlos Mariategui. [30] And as we shall see, Mariategui while holding fast to Marxism as a method and doctrine, would find that Sorel's ideas on myth helped to combat determinism, encourage heroic revolutionary action among the proletariat, and ultimately inspire workers to create a new socialist world upon a degenerated bourgeois society. Jose Carlos Mariategui was born on Pressure Essay, July 14, 1894 (Bastille Day) in Moquegua, Peru as the sixth child to a humble liberal father and a devout Catholic mother (who raised him). Mariategui spent his youth in madame, his grandfather's leather-working shop, listening to on the the stories of the laborers who came through and recounted stories of the working and living conditions on the latifundios, which resembled those of serfdom. Madame Ratignolle! At the age of eight, following an accident, Mariategui developed persistent problems in solution focused, his left leg that eventually caused it to be amputated in 1924, confining him to a wheelchair for ratignolle, the remainder of his life.

Jose Carlos Mariategui. Due to his family's poverty, Mariategui left school in the eighth grade, to find a job to help support them. He managed to acquire employment as a linotypist at age fifteen with the Peruvian newspaper, La Presna . He showed talent in cold pastoral, journalism that quickly led him to becoming a writer and an editor. At the age of sixteen, he was already showing an interest in socialism. Eventually, Mariategui founded two short-lived pro-labor newspapers. In 1919, Mariategui not only supported the demands of workers and students, but grew critical of the madame ratignolle, Peruvian President Leguia, who dissolved the congress and became dictator. The government closed down the critical papers, and exiled Mariategui to Europe as an police “information agent.” Mariategui stayed in Europe from 1919-23, the experience helped him to mature as a Marxist. He lived primarily in France and Italy, encountering a number of ratignolle socialists and intellectuals such as Antonio Gramsci, Benedetto Croce, Romain Rolland, Henri Barbusse.

While in best man speech brother, Italy, he witnessed the “biennio rosso” the two red years of factory occupations of 1919-20 that brought Italy to the brink of socialist revolution. Mariategui was present at the foundation of the Italian Communist Party in madame ratignolle, 1921 at the famous Livorono congress. He also met an Italian woman, whom he married and bore him four sons. By the of the, time he returned to Peru, he was a dedicated and ratignolle well-rounded Marxist. While in Peru, Mariategui conducted an amazing array of cold pastoral political work. He lectured to workers at the Universidad Popular Gonzalez Prada.

He also worked with workers, socialists and trade unionists to madame ratignolle form the General Confederation of Peruvian Workers and the Peruvian Socialist Party, which would become the Communist Party after his death. He also formed the periodical Labor and the journal Amauta (or wise teacher) to spread left-wing and socialist ideas throughout Peru and Latin America. He also wrote three books during his lifetime. The first, The Contemporary Scene , is a collection of articles he wrote for various journals. Pressure Essay! The second and his most famous work, Seven Interpretive Essays on Peruvian Reality , an original and creative application of Marxist analysis to Peru, highlighting the importance of the indigenous for revolution, along with penetrating insights on history, culture, and madame education. The work has been hailed across Latin America and has influenced not only Marxists such as Che Guevara, but also indigenous movements and liberation theologians. And his last published work, which is the most relevant for our purposes was The Defense of Marxism (published posthumously), a critique of Pressure groups Essay revisionism and a defense of revolutionary Marxism from madame ratignolle, a Leninist perspective.

Mariategui's writing is not objective, but fiercely partisan: “Once again I repeat that I am not an impartial, objective critic. My judgments are nourished by An Essay on the my ideals, my sentiments, my passions. Madame! I have an avowed and resolute ambition: to assist in the creation of Peruvian socialism.” [31] Unfortunately, due to declining health, Mariategui passed away on April 16, 1930, at cold pastoral, the age of thirty-six. It is in The Defense of madame Marxism that Mariategui most clearly sets forth his non-dogmatic and anti-deterministic approach to Marxism, and discusses the importance of focused myths, ethics and symbols (drawing heavily on ratignolle, Sorel). Unlike Sorel, Mariategui stresses the importance of cold pastoral Marxist theory, stating that “Now more than ever, the proletariat needs to know what is going on in the world.” [32] And for him, the only theory that can provide guidance for the proletariat is Marxism: “Socialism, beginning with Marx, appeared as the conception of a new class, as a theory and movement that had nothing in common with the romanticism of those who repudiated the madame, work of capitalism as an abomination.” [33] For Mariategui, a Marxist view provided not only clarity on the goal, but it served as a guide for revolutionary political action to get there. However, Marxism was not the gradualistic evolutionism found in social democratic revisionism. Rather, it needed to germinate revolutionary consciousness among the working class to spur them into action. Marxism, where it has shown itself to cold pastoral be revolutionary - that is to say where it has been Marxism — has never obeyed a passive and rigid determinism. [34] Mariategui argued that capitalism would not topple on its own, but it would take conscious effort by the exploited. Otherwise, there was no way out. More than that, Marx's critique remained valid so long as capitalism existed — it was in the continuing struggle to transform the world, whether in the mass actions of the ratignolle, proletariat or the construction of socialism that Marxist theory was continually renewed. Without that regenerative interaction of An Essay theory with practice, Marxism was doomed to whither and die. “Socialism or, rather, the struggle to transform the social order from capitalist to collectivist, keeps this critique alive, continues it, confirms it, corrects it.

Any attempt to categorize it as a simple scientific theory is in vain since it works in history as the gospel and method of a mass movement.” [35] Yet there are “Marxist” theories that claim to be pure and madame revolutionary, believing their interpretation of the “sacred texts” provides them with the one true road map to of the police the future. When they see people on the barricades or a revolution igniting that breaks with their orthodox conceptions of how events are supposed to unfold, then to them such a revolution is like corrupted by the devil. They sprinkle the “holy water” of their chosen Marxist quotes to exorcise this demonic spirit of the unexpected revolution. It can't be allowed to madame ratignolle spoil the “real revolution,” that they passionately await. Once the right chapter and verse have been uttered, then the appropriate penance is done. The revolution can be dismissed and the purists can go back to waiting.

Yet Marxism that has not be nourished in the fires of groups struggle, despite its supposed revolutionary aspirations, is in fact a rotting corpse. As Mariategui saw it, the madame ratignolle, task of of the revolutionaries was to madame ratignolle apply Marxism to the situation at hand in order to make a concrete investigation of Peru (and the wider world). From that analysis, the necessary strategies and cold pastoral actions could be developed. Following Sorel, Mariategui argued that it was imperative for ratignolle, the proletariat to make a revolution because bourgeois society was overcome by decadence. This could be seen in its art, literature, and intellectuals.

Once the bourgeoisie was a young, heroic and rising class filled with vision and brother destiny, that had all changed. The modern bourgeoisie was a pale shadow compared to their Jacobin ancestors who had overthrown kings and founded Republics. Bourgeois society, with its productive powers, science and reason, now covered the madame ratignolle, world and dissolved the bonds of cold pastoral feudalism and religious faith. After the cataclysm of the first World War and Russian Revolution, Mariategui drew the madame, conclusion that “bourgeois civilization suffers from a lack of myth, of faith, of hope.” [36] Yet in place of these overthrown altars, there was nothing to replace it with. Mariategui believed that science and reason were inadequate substitutes for the old myths of religion: “Neither Reason nor Science can meet the need of the infinite that exists in man. Reason itself has been challenged, demonstrating to humanity that it is not enough.” [37] Reason and science could only be taken so far. They could not fill the gap in the human psyche in the same way myth could. “Only Myth possesses the precious virtue of on the satisfying its deepest self.” [38] Bourgeois civilization ripped away the holy and the sacred, turning humanity into madame ratignolle atomized individuals governed by the faceless market with its lust for unceasing profit.

Bourgeois culture is overwhelmingly permeated by chauvinism, mediocrity, racism, sexism, and selfishness. As the English Marxist Christopher Caudwell put it, this was a dying culture. The end result of this is humanity was reduced to talking tools on an assembly line or as soldiers to be slaughtered en masse in trench warfare in order to determine which vampires would rule colonial slaves. This was not a society governed by any ideal, but a decadent and diseased that deserved to die. So what should replace the bourgeois world lacking in myths? For Mariategui, man “is a metaphysical animal. He does not live productively without a metaphysical conception of life. The Bomb! Myth moves man in history. Without myth, the history of humanity has no sense of history.” [39] It could only be a new myth that could replace the fallen idols of the bourgeoisie.

That new myth was that of communist revolution. The proletariat actively fights for madame, this myth “with a passionate and active faith.” [40] In contrast to capitalism, which had nothing to offer, Mariategui claimed that “the proletariat affirms.” [41] In order for the proletariat to achieve heroic deeds, a transformation is needed in solution, their consciousness. The proletariat can not be satisfied with a bigger piece of the pie or to accept the way the world is. Rather, a revolutionary class does not accept the way the world is, they fight to change it. To that end, workers needed to overcome “the anarchoid, individualistic, egoistic spirit, which besides being profoundly antisocial, does not constitute anything but the exacerbation and degeneration of the old bourgeois liberalism; the second thing that must be overcome is the spirit of corporatism, of a trade, of job category.” [42] For class consciousness to truly develop and mature, it was imperative for workers to look beyond their immediate horizons and particular trades to see the common position they share with their fellow workers across the world. Ratignolle! Even more than that, communist consciousness had to embrace Lenin's ideal of the tribune of the people, who is “able to react to every manifestation of Pressure Essay tyranny and oppression, no matter where it appears, no matter what stratum or class of the people it affects.” [43] This entails solidarity by ratignolle revolutionaries in France, Britain or the United States, with national liberation movements in the colonies, even if they are seen as “traitors” by their countrymen.

Such treason is loyalty to the revolution and humanity. For the tribune of the people, the struggle for An Essay, women's rights, anti-racism, or against homophobia are not “distractions” or “divisive,” but had to be taken up as part of the common struggle for liberation. Yet class consciousness goes further and doesn't just mean solidarity with the oppressed and exploited, but needs discipline and madame organization o give it strength and direction. An Essay! “I want to say to you that it is madame ratignolle, necessary to after the bomb writing give the vanguard proletariat, along with a realist sense of history, a heroic will for creation and implementation. The desire for betterment, the appetite for well-being, are not enough.” [44] When the proletariat is ratignolle, fired by the vision of a new society, they will know that it won't come down from the skies due to the inexorable development of An Essay Constitution “economic laws,” but through organization and active struggle. This struggle entails a vanguard infused with the “myth” of a new egalitarian society freed of exploitation and oppression. It is that ideal, not the madame ratignolle, texts of Marxist theory or science, that allows revolutionaries to Pressure groups Essay endure prison, man the barricades, sing songs, and madame ratignolle march together against impossible odds. In pursuit of that myth, the word “comrade” becomes more than a word, solidarity becomes concrete, and man speech ideas brother the lyrics the “Internationale” are ideals to ratignolle be achieved. The strength of revolutionaries is not in their science; it is in their faith, in their passion, in their will.

It is cold pastoral, a religious, mystical, spiritual force. It is the force of myth. [45] Ultimately, the proletariat is madame ratignolle, not struggling for a myth, but to create a new and superior civilization. As Mariategui said, “we do not wish that Socialism in America be a tracing and a copy. It must be a heroic creation.” [46] This heroism means the proletariat had to become aware of their historic mission, shake off their subservience to after the bomb the ruling class, take the destiny of madame ratignolle humanity firmly into their hands and to construct socialism. “In the class struggle, where all the sublime and heroic elements of its ascent reside, the proletariat must elevate itself to man speech ideas a “producers’ morality,” quite distant and distinct from the “slave morality” that its gratuitous professors of morals, horrified by its materialism, officiously attempt to ratignolle provide. A new civilization cannot arise from a sad and humiliated world of miserable helots with no greater merits or faculties than their servility and misery.” [47] Yet reformists argue that such a vision is utopian since the revolutionary overthrow of the capitalist state will inevitably bring disruption to production, massive upheavals, and that socialism will begin at a lower productive level than bourgeois society. Arguably, Mariategui would accept this since “revolutionaries from all parts of the the politics police, world must choose between being the victims of violence or using it.” [48] It is ratignolle, only natural that a revolution will disrupt things. Solution! What else is to be expected? However, there was also heroic epics found in each revolution whether those of ragged Red Army soldiers fending off fourteen armies in Russia, the undeniable enthusiasm of constructing new factories during a five year plan, bringing art to the people, or constructing new rituals, culture and values free of discrimination or submission. All of these deeds may take place in ruins, but a new socialist world will rise in its place, to serve the interests of redeemed humanity.

Mariategui would no doubt have nodded in agreement with the Spanish anarchist Buenaventura Durruti, who expressed his revolutionary optimism as follows: “We, the ratignolle, workers. We can build others to take their place. After The Bomb Writing! And better ones. We are not in the least afraid of ruins. We are going to inherit the earth; there is not the slightest doubt about that. Madame! The bourgeoisie might blast and ruin its own world before it leaves the stage of history. We carry a new world here, in our hearts. An Essay On The! That world is ratignolle, growing in this minute.” [49] For Mariategui, as opposed to Sorel, myths did not substitute Marxist theory and analysis, but were a necessary supplement to it.

While the revolutionary proletariat needed to best man speech ideas know the world in order to change it, this was not enough. In order for the working class to acquire true class consciousness and construct a new order, they needed to be inspired by revolutionary myths. Myths would raise the proletariat to a higher conception of life and give it the required faith to face the impossible odds and harsh ordeals that awaited them. Ratignolle! Yet Mariategui argued that the power of focused revolutionary myths was not just faith in madame ratignolle, a distant ideal, but in enabling the masses to turn the “myth” of communism into actuality. Despite the scientific and secular claims of Marxism, socialism, and communism, our movements are not immune from the power of myths, symbols, and police rituals. Myths and madame ratignolle “false consciousness” have a material basis of existence that needs to be recognized. In fact, mass politics is inconceivable without exalting imagery and myths. Socialist politics can not be conducted solely by rationally combating “false consciousness” in people's heads by explaining the An Essay, labor theory of value or the madame, relation between base and superstructure (although theory is definitely needed) or by selling newspapers. The politics of socialism and communism operates at multiple levels, one being to rationally challenge incorrect ideas, while others involve the cold pastoral, symbolic and the mythical. Even in the most secular and rationalistic communist movements, where it is assumed that priests tricked and manipulated people, elements of the mythical and madame ratignolle the symbolic played a great role. Take the example of Blanquist communists in France during the 19th century who were led the insurrectionist Louis-Auguste Blanqui.

Blanqui argued that “Communism can only be achieved by the absolute triumph of best brother enlightenment.” One method the Blanquists utilized was printing anti-religious newspapers in to attack the Catholic Church which was the “spiritual support” of the ruling class. Doing so they believed would awaken the people. What the Blanquists ultimately believed was needed for the revolution to triumph was an organized conspiracy led by madame ratignolle an enlightened elite, not reliance upon the mass of workers to revolt which they believed was impossible because they were under the influence of priests and the ruling class. Once the Blanquist coup succeeded in overthrowing the old order, they would institute an “enlightened dictatorship” that would undertake the pedagogical task of educating the people in secular and republican values. Even the secular Blanquists were also governed by rituals, symbols and myths. When a member joined the the bomb creative, secret society, they took part in an elaborate initiation ceremony where they were blindfolded and had to swear eternal hatred to aristocrats and kings, and to fight for the republic. Failure to abide by this oath was punishable by madame ratignolle death. Solution! The Blanquist initiation rites were not invented by madame ratignolle them, but copied from other secular movements such as the Masons and police the Carbonari. Initiation into the revolutionary conspiracy was thus nearly a sacred act like being confirmed in ratignolle, the Catholic Church. And while the Blanquists swore to establish the republic, even the meaning of that term was vague to them. Most of the conspirators were young men, they had never even lived under a republic.

The “Republic” was a myth and an ideal, which had been transmitted to them through word of solution focused mouth from older men, from reading history or the speeches of Robespierre. Yet the myth of a republic inspired them to risk their lives to bring about the madame, final victory of the man speech, revolution. Furthermore, the name of Blanqui was also a symbol and ratignolle a myth not just to the conspirators, but to the workers of France. Whatever Blanqui's theoretical weaknesses or the bankruptcy of his approach to revolution, he spent half of best man speech ideas brother his life in prison, enduring torture, without surrendering. Madame! To millions, he represented resistance to oppression and the communist ideal. As Alain Badiou argues, while emancipatory politics is “essentially the politics of the anonymous masses,” it is best man speech, through proper names such as those of Blanqui (or Che and Lenin) that “the ordinary individual discovers glorious, distinctive individuals as the mediation for his or her own individuality, as the proof that he or she can force its finitude. The anonymous action of millions of militants, rebels, fighters, unrepresentable as such, is combined and ratignolle counted as one in the simple, powerful symbol of the proper name.” [51] Thus, the rationalist and atheist Blanqui assumed the power of both a myth and a symbol. And just as like religions, the cold pastoral, labor, anarchist, socialist and communist movements have fashioned their own art, symbols, education, and provide a sense of community. Madame Ratignolle! Whatever other criticisms can be directed at them, neither the French Communist Party (PCF) and the German Social Democrats (SPD) just elected representatives to parliament. Both provided alternative ways of life for their members and the wider working class.

The SPD had libraries, sports leagues, choirs, and chess clubs for their members and sympathizers. Even if a worker was not a member of either the PCF or the SPD, they could find a sense of community and best man speech ideas brother reinforcement for their shared values of working class struggle and socialism within the broader subculture that the parties fostered. This helped militants and fellow travelers to develop a shared “faith” needed to withstand the onslaughts of the dominant bourgeois ideology and culture. Party militants and sympathizers may not be able to ratignolle refute the arguments of Pressure groups bourgeois ideologists, but once they were convinced of socialism and had that belief reinforced by their shared myths, rituals, and symbols found within proletarian struggle and culture fostered by the party, then their conviction becomes unbreakable. In this way, social movements become not a sect, a shared faith among a community of militants, embracing all aspects of political, economic, ideological, cultural, and social life.

Movements also develop their own aesthetics and manner of dress. For instance, militants of the Bolshevik Party during the civil war wore leather jackets and ratignolle combat boots to symbolize their revolutionary zeal. The Bolsheviks also embraced the artistic avant garde, as can be seen in the symbolic image of the “Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge” or the brother, emblem of the hammer and sickle that are powerful representations to convey the values of the revolutionary cause to communists, artists and ratignolle workers. And revolutionary movements have also provided spaces for artists to experiment and translate the values of the movement into symbols, story and images, whether in cartoons, posters, proletarian literature, slogans, songs, plays or poetry. Yet the best brother, aesthetic of each movement is unique and madame ratignolle time specific.

For instance, even though both conveyed a radical aesthetic, the beret and An Essay on the guns of the madame, Black Panthers was far different than the long beards of German radicals in the 1840s. There is a dark side to myths, rituals and symbolism that affects socialist and communist movements, just like religions, that needs to be recognized. The PCF was said to be, not without justification, the solution focused, secular equivalent to the Catholic Church: with their own dogma, orthodoxies, saints, martyrs, heresies, and demons. Trotskyist or Maoist dissidents cast out of the madame ratignolle, party were to be shunned, ignored or even physically attacked. Militants were encouraged not to question the socialist credentials of the Soviet Union or its many abrupt turns in foreign policy, since this could demoralize workers or cause them to lose faith in the revolutionary cause.

Intellectuals in the PCF such as Louis Althusser would raise their criticisms of the party in deliberately obscure or oblique language or keep silent, because otherwise they would be expelled and lose any chance to partake in the great historical mission (supposedly embodied by the party). And for communist militants, to not be able to work for the cause, that could be a fate worse than death. For example, in the Soviet Union, those who were deemed showing a “lack of faith” in the cause whether by the politics legitimate criticisms or advocating different lines, were not just seen as a “loyal opposition” but as traitors. To cast doubt on the leadership or to question it, was to be in league in alien class forces or fascism. Indeed, the madame ratignolle, great purge trials of the 1930s, despite the trappings of legality and jurisprudence (despite lacking physical proof or corroboration) were conducted more like the Catholic inquisition than a court of law where heresy was synonymous with treason and unbelief. Ultimately, the only evidence offered for the guilt of the Pressure, accused was their confessions.

The similarities between the methods of ratignolle Soviet trials and the Inquisition was pointed out by one of the accused, Nikolai Bukharin who said: “The confession of the accused is not essential. The confession of the accused is a medieval principle of jurisprudence.” [52] Despite the dogmas and inquisitions that an embrace of myths can encourage in radical movements, it is impossible to imagine politics without them. There is a material existence to myths that rationalist theories of “false consciousness” don't recognize. Focused! The myths, symbols and rituals of radicalism remain a part of how we remember our past, imagine our future, forge a common bond of solidarity so that we know how to live and madame how to die for the communist ideal. Joseph Campbell, The Power of Myth (New York: Anchor Books, 1991), 38.

Ibid. 39. Louis Althusser, On the Reproduction of Capitalism (New York: Verso Books, 2014), 156. Ibid. 259. Ibid. 251. Ibid. 220. Campbell 1991, 14. An Essay Constitution! Ibid. Ibid. 39.

Jose Carlos Mariategui, “Henri de Man and the Crisis of Marxism” in Jose Carlos Mariategui: An Anthology , ed. Harry E. Vanden and madame Marc Becker (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2011), 189. Mariategui, “Man and Myth,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 387. Zeev Sternhell, The Birth of Fascist Ideology (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994), 40. See John L. Best Man Speech Brother! Stanley ed., From Georges Sorel: Essays in Socialism and Philosophy (New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2002) 30-1 and 154-5; and Sternhell 1994, 21, 39-40. “The Ethics of Socialism” in From Georges Sorel 2002, 106; Sternhell 1994, 43-46. Quoted in Sternhell 1994, 42. See From Georges Sorel 2002, 10. Georges Sorel, Reflections on Violence (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 34. See my “How anarchists, syndicalists, socialists and IWW militants were drawn to Bolshevism: four case studies,” LINKS International Journal of Socialist Renewal. Ratignolle! http://links.org.au/node/2935 Sorel 2004, 112 and 243.

Ibid. 250 and 238. Solution Focused! Ibid. Madame Ratignolle! 249 and 161. Ibid. 75 and 72. The Bomb Creative! Ibid. 110. Ibid. 30. Ibid. 29. Ibid. 28. Ibid. Ibid. 29. Ibid. 30. See How anarchists, syndicalists, socialists and IWW militants were drawn to Bolshevism: four case studies” (note 18).

Jose Carlos Mariategui, Seven Interpretive Essays on madame, Peruvian Reality (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1971), xxxiv. The Politics Of The Police! Mariategui, “The World Crisis and the Peruvian Proletariat,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 296. Mariategui, “The Heroic and Creative Sense of Socialism,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011 , 212. Mariategui, “Marxist Determinism,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 208. Madame Ratignolle! Mariategui, “Modern Philosophy and Marxism,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011 , 194.

Mariategui, “Man and Myth,” in focused, Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 383. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. 384. Ibid. Madame Ratignolle! 387. Ibid. On The Constitution! Mariategui, “Message to the Workers' Congress,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 181. V. I. Lenin, “What is to be Done?” Marxists Internet Archive. https://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1901/witbd/iii.htm Mariategui, “Message to the Workers' Congress,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 185. Mariategui, “Man and Myth,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 387.

Mariategui, “Anniversary and a Balance Sense,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 130. Mariategui, “Heroic and Creative Sense of Socialism,” in Mariategui: An Anthology 2011, 212-3. Jose Carlos Mariategui, “Ethics and Socialism,” Marxists Internet Archive. https://www.marxists.org/archive/mariateg/works/1930-ethics.htm Abel Paz, Durruti in the Spanish Revolution (Oakland: AK Press, 2007), 478. I have also drawn from the following two essays by Mike Ely: Sing our own song: “Igniting a communist aesthetic renaissance,” Kasama Project and “Communist foreshocks: Words, ritual and symbols,” Kasama Project. http://k2.kasamaproject.org/kasama/3938-70communist-foreshocks-words-ritual-and-symbols Alain Badiou, The Communist Hypothesis (New York: Verso, 2010), 249-50. Robert C. Tucker and Stephen Cohen, ed.

The Great Purge Trial (New York: Grosset and Dunlap Publishers,1965), 667. Madame Ratignolle! See also Isaac Deutscher and David King, The Great Purges (New York: Basil Blackwell Publisher, 1984). Doug Enaa Greene is an independent historian living in the greater Boston area. Cold Pastoral! He was active in Occupy Boston and is a volunteer at the Center for Marxist Education in Cambridge. Ratignolle! He is the author of Pressure a forthcoming book Specters of Communism on the French communist Louis-Auguste Blanqui.

Issue three, Return of the Crowd, now available for madame ratignolle, order.