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BBC - GCSE Bitesize: Case study: drought in the Sahel

Sahel desertification

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize: Case study: drought in the Sahel

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BBC - GCSE Bitesize: Case study: drought in the Sahel

AQA English Literature A2 Coursework Watch. Sahel. span Follow 11 followers 15 badges Send a private message to inksplodge. span Follow 0 followers 2 badges Send a private message to ThisModernLove. Essay. I made the desertification, language analysis easier by herald choosing a poem instead of two novels. I wrote a huge plan with key words and ideas, quotes, etc, which helped me organise the similarities and sahel desertification, differences. And I've included two critics' opinions. Why People Resist Change. span Follow 2 followers 2 badges Send a private message to sahel Vickyy Visit Vickyy's homepage! Can I ask what poem you chose, how you chose it, and what your question is the great light, please? span Follow 0 followers 0 badges Send a private message to amandaaa. my teacher has marked both my pieces and sahel, i've got 50/60. anyopne know whether this is an of bureaucracy, A or a B? span Follow 0 followers 0 badges Send a private message to desertification whatistheanswer. just wondering whether anyone has a clue of the Modified Essay, grade boundarys of thiscoursework? my teacher has marked both my pieces and desertification, i've got 50/60. Eloise Hinton. anyopne know whether this is an sahel desertification, A or a B? Im sure you could get an weber's, extra 2 marks somewhere. span Follow 4 followers 2 badges Send a private message to haaaza23. Sahel. span Follow 4 followers 2 badges Send a private message to haaaza23. just wondering whether anyone has a clue of the grade boundarys of thiscoursework? my teacher has marked both my pieces and i've got 50/60. Resist. anyopne know whether this is an sahel, A or a B? span Follow 0 followers 0 badges Send a private message to glycogen. span Follow 0 followers 0 badges Send a private message to glycogen. span Follow 4 followers 2 badges Send a private message to Eloise Life Essay haaaza23. In recent exam series it has been 48/60 and 50/60 QUOTE] /80 is sahel desertification, UMS (what we see on of quantity exam results slips) But in desertification June 2009, it was 50/60 RAW, still 64/80 UMS for of quantity an A. span Follow 0 followers 0 badges Send a private message to sahel desertification glycogen. Gatsby. /80 is sahel, UMS (what we see on theory exam results slips) But in sahel June 2009, it was 50/60 RAW, still 64/80 UMS for Genetically Modified Crops Essay an A. span Follow 0 followers 0 badges Send a private message to sahel whatistheanswer. /80 is UMS (what we see on bill of quantity exam results slips) But in June 2009, it was 50/60 RAW, still 64/80 UMS for sahel an A. Weber's Theory. span Follow 0 followers 0 badges Send a private message to glycogen. span Follow 4 followers 2 badges Send a private message to sahel desertification haaaza23. span Follow 0 followers 0 badges Send a private message to weber's abigailbailey. span Follow 2 followers 0 badges Send a private message to desertification Rosyred809. Hinton. span Follow 0 followers 1 badge Send a private message to desertification CharlotteM/ span Follow 0 followers 0 badges Send a private message to weber's theory of bureaucracy tigerzbite. Desertification. We have a brilliant team of weber's theory more than 60 Support Team members looking after discussions on The Student Room, helping to make it a fun, safe and sahel desertification, useful place to hang out.

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Welcome To All Competitive Exams Portal. I havent failed. Ive just found 10,000 ways that wont work. India is sahel desertification a vast country, with people belonging to different religions living amicably for centuries together. The rich traditions of tolerance, perseverance, plurality and assimilation have kept the identity of the Susan Hinton Life Essay country intact, and civilization thriving. Declared a secular country in the constitution, India has several provisions for protection of minority communities.

The State does not discriminate on the basis of any particular religion. There are constitutional provisions for equality of desertification, opportunities for all. Despite precautionary, preventive and positive measures having been envisaged in the constitution, to Hinton rule out desertification any feeling of Hinton Life Essay, being left-out, communal disturbances keep recurring. The Government had, often expressed its commitment toward maintaining communal harmony in desertification the country, and has been taking steps- statutory, legal, administrative, economic, and so on. The Prime Minister, Dr Manmohan Singh, while speaking at bill of quantity, the Communal Harmony award ceremony, 2009 reiterated the need for communal harmony and desertification national integration. Light Symbolism. He said India has been home to sahel all the great religions of the herald enterprise world. While some were born here, others took root in this ancient land of ours. Desertification. The sub-continent has for centuries provided a unique social and intellectual environment in free which many distinct religions have not only co-existed peacefully but have also enriched each other. It is the desertification sacred duty of each one of us to weber's of bureaucracy carry forward this great tradition. I believe that both the sahel government and civil society groups must continuously watch and raise our voice against theory of bureaucracy groups and individuals who use violence in the name of religion.

No religion sanctions violence. No religion preaches hatred. Sahel. No religion endorses animosity towards another human being. Those who use religious symbols and forums to talk of bill, violence, sectarianism and discord cannot be said to sahel desertification be true spokesperson of their respective religion. Modified Crops. However, we also know that all societies, including ours, have to sahel contend with such preachers of Modified Essay, disharmony and disagreement. That is why it is sahel desertification all the more important to recognize and applaud those - like today's distinguished award winners - who work selflessly for communal harmony and of bureaucracy national integration. Desertification. It is theory our obligation to desertification nurture such voices of sanity. Gandhiji, the of quantity father of the desertification nation, commented Communalism of the virulent type is a recent growth.

The lawlessness is a monster with many faces. It hurts all, in weber's theory of bureaucracy the end, including those who are primarily responsible for it. The Government has taken initiatives to sahel desertification promote communal harmony. These include constitution of the National Integration Council (NIC) (1960s), setting up of the bill of quantity National Foundation for Communal Harmony (1992) and laying down of the guidelines for the promotion of communal harmony from desertification, time to Susan Hinton Essay time. The NIC, comprising of sahel, prominent members of various sections of society, besides several union ministers and chief ministers of why people, states, has been meeting regularly, to discuss and desertification sort out the issues of Eloise Essay, discord. Sahel. Since the theory decision makers at the Centre and the States are members of the desertification council, a patient hearing is given to the grievances of various sections of society. The vision of the National Foundation for theory, Communal Harmony (NFCH) is to have India free from desertification, communal and Susan Eloise Life Essay all other forms of violence, where all citizens especially children youth live together in desertification peace harmony. For this, the Susan Essay Foundation promotes communal harmony, strengthens national integration and fosters the spirit of sahel desertification, unity in Eloise Life Essay diversity through collaborative social action, awareness programs, reaches out to sahel desertification the victims of weber's theory of bureaucracy, violence especially children, encouraging interfaith dialogue for Indias Shared Security, Peace Prosperity. It provides financial assistance to the child victims of desertification, societal violence for their care, education training, aimed at their effective rehabilitation. It promotes communal harmony and bill of quantity national integration by desertification, organizing variety of activities either independently or in association with State Governments, NGOs other organizations.

It confers awards for outstanding contribution to herald enterprise promotion of communal harmony and national integration. Sahel Desertification. It undertakes activities to the great gatsby symbolism highlight and sahel strengthen the free bonds of unity and sahel desertification affinity between different religious groups in the great green light the country, and desertification encourages activities to theory promote belief in sahel the principles of non-violence in resolving disputes. There is no denying the bill of quantity fact that the maintenance of communal harmony, and the prevention/avoidance of sahel, communal disturbances/riots and, in the event of any such disturbances occurring, action to control the Essay same and measures to sahel desertification provide protection and relief to free enterprise the affected persons, is a prime responsibility of the State Governments. The Central Government has issued guidelines for sahel, maintenance of communal harmony, which cover preventive and Administrative Measures, Personnel Policy, and relief and rehabilitation measures. They reiterate the Life fact that if due vigilance is maintained, careful planning done and preparatory measures put in place, many possible incidents of sahel, communal violence can be pre-empted and prevented; and, wherever, despite this, communal violence does occur, it can be contained effectively, and much human suffering avoided, if it is why people tackled with promptness, grit and desertification determination. Utmost care and attention requires to be given to the planning and implementation of a range of measures to alleviate the sufferings of why people resist, those affected by any incidents of desertification, communal violence, including the provision of relief and of quantity rehabilitation assistance to the victims of such violence. The guidelines underline the desertification fact that preventing a communal riot is far more important than containing it. Susan Eloise Hinton Life Essay. It is the sahel duty of the why people change District Administration to carefully assess the communal situation in the District on a regular basis and sahel desertification prepare a profile of the District, identifying the areas which are prone to communal sensitivities and tensions. The police officers should keep a close watch on the situation in such areas, periodically visit them for Susan Eloise Hinton Life Essay, promoting public contact and interface with the civilian population and community leaders. Manpower requirements for these areas should be realistically assessed, and sahel desertification all vacancies filled up and Genetically Modified Crops manned.

In the sensitive/hyper-sensitive areas, detailed Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), and contingency plans to deal with escalated situation/riots, etc., should be kept ready. The unregulated use of sahel desertification, loudspeakers, which is often a cause for arousing passions and evoking violent reactions among different groups of Susan Eloise, people, need to be checked. Various kinds of religious processions, which very frequently lead to desertification communal confrontation and weber's clashes as often various organisations tend to sahel organise, and why people resist view, processions on religious occasions as a show of strength, which could itself become a cause for provocation, should be checked. There should be involvement of sahel, identified respectable members of the community, in why people resist change the peaceful conduct of processions. The use of technology, like Video/Audio coverages of events and processions could also act as deterrent. Effective and meaningful action needs to sahel desertification be taken to curb and check rumours, and gatsby green light symbolism proper assignment of desertification, nodal responsibility and Susan Life modalities for information management needs to be ensured. Sahel. Adequate steps need to be taken to Essay ensure that no damage is sahel desertification caused to places of worship, The guidelines stipulate that composition of the enterprise police force, especially those deployed in communally sensitive areas, should be representative of the social structure of the region so as to sahel ensure its credibility, and help in creating a feeling of of quantity, confidence among all sections of the sahel desertification people. In communally sensitive and riot prone areas police and Hinton administrative officials of sahel desertification, proven integrity, efficiency, impartiality and non-partisan outlook should be posted.

Every public servant should exercise the lawful authority vested in him/her to prevent commission of any communal violence, protect or provide protection to any victim of communal violence in a strictly neutral manner, and resist any malafide act or omission should be severely dealt with. Due recognition should be given to sahel desertification the services rendered by the district administration in preventing and resist dealing with communal disturbances. In a communally-sensitive area, small shopkeepers, entrepreneurs and daily-wagers are most prone to loss and damage to sahel life and property, if the situation goes out of control, leading to arson or violence. They are most likely to Modified Essay face economic burden, due to loss of income or property, most of which is desertification not covered under any type of the great gatsby light symbolism, insurance. They can thus be the most willing partners in maintaining peace and desertification communal harmony in the area. Similarly, women who are the worst sufferers in Hinton Life such situations may also be keen to sahel desertification ensure communal harmony. Susan Eloise Hinton Life. The district administration can tap the desertification resources and energy of these people/groups in ensuring peace.

Many voluntary organisations in the country are working in the field of Genetically Modified Essay, promoting peace, national integration and communal harmony. Such Organisations usually have motivated and well-intentioned volunteers and sahel workers. The district administration should mobilize support of, and enterprise encourage, such organisations, in their efforts to maintain communal harmony, and sahel diffusing tension if a communal situation arises Whenever any communal incidents are apprehended or occur, prompt and herald immediate preventive/enforcement action may be taken, including, imposition of prohibitory orders/ curfew, and sahel desertification strict and resist neutral enforcement of the same, apprehension /arrest of the potential miscreants/ those indulging in violence, arson, etc., registration/institution of sahel desertification, cases. Prosecution of the great gatsby light, all offences relating to communal violence/ rioting should be carefully monitored and, wherever necessary, Special Investigation Teams (SIT) may be constituted for desertification, ensuring fair and impartial investigation. A lot of weber's of bureaucracy, resentment is sahel generated on bill of quantity account of sahel desertification, non-payment of the great light, timely relief/ex-gratia to the riot victims. Sahel Desertification. Interim relief may be provided immediately to free enterprise the individuals for any loss or damage suffered due to desertification communal violence. While providing assistance and relief to the victims of bill of quantity, communal violence, it should be ensured that there is no discrimination on the ground of sex, caste, community, descent or religion. Sahel. The district administration should ensure timely provision of Genetically Crops, essential supplies/services such as food, milk, medicines, water and sahel desertification electricity, etc., in areas affected by herald enterprise, communal violence.

Wherever it becomes necessary to set up relief camps, proper arrangements for sahel desertification, security and gatsby symbolism other appropriate amenities should be made, including arrangements for medical examination/ assistance, etc. Wherever required, on desertification account of damage to residential and theory of bureaucracy commercial property, an sahel desertification appropriate mechanism may be established for speedy disposal of insurance claim and Genetically Crops assistance from sahel, financial institutions by gatsby green, way of desertification, loans/ rescheduling of Susan Hinton Life, loans, etc. The Central Government has launched a Central Scheme for assistance to victims of sahel, terrorist and communal violence, whereunder there is herald free provision for sahel, one time payment of Rs.3 lakh to the affected families in why people resist change addition to sahel desertification any ex-gratia relief that may be provided. The Government has enacted The Religious Institutions (Prevention of the great gatsby green symbolism, Misuse) Act, 1988, with a view to maintaining sanctity of sahel, religious places and to prevent their misuse for Genetically Crops Essay, political, criminal, subversive or communal purposes. Sahel Desertification. It casts responsibility on the manager to why people resist change inform the desertification police in Susan the event of misuse of the place of sahel desertification, worship. The Act also prohibits storage of arms and Hinton Life Essay ammunition inside any place of sahel, worship. The Places of Worship (Special Provisions) Act 1991, is the theory law to prohibit conversion of any place of worship and to sahel desertification provide for the great gatsby green, the maintenance of the sahel desertification religious character of Susan Eloise, any place of desertification, worship as it existed on the 15th day of August, 1947. According to it, no religious institution or manager thereof shall use or allow the use of any premises belonging to the institution for Susan, the promotion or propagation of sahel, any political activity, or for Crops Essay, the harbouring of sahel, any person accused or convicted of an herald enterprise offence under any law for desertification, the time being in Hinton force.

No arms or ammunition can be stored, nor can it erect or put up any construction or fortification, including basements, bunkers, towers or walls without a valid licence or permission. Such premises cant be used for sahel, the carrying on of any unlawful or subversive act prohibited under any law, or for Eloise, the doing of any act which promotes or attempts to sahel desertification promote disharmony or feelings of herald enterprise, enmity, hatred or ill-will between different religious, racial, language or regional groups or castes or communities. All the religions have the fundamental teaching of love and the feeling of brotherhood towards fellow beings. When such is the basic tenet of each religion, where is the sahel desertification scope of bill of quantity, discord, hatred and violence. It is amply clear that some people misconstrue or misinterpret the religious teachings for desertification, their selfish, egoistic and short-term gains, and why people resist change sometimes fan communal feelings. It is desertification also commonly known that usually the communal disturbances sprout from small, trivial incidents but with vested interests, they take the weber's theory shape of sahel desertification, a giant. India is bill a developing country, and sahel desertification an emerging economy.

The vision of our leaders to bill make India a developed nation and sahel an economic powerhouse, cant fructify unless the internal security of the nation, particularly communal harmony, is intact. Maintenance of Communal peace and tranquillity occupies lot of theory, Government attention and energy, and in case peace prevails, an ambience of sahel, trust will develop between various communities, leading the green light symbolism nation on the path of sahel, development and economic advancement. ???? ?? ????? ??? ??, ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ???-??? ?? ???? ? ??? ???? ?????????, ???-??????? ?? ???-????? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ????????? ?? ??? ?? ????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ?? ?? ???? ???????? ??? ????? ???? ??? ?? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ?? ???????? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ??? ????? ? ???, ???? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ???-??? ???????????? ?????????? ???? ???? ???? ????? ?? ??? ??? ???????????? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ???? ???? ??????????? ?????? ?? ?? ?? ???????, ??????, ?????????, ?????? ?? ???? ???? ??? ???? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ??????, 2009 ??? ???????????? ??. Genetically Crops. ?????? ???? ?? ????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???? ?? ???????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ???????? ???, ???? ????? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ???? ???? ??? ???? ??? ?? ?? ???? ??? ????? ?? ??-???????? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??? ??, ?????? ? ???? ???-??? ???? ??????????? ???-??? ?????? ??? ???, ????? ???????? ??-????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ??? ???? ????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ?? ????? ???? ????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ?? ???????? ?????, ??????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?? ????? ???????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ?? ?? ????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?? ?? ?? ?????????? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ???????? ??????? ?? ??? ???, ?? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ??????? ????, ?? ???????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???? ?? ??? ??:??????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ?? ?? ??? ???????? ????? ?? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ??, ???????????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ??, ????? ?? ??? ???? ????: ?? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ??, ???? ??? ??, ?? ???? ??? ???? ??? ????????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ?? ??? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ????????? ???? ????? (1960 ?? ??? ???) ?? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? (1992) ?? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ???-??? ?? ???????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ??????? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ???? ????????? ???? ????? ??? ?? ????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ????? ??? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ??? ???-??? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ?????????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ????? ???, ????? ???? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ???? ??? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??? ?? ?? ???? ???????????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ???, ???? ??? ??????, ????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ??? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ??, ????????? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ?? ????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ??? ???? ??, ???? ??? ?? ???????, ????? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?????-?????? ???? ???? ???????? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????, ?????? ?? ????????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ??, ???? ???? ??? ??? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ???????????? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ???????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ????? ???????, ???-?????? ??????? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ????????? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ???????? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ????? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????????? ???? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??????????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ???????? ???? ?? ???????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ????-??????? ???? ??? ???, ?????? ?????? ?????? ????, ????????? ????, ???????? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ??, ??????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ??? ???? ???, ?? ??????????? ????? ?? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ???????????? ????? ???? ??, ?? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ???????? ???? ?? ?? ????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ??? ???????????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ???, ???? ??????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ???? ????? ???? ?? ???????? ??? ????-????????? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?? ???????????? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ??????? ?? ?? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???????????? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ????????? ??? ?? ?? ???? ??? ????? ????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ???, ?? ?????????????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ????????? ?? ????????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?????, ???-??? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ????? ????? ????? ???? ?? ???????? ??, ???? ??? ???? ???? ???? ????? ?? ????????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ????????? ?? ???-????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ???????????? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ????????????? ?? ??????? ??, ???? ????? ?? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???? ???????????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ???, ??????? ??????? ????? ??????? ????? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ????-???? ???????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????/ ????? ????? ?? ?? ?? ???????? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????? ??? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ????????? ???? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?? ????? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ?? ??? ????? ??? ????? ???? ???, ???? ??????? ???? ?? ????????????? ??? ???? ???? ??????????????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ????????????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ?? ??????????? ??? ?? ???? ????????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ???? ????? ??? ????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?? ????????, ?????? ?? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???? ??? ?? ????????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ?? ????????? ???? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ??????????? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ?? ????? ?? ????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ???????? ? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ???? ?? ??, ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ??????????? ??? ?? ????????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?? ???? ????????????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ????????, ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ???????? ?? ???-??? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ??? ????????: ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ????????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ????????? ?? ???? ????? ??? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ?????? ??, ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ??? ??: ?? ?? ?? ????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ???? ???????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????/??????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ?? ?? ????? ????????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?????, ?????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??? ???? ????????: ?? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ???? ??? ????? ???? ??? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ????????? ???? ??? ?? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ?? ??????????? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ????, ?? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????????/ ??????? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ????? ??? ??????????? ?????/???? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ????? ?? ?? ?? ????? ?? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ????/??????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ??????????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ??? ?? ????????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ????, ????, ?????? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ?? ????????? ???? ????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?? ?????/?????? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ???, ?????, ???? ?? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??, ???? ????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ????????? ????/?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ?? ?? ????? ?? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??, ?? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ?? ???????? ????????? ?? ?? ???????? ?? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ??????????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ???????? ????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ????? ???????? ?? ??? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ????? ?? ?? ????? ????? ?? ????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ?? ????????, ???????, ??????????? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ??? ???? ????????? ????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ??? ??? ???? ????? (????? ????????) ???????-1991 ??? ????? ?? ?? ???? ???? ????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ?? ???? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ????? ???? ????????? ???? ?? ?? 15 ?????? 1947 ?? ??? ???????, ? ?? ???? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ??, ?? ? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ??, ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ???? ??, ?? ???? ????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?? ? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ???? ??? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????, ???? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ?? ?????????? ????? ?? ??? ????????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??? ?????????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ???? ????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ??, ?? ???? ???????, ?????, ???? ?????? ???? ????????? ????, ???? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?? ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ?? ???????, ???? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ???????? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ???? ????????, ???? ??????????????? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?????????? ???? ???? ?? ????????? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??????????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ?? ????? ???????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ??? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???????? ??? ?? ????? ?????????????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ???????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ??? ?? ???? ?? ?? ????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??????????? ?????? ??? ? ???? ??????????? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ?? ??? ????? ?????????? ??? ???? ?? ??? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??? ???????? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ?? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ???????

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Advice for Students on Topics for the New Common App Essays. College advisor Alice Kleeman joins us today in our ongoing series on sahel the changes to symbolism the Common Application with some excellent guidance for students and desertification how to theory think about the new essay prompts and an entertaining look back on sahel some of the essays that have been favorites in her twenty years advising students. Why People Resist Change! The five prompts that will appear on the new Common Application should allow for nearly any topic you might choose. Below are some suggestions for academic, extracurricular, and personal topics that might fit neatly into sahel desertification a response for each prompt. Genetically Modified Crops! Of course, these are just suggestions, designed to jumpstart your thinking, provide a gentle nudge if you feel stumped, and to help you decide which prompt might provide the best opportunity for desertification, you to show the bill of quantity admission office who you are. Your response to any college-essay prompt should be entirely personal and one that only you could write; these examples are just to get your essay juices flowing! Some students have a background or story that is so central to their identity that they believe their application would be incomplete without it. Desertification! If this sounds like you, then please share your story. background, story, identity, incomplete without Have you moved from one school to another in of quantity order to sahel desertification pursue greater academic opportunities? Has your pursuit of the great gatsby green light symbolism academics been influenced by your parents lack of formal education? Is your dedication to sahel a particular academic area shaped by your life experiences (for example, has your interest in medicine stemmed from growing up with a sibling with chronic illness?)? Is your identity entirely tied up in the music youve been composing and playing since you were five? Has your ethnic background led you to Susan Hinton participate deeply and fully in the dance, spiritual, or culinary traditions of your culture? Do you spend your free time participating in activities through a cultural organization related to your family background? Do you come from sahel, a bicultural family? Who are you today that you would not be without those different influences? Have you grown up in a family that has been challenged by poverty, illness, or other obstacles? How has this influenced your identity? Have your extended familys values been transmitted to you in weber's a unique and particularly powerful way over the years?

Recount an sahel desertification incident or time when you experienced failure. How did it affect you, and Modified Crops Essay what lessons did you learn? incident, failure, effect on you, lessons learned If you choose this prompt, after describing the failure, be sure to show the positive changes that emerged from the situation! Did you challenge yourself in an academic area that is not usually your forte, and find that it didnt go the way you hoped it might? Did you seek a summer internship in an academic area you thought youd like to sahel explore more deeply, and find that you werent engaged in the way you wished? Have you submitted your writing, art, or lab results to a professional journal for publication, and received your first rejection letter? Or have you received what seemed to be negative feedback from a teacher and had to approach the subject in a new way? Did you believe that the serious injury you experienced in the great green your sophomore year would derail your athletic career? Or did you fail to make the team in sahel your sport of choice? Did you dream of continuing your horseback riding or sailing when your family moved, but find there were no opportunities available or your parents could no longer cover the costs? Did it seem like a great idea for you to follow in the footsteps of an of bureaucracy older sibling and participate in his or her activities of sahel desertification choice, but then learn it didnt work out so well for bill, you? Did you challenge yourself to a resolution, goal, or personal promise, and find you werent able to stick with it? Did you make an effort to reach out to people you hoped would become your friends, only to find they didnt welcome you? Have you ever taken a close look at your character traits and personal qualities and desertification hoped to make fundamental changes, but then realized those traits and qualities were inextricably tied to who you are?

Reflect on a time when you challenged a belief or idea. What prompted you to act? Would you make the same decision again? challenged, belief or idea, prompted, same decision Did you decide to theory offer a different-from-the-accepted and possibly unpopular perspective in desertification your English or history class? Or have you ever attempted to do some ethical consciousness raising with your classmates? Was there a school rule or policy relating to your academic path through your high school that you challenged, because you believed it did not serve you or others well? Have you pursued an academic interest that is not generally followed by people of your gender or background? When you learned that certain students were being bullied or excluded from an activity at Life Essay, your school, did you tackle the inequity? Were you ever told by a coach or activity director that you would not be successful in a particular activity, yet you chose to pursue it? Have your parents felt you couldnt handle a new passion on top of your other commitments, leading you to seek ways to manage your time so you could prove your ability to balance your busy schedule? Have you begun to question the precepts of your religious or cultural upbringing? Are you resisting the pressure in desertification your community to do it alland do it all perfectlyand instead are seeking balance in Modified Crops your life? Have you ever made a well-thought-out effort to convince your parents to give you more independence and freedom? Describe a place or environment where you are perfectly content. What do you do or experience there, and why is it meaningful to you? place or environment, content, do or experience, meaningful Has a cozy corner of the local bookstore or school library become your happy place? Have you made the sahel chemistry lab your home away from home? Do you love spending time in a place where another language is spoken or another culture celebrated? Is the Modified Crops Essay badminton court, robotics workshop, or practice hall for your youth orchestra the sahel desertification place where you feel most in your element? Does the of quantity elementary school classroom where you perform your community service give you the sahel greatest sense of resist change belonging? Do you feel your strongest sense of ownership at desertification, work, whether its the ice-cream parlor, hardware store, or coffee shop? Is there a leafy tree in your backyard that you gravitate to why people resist when you want to read and think? Does your family have a rickety old cabin out by the lake where you can be yourself during summer visits, or do you have a favorite hiking trail up to a bench where you can see for sahel, miles? Have you tailored your bedroom to free reflect your personality and suit your every need so its the sahel desertification one place where you can be the essential you?

Discuss an accomplishment or event, formal or informal, that marked your transition from Susan Hinton, childhood to sahel adulthood within your culture, community, or family. Gatsby Light Symbolism! accomplishment/event, formal/informal, transition to adulthood, culture, community, family Did you make your government and economics education come alive by sahel registering to of quantity vote on your 18 th birthday? Have you taken a class on desertification a college campus, and why people change lived the life of a college student during that time, or taken an internship where youve worked as an desertification equal with a group of adults? Did you become a U.S. citizen and experience studying for and taking the test, and the ceremony that goes along with that milestone? Has your talent allowed you to participate at such a high level that your teammates, band-mates, or co-workers are all adults, and they treat you as such? Has one of your activities taken you out of your own community, so you learned to travel and cope with new situations on your own? Did you come up with the Genetically Modified funding for your most meaningful activity on your own, so youve assumed a heightened level of adult responsibility and sahel appreciated the activity all the more for your independence in Crops making it happen? Does your family rely on you for adult responsibilities such as childcare for siblings, translation, transportation, or housework? Have you taken on sahel desertification financial responsibilities to help support your family? Do you come from a single-parent family where you play a role as the man/woman of the house, with all its attendant responsibilities? SOME OF MY FAVORITE COLLEGE ESSAYS. As I noted earlier, your response to the great gatsby green symbolism any college-essay prompt should be entirely personal. Sahel! But sometimes it's helpful to hear about other essays that students have submitted. Do remember, though, that the most important thing about the essay is that it should be something only you could write!

Here are some of the weber's of bureaucracy most memorable essays I have read in over twenty years as a college advisor. You'll see that they paint a vivid and personal picture of the writer. My all-time favorite college essay was a students account of his work at the local hardware store, and what it meant to him to take care of peoples basic home-and-garden needs. It was simple and straightforward; I knew him well by sahel desertification the time I finished reading the Susan Hinton Essay essay. A similar topic, another students after-school job, began, Working in a library today is not for sahel desertification, the faint of Eloise Hinton Essay heart. Really? I cant wait to sahel desertification know why!

An essay that began with I am amazed by what I have learned about of quantity, myself from sahel, children was a superb and telling little gem about an unexpected experience with young children already feeling academic pressure. Another great essay began with, It is bill of quantity, strange to be grateful for a fractured skull. Dont you want to sahel desertification read on? Another student wrote about her love of triangles! Yet another focused on the student's life-long love of reading. A lover of art history who volunteered at of quantity, the Rodin Sculpture Garden began her essay, If Im not at school or at home, Im likely to be found working behind the gates of sahel desertification hell. A student of Thai and Jewish heritage focused on his food-centric background in both cultures.

And finally, who could resist an essay (about a students family forays into intellectual curiosity and experimentation) that began, The baking sheet slides into weber's the oven, pushed by my mothers careful handsand on it rest a dozen wadded-up balls of Kleenex, half fresh, half used. All of the sahel desertification above essays could fit neatly into one or another of the Common App prompts! Alice Kleeman has served as the college advisor for bill of quantity, 18 years in desertification the College and Career Center of Menlo- Atherton High School, a public high school of resist 2,000 students in sahel desertification the San Francisco Bay Area. She also teaches each summer on herald enterprise the faculty of the College Boards Summer Admission Institute for new admission officers.

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Formation Of The Bank Negara Malaysia Finance Essay. FORMATION OF BANK NEGARA MALAYSIA. The Central Bank of Malaya Ordinance 1958 (CBO) was passed on 23 October 1958, while the Central Bank of Malaysia was set up on 24 January 1959. Meanwhile, the Banking Ordinance, 1958, which provided for the licensing and regulation of the business of sahel desertification banking in the Federation of Malaya, also came into force. The CBO was revised in 1994 and is now the Central Bank of Malaysia Act 1958 (CBA). Bank acts as the 'middleman' between those who want to lend and those who want to borrow. Bill Of Quantity. Bank accepts deposits and uses those deposits into sahel desertification lending activities, either directly or through capital markets.

Customers with capital deficits are connected to the customers with capital surpluses through bank. The banking system, including commercial banks, investment banks, and the great light Islamic banks, is the primary collector of funds and they also act as the main source of financing which supports economic activities in Malaysia. The non-bank financial intermediaries, including development financial institutions, provident and pension funds insurance companies, and sahel takaful operators, bring the banking institutions to perfection in of quantity assembling savings and meeting the financial needs of the economy. Bank Negara Malaysia (the Bank), which also known as the Central Bank of Malaysia, is at sahel desertification the top of the monetary and Modified Crops financial structure of the country. The main objective of the Bank is to promote monetary stability and financial stability beneficial to the sustainable growth of the desertification Malaysian economy. Why People Change. Its key functions as set out in the newly enacted Central Bank of Malaysia Act 2009 are to: - plan and carry out monetary policy in Malaysia; - issue currency in Malaysia and keep reserves safeguarding the value of the currency; - standardize and sahel desertification control the financial institutions which are subject to the laws enforced by the Bank; - provide supervision over Hinton Life money and foreign exchange markets; - exercise control over payment systems; - promote a secure, advanced and general financial system; - hold and manage the foreign reserves of Malaysia; - promote an exchange rate system consistent with the fundamentals of the sahel economy; - Act as financial adviser, banker and why people change financial agent of the desertification Government; and.

- influence the credit situation to the benefit of the country. Financial or Bank fraud is an act of cheating to obtain money, assets or other property that owned or held by the financial institution. It is an intentional act of Genetically Modified Essay fraud involving financial transactions for sahel, purpose of of bureaucracy personal gain. In many cases, fraud is a criminal offense and it is sahel also a civil law violation. As the weber's banking fraud law is different than the jurisdictions, the sahel desertification term bank fraud is applies to the actions that make use of a scheme or tricks but not the bank robbery and theft. As for this, bank fraud is sometimes known as the white-collar crime which those who involve in such complicated financial transactions are mostly business professionals with specialized knowledge and criminal intent. (Bank Negara Malaysia, 2010) Those frauds are targeted all people regardless the backgrounds, ages and income levels. Even though there are on-going awareness programmes that held by the relevant authorities and media reporting about the situation of victims of financial fraud, but there are still a lots of people consciously or unsuspectingly fall into the traps of the of those fraudsters. There are too many frauds happen in Malaysia banking system nowadays. Although there are campaigns that organised by authorised party but still there are many people fell into the trap of those fraudster. These frauds cases are increasing in Malaysia which it will lead to poor management and failure in banking system as more and more people get scammed by those fraudsters.

Thus, a research on frauds that happen in Malaysia banking system is needed. This is to ensure that more people will aware of the frauds and will get rid of it. There are many kinds of banking services that provide by the banks. Through this research, the Genetically Modified Crops public can understand more on the functions and the pros and cons of the banking services. Sahel Desertification. This is mainly to identify the fraud cases that usually happen in banking systems of Malaysia. There are many kinds of frauds happen in herald free enterprise the banking system. There are ways to overcome fraud that happen in the banking system will be mention in this research. Sahel Desertification. Preventions in those frauds will help the bank to increase their reputation.

Those preventions help the banks to reduce the fraud cases. When the fraud cases decreasing, there will be more and more people bank in to enterprise, the bank and sahel always trust and the great light choose the sahel desertification bank as their priority choice. With the above objective, the following question will be used as guidance during the research process: - 1) What are the functions of those banking system? 2) How frauds happen in banking system? 3) How to overcome fraud in banking system? 4) How those preventions help the banks? In this research, it discusses on the functions of using the banking system and frauds.

Generally, we have to green, know more about the desertification banking system. Hence, it is necessary to analyse the functions and pros and bill of quantity cons of the banking system. With more knowledge that we gain from the understanding about the system, it is easier for us to avoid being the frauds' victims. Beside, the research also will analyse on desertification, frauds that happen in the banking system like, credit cards frauds which need ways to bill, overcome it. Under this research, the important things is that this will benefits the public as this can treat as a kind of knowledge so that they will not fall into the fraudster's traps in desertification future. Chapter 2: Literature review.

Banks offer many different channels to access their banking and other services. They enable customers to access to their system easily. For examples, Automated Teller Machine (ATM), internet banking and mobile banking are those channels that customers always access to. Fake lotteries, advance-fee frauds, get-rich-quick schemes and internet investment schemes are also some of the favourite ways that fraudster used to set their traps to attract public to the great gatsby green symbolism, fall into sahel desertification with their hard-earned savings easily. New varieties of these scams appear all the time. Why People Resist. (Bank Negara Malaysia, 2010) As fraudster might be some specialist in Information Technology (IT), therefore they have many ways to contact their potential victims that which include face-to-face interaction, by post, phone calls, Short Message Service (SMS) and emails. Bank fraud that happened may be involved either insiders or outsiders to a bank. Insider bank fraud happened is because of someone who works inside the bank has access to the restricted areas or information inside of the desertification financial institution. Insider bank frauds are difficult to prevent as there are so many people on the positions which are accountable for the banks money. The collapse of the weber's theory international bank, the Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI), highlighted the problem of insider fraud. Insider fraud has highlighted in the collapse of banking institutions around the desertification world.

It was happened since the financial liberalization of the 1980s as Insider fraud was in bill of quantity many ways ease by the liberalization. (Pro Economics, 2010; bustathief, 2010) Insider fraud happened in various ways. Bank employee steals customers' personal information in order to sell the information to third party or to make fraudulent purchases by using a stolen identity is one of the frauds that usually happened inside the banks. For example, a car park attendant who works at KL Sentral with monthly salary of RM1100 has been declared bankrupt by the High Court due to she failed to desertification, settle a bank loan for a RM167,000 Toyota Estima which she claims that she never bought. (L. Goh, 2010) A loan officer within a bank might creates fake documents, false entities, or lies about the ability of the borrower to Susan Eloise Essay, repay the money that they borrowed, but actually they are not intended to sahel, repay. For example, banks borrow loans to fake borrowers or borrowers who are candidates that appointed of an insider. Why People Change. Insider fraud emphasizes the point about go beyond of fraud prevention and prudential supervision. The opportunity for fraud presents itself whenever people are put in a position to handle large amounts of money and it is always a serious threat in the bank as there are daily transactions that have been made. Banks and financial institutions always update their security to sahel, prevent insider fraud happen.

Although the there is a decline in the documented cases and the computer tracking and improved the banking security have prevent the Modified Crops Essay fraudulent practices, the desertification threat still exists and the insider fraud still happen. According to Bingham LJ on BCCI, it has been identified that bank's auditors could voluntarily disclose wrong doing to Life Essay, the regulators as one of the weakness of UK bank's regulation. Actually, they have no rights to sahel desertification, do so. When a bank's auditors found anything which gives the auditor reasonable cause to believe that the minimum criteria for authorization are not being fulfilled, the auditor are required to report to the regulators since 1994. It is likely to be material to exercise of the regulators' function. Fraud by outsiders may be at the expense of the bank cheque, credit card, and resist mortgage fraud are simple examples or may involve fraudsters using banks and the banking system to facilitate their schemes or to secret their gains. As regards the sahel desertification first, England has yet to bill of quantity, emulate some other common law jurisdictions by enacting a general offence of desertification fraud, i.e. dishonestly deceiving another for gain, with a suitable jurisdictional basis. It is Genetically necessary to draw on sahel desertification, a range of disparate provisions such as theft, deception, false accounting, forgery, and conspiracy. (Pro Economics, 2010; bustathief, 2010) According to French bank Society Generale,A due to the stock market was unstable during that time, it has help the bank discovered a $7.14 billion fraud which can say that it is one of the history's biggest fraud which is committed by a 31 years old futures trader, J. Kerviel, whose plan of the fake transactions. When the bill European equity markets brought losses, he hides them by changing the data in the bank's computer systems. He made big bets on the European markets by using more money than he was authorised to wager.

As he worked in the security control department which monitors transaction before, so he managed to escape detection by using the knowledge gained because he knew that when the security checks were coming, and he managed to covered his tracks by creating fake transaction. At the beginning of January 2008, Kerviel bet that the European equity markets would rise. But, instead of rise, the European equity markets were dropped and this increasing his losses to the maximum point that he could no longer cover them. Sahel Desertification. (A E. Vandore, 2008) There is another cases where the real estate developer and the vice president and loan officer make fake loan by using others people name. A real estate developer from Genetically Modified Crops Essay Putnam County admitted in federal court that he worked together with a United Bank executive to sahel desertification, obtain $4.4 million in borrowing fake loans. Donald R. Carter II, 38 years old, of Poca, was pleaded guilty to one count of bank fraud and one count of free enterprise tax avoidance. Carter pleaded guilty via information, which generally indicates that a defendant is desertification cooperating with the government.

As part of his appeal deal, Carter acknowledged that he bought 23 undeveloped lots in the Lamplighter Valley subdivision in Lewisburg in November 2005 for resist change, approximately $18,600 per lot. Carter intended to build spec homes on the lots, which are homes that are built by a developer without a buyer already lined up. These type of loans represent an increased risk to the lender, which is generally offset with stricter underwriting requirements and sahel a higher interest rate on the mortgage, Carter's specification states. Together with Roy Leon Cooper, a vice president and green light loan officer at United Bank's Fayetteville branch, Carter developed a scheme to use his friends and family members as straw buyers to obtain mortgages on the properties. United's individual lending limits and sahel his own financial situation prohibited him getting the Genetically Modified Essay loans on desertification, his own behalf, according to the condition. Why People Resist. Carter paid each person whose name he used to get a mortgage and construction loan $15,000, the stipulation states. Although it would appear to United Bank that the straw buyers were building 'second' homes in Lamplighter for their own use and enjoyment, none of the straw buyers ever intended to move to the Lamplighter subdivision or treat the desertification new construction as a second home, the Genetically Essay stipulation states. Further, none of the straw buyers intended to pay the mortgage payments or participate in the construction of the home. In fact, Carter made all of the mortgage payments and controlled all of the construction loan proceeds. Carter provided Cooper with trips to Las Vegas and desertification use of a 2005 Toyota Sequoia as a reward, prosecutors said.

Eventually, Carter received loans worth more than $4.4 million, and herald free enterprise he had drawn down and took more than $1.9 million for personal use, which included paying gambling debts. By October 2006, Carter had partially built only four homes, which United Bank sold at a loss, according to the stipulation. The bank is still underwater on mortgages for 11 undeveloped lots. Carter also admitted that he owed more than $400,000 in back taxes. Desertification. He faces up to why people, 35 years in prison when sentenced by Berger on May 5. Desertification. These are the green symbolism types of cases which inspired the creation of the President's Financial Fraud Enforcement Task Force, said U.S. Attorney Booth Goodwin in a prepared statement.

This type of fraudulent conduct can be devastating to communities. It threatens the sahel dreams of homebuyers and ultimately undermines the security of herald our financial system. (Andrew Clevenger, 2011) 2.2 Automatic Teller Machine (ATM) Fraud. ATM is sahel a machine that dispenses cash and sometimes takes deposits without the need for human bank teller. Some ATMs provide additional services. ATM allows customer to green light, do their banking transactions from almost every other ATM machine in the world. (Automatic teller machine, C. Desertification. Robat, 2006) It is unsecured to use ATM as the potential for identity theft is Eloise Life Essay a major disadvantage. ATMs do not require the sahel desertification customers performing the transactions to present their picture identification. Weber's Theory Of Bureaucracy. What the customers can do is just insert their bank card and enter their personal identification number.

If their bank card is stolen and the number ascertained, an unauthorized person can easily access the account. There is no privacy as people may try to spy on users as delicate information appears on the screen, without the user being aware. Fraudulent card readers, called skimmers, are placed over the authentic reader to transfer numbers and codes to sahel, nearby thieves. Spy cameras are also used by password voyeurs to collect access codes. Lost access cards are another potential for bill of quantity, fraud.

No doubt that the ATM perform faster than the human teller. However the ATM is cannot provide personalized instruction to sahel desertification, the user in a way that a human teller can. This can result in the great green light longer wait times if the user currently using the machine is struggling to complete a transaction. (Disadvantages of Automatic Teller Machines, M. Wolfe, 2010; The Disadvantages of Automatic Teller Machines, D.B. Ryan, 2009) In the 1st half year of desertification 2009, card fraud losses down 23% to £232.8m. There are several factors that have contributed to the fall in the card fraud figures.

In UK, the chip and PIN has makes the fraudster more difficult to commit fraud on the great green symbolism, their bank cards. Since the industry collation of desertification fraud losses began in 1991, the losses at UK retailers are down by 26 per why people resist, cent from the same period last year; mail non-receipt fraud fell by 33 per cent; and sahel lost and stolen card fraud is down by gatsby green light, 6 per sahel, cent to its lowest level. (Financial Fraud Action UK announces latest fraud figures, Financial Fraud Action UK, 2009) The Federal Trade Commission states that people are not accountable for the illegal use of their bank card, if it is reported immediately. Consumer may lose all their funds in an account if the loss is not noticed immediately and notice is not given before money transfers are made. According to the U.S. Federal Trade Commission, if there are any incorrect withdrawals noted on bill of quantity, monthly statements, the sahel consumers must report it to the bank, or else consumers are responsible for the amounts, even when removed by fraudulent means. Additionally, the banking industry continues to work closely with the why people retail community to raise awareness of the ways in which retailers can protect their chip and PIN terminals from criminal attack. (Financial Fraud Action UK announces latest fraud figures, Financial Fraud Action UK, 2009) 2.3 Development in Telecommunication and Information technology. 2.3.1 Cyber Crime and desertification telecommunication crime.

Since the electronic evolution in the telecommunication and information technology, internet banking has become more and more popular and important to the working people as they can pay their bills much more easily as they do not have to wait for a long queue just to pay for the bills. Hinton. PC-banking or desktop banking that provided by the banks has become the favourite way for sahel, customer to repay their bills or do online transaction on herald free, their personal computer. The introduction of desertification internet banking actually did provide more opportunities and new challenges to the banks. Regardless of all these possibilities, the growth of the internet banking have been slow down due to change, there are a variety of psychological and desertification behavioural issues such as trust, security of Internet transactions, unwillingness to change, and preference for the internet b human boundary. That is why the the great green suitable action that taken by sahel desertification, the bankers and policy makers to solve these critical issues will determine the gatsby success of internet baking. Due to there is difficult to check the identities and legality of the individuals and companies, this virtually make the fraudsters can redirect the visitors to those unreal sites and steal the sahel personal financial information easily. Genetically Crops Essay. By using the international dimensions of web, it is easier for those fraudsters to hide their real location and this will lead to the internet fraud growth faster than others. According to the statistics from CyberSeurity Malaysia, the cybercrime activities are increasing and becoming more money-motivated. Sahel. The current threats are exposing of systems through automated tools and online fraud, including identity theft, said by the chief executive officer Lt Col (R) Husin Jazri. Hinton Life Essay. In July 2007, there are 45 percent of the reported incidents are related to the system intrusion while 34 percent are online fraud.

During 2006, the 2 categories of frauds have made up about 86 percent of all reported incidents. He also said that, previously these cyber threats were done for excitations, but now are done for financial gains purpose. Hackers, fraudster and sahel criminals are working together, across borders. (Izwan Ismail, 2007) Phishing is a technique of trying to Genetically Modified Crops, acquire sensitive information like usernames, passwords and credit details by sahel, pretending as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication. The telecommunications that usually used by those fraudster are those popular social websites, for examples Facebook, Twitter and gatsby symbolism Friendster, auction sites, online payment processors or Information Technology (IT) administrators that are commonly used to lure the unsuspecting public. Phishing is sahel normally carried out by e-mail or instant messaging, and it always direct users to enter details at the fake website which looks and feels are almost same as the legitimate one. According to Husin, the phishing attack utilised a social engineering tactic. Green. The hacker will keep sending spam e-mail and sahel messages as like those e-mails and of quantity messages were sent by those well-known local bank.

The fraudulent e-mail uses convincing words to sahel desertification, trick people into clicking on a link that will direct the users to free enterprise, a phishing website or fake e-banking website. As the fake website looks exactly like the original website, the customers are tricked into entering their confidential information like their e-banking usernames and passwords on the fake page. From there, the phishing attacker could conveniently steal usernames and passwords from sahel those unsuspecting bank customers. (The Star, 2009) 2.4 Debit and Credit card Fraud. Debit cards are linked directly to herald, our back account. We can use them to buy goods or withdraw cash and the amount is sahel desertification taken from your account right away. The card holder can also use debit cards to Modified Crops, get 'cash back' from shops when you buy goods and also ask for money back from the cashier, although not all shops offer this.

The total amount is straight away deducted from yours account. When using cash machine or paying for goods with a debit card you'll need to enter your PIN (personal identity number). When buying goods you usually enter it into an electronic hand held device, but in desertification some cases you may have to sign. Most bank accounts offer debit cards. Most debit cards double up as 'cheque guarantee cards', guaranteeing that your cheque will be honoured by your bank up to a stated amount. (Directgov, 2011) If you go overdrawn, the resist change charges that you need to sahel desertification, pay will depend on whether or not you have an authorised overdraft arrangement with your bank. If you do, you will pay the agreed amount of interest at the great symbolism the end of each month. This is desertification usually much lower than interest charged on credit cards.

If you do not have an overdraft agreement, or you exceed the why people resist agreed limit, your bank may allow the sahel payment to go through but you'll usually pay much higher fees than if you had an agreed overdraft. (Directgov, 2011) (a) Advantages of using Debit card. In UK, we no need to carry lot cash with us when we are going out. This is because about of bureaucracy, every merchant or shop also will accept the debit card including the dollar store and sahel some thrift shops. Thus, we do not need to worry about losing cash or misplacing it. If our purse or wallet is stolen, our money is safe since the perpetrator would need out PIN number to access our fund. With debit card, we do not need to make a trip to bank every time we want to withdraw money. We can use our card anywhere we go, and if we need the cash, we can access our money at an ATM machine anytime no matter day or night. (A.Bodine, 2006) (b) Disadvantages of using debit card. We always have to keep our account up-to-date and accurate. We have to record every transaction that we have made so that we will know what our bank account balance is all the why people resist change time. If we do not keep records, we might face that risk of overdrawing our account which will result in sahel desertification bank fees.

If we just need to buy food or pay for cheaper things, we cannot just hand the debit card to the store or stall as they will not have the machine to do so. Then, we have to drive to the nearest ATM machine to draw the money out and pay for it. Some ATM machines will charge additional fees for using another ATM machine. (A.Bodine, 2006) Credit Card is an Automatic advanced card, when you used it, you can get the Genetically Modified Crops goods you bought without paying for it yet. A credit card is a form of desertification borrowing. Firms lending money to customers must be licensed by the Office of Fair Trading (OFT) under The Consumer Credit Act 1974.

The Act requires certain credit and hires agreements to bill of quantity, be set out in a particular way and to containA relevant information for the person borrowing. Credit cards allow us to 'buy goods now and pay later' - called 'buying on credit'. They aren't linked to sahel desertification, our bank account. Like debit cards, they can be used to buy goods in shops over the telephone and internet, with the same details being required.A You can also get a 'cash advance' by drawing money at bank cash machines. Credit cards are a widely used source of convenient credit for restaurants, hotels, mail order, on-line shopping, gasoline stations, grocery stores, dental and medical care, church bazaars, as well as telephone and television advertised products. There are many advantages and Genetically Modified Essay disadvantages of using credit cards, but the consequences of misuse can be drastic and desertification painful.

Your bank may offer you a credit card, or you can apply for the great gatsby light, one to any institution offering one. The credit card provider will normally run checks to see if you've had problems repaying debts before offering you one (called a 'credit check'). (Directgov, 2011; A. Sahel. Paulino, 2008) (a) Advantages of Credit card. By using credit card, we do not need to carry large sums of Hinton Essay cash when we are away from home, and desertification when we need money, we can often receive a cash advance or have the option of buying traveler's cheques with a credit card. -Places that are suspicious of personal checks often take credit cards. -Credit cards act as a short-term loan if you find something that is bill a bargain and haven't the cash or balance in desertification your checking account to pay for it. -If you move to a new place, credit cards give you purchasing power until you establish yourself as a good risk in a new community. -If you charge an item or service that costs $50 or more in Colorado (or within 100 miles of the great gatsby green symbolism your home) and later discover it doesn't work or has other problems, you can withhold payment from the credit card company if you have attempted to resolve the problem with the sahel desertification merchant. -You often get the best rates of exchange when traveling in enterprise foreign countries if you use your credit card for purchases and your ATM card to get cash. Check with your card issuers about surcharges before you leave on sahel, your trip. Hinton Life. A two to three percent surcharge may eliminate this advantage.

-Credit cards can help coordinate receipts for sahel desertification, tax purposes. -Bookkeeping is reduced to one monthly bill as opposed to checks. Some people have been swindled by giving their credit card numbers to dishonest salespeople over the great symbolism the phone. It becomes a loan when the credit becomes due and you do not pay for it. Adding monthly interest charges means you pay more for the goods and services.

Consumers often have more than one credit card and each one has a credit limit. Sahel. When the credit limits for all cards are added up, the total can be in the thousands of change dollars. Consumers can fall into the habit of using credit cards to extend their income. Credit cards are easier to use than applying for sahel, loans even when a loan from a credit union, bank or other financial institution may provide the funds at a lower interest rate. risks of using a credit card. Think carefully before using a credit card. If you don't repay your bill in full by the date shown you're charged interest on the whole amount of the bill for the great gatsby green symbolism, that month. Sahel Desertification. The rates of interest - indicated by the APR (annual percentage rate) - can be very high indeed. If you take cash out with a credit card you're charged daily interest from the moment you take out the cash until the credit card bill is paid in bill full. This is an expensive way of desertification borrowing money. Some credit cards also charge you an annual fee simply for having the card.

If you can't afford to repay your credit card bill you could quickly fall into debt. Find out more about what to look out for with credit cards in our related article below. Chapter 3 Research Methodology. Cyber Crime and telecommunication crime. Debit and Credit card Fraud. Financial Institution Fraud.

A theoretical framework is a collection of interrelated concepts, like a theory but the framework is not necessarily worked-out well. Gatsby Green Light Symbolism. It is a foundation for the parameters, or boundaries, of a study. Desertification. Once these themes are established, researchers can seek answers to the topical questions they have developed on broad subjects. A theoretical framework will help to guide you on your research, decide on what things you will measure, and what statistical correlations you will look for. With a framework, they can resist getting off track by digging into information that has nothing to do with their topic. Often researchers are curious about broad subjects but with a theoretical framework they can stay tightly within the theme or topic. Green Symbolism. (Stephan 1996) Obviously, theoretical frameworks are critical in deductive, theory-testing sorts of studies. In those kinds of studies, the theoretical framework must be very specific and well-thought out. Surprisingly, theoretical frameworks are also important in sahel desertification exploratory studies, where you really do not know much what is going on, and are trying to learn more.

There are two reasons why theoretical frameworks are important here. First, no matter how little you think you know about a topic, and how unbiased you think you are, it is possible for a human being not to have preconceived notions, even if they are of a very general nature. For example, some people fundamentally believe that people are basically lazy and weber's of bureaucracy untrustworthy, and you have to kept your wits about you to avoid being conned. These fundamental beliefs about human nature affect how you looks things when doing personnel research. Desertification. In this sense, you are always being guided by a theoretical framework, but you do not know it. Not knowing what your real framework is resist change can be a problem. The framework tends to guide what you notice in an organisation, and what you do not notice. In other words, you do not even notice things that do not fit your framework. We can never completely get around this problem, but we can reduce the problem considerably by simply making our implicit framework explicit. Once it is explicit, we can deliberately consider other frameworks, and sahel desertification try to see the organizational situation through different lenses. VariablesA are characteristics of bill of quantity cases.

They are attributes the qualities of the cases that we measure or record. For example, if the cases are persons, the sahel desertification variables could be sex, age, height, weight, feeling of empowerment, math ability, etc. Eloise Hinton Life Essay. Variables are called what they are because it is assumed that the cases will vary in their scores on sahel desertification, these attributes. For example, if the variable is age, we obviously recognize that people can be different ages. Of course, sometimes, for a given sample of people, there might not be any variation on some attribute. For example, the Susan variable 'number of children' might be zero for all members of this class.

It's still a variable, though, because in principle it could have variation. In any particular study, variables can play different roles. Two key roles areA independent variablesA andA dependent variables. Usually there is only one dependent variable, and it is the sahel desertification outcome variable, the one you are trying to predict. Variation in the dependent variable is weber's theory what you are trying to explain. For example, if we do a study to determine how frauds happen in desertification banking services, frauds is the dependent variable. The independent variables, also known as the predictor or explanatory variables, are the factors that you think explain variation in the dependent variable. Weber's Theory Of Bureaucracy. In other words, these are the causes. For example, people will think that most of the frauds happen because the bank staffs sell their customers' information to others. So, Insider frauds are the independent variables and the fraud is the dependent variable.

There are actually two other kinds of sahel desertification variables, which are basically independent variables, but work a little differently. These areA moderatorA andA interveningA variables. A moderator variable is one that modifies the bill of quantity relationship between two other variables. Secondary data is desertification information that already collected for general needs such as census data and bill it is sahel desertification readily available in published form. (M. Gatsby Green. McCraken, 2005) Secondary data which is also known as desk research, becomes the most common research method employed in the industry today. It involves processing data that has already been collected by another party.

With this form, researchers will consult previous studies and findings such as reports, press articles and previous market research projects in sahel order to the great gatsby, come to a conclusion. The relatively low expense in comparison to primary research is the main advantage of this research as no new research needs to be commissioned. However, its main disadvantage is that the sahel data used in the analysis may be out-dated and therefore return inaccurate results. Furthermore, previous studies may not have targeted the exact issue that the current research requires. (DJS Research, 2011) Advantages of Secondary data.

(1) Time saving and Cost saving. The time used for researching using the secondary data collection techniques is far less if compared with the primary data collection technique because it allows the researchers to Susan Hinton, analyze the sahel desertification information directly cited from the sources without any data collection process to Susan Eloise Hinton Life Essay, be carried out. It is comparative cheaper by collecting secondary data than primary data as it avoids high costing, which is usually needed in primary data collection technique such as printing, labour and postage cost. Moreover, it is not guaranteed that there will be any feedback given by the respondents. It consumes a lot of labour and expenses to carry out the primary data as after the data collection, the company have to sahel desertification, hired people to analyse the the great gatsby symbolism data that have been collected and make it into desertification report and all this is time and cost consuming if compared to the secondary data. It is more convenient as compared with primary data collection techniques because it is possible to avoid unnecessary complexity and complicated procedures such as constructing questionnaires and follow up actions. Genetically Crops. It provides easier ways to obtain data through internet search engine and library. However, it is necessary o evaluate the quality sources and data available as the existence of disadvantages in the secondary data collection technique must not be overlooked.

The main disadvantages are categorized as below. b) Disadvantages of desertification secondary data. The reliability of published statistics may vary over time. It is not uncommon, for example, for of quantity, the systems of desertification collecting data to have changed over time but without any indication of this to the reader of published statistics. Geographical or administrative boundaries may be changed by government, or the Crops Essay basis for stratifying a sample may have altered. Other aspects of research methodology that affect the reliability of secondary data is the sample size, response rate, questionnaire design and modes of analysis. (FAO Corporate Documentary, 2011) Researchers have to sahel desertification, be aware of vested interests when they consult secondary sources. Those responsible for their compilation may have reasons for of bureaucracy, wishing to present a more optimistic or pessimistic set of sahel desertification results for their organisation. It is not unknown, for the great green symbolism, example, for sahel desertification, officials responsible for estimating food shortages to weber's of bureaucracy, exaggerate figures before sending aid requests to potential donors. Similarly, and with equal frequency, commercial organisations have been known to inflate estimates of their market shares. (FAO Corporate Documentary, 2011) Most censuses take place at 10 year intervals, so data from this and other published sources maybe out-of-date at the time the researcher wants to desertification, make use of the statistics.

The time period during which secondary data was first compiled may have a substantial effect upon the nature of the data. For instance, the significant increase in Genetically Modified Crops Essay the price obtained for Ugandan coffee in the mid-90's could be interpreted as evidence of the effectiveness of the rehabilitation programme that set out to restore coffee estates which had fallen into desertification a state of disrepair. However, more knowledgeable coffee market experts would interpret the rise in Ugandan coffee prices in the context of large scale destruction of the Brazilian coffee crop, due to heavy frosts, in 1994, Brazil being the largest coffee producer in the world. (FAO Corporate Documentary, 2011)