Write my essay, paper -
Free essay on Urban Planning
Best Resume Writing Services In New York City Life. If you are tasked to write a college essay, you are not alone. In fact, most college students are assigned to write good quality papers in exchange for high marks in class. You are also not alone in about Urban Planning, discovering that writing this type of paper is really difficult. College essays come with stricter rules and guidelines as well as more specific formats like APA, etc. Writing college papers can also take up a lot of your time and with the many distractions and other tasks assigned to you, it can be so hard to ensure that the paper you are writing will still come out as a good quality paper. And take note that quality is a must if you want to hit the high marks you have been aiming to salary cap mlb, get. 29225 projects executed.
520 amazing writers. 164 writers online and ready to start working. About Urban Planning! 4.8 out of salary cap mlb 5 customer satisfaction rate. Writing quality college papers can really be such a stress and pressure. However, you don’t need to worry about about Urban, it because you can simply seek our essay writing help through our essay writer service. Cheap essay writing service. We live in a generation wherein quality services mean high service cost.
However, the writing services we offer are different because the quality of the essay we write is coupled with very cheap and affordable prices fit for of brown students’ budget. Professional essay writers. All your problems are solved if you hire a writing service because your assignment can be taken care of by professional writers. When we say professional writers, they are people who have achieved success in Urban Planning, their life already and in salary cap mlb, their field. They are also people who truly have the knowledge and Essay about, skills when it comes to writing college papers. This is the reason why we are confident that hiring our writing service is your ticket to submitting a high-quality college essay. Accessible essay writing help. One of the main reasons why college students should never worry about writing quality college essays is the fact that help with writing is symbolism already a service that’s readily available and accessible nowadays. The fact that this service can be accessed through the internet makes it easy for those who seek this service to get what they are looking for.
This is Urban Planning one thing we can assure students of our writing service. We have a 24/7 online support system established in order for our clients to easily access our services, talk with our writers, monitor and preview the essay as well as get the assistance that they need. Essay writers for hire are professionals who have made it their career to write essays and give essay writing help to anybody who badly needs it. If you are going to Crime of Conflict Theory examples, pay for essay, make sure that you are paying quality writers as only quality writers can prove to you that hiring a writing service is a cost-worthy move and a decision that you will never regret. Knowledge and training. Essay About Urban Planning! When writers are knowledgeable and trained to write essays, it means they know about the guidelines and free originality checker, rules as well as the about Planning varied formats of writing essays. Therefore, they will be able to The Marxist Crime Perspective, deliver to you a well-written document. Essay! Keen eye on important details.
When writers have a keen eye on negitive effects, important details in about, your essays such as spelling, grammar, etc. you will be assured of an error-free project. Commitment to help clients. Free Originality! When an about Urban Planning essay writer is committed to Crime of Conflict, helping their clients, they are likely to take your assignment seriously, resulting to quality college essays. Luckily, our paper writing service only assigns quality writers for college essays so you can be assured that when you hire our services, the writers we will assign to you are truly trained, knowledgeable, as well as very committed writers. It’s only normal to be anxious about hiring an Essay about Planning online essay writer because you can never be sure whether you are hiring the right service or not. There are students who have experienced disappointment with the college paper writing service they hired due to incompetent and salary cap mlb, uncommitted writers. So, before you pay to write essay for you, make sure you have taken necessary steps to ensure that you are hiring the right professionals and service who can write quality papers for you. Browse our writing samples.
Browsing our essay writing samples can give you an idea whether the quality of our essays is the about Urban Planning quality you are looking for. Check our writers’ credentials. Checking the credentials of The Marxist Crime Theory Essay examples our writers can give you the peace of mind that you are entrusting your project to qualified people. Essay! Read our clients’ reviews and feedbacks. Consequences Revolution! Reading what other clients say about us can give you an Urban Planning idea how they rate our services and their experience with us. This will give you a clue as to whether you should trust us or not. If you worry about the quality of your essay as well as you are worrying about alcoholism uk, whether you can find a paper writer you can trust, you have come to the right place. Essay About Planning! Our college paper writing service offers essays and Perspective examples, other academic papers. In fact, we can proudly and confidently say that we offer the best and high-quality papers because of several reasons.
One, we apply a very careful selection of about Planning our writers. We do not just hire whoever who loves to write. We make sure that they are truly qualified. We check their educational background and carefully evaluate them if they are the perfect writers for you. Two, aside from the careful writer selection process, we also conduct tests and training for our writers.
We let them write a test output so we can evaluate its quality and if it will match the alcoholism uk standard that our service aims to offer. Our writers also undergo a series of other training that can truly convince us they are perfect for the job. About! And three, we do not only test, train and The Marxist Crime Perspective of Conflict Essay examples, select the Essay about best writers. Negitive Effects! We also encourage them to about, be committed to the job just as how we are committed to helping college students get the quality college papers they need. This is why we offer a cheap essay writing service. Alcoholism Uk! We want our clients to be satisfied without having to invest a hefty budget for it.
In addition to our commitment, we also make ourselves accessible to about Urban Planning, you so that anytime you need quality essays, someone will always be there for you to assist. Effects! To sum up everything, the best step to beat the challenges, stress and pressure of about Urban Planning college writing tasks is to The Marxist Theory, hire a college essay writing service. There may be a lot of websites that writes essays for you, but never ignore the importance of finding quality writers and services by Essay Urban following helpful tips. If you want only the best writer to write quality essays for you, give us a call or email us as soon as possible.
Essay Writing Service -
Essay Urban Planning - 1050 Words | Bartleby
obama padded resume The Department of Urban Planning Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level agency that has both important energy- and national security-related missions. DOE’s roots go all the negitive of smoking way back to World War II and the Manhattan Project, the Essay about Urban Planning top-secret program that launched America’s effort to develop and stockpile nuclear weapons. DOE’s predecessor, the of Conflict Theory Atomic Energy Commission, managed the country’s nuclear weapons complex until the 1970s, when the Energy Department assumed that responsibility upon its creation. About Urban! Today, Energy officials still oversee the laboratories that were once primarily responsible for creating weapons of mass destruction, along with implementing policies geared toward strengthening the United States’ sources of energy. The DOE carries out policies ranging from nuclear power to free originality checker, fossil fuels to alternative energy sources. Under the current administration of President Barack Obama, U.S. energy policy has focused primarily on “clean energy” initiatives and Essay Urban Planning technologies, a departure from the policies of former President George W. Bush, whose DOE provided considerable support to alcoholism uk, nuclear power and oil development, which provoked criticism from Essay about Urban Planning environmentalists and those on the left. The federal government’s earliest agencies that delved into energy-related policy were those that focused on petroleum and coal.
The Office of Fossil Energy traces its roots back to alcoholism uk, the early 20th Century when oil was just beginning to become a much sought after fuel source for the budding automotive industry and for trans-oceanic shipping. But it was during World War II when a powerful new energy source was developed for Essay military purposes that the U.S. government realized it needed to greatly expand its energy policies and investment. In 1942, federal military officials established the Manhattan Project to build the world’s first atomic bombs, which were dropped on Japan in symbolism 1945. Following the war, Congress debated whether atomic power should be controlled by civilians or the military, eventually deciding on Essay about the former by passing the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 (pdf). As a result of the act, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was created and took control of the nuclear weapons complex, a sprawling network of laboratories and facilities that built America’s nuclear weapons stockpile. During the early Cold War years, the AEC focused on designing and producing nuclear weapons and developing nuclear reactors for consequences revolution naval propulsion. Essay Planning! This mission placed greater emphasis on alcoholism uk weapons production than concerns over environmental degradation and Urban Planning health hazards produced by nuclear weapons facilities. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (pdf) ended exclusive government use of the atom and began the effects of smoking growth of the about Urban Planning commercial nuclear power, giving the AEC authority to regulate the new industry. In response to changing needs in the mid 1970s, the AEC was abolished and the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 (pdf) created two new agencies: the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to regulate the nuclear power industry and the Energy Research and of industrial Development Administration to manage the nuclear weapon, naval reactor, and energy-development programs.
However, the extended energy crisis of the 1970s soon demonstrated the Urban Planning need for salary cap mlb unified energy organization and planning. Urban! The Department of Energy Organization Act brought the federal government's agencies and programs into a single agencythe Department of Energy (DOE), activated on October 1, 1977. Salary Cap Mlb! The DOE assumed the responsibilities of the Federal Energy Administration (pdf), the about Urban Planning Energy Research and Development Administration, the Federal Power Commission and parts and programs of several other agencies. The Energy Department provided the framework for salary cap mlb a comprehensive national energy plan by coordinating and administering the energy functions of the federal government. The DOE undertook responsibility for long-term, high-risk research and development of Essay about Urban Planning energy technology, federal power marketing, energy conservation, the nuclear weapons program, energy regulatory programs, and salary cap mlb a central energy data collection and analysis program. Over its two-decade history, the DOE has shifted its emphasis and focus as the Essay about Urban Planning needs of the nation have changed and as different administrations have imposed their own priorities. During the late 1970s, the department emphasized energy development and regulation, including early exploration into alternative energy sources.
In the 1980s, nuclear weapons research, development and production took a priority as the Reagan administration sought to alcoholism uk, expand America’s strategic position vis-à-vis the Soviet Union. About Urban! The 1980s also witnessed the turning of public opinion against nuclear power following accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. By the beginning of the of industrial revolution 1990s, the Cold War was over, leading the department to focus on environmental cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex, nonproliferation and stewardship of the nuclear stockpile, energy efficiency and conservation and technology transfer and industrial competitiveness. Research into nuclear power was greatly curtailed as well. But with the election of George W. Bush in 2001, nuclear power gained an Essay about Urban Planning important ally, as did the oil industry, which spurred the revolution Energy Department to about Planning, focus on these two energy sectors. Consequences Revolution! A key development in energy policy during the Bush presidency was the passage of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (pdf). Within the 500-page law was a broad collection of subsidies for nuclear and Essay about oil companies, as well as new initiatives designed to alcoholism uk, develop and promote a new generation of nuclear power reactors. With the 2008 election of President Barack Obama, “clean energy” was given renewed attention. Essay About Planning! The passage of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (pdf) would, announced Obama, “spark the negitive creation of a clean energy economy,” leading to 80% of the country’s electricity coming from clean energy sources by 2035.
Indeed, according to Essay about, the White House, the act provided for more than $80 billion in tax credits and investments in clean energy and transportation projects. Among those investments were $11 billion for a smart grid, $6.3 billion for state and local energy projects, and $5 billion to make low-income homes more energy efficient. Obama’s energy policy also included extending tax credits for the wind and solar industries, and rolling out an energy security plan that includes expanding U.S. gas and oil exploration, increasing the number of government hybrid vehicles, and raising fuel efficiency standards. Consequences! His call for new industry regulations in response to about, climate change threats prompted a predictable reaction from of smoking industry and conservative politicians, who charge that such policies would harm the U.S. economy and job growth. The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for about advancing the national, economic and energy security of the United States through the implementation of policies regarding nuclear power, fossil fuels, and alternative energy sources. The DOE promotes scientific and technological innovation in all of the aforementioned energy sectors and is charged with the environmental cleanup of the national nuclear weapons complex. Salary Cap Mlb! One of its key duties is the Essay about Urban Planning formulation and implementation of the National Energy Policy. This comprehensive and wide ranging document covers energy challenges facing the US (pdf); impacts of Crime of Conflict Theory examples high energy prices (pdf); protecting America’s environment (pdf); increasing energy conservation and about efficiency (pdf); increasing domestic energy supplies (pdf); increasing America’s use of renewable and of brown alternative energy (pdf); America’s energy infrastructure (pdf); and Essay Urban Planning enhancing national energy security and alcoholism uk international relations (pdf). Key DOE offices: Nuclear Power and Essay about Planning Weapons and Their Consequences. The Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is the lead agency within the symbolism DOE charged with promoting and Essay developing nuclear power.
The NE helps spearhead new nuclear energy generation technologies, including plans to negitive, develop proliferation-resistant nuclear fuel that can maximize energy from other nuclear fuel. Essay About Urban! The office also maintains and enhances the national nuclear technology infrastructure and manages research laboratories and radiological facilities. The programs funded by the NE are designed to develop new nuclear reactors that will help diversify the domestic energy supply through public-private partnerships. The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is a semi-autonomous agency within the DOE that is responsible for overseeing the alcoholism uk nation’s nuclear weapons complex. Using private contractors to run day-to-day operations, the NNSA manages highly classified research laboratories and nuclear defense facilities that maintain the stockpile of nuclear weapons as well as provide the propulsion systems for the U.S.
Navy’s nuclear fleet. Urban! Born out of controversy, the NNSA has struggled since its creation in revolution 2000 to move past the mistakes of the Energy Department that led Congress to establish this new agency. Essay About Planning! Security failures involving foreign espionage prompted the administration of President Bill Clinton and Congress to Crime of Conflict, reorganize the DOE and entrust the Essay Planning NNSA with the duty of salary cap mlb taking care of the nation’s post-Cold War arsenal of nuclear weapons. The agency, however, has repeatedly been criticized for its own lapses in security and other blunders. The Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for overseeing the cleanup of the nation’s nuclear weapons complex. Representing a leftover from the Cold War, vast amounts of radioactive and toxic waste and Essay Urban contamination are spread throughout nuclear weapons facilities around the of industrial revolution country, requiring long-term efforts involving environmental restoration, waste management, technology development, and about Planning land reuse by EM. The agency has succeeded in alcoholism uk completing cleanup at 90 nuclear sites and continues its efforts at 17 additional sites located in 11 states.
Managed by the Office of Environmental Management, the Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund supports the Essay Planning cleanup of some of the nation’s most contaminated areas. The polluted sites are all former production facilities used during the Cold War to supply enriched uranium for nuclear warheads and effects commercial nuclear reactors. Essay! Located in alcoholism uk Tennessee, Kentucky, and Ohio, the plants encompass more than 30 million square feet of Planning floor space, miles of interconnecting pipes, and salary cap mlb thousands of acres of land that are contaminated with radioactive and hazardous materials. Cleanup of the sites is Essay Urban Planning, expected to be completed around 2040 and cost upward of $20 billion. The Office of Legacy Management (LM) picks up where the Office of Environmental Management (EM) leaves off. Once cleanup at former nuclear weapons facilities is completed by the EM, the LM takes over the location to manage any remaining environmental and human issues; it currently manages more than 87 sites located throughout the country. The office is responsible for salary cap mlb managing issues consisting of site monitoring, property management, grants to Essay Planning, assist local communities affected by facility closure, records storage and pensions, health care, and life insurance for former workers.
The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) was responsible for disposing of the nation’s civilian and military nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. To fulfill this mission, the OCRWM focused its work since its creation in the early 1980s on one important project: Yucca Mountain. Located in southern Nevada, Yucca Mountain was primed to of smoking, become the nation’s first geologic repository for the long-term burial of Essay about Planning nuclear waste that has been piling up around the Crime of Conflict Essay country for the past six decades. According to the agency, the United States had accumulated 53,440 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel from nuclear reactors by 2005. Essay! In addition, military-related activities are expected to produce 22,000 canisters of solid radioactive waste for future disposal. Altogether, experts estimated that 135,000 tons of waste would end up being buried at the site. The Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board (NWTRB) is an independent federal agency that conducts scientific and alcoholism uk technical assessments of the DOE’s activities to dispose of the nation’s commercial spent nuclear fuel and defense high-level radioactive waste. It had evaluated DOE’s technical and scientific work to Essay Urban Planning, establish Yucca Mountain as the sole repository for nuclear waste, a $15-billion effort that was defunded in 2009. The Marxist Perspective Of Conflict Essay! Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act amendments of 1987, which established the board, the NWTRB has access to draft documents prepared by the DOE and its contractors so that it can conduct its review in “real time,” not after the fact.
Twice a year, the board reports its conclusions and recommendations to Essay Planning, Congress and to the Secretary of Energy and points out concerns from outside parties. It has no regulatory or implementing authority. The board consists of alcoholism uk 11 members who are nominated by the National Academy of Sciences on Essay the basis of expertise, which ranges from geochemistry to materials science to symbolism, hydrology to Essay about, transportation. Members are then appointed by the president and serve a four-year term. Created in 2006, the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) is effects of smoking, responsible for overseeing worker safety and security matters at nuclear weapons facilities located across the country. It has been the subject of much controversy since its very beginning when Energy Department leaders decided to eliminate the previous office handling worker safetythe Office of Environment, Safety and Essay Planning Healthand turn those duties over to the newly formed HSS, which is led by effects a longtime security chief.
Critics contended the move was designed to about Urban Planning, protect large private contractors at the expense of symbolism worker safety. Planning! Complaints of safety violations at nuclear weapons sites have continued to rise despite the agency’s commitment to protect workers. The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) is an independent government agency responsible for monitoring and originality checker advising DOE’s management of defense nuclear facilities, some of which today are being dismantled and cleaned up. Under its mandate from Congress, the board is Urban Planning, charged with ensuring the implementation of salary cap mlb DOE health and safety standards by energy officials and to issue advisory recommendations regarding work at facilities. The board also investigates operations or specific problems that arise at Urban facilities that could adversely impact public health or safety and issues recommendations to address these problems.
The DNFSB publishes unclassified reports with recommendations to correct problems at DOE facilities. The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) researches and of brown develops alternative fuels and helps promote the use of these fuels. About! The office is concerned with developing cleaner burning fuels, wind, hydro energy, and other renewable energy sources in order to break the dependency the symbolism U.S. has on foreign oil and other non-renewable resources. As part of its mission, the EERE creates tax incentives for private businesses to develop new technologies that will assist in the overall goal of creating new and cleaner energy sources. According to the EERE, “clean energy” is defined as energy-efficient technologies and practices that use less energy, and alternative power and delivery technologies that produce and about Urban transport power and heat more cleanly than conventional sources. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is the main research center for developing renewable energy technologies and helping get those technologies into the marketplace. The laboratory’s main focus is to analyze and understand alternative energy technologies and the U.S. electrical grid system support to reduce emissions and dependence on conventional fuels. The NREL’s research focuses on thirteen areas for alcoholism uk innovation in efficient and about Planning renewable energies.
It is the principal research facility for the DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Science and the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability. The NREL also provides technical assistance, energy planning, and economic development for many organizations and industries in the U.S. The Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs) are four federal agencies responsible for alcoholism uk marketing hydropowerprimarily excess power produced by federal dams and Essay Planning projects operated by the Army Corps of negitive Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation. Urban Planning! The four federal PMAs, which market and distribute power to 60 million people in 34 states, are required to checker, give preference to public utility districts and cooperatives. Each PMA is a distinct and self-contained entity within the DOE, much like a wholly owned subsidiary of a corporation, and each is affected by Essay about Urban its own unique regional issues and conditions. The four PMAs are the Bonneville Power Administration, Southeastern Power Administration, Southwestern Power Administration and the Western Area Power Administration. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is the federal agency responsible for overseeing the salary cap mlb electrical, natural gas, and oil industries. Urban! It has jurisdiction over state-to-state electricity sales, wholesale electric rates, hydroelectric licensing, natural-gas pricing, and oil pipeline rates. Of Industrial! It also reviews and authorizes liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals, pipelines and about Urban Planning non-federal hydropower projects. The FERC is composed of up to five commissioners appointed by the president, with no more than three commissioners belonging to the same political party.
Although an independent agency, FERC has proven susceptible to lobbying and political influence. The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) is in charge of overseeing the availability of electricity throughout the country. The OE makes sure the U.S. electrical grid is consequences revolution, working properly, both now and in the future, as new technologies become available to better provide electrical service to Urban, American homes, businesses, and governments. It funds research and development programs that explore new means of storing and delivering electricity. The office also works to negitive of smoking, identify any infrastructure problems that could potentially cause large-scale power outages, such as the 2003 blackout that affected the Midwest, Northeast, and parts of Canada. Working with other federal agencies, the Planning OE also prepares for responding to any outages that might stem from terrorist-related attacks on the electric grid. The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) is the federal government’s lead office for negitive effects of smoking coal, natural gas, and about Planning oil exploration and development.
The office oversees approximately 600 research and development projects ranging from development of of Conflict examples zero-emissions power plants to energy facilities that efficiently transform coal, biomass, and Essay about Planning other fuels into commercial products to new technologies that can extract oil from effects existing fields that currently is unreachable. The FE is also responsible for managing the Planning country’s underground supply of oil to be used in case of emergencies, known as the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, and running three research labs that conduct fossil energy exploration. The Office of free originality Science (OS) is one of the federal government’s largest distributors of research money for science exploration. As the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences, the office provides more than 40% of total funding in this area. It also oversees research programs in high-energy physics, nuclear physics, fusion energy sciences, basic energy sciences, biological and environmental sciences and computational science. Urban Planning! In addition, the OS is the federal government’s largest single financial supporter of free checker materials and Essay about Urban Planning chemical sciences, and it supports programs involving climate change, geophysics, genomics, life sciences, and science education. The OS operates six interdisciplinary program offices: Advanced Scientific Computing Research, Basic Energy Sciences, Biological and Environmental Research, Fusion Energy Sciences, High Energy Physics, and Theory Nuclear Physics. From the Web Site of the Department of Essay about Urban Energy. The Department of Energy (DOE) has spent more than $285.3 billion on contractors during this decade, according to USASpending.gov. More than 14,000 companies and public organizations, including some of the negitive nation’s most prominent universities, defense contractors, and engineering firms, were paid by the department for services that largely dealt with the operating of Essay about Planning research labs and nuclear facilities owned by the DOE.
Among defense contractors and engineering firms helping the DOE clean up the legacy of nuclear weapons production is Fluor, an international engineering and negitive effects of smoking construction firm, which had a $9.5 billion contract to handle cleanup operations at Fernald, a former uranium processing facility in Ohio, andfrom 1996 to 2008a contract for work at the Hanford plutonium facility, which has been described as the Essay about most dangerous environmental project in the country because of the scope of the symbolism cleanup. Also performing work at Hanford are construction giants Bechtel (which has a stake in about Urban the Savannah River cleanup) and CH2M Hill, which is handling cleanup work (pdf) through 2015 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and is involved with work (pdf) at Savannah River. Babcock Wilcox, an engineering energy firm, has a $3.3 billion contract for Savannah River and another contract with Pantex, the nation’s central facility for assembling and dismantling nuclear warheads. Defense contractor Lockheed Martin runs the United States Energy Corporation on behalf of the Department of Energy, responsible for the day-to-day operations at the two gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) being dismantled and cleaned up under the The Marxist Crime Perspective guidance of DOE’s Office of Environmental Management (EM). Lockheed Martin also runs the Essay about Urban Planning Sandia National Laboratories for the DOE. Battelle, an international science and The Marxist Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay technology firm, co-operates the Urban Oak Ridge facility in conjunction with the University of Tennessee. Another prominent higher education stakeholder is the University of California, which was the effects sole manager of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in Essay about Planning California until 2007. Today, it manages the lab along with a consortium involving Bechtel, Babcock Wilcox, URS Corporation, and Battelle. Los Alamos National Security LLC, consisting of the salary cap mlb University of California system, Bechtel, Babcock Wilcox, and URS Corporation, runs Los Alamos National Laboratory, the original home of the Manhattan Project.
The EM manages a cleanup project at the Nevada National Security Site, the nation’s primary testing ground for nuclear explosions from the 1950s until the 1990s. The site is Essay about Planning, managed by National Security Technologies LLC, a joint venture involving defense contractor Northrop Grumman, construction corporation AECOM, CH2M Hill, and Babcock Wilcox. The top five types of products or services purchased by alcoholism uk the DOE during the past decade, according to Essay about, USASpending.gov, were operation of government RD facilities ($131,336,945,525), operation of government restoration ($16,513,451,131), operation of salary cap mlb other government industrial buildings ($14,722,290,665), operation of production buildings ($14,011,786,278), and operation of miscellaneous government buildings ($10,859,115,284). The five largest recipients of DOE contracts from about Urban Planning 2003-2013 are as follows: 1. Lockheed Martin Corporation $27,085,565,243. 2. Bechtel Group Inc. $24,250,967,897. 3. State of symbolism California $20,595,782,263. 4. URS Corporation $18,944,043,278.
5. Essay Planning! Los Alamos National Security LLC $17,353,702,916. DOE Chief Creates Controversy Favoring Fracking. President Barack Obama’s candidate to lead the Department of Energy (DOE) during his second term produced criticism from environmentalists and others opposed to hydraulic fracturing (aka fracking). MIT professor Ernest Moniz was chosen to serve as secretary of energy, replacing Dr. Steven Chu.
Critics of the decision said Moniz represented a threat to Obama’s promise to address the man-made causes of global warming, due to the physicist’s support for fracking. The chemicals used in the process may pollute water, pollute the air, and perhaps even cause earthquakes. “Mr. Moniz is affiliated with the industry-backed MIT Energy Initiative, so we shouldn’t be surprised about his favorable position on fracking,” Mitch Jones from Food Water Watch told Common Dreams. “But President Obama could do a lot better.” For Moniz, fracking was a great development because of its capacity to help expand natural gas drilling, which the of smoking professor considered a “clean energy” in comparison to greenhouse gas emitters like coal. Critics also pointed out that Moniz was cozy with the “old energy” industry, citing his place on the boards of directors of or as an adviser to Essay about, several energy and security companies, including enriched-uranium company USEC (2002-2004), BP (2005-2011), and negitive effects General Electric (since 2006). Backdoor Shipment Planned for Nuclear Waste from Essay Tennessee to consequences revolution, Nevada. Political leaders in Nevada objected to a 2013 plan by the DOE to ship old nuclear waste from Essay Tennessee to the state for The Marxist Perspective Theory storage. The DOE wanted to transport 403 canisters containing radioactive waste from Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to the Nevada National Security Site, where it would be buried in a desert landfill underneath another layer of radioactive waste. The canisters held old reactor fuel left over from the World War II-era Manhattan Project.
The DOE deemed the material low-level radioactive waste, which contained fissionable uranium-233. Urban! The waste would be 40 times more concentrated than any the site had ever accepted for disposal. Nevada Governor Brian Sandoval objected to the shipment, as did U.S. Sen. Harry Reid (D-Nevada) and Rep. Dina Titus (D-Nevada). Part of the problem was a DOE suggestion that part of the route would perhaps even include the salary cap mlb Las Vegas Strip. In a letter addressed to Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz, Sandoval wrote that the plan posed a danger to workers and provided a potential source for a “dirty bomb.” The governor also said the Urban proposal failed to checker, address the concerns of local governments and Native American tribes. DOE on the Hook for Fines if Cleanup Deadlines Aren’t Met. Federal budget cuts in 2013 threatened to slow down cleanup operations at a Cold War-era nuclear facility in South Carolina, prompting state officials to offer their own threat of hefty fines against the agency overseeing the work. The head of South Carolina’s environmental protection agency warned the DOE not to drag its feet on scheduled cleanup operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS), which holds 37 million gallons of high-level, radioactive waste in 49 underground tanks that are 50 or 60 years old.
DOE officials had said that budget cuts might force the agency to delay some of its remediation efforts at SRS. That may mean missing some 30 milestones on Essay Planning the cleanup timetable. But Catherine Templeton, director of the state’s Department of Health and originality checker Environmental Control, announced that any delays would result in fines of $105,000 day. That would potentially leave the Urban Planning DOE on The Marxist of Conflict Essay the hook for paying $154 million to the state. U.S. Plans to Export Fracking Gas. The controversial drilling method of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) has performed so well in the United States that companies began talking in Essay about Urban 2013 of exporting some of their excess supply of natural gas.
But such a move could result in higher gas prices in the U.S., not to consequences of industrial revolution, mention more fracking operations that threaten to pollute the environment. In Louisiana, Cheniere Energy’s $10-billion Sabine Pass natural gas terminal originally built to import natural gas was being converted to facilitate the shipping of fracking-produced gas to Great Britain. Initial shipments were scheduled for 2015, with nearly 20 tons of natural gas to be transported per year. Companies such as Exxon Mobil and Sempra Energy asked the Obama administration for permission to export as much as 29 billion cubic feet of natural gas a day. These efforts represented a turnaround for the industry. Less than a decade ago, domestic production of natural gas was so low that facilities were being built in U.S. ports to import foreign natural gas. But the fracking revolution produced an abundance of natural gas, causing the price to about Urban Planning, drop to alcoholism uk, around $4 per million BTU (British Thermal Unit).
This may be good news for gas companies, but it’s not necessarily good for U.S. consumers or the environment. Consumer groups and some manufacturers that use natural gas opposes expanded exports, claiming the exports could drive up domestic prices and make manufacturing more expensive. Meanwhile, many environmental groups opposed the exports because of fears that increased drilling could lead to environmental damage. Drilling companies have paid out large settlements to communities who insist that fracking operations have contaminated their water supplies. Essay Planning! There is also evidence of a link between fracking-related injection wells and the onset of earthquakes. The DOE was accused in 2013 of giving preferential treatment to relatives of employees, according to the agency’s inspector general (IG). The IG report said nepotism within the department had become an “open and widely accepted” practice. “Despite the Department’s ethics program and symbolism information regarding prohibited personnel practices, advocating for the selection of relatives appears to have become an open and widely accepted Departmental practice,” the report stated. One senior DOE official who was not identified used his position to contact a dozen DOE members to Essay, secure internships for his three college-aged children in 2012. He had also enrolled them in training programs paid for free originality by the DOE. The official also didn’t see anything wrong with what he had done, saying it was commonplace and that others in the department had acted similarly.
Savannah River Site Fails Security Test. The DOE decided in early 2013 to test the security at a key nuclear weapons facility in South Carolina, and found the protection was far from adequate. DOE specialists posing as terrorists carried out a mock assault on Planning the Savannah River Site, which stores large volumes of nuclear material and reactor waste. Plant security provided by a government contractor failed to prevent the salary cap mlb “terrorists” from reaching a key part of the facility and gaining access to Essay about Urban, fake bomb material. Other bad news regarding the testing included a decision by of industrial revolution the DOE to halt one exercise because a shift change resulted in workers wandering through the area.
The government also decided to Essay about Planning, skip some other scenarios due to weather problems. DOE and Pennsylvania Contradictory Fracking Studies. The DOE declared in a 2013 report that there was no evidence of hydraulic fracturing (or fracking) chemicals contaminating aquifers in western Pennsylvania. DOE researchers spent a year monitoring underground water supplies. They concluded that fluids tagged with unique markers, which were shot into the ground at a depth of more than 8,000, were not spotted within a monitoring zone that was 5,000 feet deep. This meant the potentially harmful chemicals didn’t creep into the area of drinking water supplies, which are normally closer to the surface, at less than 500 feet. The agency said the study was still ongoing, and did not represent a final assessment on the use of fracking or its potential impact on local environments. About a week after the revolution DOE released its report, news surfaced that another federal agency had sat on evidence of fracking-related water pollution in Pennsylvania. A field office of the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) produced a PowerPoint presentation revealing that EPA on-site staff members in Dimock had informed their Washington superiors that several wells had been contaminated with methane, manganese, and Essay Urban Planning arsenic, and that gas drilling was the likely culprit. The internal assessment contradicted EPA’s official position, released in July 2012, that the drinking water in Dimock was not tainted by natural gas extraction resulting from fracking and that it was safe to free originality, drink. Overworked Guard Dogs Put Tennessee Nuclear Facility at Risk. A key nuclear weapons facility operated by about the Department of Energy (DOE) was faulted in May 2013 for using tired and poorly trained guard dogs to of brown, protect important operations. The DOE’s inspector general said the handling of security canines at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Tennessee needed improvement in order to ensure the protection of the facility and the bomb-grade uranium stored there. “We found that half of the canine teams we observed failed explosive detection tests, many canines failed to respond to at least one of the handler’s commands, and Essay Urban Planning that canines did not receive all required training,” the report stated. The dogs were provided through a contractor, presumably K-9 SOS, working under a five-year deal worth nearly $15 million. The inspector general’s office said there had been claims the contactor had “rigged” proficiency tests for the dogs. But it was unable to confirm these accusations.
Auditors did confirm claims that the dogs were overworked and not given enough rest between shifts, especially on hot days. And outside officials that tested the dogs found that half of them couldn’t detect explosives. Y-12 has gotten into trouble before over security problems, including security personnel allegedly cheating on exams and an incident in 2012 when three peace activists breached the The Marxist Theory Essay examples site’s perimeter and made it to a key uranium storage area. Security at Nuclear Weapons Sites Lagging. After the Essay Urban 9/11 attacks, the DOE changed its procedures and protocol for how the department prepares for a potential terrorist attack against the nation’s nuclear weapons facilities. In 2003, 2005, and 2006, Energy officials kept revising the salary cap mlb “design basis threat” plan to better prepare for attacks. By July 2006, DOE had spent more than $420 million in an “aggressive” attempt to toughen security by giving security officers armored vehicles and large-caliber weapons. That same year, the DOE promised Congress that six of its 11 nuclear weapons sites would have upgraded security by 2008. By the fall of 2007, the department was nowhere near meeting this deadline, according to Urban Planning, a report by Perspective Essay examples the Government Accountability Office. Five of the six sites were still far from being ready to Essay about Urban Planning, withstand a terrorist attack as defined by the design basis threat.
The DOE said it had put off work because of plans to consolidate plutonium at many of the sites into centralized locations. Rep. Edward J. Markey (D-Massachusetts) at that time blasted the DOE for falling behind in its security preparations. “The department seems to symbolism, think that the Urban terrorist threat to its nuclear facilities is no more serious than a Halloween prank, as evidenced by its failuremore than six years after the 9/11 attacksto do what it must to keep our stores of nuclear-weapons-grade materials secure,” Markey said in a statement. Government auditors faulted the DOE and symbolism its National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) in 2012 for failing to inform law enforcement about cyberattacks targeting government computers, including those at nuclear weapons laboratories. About Urban! The DOE’s inspector general said the lack of transparency in the department and the NNSA hindered investigations of about 2,300 cybersecurity incidents that took place between October 2009 and March 2012. The IG uncovered 223 incidents at DOE sites, of which 41% were not reported within established time frames. Joshua McConaha, an NNSA spokesman, told Mother Jones that the cybersecurity incidents not involving identity theft “were normal computer issues such as viruses” that occur “on a regular basis.” In fact, the The Marxist Crime Perspective examples agency asked to increase its cybersecurity budget by about $30 million in 2013, saying that the true number of attacks by hackers of all kinds, including automated bots trolling for vulnerabilities, may reach millions each day.
Security has been an issue for years at the Y-12 Oak Ridge nuclear plant in Tennessee. In 2008, seven security guards were caught sleeping on the job. Four years later at the site, security was breached when three activists, including an 82-year-old nun, cut through four perimeter fences and made their way to Essay Planning, the wall of the building where highly enriched uranium is of Conflict Theory Essay examples, stored. The incident prompted a government and industry-wide re-examination of about Urban security measures. Additional scandals have plagued the Tennessee plant, including discoveries that security personnel were caught cheating on The Marxist Perspective Essay examples exams, and that guard dogs were allowed insufficient rest and given improper training.
In 2013, DOE’s Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) performed security tests at all facilities that house bomb-grade nuclear material. The test at the Savannah River complex failed to protect the about Planning materials, and two other tests were halted due to weather and a worker shift change. Obama Administration Invested Billions in Companies Supported by Energy Dept. Insiders. The Department of Energy (DOE) under President Barack Obama was accused of funneling billions of dollars in funding to companies that had connections within DOE.
An investigation by free originality checker The Washington Post found that the Energy Department had approved nearly $4 billion in federal grants and Urban Planning financing to 21 companies supported by firms with connections to five Obama administration staffers and advisers. Of this amount, $2.46 billion flowed to nine businesses with ties to VantagePoint Venture Partners, a venture capital firm where Sanjay Wagle, a DOE adviser, worked before coming to Washington. The other four officials identified by the Post include Assistant Secretary David Sandalow, who previously worked for Good Energies, a company that received $737 million from the Energy Department; and Steve Westly, a longtime Silicon Valley entrepreneur who raised more than $1 million for the Obama campaigns in 2008 and revolution 2012 and became a member of then-Energy Secretary Steven Chu’s advisory board. The Westly Group took in $600 million in federal financing. The Obama administration said that the Energy Department employees and advisers took no part in grant-making decisions, which would mean that these business windfalls were just happy coincidences. Lawsuit Reveals Deficiencies. The NNSA released Performance Evaluation Reports (PER) three years after they were completed, long after decisions were made to renew lucrative contracts with private companies and long after the opportunity for oversight or input from the Essay about Urban public. Nuclear Watch New Mexico forced the NNSA to alcoholism uk, publish the reports after suing the agency.
As reported in a 2011 PER, the company handling work at Los Alamos National LaboratoryLos Alamos National Security LLCdid not “effectively manage” efforts in support of “NNSA strategic objectives,” a reference to the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement-Nuclear Facility, a project plagued by overspending in the billions of dollars. The 2012 PER described a situation in which onsite NNSA personnel suggested that Los Alamos National Security’s contract not be extended, but Neile Miller, the NNSA official in charge of awards, overrode the decision and the company was given a waiver extending its contract through 2018. Leasing Land for Uranium and Mining Continues. The U.S. DOE decided in spring 2013 to resume leasing federal land for uranium exploration and Essay about Urban Planning mining, which environmentalists opposed. DOE’s Office of Legacy Management (LM) released a draft environmental impact statement for the program that concluded continuing with leasing was the best option.
The draft report said that of several choices, ranging from scrapping the leasing program to revolution, leaving it in limbo, leaving it in limbo would have the greatest impact on the environment. “It is assumed that there would be a total of 19 mines operating at about Planning various production rates at the same time,” during what might be considered a peak year of alcoholism uk operations, the draft stated. About Urban Planning! The DOE has 29 leased tracts of land in three Colorado counties alone. Not waiting for the DOE report, Energy Fuels Resources, with mining operations in Colorado, tried to restart work at a uranium mine about six miles from the Grand Canyon by going through the U.S. Effects! Forest Service. That prompted the Sierra Club, the Center for Biological Diversity, Grand Canyon Trust, and the Havasupai Tribe to file lawsuits against the Forest Service to stop the Essay about Planning company from resuming uranium-mining operations at Arizona’s Canyon Mine. In 2012, the Department of the Interior had imposed a 20-year ban on uranium mining on salary cap mlb federal lands. But Energy Fuel Resources claimed its operation had been grandfathered in and should be allowed to Essay Planning, continue with its restart. The company lost that legal battle when a federal judge rejected its argument that the ban should be overturned, ruling that Interior had the authority to protect the Grand Canyon’s watershed. U.S.
Unprepared for Nuclear Disaster. The Department of free checker Homeland Security (DHS) admitted in a 2010 confidential report that the United States was ill prepared to deal with a significant release of radiation. That report, released on the heels of Japan’s Fukushima nuclear crisis in 2011, raised serious concerns about the lack of attention government officials had given to Essay Urban, radiation threats, whether it stemmed from a terrorist attack (such as a “dirty bomb”) or a natural disaster impacting a power plant. The DHS study found that the health system “can only The Marxist Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay examples handle a few radiation injuries at about Planning any one time” and Crime Perspective of Conflict Theory examples that “there is about Urban Planning, no strategy for notifying the public in real time of recommendations on shelter or evacuation priorities.” Compounding the lack of preparation was the fact that the federal government two years earlier ceased stockpiling potassium iodide, the best-known agent to of smoking, counter radioactive iodine-induced thyroid cancer in young people. In 2013, the Essay about Urban Government Accountability Office released a report warning that in the event of an accident at a nuclear plant, panicking residents from outside the official evacuation zone around it might jam the salary cap mlb roads and prevent others from escaping.
The report challenged a three-decade-old fundamental of emergency planning around American nuclear power plants: that preparations for evacuation should focus on people who live within 10 miles of the Urban site. DOE Forgettable as a Department to Eliminatefor 2012 Candidate Rick Perry. The DOE, like it or not, became party to one of the biggest political gaffes of the 2012 Republican presidential primary competition. In a debate between GOP challengers, Texas Governor Rick Perry explained how he would eliminate three federal departments if elected president. But Perry only got as far as naming two of The Marxist Crime examples them, then drew a blank on live television when trying to name the third. “It’s three agencies of government when I get there that are goneCommerce, Education and the um, what’s the third one there? Let’s see. . . . Commerce, Education and the um, um,” Perry said. Mitt Romney, standing nearby on stage, offered the Environmental Protection Agency as a suggestion.
At first, Perry jumped at the life preserver Romney tossed him“EPA, there you go,” he said. But then, the Texas governor quickly backtracked, saying the Essay EPA should be reorganized, not eliminated. The debate moderator prompted Perry again to negitive effects of smoking, name the third agency. Essay About! But he couldn’t, and ended with an, “Oops.” It wasn’t until 15 minutes later, long after the salary cap mlb candidates had moved on to other subjects, that it finally hit him. “By the way, it was the Department of Essay about Planning Energy I was talking about,” Perry blurted. Following the conclusion of the debate, Perry told reporters he really “stepped in it” by of brown forgetting the DOE.
“Speaking of Essay Urban Planning boots, I’m glad I had my boots on tonight because I sure stepped in it out there,” Perry joked. “I stepped in it. Man, yeah it was embarrassing. Of course it was.” Los Alamos Loses Computers. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the nation’s leading nuclear weapons research facility, suffered numerous security problems over the years, from missing computers to vulnerability to cyberattacks. In November 2002, investigators discovered the laboratory could not account for $2.7 million in originality computers and Essay Planning equipment as well as thousands of Crime of Conflict Theory Essay examples dollars in questionable credit card transactions (including a Mustang, jewelry, and casino cash advances). About Urban! As a result of the problems, director John Browne resigned in salary cap mlb January 2003. That same year, it was reported LANL had problems with exposure to about Urban Planning, and handling of radioactive materials, including piping contaminated with plutonium. In 2004, the laboratory suspended all lab activities while scientists and effects of smoking engineers searched for two missing computer disks containing nuclear secrets. Then, five years later, LANL officials feared they had lost 2.2 pounds of Planning plutonium.
A review of salary cap mlb records revealed that statisticians at the lab had miscalculated the amount of plutonium at its facility and that none was actually missing. In 2013, experts said the lab was still vulnerable to cyberattacks, despite steps taken to about Urban, make LANL’s computer systems more secure. Within the Hanford Nuclear Reservation along the Columbia River in Washington State, six underground storage tanks were found to be leaking radioactive waste in 2013. Some of the tanks held as much as 500,000-750,000 gallons of alcoholism uk dangerous fluid that was slowing seeping into Essay about Urban, the soil. State and federal officials said the leaks didn’t pose an immediate threat to human health, since the tanks were located more than five miles from the Columbia River. The newly discovered problem only added to effects, the soil contamination at Hanford, which was used for five decades to produce plutonium for the U.S. nuclear weapons arsenal. There were nearly 150 tanks, similar in size and design, to the six spilling radioactive liquid and sludge at the site. Four of the Essay Planning six tanks had leaked in the past and were supposed to have been stabilized in 2005. The news led the state’s governor, Jay Inslee, to wonder about the “integrity” of the other tanks.
The DOE reported that the tanks were leaking at a rate of The Marxist Crime Perspective Theory up to 300 gallons per year. With a total area comparable to the size of Los Angeles, Hanford was considered by experts to be the most challenging environmental remediation in North America. The nuclear site was built near the city of Hanford in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project, the secret U.S. government research program that produced the first atomic bombs. Federal environmental regulators estimated the Essay about Planning site contained more than 130 million cubic yards of radioactive soil, thanks in large part to the dumping of 475 billion gallons of contaminated wastewater into the ground during the Cold War. Later that same year, it was reported that the The Marxist Crime Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay contractor hired to clean the leaking tanks had admitted to committing fraud. Essay Urban! The company, CH2M Hill Hanford Group Inc. (CHG), confessed that its workers padded their time cards, with the company’s blessing, for years from symbolism of brown 1999-2008, thus defrauding the government. CHG’s parent company, CH2M Hill Companies Ltd., agreed to pay $18.5 million for the wrongdoing, and Essay Urban Planning commit another $500,000 toward improving the subsidiary’s accountability systems. New Mexico Questions Taking Hanford Nuclear Waste.
The DOE hoped in 2013 to move 3.1 million gallons of radioactive waste from negitive of smoking its Hanford Nuclear Reservation in Washington state to a waste disposal facility in New Mexico. But political leaders in New Mexico as well as environmental groups objected to the plan and called for Essay about public hearings into the matter. The outcry resulted in New Mexico officials declining DOE’s request for quick approval of the proposal to transfer the radioactive waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad. Instead, the of industrial revolution New Mexico Environment Department planned to hold public hearings before any decisions were made. U.S.
Senator Tom Udall (D-New Mexico) said WIPP specifically prohibited waste from Urban Hanford. He added that any proposal to modify permit language in this case would need “strong justification and consequences of industrial revolution public input.” U.S. Nuclear Reactors Have Unfixable Problems. The former chairman of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) warned in April 2013 that the United States had a serious problem with every one of Essay Urban its nuclear reactors, requiring that they be replaced or shut down. The issue raised by Dr.
Gregory B. Jaczko echoed those expressed by anti-nuclear groups. But it was unusual for an ex-NRC chairman to raise such alarm impacting all 104 nuclear reactors in the country. Jaczko said the safety problems couldn’t be fixed, which means either replacing the reactors or closing them down permanently. Indeed, by July four U.S. nuclear plants had been taken offline. While speaking before the free Carnegie International Nuclear Policy Conference in Washington, Jaczko admitted it would not be practical to close down all the plants at once. About Planning! A gradual phase out would instead make sense, he added, saying he does not support extending the life of symbolism of brown reactorsmany of which already are operating long past their original expiration. When asked why he spoke out after his stint at the NRC, Jaczko said: “I was just thinking about the issues more, and watching as the industry and the regulators and the whole nuclear safety community continues to try to figure out how to Urban, address these very, very difficult problems,” he said, according to Crime Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay, Matthew Wald writing for The New York Times . Those troubles became more evident to Jaczko after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan, “Continuing to Urban Planning, put Band-Aid on Crime Theory examples Band-Aid is not going to fix the about problem.”
Jaczko resigned from the NRC in the summer of 2012 following months of conflict with his commission colleagues. He was often in the minority as he voted for originality more stringent safety regulations, earning him distrust within the about nuclear industry. Y-12 Nuclear Lab Vandalized. Three peace activists, including an elderly Roman Catholic nun, trespassed onto a leading nuclear weapons facility in symbolism of brown the summer of 2012, embarrassing the NNSA, which is about Urban, charged with managing the checker facility. On July 28, 2012, Sister Megan Rice, 82, Greg Boertje-Obed, 57, and Michael Walli, 63, entered the sprawling grounds of the Oak Ridge Y-12 nuclear weapons production facility in Tennessee. The three activists managed to cut through not one, not two, not three, but four fences and reach the uranium enrichment facility on foot before one of the plant’s security guards, Kirk Garland, finally detected the unlawful entry and arrested them. Garland was subsequently fired. Essay About Planning! The government pays $1.2 billion for security at Oak Ridge every year. Alcoholism Uk! WSI Oak Ridge is Essay Urban, a subsidiary of the international security firm G4S, which was taken to originality, task for Essay Urban Planning failing to provide enough security personnel for the London Olympic Games in 2012. Rice, Boertje-Obed, and Walli were not armed. They carried Bibles, peace banners, flowers, and spray paint, which was used to originality, put up peace messages.
A couple days after their apprehension, the three were arraigned in court and Planning charged with federal trespassing, which is a misdemeanor that carries a penalty of up to one year in jail. Their feat raised serious questions about the free originality NNSA’s ability to protect such an important facility. The agency’s IG subsequently investigated security operations at Y-12 and found “multiple system failures on several levels.” The IG also said the breach by the three activists should serve as a “wake-up” call for about Planning the Energy Department to do something about Perspective of Conflict improving the security at the uranium facility. In the Essay about months after the incident, the Obama administration decided to elevate the charges against Rice and the others. The defendants went from facing upward of a year in prison to six years, then 16 years, and finally 30 years. Salary Cap Mlb! Eventually the Justice Department charged them with “aiding and abetting each other, with intent to Essay about Planning, injure, interfere with, and obstruct the national defense of the salary cap mlb United States” and Essay Urban Planning that they “did willfully injure, destroy and contaminate, and attempt to injure, destroy and alcoholism uk contaminate national-defense premises, specifically, buildings and grounds of the Y-12 National Security Complex.” In May 2013, the activists were tried and convicted on two counts: sabotaging the plant and damaging federal property. Their sentencing hearing was scheduled for September. Pipeline Through New Jersey. Environmentalists and local residents of Essay about Urban New Jersey were disappointed in of industrial revolution 2012 when the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) approved the Transcontinental Gas Pipeline Company’s (Transco) Northeast Supply Link project.
The so-called Stanton Loop pipeline would add 6.64 miles of pipe running through private properties and across residential streets in Clinton, Union, and Franklin townships. It also would travel under Route 31, cut through the Highlands region at South Branch Reservation along the Raritan River and Cramer’s Creek Park in Clinton Township and go underneath the Raritan River, which supplies drinking water to a million people. Leaders of Clinton Township passed a resolution opposing the project and urging the FERC to reconsider its position. The Sierra Club, along with other environmental groups, opposed the project, saying it would threaten the Highlands region as well as public health and safety. Yet work on the pipeline extension began in 2013. In May, a gas ignition and minor explosion injured 13 workers constructing a section of the Essay pipeline. Two workers were seriously hurt and hospitalized. The incident had locals concerned about the possibility of another such occurrence, despite the company’s assurance that safety was its top priority. The FERC suspended the electric market-based rate authority of J.P. Morgan Ventures Energy Corp. in symbolism November 2012 for about Urban submitting false information to the Commission.
The suspension banned J.P. Morgan Ventures from selling power at alcoholism uk market-based rates for Essay six months effective April 1, 2013. FERC officials said J.P. Morgan Ventures made factual misrepresentations and omitted material information over the course of several months of communications with the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) and in filings to the FERC in connection with requests for information involving bidding activities in the California market. JPMorgan previously denied manipulating the market and said it had committed an “inadvertent factual error in papers related to discovery and consequences promptly informed the commission of this mistake.”
FERC became involved after CAISO, which runs the state’s electrical transmission grid, complained in 2011 about the banking giant. About Planning! It was taking advantage of loopholes in salary cap mlb trading rules. CAISO ultimately claimed that JPMorgan had gamed California’s energy market to the tune of $73 million. FERC Takes on Wall Street. The FERC decided under the Obama administration to go after big players on Wall Street after determining they had manipulated energy prices. FERC regulators, expanding their focus on energy traders in the aftermath of the Enron scandal, targeted JPMorgan Chase, Deutsche Bank, and Barclays.
In the case of Barclays, the Commission demanded the British bank pay $470 million in fines for illegal trades, which the FERC called a manipulative scheme, involving energy stocks. JPMorgan Chase was pursued over potential manipulation of energy markets in California and the Midwest. FERC Takes Aim at Wall Street (by Ben Protess and Michael De La Merced, New York Times) Proposal to Essay about, Remove Nuclear Weapons Oversight from DOE. Representative Michael Turner (R-Ohio), chairman of the House Armed Services Strategic Forces Subcommittee, proposed in 2012 to remove the DOE oversight authority of the alcoholism uk nation’s nuclear weapons complex, which is managed by Essay about Planning the NNSA. Turner proposed that the NNSA take on these duties. Turner claimed the DOE’s regulation and oversight of the nuclear weapons complex was problematic and caused both delays and overruns associated with various NNSA projects.
The Obama administration objected to Turner’s proposal, saying the change might result in lax security at NNSA sites. In addition, some lawmakers rejected the idea, including the Republican and Democratic leaders on the House Energy and Commerce Committee, which also has jurisdiction over NNSA activities. Obama Redirects Some Energy Funds to negitive of smoking, the Pentagon. In the wake of the Solyndra controversy, the Obama administration sought to keep renewable energy initiatives going by pursuing them in the Department of Defensea move that irked some conservatives. President Barack Obama’s fiscal 2013 budget plan didn’t include big increases for wind and Essay solar power through the of brown Department of Energy, which was still smarting from the Essay Urban $535 million loan guarantee default by Solyndra, a manufacturer of solar panels and The Marxist Crime Perspective of Conflict Essay examples hardware. So, officials sought increases in spending on alternative energy in Planning the Defense Department, such as programs to replace traditional jet fuel with biofuels, supply troops on the front lines with solar-powered electronic equipment, build hybrid-engine tanks and aircraft carriers, and increase renewable-energy use on of brown military bases. Republicans in Congress weren’t pleased with the idea, claiming the Pentagon’s efforts to about, move to renewable energy were more about alcoholism uk politics than they were about saving lives and boosting security. “Obama is hiding new renewable energy bets at Essay the Pentagon, charging our Defense Department with major investments in ‘low-emissions economic development’ while cutting their budget by alcoholism uk $5.1 billion,” Catrina Rorke wrote in a blog post for American Action Forum. The director of energy policy at the center-right organization continued, “New energy spending is new energy spending, no matter where it happens.” Cleanup Safety Risks Underplayed. The cleanup project at the Hanford nuclear fuel factory in Washington state became embroiled in controversy in 2011 when Bechtel National Inc., the company in Urban Planning charge of the operation, was accused of underplaying safety risks at of industrial the toxic site.
A federal engineering review team found in late July that Bechtel’s safety evaluation of key equipment at the plant was incomplete and that risks were more serious than Bechtel acknowledged when it sought approval to continue with construction. The Department of Energy, which oversees Hanford, asserted that Bechtel failed to about Urban, do its job properly while implementing the tasks of removing radioactive soil and man-made materials. Some workers turned into whistleblowers to draw attention to scientific assessments that had been dismissed and symbolism managers who had allegedly abused their power. Bechtel also was accused of Essay rushing procedures in order to get paid quicker. The following year, a local watchdog organization, Hanford Challenge, released a DOE memo urging the termination of the key duties of Bechtel. The document reportedly listed numerous problems with Bechtel’s work and questioned whether it should continue its role at Hanford. Once a cornerstone of America’s nuclear weapons production, Hanford has become a colossal cleanup project that has dragged on for decades, costing billions of dollars (at least 250% over budget) and alcoholism uk sparking controversy between the federal government and the company in charge of the reclamation. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimated that the Hanford site contains more than 130 million cubic yards of radioactive soil, thanks in large part to the dumping of 475 billion gallons of contaminated wastewater into Essay Planning, the ground during the Cold War. Republicans Go on symbolism of brown the Warpath Against Clean Energy. Following the controversy over the Solyndra loan from the U.S.
Department of Energy, Republicans in the U.S. House and on Essay about Urban Planning the presidential trail went after the symbolism Obama administration’s clean energy initiatives, calling for budget reductions and program eliminations. In June 2012, House Republicans adopted 13 provisions designed to Planning, cut off Energy Department financing for existing clean energy and efficiency programs. It was pointed out in the media that more than half of the programs targeted by GOP were started under President George W. Bush, and some even earlier than that. They ranged from wind technology supports to mandates for zero-carbon buildings, LED light bulbs, and electric golf carts. GOP presidential candidate Mitt Romney falsely claimed “about half” of the clean-energy companies that received government-backed loans “have gone out of business.” The remark echoed the salary cap mlb failure of Solyndra, maker of solar panels and other hardware, which received a $535 million loan guarantee from the Essay about Urban Energy Department. Of Industrial! It was highly touted by the Obama administration as an example of clean technology that the government should support. However, the company wound up going bankrupt, setting off accusations that the Essay about Urban Energy Department ignored warning signs at Solyndra before approving the loan guarantee. Hydraulic fracturing might not have become so successful for consequences revolution industry if it wasn’t for help from the DOE. Gas companies and free-marketers have claimed hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, developed into a moneymaking opportunity without government interference.
But some who pioneered the drilling technique admit that if it weren’t for Essay Urban Congress and the DOE, the business wouldn’t be where it is today. “I’m conservative as hell,” Dan Steward, the former Mitchell Energy geologist whose company pioneered shale gas in Texas, told The Breakthrough Institute in 2011. Negitive Effects Of Smoking! “They [the government] did a hell of a lot of work, and about I can’t give them enough credit for that. [The Department of Energy] started it, and other people took the ball and ran with it. You cannot diminish DOE’s involvement.” Washington contributed more than $100 million in research to develop fracking, as well as billions of dollars more in The Marxist Perspective Theory tax breaks. The DOE began funding research into fracking and horizontal drilling in about Urban 1975, and five years later, lawmakers approved an important tax break to encourage “unconventional” natural gas drilling. Among the free originality checker most important government contributions, in what is called “advocacy-based science,” was the development by Essay about Urban Planning government scientists of micro-seismic (3D) mapping, which is salary cap mlb, known in the industry as “frack mapping.” Noncompetition for Site Cleanup Contracts. Nearly half of the $16 billion in contracts awarded by the federal government in President Barack Obama’s first year in office were noncompetitive, non-fixed-price deals.
A spokesman for the Office of Management and Essay Budget (OMB) said $7.8 billion was awarded without bidding and specified price because many of these contracts were from the Department of Energy for environmental management and clean up. For instance, $1.27 billion was given to Crime of Conflict Theory, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions LLC to clean up the former uranium production site in South Carolina for nuclear weapons. About Urban Planning! CH2M Hill received $1.06 billion for its work helping clean up the shuttered Hanford plutonium factory in Washington. The OMB was later able to free, report that contracts awarded without competition dropped 10% during the first half of fiscal year 2010, compared to the same period in 2009. Awards of contracts that generated only one bid also dropped, but by just 2%. Worldwide, Fossil Fuel Wins Out over Renewable Energy in Subsidies. The gas and oil industry as of Essay Urban 2010 received considerably more subsidies from the salary cap mlb world’s governments than those provided to Essay Urban, renewable energy sources.
A report from the International Energy Agency showed nations spent $409 billion on subsidizing the production and consumption of fossil fuels, while solar, wind, and biofuels received only $66 billion. Coal companies alone outpaced alternative energy providers, enjoying $91 billion in The Marxist of Conflict Theory examples subsidies. Big Oil received $193 billion in about government support. Biofuel endeavors took in $22 billion, while renewable electricity sources received $44 billion. The report noted that in the United States “Fossil fuels make up about 85% of of brown U.S. primary energy supply, a relatively high share by OECD standards. Oil is the leading fuel, accounting for 37% of supply, followed by natural gas (25%) and coal (22%). Nuclear power contributes a further 1%, with renewablesmainly biomassmaking up the remaining 5%. Urban! . . . Oil and gas production is fully in the hands of private enterprises, even though about four-fifths of the country’s recoverable resources are on federal land or in free originality checker federally controlled offshore waters.” Fiscal Cliff Causes Controversy for Nuclear Arsenal. When Republicans in Essay Urban Congress and President Barack Obama averted the so-called “fiscal cliff” at Crime of Conflict Theory Essay the end of 2012, a provision was hidden within the legislation that impacted the Urban status of nuclear arms reductions between the The Marxist of Conflict examples U.S. and Russia.
The controversy began when House Republicans added language to another bill, the 2013 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA), which could “impede the fulfillment of future U.S. obligations agreed” to about Planning, the New START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) agreement, according to of brown, the White House. The NDAA section in question required that, before carrying out “any reduction to the number of strategic delivery systems,” such as required under New START, the President had to certify “ that the Russian Federation is in Essay about Urban Planning compliance with its arms control obligations with the United States and is not engaged in activity in violation of, or inconsistent with, such obligations [italics added].” Obama objected to the word “that,” and so lawmakers included an amendment in the fiscal-cliff bill that changed the wording in the NDAA to “whether.” Now, Obama needed to only certify “whether” Russia was in compliance with the free originality checker New START. About Urban! The difference was “that” presumed Russia was in compliance and “whether” would give Obama more latitude in conducting diplomacy. Tom Z. Collina and free checker Daryl G. Kimball at the Arms Control Association wrote that “this is as it should be.
The last thing we should do is to take a successful treaty like New STARTwhich is verifiably reducing Russian nuclear arms that would otherwise be aimed at the United Statesand hold it hostage to longstanding disagreements with Russia on other issues.” New START Almost Goes Over the Cliff (by Tom Z. About Urban! Collina and Daryl G. Kimball, Arms Control Association) Nonexplosive Nuclear Tests Cause Controversy. The NNSA secretly tested the survivability of free warhead plutonium several times during the Obama administration, provoking complaints from anti-nuclear groups in Japan. Using what’s called a “Z Machine,” NNSA scientists exposed a plutonium cache to an intense bombardment of Planning X-rays, in an effort to mimic the fusion reactions of nuclear warheads. The test allows for the study of plutonium reactions under high pressure and negitive of smoking heat levels similar to those occurring from Essay Urban Planning a detonated nuclear bomb, according to the NNSA. Following Z tests conducted in of brown June and August 2012, two Japanese Hiroshima-based organizations publicly criticized the agency and the U.S. government. The Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum said the test was on par with that of an actual nuclear weapons testsomething the U.S. has vowed to no longer conduct. Another nonprofit, the Essay Mayors for symbolism Peace, representing 5,400 cities, said in a letter that the tests demonstrated a total lack of U.S. interest in nuclear abolition and the intention of the U.S. to “cling to its nuclear stockpile.” Government auditors faulted the Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) in 2012 for failing to inform law enforcement about cyberattacks targeting government computers, including those at nuclear weapons laboratories.
The DOE’s inspector general said the lack of transparency by DOE and NNSA hindered investigations of Essay about Urban about 2,300 cybersecurity incidents that took place between October 2009 and March 2012. The failure to provide timely reporting put DOE’s “information systems and networks at negitive effects of smoking increased risk,” according to the IG’s report. The IG uncovered 223 incidents at DOE sites, of which 41% were not reported within established time frames. Joshua McConaha, an NNSA spokesman, told Mother Jones that the cybersecurity incidents not involving identity theft “were normal computer issues such as viruses” that occur “on a regular basis.” In fact, the Planning agency asked to increase its cybersecurity budget by about $30 million in 2013, saying that the true number of symbolism of brown attacks by hackers of all kinds, including automated bots trolling for vulnerabilities, may reach millions each day. Global Security Newswire)
Number of New York Gas Leaks and Explosions Explodes. Natural gas pipeline leaks and explosions in New York City increased dramatically in Urban 2011, increasing by alcoholism uk 400% compared to Essay about, the previous year, according to salary cap mlb, documents obtained by NaturalGasWatch.org. The public advocacy group reported that the Essay Urban number of serious or significant gas pipeline incidents jumped from two in 2010 to eight in 2011. The total for 2011 accounted for nearly half of the distribution pipeline incidents that occurred statewide. All of the 2011 incidents occurred in pipelines operated by the Consolidated Edison Co. of New York. Federal records indicated the number of natural gas pipeline incidents that occurred in New York transmission pipelines doubled in total, from three incidents in 2010 to six incidents in symbolism 2011, and the number of about Planning incidents related to distribution pipelines more than tripled, from five in 2010 to 18 in 2011.
The natural gas watchdog estimates that hundreds of miles of the negitive 5,000 miles of pipeline running under New York City are cast-iron pipes that are at least 100 years old. Office of Science Involved in about Urban Scientific Misconduct. The DOE’s Office of Science was swept up in controversy when details from an effects of smoking unpublished report emerged in 2011 alleging researchers at a national laboratory were accused of Urban scientific misconduct. The allegations first surfaced in 2006 after an anonymous peer reviewer accused a research group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee of fabricating data in two manuscripts: a then-current submission to Nature Physics , which had not been published, and a paper that had been published in 1993 by the magazine Nature . The ORNL group was headed by Stephen Pennycook, an electron microscopist who produced a landmark paper on atomic-scale imaging. Pennycook, a pioneer of salary cap mlb such techniques, had been pushing the Essay Planning limits of spatial resolution in electron microscopy to solve problems in a variety of research areas, including materials sciences, nanotechnology, and condensed-matter physics. That same year, Republican lawmakers challenged the Obama administration’s science czar over what they claimed were repeat incidents of “scientific misconduct” among agencies. In a letter to John Holdren, director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, the symbolism of brown GOP lawmakers, concerned that there was a trend developing, cited other controversies in recent years in Essay Urban which scientific findings were questioned or misinterpreted, covering topics ranging from Crime Perspective of Conflict Theory examples a deepwater drilling moratorium to formaldehyde. FERC Chief Says No New Coal or Nuclear Plants. Jon Wellinghoff, chairman of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), shocked many in the energy industry, and the Obama administration, when he remarked in 2009 that no new nuclear or coal plants might be needed in about Urban Planning the United States.
“We may not need any, ever,” Wellinghoff told reporters at a U.S. Energy Association forum. The FERC chairman’s comments conflicted with those of the administration, which has tried to balance renewable and fossil energies as a policy. Alcoholism Uk! The Obama administration had been hoping for a rebirth of nuclear power based on safer, progressive designs. Wellinghoff claimed renewables like wind, solar, and biomass would provide enough energy to meet capacity and future energy demands. The problem with nuclear and coal plants, he said, was they were too expensive to keep investing in. Revis James of the Electric Power Research Institute pointed out that rushing into renewables could cause reliability issues without sufficient baseload capacity. Try Energy Efficiency before Renewable Energy.
Much of the alternative energy debate has focused so much on investing in renewable sources that people have lost sight of the Essay about Urban importance of energy efficiency. In 2009, Jacob Arlein at Clean Techies makes the point that before homeowners and entrepreneurs jump into renewable energy, they first should make sure their homes and businesses are running efficiently as far as energy consumption is concerned. “If your building wastes energy, you should prioritize improving this aspect and use the money that you had set aside for a renewable project to consequences of industrial revolution, accomplish the task,” Arlein wrote. After collecting enough savings from efficiency retrofits, an investor can implement a renewable energy-generation system, he adds. “Let’s be honest, renewable generation doesn’t always make economic sense. This is why federal, state and local municipalities have set up generous rebate and tax credit systems to Essay Urban Planning, offset the costs. Even with these savings measures, many solar and wind projects have long paybacks,” Arlein argued. Even with government rebates for renewable energy, it can take 10 to revolution, 15 years for someone to recoup their initial investment in the technology. Compare that with energy efficiency retrofit projects, which can lead to Essay about Planning, paybacks in as early as one to five years, while producing major energy and cost savings, Arlein contended.
Lawrence Livermore Exercise Exposes Security Weakness. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California became a major embarrassment for the Department of Energy in 2008 when its security guards performed poorly during a simulated attack on the top-secret facility. A commando team posing as terrorists attacked and salary cap mlb infiltrated the lab’s perimeter and defenses, and was able to get to their “objective,” comprising a payload of simulated fissile material. At the core of Livermore is the Essay about “Superblock,” a collection of buildings heavily protected to secure the lab’s store of 2,000 pounds of plutonium and weapons-grade uraniumenough fissile material that could be used to build at least 300 nuclear weapons. The exercise reportedly exposed many major security inadequacies at Livermore, including the failure of a hydraulic system essential to shooting one of the high-powered Gatling machine guns that protect the facility. Battlement Mesa Fracking Controversy.
Colorado residents complained to the LM in 2009 after natural gas companies sought permission to drill near the site of an old nuclear testing ground. In 1969, the Crime Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay U.S. government detonated a nuclear weapon a few thousand feet underground near Battlement Mesa, in what was called Project Rulison. The site was then sealed off, leaving behind nearly 800 million cubic feet of radioactive gas under the earth. Thirty-five years later, natural gas producers began drilling in the region, getting closer to the site of the 1969 blast. This drilling prompted local landowners and citizens to ask government officials to prohibit gas exploration near the radioactive blast site. Some observers said the DOE and the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission didn’t take the matter seriously, and were playing “Rulison Roulette” with the Essay Urban safety and health of the people of Battlement Mesa, the nearby town of Parachute, and salary cap mlb the surrounding area. Energy Secretary Kills FutureGen. Shortly after President George W. Urban Planning! Bush announced in his 2008 State of the Union speech that he planned a big hike in energy research funding, the administration appeared ready to alcoholism uk, scuttle one of Planning its most important initiatives: FutureGen. Lawmakers from Illinois were told by then-DOE Secretary Samuel Bodman that he was ready to pull the plug on the billion-dollar program that would have been a boon for downstate Illinois. Only a month earlier, energy officials announced that Mattoon, Illinois, won a battle with Texas to host FutureGen.
A DOE spokeswoman said soaring cost projections and technological advances had led the department to rethink the project. The president first embraced the concept of effects FutureGen in Essay 2003 as an inventive approach to energy generation that would use abundant U.S. coal reserves but trap most of the pollution associated with the burning of coal. The idea was to of industrial, marry two proven technologies to gasify coal and Essay Planning then bury greenhouse gases produced by the process deep within the earth. During a meeting in Washington D.C., Bodman told the Illinois delegation that he planned to disband FutureGen and go “in another direction.” At one point, then-Republican Congressman Timothy Johnson, whose district included Mattoon, and Bodman snapped at each other. The FutureGen project was to be one of the administration’s biggest energy research plums, rich with promise, as well as jobs and investment for the winning community. Plans called for it to alcoholism uk, be built by a consortium involving the DOE and coal and power companies, with 74% of the funding coming from taxpayers. Private sector partners in Essay about Planning FutureGen announced the free selection of Mattoon in December 2007, even though Bodman’s agency had urged a delay. Essay About! Subsequently, the effects of smoking coal and power companies promised to Essay about Planning, pick up a bigger share of the project’s costs, leaving the checker administration still on the hook for the bulk of construction expenses.
Several communities bid to host the project, with the Urban finalists coming down to Mattoon and nearby Tuscola, Illinois, and two cities in alcoholism uk Texas. To some in Planning Illinois, the battle evoked memories of the symbolism of brown 1988 showdown over a $4 billion federally funded particle accelerator. One week after George H.W. Bush had been elected president, his home state of Texas was awarded the Superconducting Super Collider Project, triggering charges from the Essay Urban losing side that politics had trumped science. The project was beset by cost overruns and was never finished. Following the decision by Bodman, U.S. Sen. Richard Durbin (D-Illinois) said he feared the scenario was playing out again with another Bush in the White House. “In 25 years on Capitol Hill, I have never witnessed such a cruel deception,” Durbin said. “When the free checker city of Mattoon, Illinois, was chosen over possible locations in Urban Planning Texas, the secretary of energy set out to kill FutureGen.” Surviving the end of the George W. Bush administration and carrying through the Obama administration, the project has since had a number of starts and stops due to funding issues.
Lack of financing saw FutureGen canceled in 2008, only to be resurrected a year later. A General Accountability Office (GAO) report suggested that the decision to effects of smoking, revive it might have been misguided, claiming that it would not be cost-effective. Furthermore, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) claimed that the technology underlying FutureGencarbon capture and sequestrationmight not be operative until 2020. Nonetheless, the DOE decided to proceed with FutureGen. Financial backing for it was earmarked through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act in 2009. In August 2010, the DOE cancelled plans to build the plant in Mattoon, and announced that it would move the projectnow called FutureGen 2.0to Meredosia, Illinois, where it would invest a billion dollars to retrofit a 64-year-old oil-burning plant and build a training center. The DOE, partnered with the public interest organization FutureGen Alliance, has kept the enterprise on Essay about Urban Planning track.
A billion dollars in of smoking funding from the Recovery Act was announced for the project in 2013, with construction set to begin in 2014 in order for the plant to become operational in 2017. Officials in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) found themselves in a fog in 2007 over how to recreate a key component for Essay about nuclear warheads. Somehow, the NNSA had forgotten the method for producing “fogbank,” a classified material. Outside experts suggested that fogbank was a type of exploding foam that resides between the fission and fusion portions of hydrogen bombs. The Government Accountability Office reported that the NNSA spent a year and nearly $70 million trying to remake fogbank. It was unclear if the effort was successful.
Nuclear policy experts couldn’t believe the snafu. Apparently, few records had been kept describing the process, and over the years, those who knew it had apparently either retired or had left the NNSA. “What the story ought to tell people is that the of brown institutions that we’ve built to oversee development and maintenance of our nuclear weapons are incompetent,” Jeffrey Lewis, director of the nuclear strategy and nonproliferation initiative at the New America Foundation, told Mother Jones . When Congress passed the Energy Policy Act of 2005, a provision was included that allowed the federal government to force state, local and Essay private landholders to sell property that was deemed necessary for the creation of new transmission lines and Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay towers. The new electrical infrastructure helped form the Essay Planning National Interest Electric Transmission Corridors pushed by alcoholism uk the George W. Bush administration to relieve congestion in key areas of the U.S. Essay! electric grid. The administration’s plan was met with opposition from Democrats and Republicans, environmental groups, historical societies, and state and local governments. Traditionally, state, local, and regional governments have primarily determined the routes of of industrial power lines.
But under the corridors plan, the federal government is able to bypass state and local opposition by allowing the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC)not statesto be the final arbiter of where the lines are built. In October 2007, OE announced that the first two corridors would be built in the mid-Atlantic region that includes counties in eight states and the District of Colombia and a Southwest corridor that covers Southern California and about Urban parts of Arizona. Opponents cited several concerns while opposing the building of the corridors. First, the new electrical towers would be sited through some of the consequences revolution most scenic and historic areas in the eastern half of the country. Officials from Virginia are concerned the Urban mid-Atlantic corridor could impact 11 historic districts, one national historic landmark, 19 state or national historic sites, seven Civil War battlefields and the Appalachian Trail. Alcoholism Uk! Some of the most famous sites of the Civil WarManassas, Antietam, and Gettysburglie within the Mid-Atlantic corridor. The mid-Atlantic corridor would also undermine Northeast states’ efforts to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions by causing them to rely more on cheaper coal-fired power from the Midwest, rather than cleaner but higher-cost electric generators fired by natural gas. The 20-year effort to establish a repository for about burying the The Marxist Crime of Conflict Theory examples nation’s nuclear waste has produced no shortage of Essay about Planning controversies. Issues have arisen over the vulnerability of the site to earthquakes and whether nuclear waste might seep into ground water supplies and negitive be carried to about Urban Planning, the Colorado River, which supplies water to of brown, Las Vegas, Los Angeles and other major metropolitan areas. In June 2002, President George W. Bush nominated Michael Corradini, a nuclear engineer from the Essay Urban Planning University of Wisconsin who was an outspoken supporter of the nuclear power industry, to serve on an independent board of symbolism of brown experts who oversee Yucca Mountain.
The appointment provoked immediate outcry from opponents of the project, including all five members of Nevada’s congressional delegation. Corradini publicly endorsed Yucca Mountain, which the Essay Urban Planning other members of the alcoholism uk board had not done. Furthermore, Corradini continued to receive funding from the DOE for research on about Planning nuclear power even though he promised to stop. Corradini stepped down in January 2004. In 2005 it was discovered that scientific research conducted during the 1990s for Yucca Mountain was falsified by alcoholism uk government geologists. The controversy involved emails from three members of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) showing some data was fabricated related to water infiltration into Yucca Mountain tunnels.
The revelation led to investigations by about Urban Planning the FBI and the Inspector General for symbolism of brown DOE and the Department of the Interior. In April 2008, the Inspector General (IG) for the DOE reported that the department had hired a law firm with ties to nuclear power companies to Essay Urban, represent the government’s effort to obtain a license from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to open Yucca Mountain. The firm, Morgan, Lewis Bockius LLP, represented more than a dozen utilities suing the government for missing the 1998 deadline to take nuclear waste off industry hands. After spending more than $15 billion on Yucca Mountain, the project was defunded in 2010. As of 2013, there are more than 200 challenges on alcoholism uk file against the Yucca Mountain project, which could take four to five years to process. Robert Halstead, executive director of the Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects (NANP), said he believes that the project will finally collapse, even if it is “a [slow] and lingering death.” Perhaps so, but in Essay about August 2013, the Yucca Mountain was revived when the U.S. Court of negitive of smoking Appeals in Washington ruled, 2-1, that the NRC must resume consideration of the DOE’s site application that had been quashed by Essay President Barack Obama. The court noted that the NRC has at least $11.1 million remaining for the work. Should the DOE continue to manage the NNSA? Established in 1999 by Congress, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) was set up as a semi-autonomous agency within the salary cap mlb Department of Energy (DOE) in the hope that this arrangement would provide the agency the freedom to about Urban, fix lapses in security at negitive of smoking the national weapons labs.
The NNSA was charged with the maintenance and modernization of the nuclear warhead stockpile, the operation of research laboratories and nuclear and non-nuclear weapons production sites, and the management of nuclear non-proliferation activities and naval reactors. But during the first decade of the 21st century, security problems continued at Essay about Planning the nation’s nuclear labs. The Marxist Crime Perspective Theory Essay! The creation of the NNSA had seemingly failed to solve the lingering problem of securing warheads, materials, and the brain trust running key laboratories. Under the Obama administration, policymakers began to wonder what to do with the NNSA. Supporters of the agency contended that the problem resided within the DOE, and that Energy officials were getting in the way of the NNSA’s ability to properly manage the nuclear weapons complex. Arguing it was necessary to make some kind of change, lawmakers in Congress considered a plan to remove the NNSA entirely from within the DOE and shift it over to the Department of Defense. Pro (Keep it in the DOE): The idea of about Urban moving the NNSA to the Pentagon raised concerns among many civilian nuclear experts, who pointed to the beginning of the consequences revolution nation’s nuclear weapons program following World War II.
Many of the scientists who worked on the Manhattan Project, which developed the world’s first nuclear bombs, argued for civilian control in the wake of about Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings. “The scientists contended that atomic energy was too destructive and important to leave in the hands of the military,” Robert Alvarez wrote in the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. “The secrecy inherent to The Marxist Crime Perspective Essay examples, the military, the scientists felt, would thwart scientific discovery and prove to be a major obstacle to about Urban Planning, international control and cooperation.” Others objected to Crime of Conflict Theory Essay, moving the Essay about Planning NNSA out of the DOE by citing fears that the shift would ultimately lead to salary cap mlb, less oversight of the contractors hired by the NNSA to operate the weapons labs. This issued was raised in about Urban a fiscal 2013 defense authorization bill, in which the House called for restoring the Cold War management system known as “least interference,” which meant shifting the burden of safety, security, and effects financial compliance from the Energy Department to the contractors. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) described least interference as “an undocumented policy of blind faith in about Urban Planning [government] contractors’ performance”something opponents of the idea scoffed at. Con (Take it away from the of industrial DOE): Critics of the DOE insist the department must be separated from the NNSA. Even with the current arrangement of the NNSA being a semi-autonomous agency, there were too many security, safety, and financial problems at the labs. By the end of 2011, the Energy Department’s own inspector general (IG) concluded that NNSA management was fundamentally broken. What was happening at the NNSA was “a costly set of distinctly separate operations that often duplicate existing [Energy Department] functions.”
The IG called for the government to Urban Planning, establish a process to close and consolidate Energy Department labs, similar to salary cap mlb, the method by which the Defense Base Realignment and Closure Commission had decommissioned hundreds of military bases since the late 1980s. Instead of taking this advice, some lawmakers argued the best thing was to get the NNSA out from under the DOE. Joining this argument was directors of the Essay about Urban weapons labs who claimed outside meddling was the main problem at consequences the NNSA, and the Energy Department should have less responsibility for about Planning overseeing the safety, security, and financial matters of the NNSA. Should energy production be deregulated? In the mid 1990s, energy deregulation became one of the alcoholism uk biggest political issues in the country after California decided to unravel its system of state controls over energy pricing. Proponents of Essay deregulation contended that free-market trading would lower energy prices and bring a windfall to consumers.
Federal energy officials, including those at the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), defended market liberalization efforts, even after the California electricity crisis of 2000-2001 erupted and the likes of Enron were exposed as economic opportunists who exploited the deregulated energy market. Even today, leaders at FERC continue to tout the wonders of free deregulation, real or imagined. For opponents of deregulation, including many public interest organizations, the dismantling of Essay about Planning government controls over the energy market was a huge mistake. They questioned assertions by Crime Perspective of Conflict Theory proponents that consumers would benefit and competition in energy markets would be fostered. Proponents of deregulation continue to blame higher fuel prices for rising utility prices. In early 2008, FERC Chairman Kelliher reiterated the agency’s fervent commitment to deregulation: “Our goal at FERC is perfect competition, textbook competition. Competition that is so perfect and beautiful it would make an economist weep.” (Dallas Morning News) In the years following Enron’s collapse, criticsincluding consumer advocates Public Citizencontinue to Essay about Urban, contend that deregulation has not led to increased competition in wholesale markets, and that the agency has not done enough to alcoholism uk, make sure prices are “just and reasonable,” and to protect consumer rights. About Urban Planning! Critics further argue that the alcoholism uk entire FERC deregulation scheme is in violation of the Essay about Urban Federal Power Act (underlying FERC legislation from the 1930s). DOE Counterintelligence Efforts Need Improvement. Serious lapses in security and of smoking counterintelligence at the Department of Energy (DOE) during the 1990s resulted in Congress creating the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to oversee department’s national security-related programs, including nuclear weapons labs.
The NNSA was given its own Office of Essay Defense Nuclear Counterintelligence, while the DOE continued to operate its Office of Counterintelligence. Some studies have questioned the effectiveness of the NNSA and DOE maintaining their own counterintelligence (CI) operations to combat foreign espionage. Several alternative organizational approaches have been proposed, including the following: That a new entity absorb NNSA’s CI program. Proponents assert that consolidation would improve command, control, and communication. Opponents argue that consolidation would dilute the focus on free originality checker counterintelligence at DOE weapons labs.
Consolidate the DOE and NNSA CI programs under the control of the NNSA administrator. Proponents argue that a semi-autonomous agency such as NNSA, by Essay Urban Planning virtue of its independence, is better able to implement CI measures than is DOE. Opponents contend that such a consolidation would undermine the effectiveness of a counterintelligence program. Integrate DOE’s Office of Intelligence and CI office under a new DOE intelligence agency but allow NNSA’s CI office to remain as a separate entity. Proponents argue that such an approach would not eliminate the current bifurcated structure, but would enhance overall communication and Essay examples coordination between the two existing programs.
Opponents counter that only way to resolve coordination and Urban communication problems is to consolidate the two CI programs within the DOE. Effects Of Smoking! Completely separate the DOE and NNSA counterintelligence programs. Proponents suggest that such an approach would clarify the chain of command. Opponents assert that separation could further undermine Have DOE merge its Office of Intelligence and Office of Counterintelligence together and have coordination and communication. On November 9, 2011, Texas Governor Rick Perry, who was campaigning for the Republican nomination for Planning President, declared during a nationally televised debate that he wanted to get rid of the Department of Energy. It was the one department he couldn’t recall during his famous “Oops” moment, but mentioned it subsequently in the debate. A bit more than six years later, Perry was nominated by Donald Trump to Crime Perspective of Conflict examples, lead that department. Essay About Urban! On March 2, 2017, the U.S. Senate, also unfazed by Perry’s desire to eliminate the department, voted 62 to 37 to alcoholism uk, confirm the nomination. James Richard “Rick” Perry was born March 4, 1950, in Haskell, Texas, to Joseph Ray and Amelia Perry. Perry’s father was a cotton farmer and a long-time Democratic county commissioner.
Perry attended Paint Creek High School, where he played six-man football. About Urban! He graduated in 1968 and went on to Texas AM University. He joined the Corps of negitive Cadets there, something like a military school within the larger university, and was a yell leader for the Aggies’ football team. He graduated in 1972 with a B.S. in animal science. Perry then went into the Air Force.
He was commissioned as a second lieutenant and was sent to Essay about, flight school. He was assigned to originality checker, fly C-130 cargo planes, which he did until leaving the service with the rank of captain in 1977. He returned to Texas to farm cotton with his father. He almost became an airline pilot; during a 1978 drought the farm was failing and Perry had applied to Southwest Airlines. However, the about Planning drought ended and Perry stayed on the farm and effects of smoking eventually went into politics. Perry was elected to the Texas House of Representativesas a Democratin 1984.
Even then, he was conservative and Essay Urban looked to cut spending. In 1989, he became a Republican in time to run the following year for Texas Agriculture Commissioner. Symbolism! With a campaign run by Karl Rove, Perry won the election. He was reelected to the job in 1994. In 1998, he ran for lieutenant governor as the running mate of George W. Urban Planning! Bush. During the race, Perry had a disagreement about symbolism of brown tactics with Rove, who was running Bush’s campaign. It was the about Urban start of a long-running feud between the two. Alcoholism Uk! Perry and Bush won their races, setting the stage for Essay Urban Planning Perry to take over as governor when Bush was awarded the White House in 2000. Perry won the statehouse on his own in 2002, 2006 and alcoholism uk 2010. He pushed for more energy production in Texas, which first of all means oil and natural gas. Perry was also an advocate of so-called “clean coal.” However, he also promoted wind power and championed the construction of a power grid to Planning, bring electricity generated by wind and other means from West Texas to population centers.
Perry’s tenure as governor also saw one of the nation’s first disposal sites for low-level nuclear waste open in his state. Waste Control Specialists opened a facility in Williams County in 2012 to accept items such as clothing, tools and originality building materials that have been contaminated by radioactivity. Perry also pushed to have the facility be able to take spent fuel from nuclear power plants, which for now is Planning, handled only at a federal facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As Secretary of Energy, Perry will have a lot of of brown input into that decision. Perry is a strong advocate of the death penalty and nowhere was that more obvious than during the appeals by Cameron Todd Willingham. Willingham was convicted, using questionable evidence, of about Planning setting an arson fire that killed his three children.
The Texas Forensic Science Commission concluded that the evidence didn’t point to arson. Perry responded by replacing three commission members with new ones who sided with prosecutors. Willingham was executed February 17, 2004. Perry’s biggest financial backer is someone for whom he could do some favors as Energy Secretary. Kelcy Warren gave $6 million to Perry’s presidential campaign in 2015, but got back $4.5 million when Perry dropped out of the race. Warren is CEO of Energy Transfer Partners, which owns the symbolism controversial Dakota Access Pipeline. Perry is about Planning, a member of the Energy Transfer Partners board of directors, which he’ll leave when confirmed as secretary. Oil and gas interests have comprised most of Perry’s political donors over the years. He raised more than $49 million in his last race for governor in 2010. Of that, $5.9 million came from oil and gas interests, $3.8 million from of brown lawyers and lobbyists and Essay about Urban Planning $3 million from conservative policy organizations, according to the Center for Responsive Politics. He raised a comparatively paltry $19.7 million for his 2012 presidential run, with $1 million coming from oil and gas interests.
In his race for the 2016 nomination, the oil and salary cap mlb gas industry contributed $1.6 million to Perry’s campaign and to related Super PACs. Perry is a climate-change denier, writing in 2010 that those who believe the overwhelming evidence that the climate is changing “know that we have been experiencing a cooling trend, that the complexities of the global atmosphere have often eluded the most sophisticated scientists, and Essay Planning that draconian policies with dire economic effects based on so-called science may not stand the test of time.” Further, he said during his 2012 campaign that “There are a substantial number of scientists who have manipulated data so that they will have dollars rolling into their projects.” In 2014, Perry was indicted on abuse of power charges for demanding that the Travis County District Attorney resign or he would cut the funding of the state’s Public Integrity Unit, which was run out of the free originality Travis D.A.’s office. That unit ran high-profile investigations and indicted former House Majority Leader Tom DeLay. The charges were dropped against Perry in 2016. Perry’s tendency to make verbal gaffes did lead to one amusing highlight during his Senate confirmation hearing. Sen. Al Franken (D-Minnesota) told Perry, “Thank you so much for coming into my office. Did you enjoy meeting me?” To which Perry replied, “I hope you are as much fun on that dais as you were on your couch.” When he realized how his words might have been misinterpreted, Perry added, “May I rephrase that, sir?” Perry and his wife, Anita, have two adult children: Griffin and Sydney.
President Barack Obama has nominated another physicist to Urban Planning, run the Department of Energy (DOE) who shares his “all of the above” approach to the challenge of meeting the country's energy needs, while curbing carbon emissions that cause global warming. Nominated for the post on March 4, 2013, Dr. Ernest Moniz would succeed fellow physicist Dr. Steven Chu, who has served in the post since 2009. Moniz was born in of Conflict Theory Essay 1944 in Urban Planning Fall River, Massachusetts, to Georgina (Pavao) Moniz and Ernest Perry Moniz, both of whose parents were immigrants from Sao Miguel, Azores, an island chain in symbolism the Atlantic that belongs to Portugal.
Moniz graduated in Essay about Planning the top 10 of his class at Fall River's Durfee High School in 1962, where he was president of the math club and was on the tennis team. Moniz earned a BS in Physics at originality checker Boston College in 1966 and a PhD in Theoretical Physics from Essay Stanford University in 1972, where his dissertation was entitled, “On the Interaction of High Energy Particles with Nuclei.” Joining the Physics Department at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1973, Moniz rose to full professor and served as department head from 1991 to The Marxist Crime Perspective Theory examples, 1995. Over the course of his career, Moniz has focused his research on energy technology and Essay about Planning policy. At present he is the Cecil and Ida Green Professor of Physics and Engineering Systems, director of the Laboratory for Energy and the Environment, and director of the Energy Initiative, which studies how to sustain energy consumption and avoid global warming. His leadership of the Energy Initiative has drawn criticism from environmentalists and others because large fossil fuel companies, including BP, Shell, ENI, and checker Saudi Aramco, gave up to Essay, $25 million each to the Initiative, which has released reports supportive of symbolism fracking, nuclear energy and other non-renewable technologies.
Critics arguing that he is too cozy with the “old energy” industry note that Moniz has served on the boards of Essay Urban Planning directors of or as an advisor to several energy and security companies, including enriched uranium company USEC (2002-2004), BP (20052011), and Crime Theory Essay examples General Electric (2006-present). Unlike Secretary Chu, whose sometimes difficult tenure was often attributed to his lack of Essay about Planning political experience, Moniz has served in policy positions in of brown Washington. From 1995 to 1997, he was associate director for Essay Urban science in the Office of Science and Technology Policy at the White House. As under secretary at DOE from October 1997 until January 2001, Moniz had oversight responsibility for the Offices of Science; Fossil Energy; Energy Efficiency and alcoholism uk Renewable Energy; Nuclear Energy; Environmental Management; and Essay Urban Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Ernest Moniz is married to Naomi Hoki Moniz, who was born in Brazil and is a professor of Portuguese.
They have one grown child. Durfee Grad Nominated to Energy Post (by Carol Lee Costa-Crowell and Lurdes da Silva, South Coast Today)
Order Essay Paper -
Essay about Urban Planning -- Sociology
55+ Free Resume Templates For Word. About Planning. There are a lot of free resume templates available on free checker the internet but sometimes it can be really difficult to choose the right one that is Essay about Urban most suited to you. Most websites that offer resume templates can often over complicate things by having clever titles for checker, the different styles of template on offer, and sometimes the descriptions can be so confusing they can leave you with your head spinning! Not sure which resume template you should choose? We work differently here at Essay Urban Planning, Freesumes. We want to help you as much as we can so we have made it as simple as possible by dividing our free professionally crafted resume templates for personal use into four easy to understand categories; modern, elegant, creative and classic.
You will not have to spend hours of your time scrolling through thousands of templates that can all look very similar – where is the free originality checker, fun in that? Freesumes have simplified the search task for you and narrowed down the choices we offer you to about Planning, the best performing style of templates available. Let#8217;s take a look at The Marxist Essay examples, each section and why they may be a good fit for you: In today#8217;s highly competitive job market your resume needs to stand out . Our modern resume selection have been crafted to offer stylish, crisp and fresh themes that are designed to Essay Urban Planning, be easily readable and highlight specific information that you want to get across to your prospective employer when they first skim over free, your resume. Essay About Planning. According to recent research by negitive, TheLadders, hiring manager spend as little as six seconds skimming over resumes before making a decision about a candidate. About Urban Planning. This a very high performing set of templates that are working well for those seeking IT and tech based jobs that need to stand out from the crowd. The Internet has affected people#8217;s reading behavior over the years. Consequences. Instead of reading top to bottom like they used to, people are now constantly skimming for information.
Our modern templates have been structured with this in Essay about Planning mind and prevents any of your important information from being overlooked. Feel free to take a closer look at our latest styles listed below. Each template can be fully personalized and will create a great first impression. The Intelligent Applicant. Our elegant range of free resume templates are an ideal choice for those of you with plenty of negitive effects of smoking work experience already under your belt. Essay. These templates have been designed to be clean-cut and straight to the point . Negitive Effects. They are structured to guide the reader#8217;s eye so you can impress recruiters without overwhelming them with too much information all at once. We understand that you want to get over to Urban Planning, your prospective employer how much experience you have.
Our elegant designs will help you to deliver that message and show how perfect you are for this position without any unnecessary flourish or distracting frills. A great tip here is to remember that hiring managers are busy people. Alcoholism Uk. To make it easier for them to reach you remember to hyperlink your email address so that you’re only Urban Planning one click away. Take a look at our elegant range of alcoholism uk templates below: When you are applying for a job that relies on the strengths of the individual, you need a resume template that you can inject a bit more personality into to make it ‘pop’. Many jobs that involve building one-to-one business relationships, a creative drive or flair for art and design need to attract people with a strong personality. Essay About Urban. Our creative templates allow you to stand out from the crowd. Consequences Of Industrial. The sleek designs and about, layouts we present here will get your resume noticed. Adding some unique style to your resume will make your personality shine through and will easily separate you from The Marxist of Conflict Theory examples your competitors that have submitted bland or harsh looking resumes. Each one of our creative style templates offer a perfectly balanced mix of personality, professionalism and a touch of style. You can distinguish your resume from others by using our punchy designs, but remember that these work best for creatives who want to get themselves noticed. These templates are great for a graphic artist or designer for example, but if you are applying to become an accountant, you may want to Essay about, go for an elegant or classic design instead.
Browse our range of Creative resume templates below: The Sophisticated Candidate. Sometimes all you need is a classic style template that is clean, clear and straight to the point . Quite often an employer will take on a temporary worker or a freelancer and then offer them a permanent position at some point later down the line. Consequences. In these cases the human resources department may only need you to Essay Planning, submit a resume to go on salary cap mlb file and any of these classic designs will fit the bill perfectly. Classic resumes are also good for those who are looking at Planning, a complete career change. Of Industrial Revolution. They want to tailor their resume to better reflect the Essay about Planning, skills and revolution, experiences they have that suit that particular job. Most hiring managers are only concerned with finding the right hire. At the end of the day they want to read something easily to be able to pick out the relevant information they need. When applying for Urban, a job in a large company you may find that they use specialized software to help weed out candidates. This means that your resume is first read by of industrial revolution, a robot before getting through to an actual human.
Sometimes resumes can be too busy with text bunched together, use fancy fonts or distracting background colors that obscure text – these are more likely to Planning, be rejected by a robot. This can be avoided or greatly reduced by using a clean and classic resume layout that includes the correct keywords that the company is of industrial looking for. A classic style resume template is also easy to Essay Urban, customize. Free Originality Checker. You can include your work experience, qualifications and any special achievements you have gained that will catch the eye of your prospective employer. You can easily adapt the information on about Planning your resume to fit the requirements needed for each role and you will be confident that your resume will always look great! Take a look at our Classic style template selections below: Once you have chosen your perfect resume template from our selection, follow our free expert guidance about how to craft the The Marxist Crime Perspective, perfect modern resume. We can help you to narrow down the elements that are essential for you to include on your resume – as well as what to avoid!
Everyone hopes to gain a chance to Essay Urban Planning, impress potential new employer at a job interview, but there is no denying that interviews can be very stressful! We also offer sound advice about how to alcoholism uk, nail your next job interview. Sharing is caring! Trendy Resume Template Giveaway Sense and Style. Tips for a Successful Phone Interview (Part 2) Copyright © 2017 Freesumes All Rights Reserved.
Premium Word Resume Templates, FREE!
Write My Research Paper -
Essay Urban Planning - 1050 Words | Bartleby
code chivalry essay The Mafia is oppression, arrogance, greed, self-enrichment, power and hegemony above and against all others. It is Essay Planning, not an abstract concept, or a state of mind, or a literary term. Theory Essay? It is a criminal organization regulated by unwritten but iron and Essay about Planning, inexorable rules. The myth of effects of smoking, a courageous and generous 'man of honor' must be destroyed, because a mafioso is just the Urban Planning opposite.
-- Cesare Terranova, Italian Magistrate murdered in 1979. It exists. Alcoholism Uk? It is Essay Urban, a symptom of Sicily's endemic political corruption and Perspective examples, a general cynicism regarding public institutions and the criminal justice system, its life sustained by a widespread mentality which breeds a general distrust in even the youngest Sicilians - distrust of Essay Urban, everybody and originality, every thing. The people who claim or imply that the international Mafia does not exist or is not very powerful (and that unfortunately has included one or two Italian-American ethnic organisations despite news of the Mafia in American publications such as Time and Newsweek ) are either in denial, intentionally deceptive, self-serving or plain ignorant. Four pervasive myths about the Sicilian Mafia - as opposed to the American, Calabrian, Apulian or Neapolitan forms of organized crime - should be dispelled. • The Mafia has a centralized organizational structure with a single man at the top, like a Pope. This has never been true, although one infamous mafioso was indeed nicknamed The Pope. Vizzini, Genco Russo, Greco, Riina, Provenzano, Lo Piccolo and Essay about Urban Planning, (now) Messina Denaro never controlled the entire Sicilian Mafia, which has been compared to a hydra or octopus. At best, they briefly, informally oversaw the cupola or commission that administers it loosely and free, collectively, but which would never risk regular meetings.
There is not, and never has been, a true capo dei capi (head of heads) of the Mafia or the Camorra (the Neapolitan brand of organized crime) in the manner of a Pope, CEO or general at the head of a rigidly structured organization. Essay? It is for this reason that decapitation is impossible. Italian investigators and prosecutors know this, yet they also know that less-important mafia bosses tacitly defer to alcoholism uk, more powerful ones, especially in Essay about Urban Planning, certain matters involving foreign (international) business or, for example, the murder of a high-profile figure like a judge or senator. Within each cosca or cell, of course, there are ranks. • The Mafia is symbolism, hereditary, based on families. Times change, but until the Planning 1950s the consequences of industrial Sicilian Mafia was not based on families but simply on geographical zones of Essay Urban, influence (Palermo, Catania, Corleone). Calogero Vizzini, Michele Greco, Salvatore Totò Riina and of industrial revolution, Tommaso Buscetta were not the sons or near relatives of mafiosi.
However, the Italianate forms of Mafia that flourish outside Sicily eventually developed a hereditary system of leadership. That includes mainland Italy and the Americas. About Planning? In the United States, there historically was a blurry cultural distinction between the true Mafia of free checker, Lucky Luciano and the gangsterism of Essay about, Al Capone. The cosche (literally but inaccurately clans) are not actual families but local territorial cells which include many people, of various ranks, who are unrelated to originality checker, each other. That said, nowadays it isn't too unusual for a young mafioso to wed the sister or cousin of a fellow mafioso, or for Essay about Planning, the leader of a cosca to favor his own son with a certain benefit, such as extorting the pizzo in a specific neighborhood. Salary Cap Mlb? There have also been cases of the Essay Planning wives of incarcerated mafiosi managing their husbands' affairs, including murder and extortion, especially in salary cap mlb, Catania. • The Mafia was supported by the nobility and the Catholic Church. By the twentieth century mafiosi were extorting money from aristocrats and by the end of the same century they were killing priests. One might make a case that certain landholding aristocrats and about Urban Planning, higher clergy, including a few bishops, condoned the actions of the revolution Mafia when it was expedient, but sweeping generalizations are unjustified.
For example, the land reforms of 1948 dividing the large rural estates were opposed by the nobles who owned these properties, and certain mafiosi worked for these landholders as land managers. Until the twentieth century the Church in Italy rarely took a strong position on any progressive social issue, so (for example) divorce was legalized in the country only in 1974. If anything, we could say that the Essay about Urban Mafia was sometimes facilitated by revolution, corrupt politicians who, like most Italians, were Catholic. Urban Planning? It is true, however, that the Mafia flourished for a long time because the Church and the ruling class failed to recognize it as a threat to the very fabric of society. • The Mafia traces its roots to the Middle Ages. This is perhaps the most ridiculous myth of all. While the closed, secretive mentality that fostered the development of secret criminal societies such as the Beati Paoli became commonplace with the alcoholism uk Inquisition and Spanish rule during the sixteenth century, and though banditry in the countryside increased over time, the Mafia as organized crime (not just a Sicilian word having other meanings) did not exist until late in the eighteenth century at Essay, the very earliest. Only fantasists believe that it originated during the War of the Vespers, a revolt organized by the nobility, in 1282. Phenomena such as widespread charlatanry and professional incompetence, nepotism and the overuse of job preferments have helped it along by salary cap mlb, discouraging transparency at Essay about Urban Planning, every level of the economy. Perspective? Until the fifteenth century the feudal life of Sicily was little different from that of any other part of western Europe.
The history of the Essay about Mafia is not as elusive as pundits, novelists and screenwriters would have you believe. Protection rackets (the pizzo) and the narcotics trade still exist, of consequences of industrial revolution, course, with the Mafia funnelling its ill-won profits into businesses such as supermarket and about Urban Planning, hotel chains across Sicily and even in northern Italy. Checker? But a phenomenon which has worsened in recent years is the widespread theft of European Commission funding destined, in Essay Urban, principle, for Sicilian economic development. Bribes, kickbacks and outright theft by negitive effects of smoking, politicians closely allied with (or actually members of) the Essay about Urban Planning Mafia has been a fact of life in Sicily for a long time. The Mafia owns shopping centers, apartment blocks and construction firms that receive public contracts. It extorts hundreds of millions of euros each year to buy ever more such businesses. In addition to politicians, many lawyers, doctors and architects are directly involved with the Mafia.
It is a cancer that hides for a while but just won't die. Considering its profound influence on Sicilian life, no history of twentieth-century Sicily can be complete or accurate without mentioning the most famous Sicilian fraternity. Tragically, the Mafia (and extreme political corruption generally) is the single socio-economic factor that distinguishes Sicily's economic base from those of other European Mediterranean regions such as Spain and Portugal - though it appears that Greece also has some serious problems with public spending and corruption. Of Industrial Revolution? It is one of the world's most enduring criminal organizations, and one of the about most serious social problems confronting Sicily today. In recent times, it has murdered judges, priests and children - though with its increasing grip on the legal economy (public contracts, stores, restaurants) - this rarely happens nowadays.
Its hierarchy and free checker, vernacular are a reflection of Essay about Urban Planning, Sicilian society itself, complete with religious allusions: Its ruling council is the Cupola, Michele Greco, was nicknamed The Pope, a leader of clans. But, like the consequences revolution nobility, the about Urban Planning Mafia is effects, all but invisible. You probably won't see it if you visit Sicily. Essay About Planning? You probably won't see many of its effects, either, unless you look very closely. Those who presume that today's Sicilians do not think about the effects Mafia are sorely mistaken.
Anti-Mafia organisations such as Addio Pizzo (of which Best of Sicily is a member) have done much to Essay about, encourage merchants and other business owners to stand up against the Mafia, but there is still much work to The Marxist Perspective Essay, be done. Banditry and murder had been fairly commonplace since the Middle Ages, but the Urban Planning Mafia has existed as a loose network of local criminals only since the latter decades of the Crime Theory Essay eighteenth century or the early years of the nineteenth. Planning? Like the nobility, its roots are feudal. Indeed, the early history of the Mafia is well known. Many people incorrectly presume the Mafia to consequences revolution, be the cause of certain social problems.
In fact, it is the Essay about Urban effect - the result of centuries of bizarre practices such as raccomandazioni (job preferments) which colour every facet of life in Sicily, making it a fertile breeding ground for all forms of corruption, dishonesty and criminality. Nepotism (even in university positions) doesn't help matters, either. In such a climate, organised crime represents just one small step beyond the unfortunate conditions that already exist. In Sicily politicians literally buy votes with promises of employment or other gifts. The popular perception of mafiosi as Robin Hoods or even knights is misleading, but it is based on general distrust of checker, authority and - until very recently - the historical laxity of law enforcement in protecting citizens. Planning? This situation has improved somewhat in recent years but still persists among the popolino, Sicily's large underclass. From being friends of the friends, the alcoholism uk more important mafiosi became known as men of honor.
In truth, the Mafia code is the antithesis of the code of chivalry - or at best a bizarre interpretation of Essay Urban Planning, it. Sicilians' clannish nature (marriages arranged by parents were known into the twentieth century) created a favorable climate for the mafiosi. Omertà literally means manhood, and refers to salary cap mlb, the idea of a man resolving his own problems, but the Urban term has become synonomous with the Mafia's code of silence. The duel, however, gave way to the vendetta and contract killings. There is no reliable historical record of a duel between mafiosi, but there have been plenty of murders and, given its structure as a secret society. The freemasons certainly aided Garibaldi's invasion of Sicily in 1860 but so, it is believed, did some Mafia bands, even if they were not a decisive factor in his victory. In the same year, it was suggested to King Francesco II of the Two Sicilies that the Comorra, a Neapolitan organization similar to the Mafia, kill Garibaldi and his officers upon their arrival in Naples. The King refused his subjects' offer. incredibly, the The Marxist Crime Essay plan might have actually worked.
The Modern Mafia. A famous play, I Mafiusi della Vicaria, first performed in 1863, described the about Urban Mafia as an alcoholism uk organization complete with initiation rites, though folk historian Giuseppe Pitré's interpretation of Mafia history has been largely discounted as whimsical or at Essay about Planning, least highly embellished. By 1900, the black hand was identified with the friends of the friends. They were one and the same, and each town (or city quarter) had its resident capo (chief). When the Fascists rose to power, Mussolini's Iron Prefect, Cesare Mori, threw most of them in alcoholism uk, prison. In reality, the relationship between the Fascists and the Mafia was that of one group of criminals pitted against another - two wolves fighting over Essay about Urban Planning the same chicken coop. The wartime collaboration of Sicilian-born Salvatore Lucky Luciano with the alcoholism uk United States Navy may have made the aftermath of the Allied invasion of Sicily smoother than it otherwise might have been, but there is no evidence that the Sicilians in Urban Planning, 1943 were any less welcoming of the Allies than the residents of Piedmont and Lombardy were two years later. Luciano's real influence was at the Port of consequences, New York. The Iron Prefect's enforcement of the Duce's laws had already made most mafiosi sympathetic to the American cause, or at least hostile to the Fascist one. The surrender, without even token resistance, of Essay Planning, thousands of Italian troops at Pantelleria, shortly before the main attack on Sicily, made it clear that most Italian recruits were unwilling to risk their lives for a lost cause - or perhaps for any cause.
The Allies made mafiosi like Calogero Vizzini, of Villalba, provisional mayors who easily won election a few years later. It was easy for these men, imprisoned by Mussolini's regime without the benefit of a fair trial, to salary cap mlb, pose as anti-Fascists or even political prisoners. About Planning? Under any political system, Vizzini, who died in 1954, was a murderer, plain and simple. In the free originality immediate postwar years, as the Mafia set about the task of about, re-organizing its activities, several freelance bandits roamed the countryside. The most popular, Salvatore Giuliano, came closest to the image of consequences of industrial, a modern Robin Hood, and supported a separatist movement that favored an independent Sicily, perhaps as part of the United States. Men like Giuliano were not mafiosi. Indeed, the mafiosi resented and perhaps even feared them. With the death of Calogero Vizzini, the Mafia slid into the realm of what Sicily's mafiosi later derided as gangsterism, a more reckless American style of Essay about Urban, crime. In 1957, the Sicilian Mafia re-established ties with their brethren in the United States and Canada.
It was Lucky Luciano, of all people, who orchestrated the alliance. Consequences? Unlike Vizzini and his generation, the new Sicilian men of honor were vastasi (uncouth people) who made no pretension whatsoever at Urban, being gentlemen. Whereas, in public at least, Vizzini and consequences of industrial revolution, people like him maintained a veneer of Essay about Urban Planning, civility, and originality, might even pass for dignified country squires, it was clear that newcomers like Giuseppe Genco Russo, Michele Greco and Luciano Leggio, though furbi (sly) in certain respects, were essentially vulgar by nature. Men of honor and the code of Essay Urban Planning, honor, if either had ever existed in negitive of smoking, fact, vanished in a flurry of murders. By the Essay about Urban Planning 1970s, even women and children were not spared in the carnage. While the Mafia controlled building construction (effectively destroying large historical districts) and vast sectors of the economy (the meat trade, for example) and developed a successful heroin trade, the pizzo (extortion through protection money) remained a cornerstone of consequences revolution, its system for generating revenue, day-by-day, year after year. As there were not yet laws against organised crime, people such as social activist Danilo Dolci were successfully prosecuted for defaming people who they publicly stated were mafiosi, and who in fact were!
During the 1960s, the Sicilian Cupola and Essay, the American Commission began to seriously cooperate in the narcotics trade, despite their expressed sentiment that heroin and cocaine were somehow less respectable products than extortion and murder. Of Smoking? The Sicilian faction was still more ruthless than its American counterpart, often resorting to the murder of Essay Planning, judges and other public officials, as well as journalists, whose activities they considered inconvenient. Palermo's Falcone-Borsellino Airport is named after two such judges, and there is a monument in salary cap mlb, Piazza 13 Vittime (13 Victims), at the end of Palermo's Via Cavour, dedicated to the memory of people killed by the Mafia. Politicians as Mafiosi. In postwar Sicily's larger cities, mafiosi gradually infiltrated the building trades and bought their way into Essay about most government-run agencies. Why are the Crime Perspective Theory Essay newer districts of Palermo full of Essay about Urban Planning, ugly buildings but lacking in green parks and efficient parking areas? Because the urban planning was undertaken by criminals. The Mafia, albeit often indirectly, built nearly half of the alcoholism uk new city of Palermo, where several corrupt officials literally sold building permits to Mafia front-men.
A similar situation emerged in Catania. And the Mafia built (and still indirectly operates) a few of Sicily's largest hotels. The Catholic Church has not always helped matters. Some priests now speak out against Essay about Urban Planning, the Mafia (though pastors of Corleone, traditionally a Mafia stronghold, have not usually been among them), and at least one cleric was murdered for The Marxist Perspective Essay examples, doing so. In the 1960s, however, a Cardinal Archbishop of Palermo issued a statement that the Mafia had never existed, and that author Giuseppe di Lampedusa, along with Danilo Dolci, had defamed Sicilians by implying that, among other things, most western Sicilians were secretive by nature or habit, and that the Mafia does indeed exist. How does such an organization survive into the twenty-first century? It has a great deal to do with social factors - things like high unemployment, widespread lack of Urban Planning, confidence in the competence of law enforcement authorities, distrust of the state. But the general secretiveness of the of brown people is one of the main reasons organised crime is still so powerful in the Italian South, where common folk often seem suspicious of even the most ordinary social forces. The Italian ethos is Planning, based on the realities of alcoholism uk, everyday life: Italians presume that their elected leaders are thieves motivated by greed. Urban? Businessmen presume that associates will steal at the first opportunity.
Labor unions presume that employers will seek to exploit employees whenever possible. Spouses presume that marital infidelity is simply a question of human nature, and even use a particular word, cornuto, to describe cuckolded husbands. As we've said, a large part of certain economic sectors (hotels, transportation, supermarkets, construction) are controlled by Mafiosi. In a land without a tangible industrial base, public monies are the Mafia's main target. Everything has its price. Most politicians (Left and Right) can be bought, and effects of smoking, the same holds true for managers of most larger banks and utilities.
In Sicily, many (if not most) public or semi-public jobs are sold for money or - in rarer cases - sex. (An attractive, educated but unemployed young woman is easy prey in a region with a perpetual 30% unemployment rate.) Public contracts are assigned - actually sold - in exchange for bribes and kickbacks. Everybody expects a substantial kickback (usually at least 10%), from the politician who gets you a public advertising or construction project to the event organizer who gets your musical group a gig in the local music festival. In business, money laundering is a way of life. It's all part of The New Mafia. In such a climate, the pizzo (protection money) and revenue through legitimate businesses set up with Mafia money are still important. Buying the European Commission. Against such a backdrop, one easily understands that the Mafia is not always the primary cause of organised crime in Sicily.
More often, it is a simple symptom of the corruption that permeates almost every aspect of Essay about Urban Planning, public and professional life in Sicily. New corruption is born every day: In recent years, certain local politicians who have spoken against the Mafia have covertly purchased large sections of Palermo's historical district through front companies (there were no public auctions), and given well-paying consulting jobs to their friends and relations. Sicilians call it mafiosità , the Mafia-like mentality so prevalent in Sicilian life, especially among politicians and business people. Negitive? This doesn't always mean that somebody is a mafioso per se, just that he behaves like one. Mafiosetta is the Sicilian term for an attractive young woman who acts in this way.
Clientelism, nepotism and the excessive use of recommendations to assign everything from public construction contracts to clerical jobs foster widespread corruption, and therefore organised crime. Bribery and kickbacks (the Italian word is bustarella for the envelope, busta, in which the about Urban money is negitive effects of smoking, paid) are normal in Sicily. Billions of dollars poured into Essay about Planning the Sicilian economy by the World Bank, the United States, the European Commission and the central Italian government have ended up in the hands of corrupt politicians, consultants and others who, in many instances, were connected to the Mafia in some way. In many cases, the children or grandchildren of salary cap mlb, Mafiosi and Mafia-collaborators who stole money earmarked for Sicilian development under the Marshall Plan decades ago are now respectable citizens who one would not overtly associate with organised crime. In other words, the families have become legitimate. To many Sicilians, wealth is viewed as an end in itself; the methods employed to gain it are of little importance so long as misdeeds go unpunished. It's no secret that the criminal justice system does not function very well in Italy. And where there is no law, there is no sin. The sale of jobs is not limited to banks, national companies (telecommunications, energy, airlines) and about, public administration. Until the 1990s, military promotions in Italy (in the Carabinieri and Army) to colonel or general were often based on Crime of Conflict examples, bribes equal to around €20,000, linked to a recommendation, of course.
Hence the Essay lack of prestige attached to such ranks. All things considered, it's no wonder that the Sicilian economy is The Marxist Perspective of Conflict examples, a disaster. It's rather embarrassing when the first large-scale organ transplant unit in Sicily (ISMETT) is about, established only in the late 1990s, and then with the help of an American hospital. It makes Sicily seem like an under-developed country. Were it not so ironic, it would be amusing to see the deceptive manner in salary cap mlb, which officials often disguise their efforts to exploit the Urban status quo by overtly supporting pointless anti-Mafia public awareness campaigns while robbing public monies. Sadly, the salary cap mlb European Commission and the central Italian government continue to support many so-called development projects in Sicily, few of which result in Essay about Urban Planning, little more than untaxed wealth for the projects' managers. Indeed, the phenomenon has spawned an entire industry as politicians and their friends scramble to propose projects with grossly inflated budgets. In the 1980s, a new profession, that of the progettista , was born.
The term refers to the project consultant who seeks European Commission funds on behalf of a town, association or governmental agency (presumably one lacking personnel competent to know how to manage public money efficiently, as though that were an esoteric art), and then spends these monies, taking a large commission for himself and his cohorts. To many Sicilians, the progettisti are new mafiosi, or perhaps new robber barons. Considering the of Conflict Theory examples vast investments involved, the Essay Urban Planning tangible results are precious few, apart from expensive vacation homes for of industrial, the project administrators themselves. Urban Planning? One can only The Marxist Perspective of Conflict conclude that Sicilian progettisti, Mafia proponents or Sicilian politicians have in some way infiltrated or corrupted elements of the European Commission in about Urban, Brussels. It's a long way from stealing cattle in the mountains.
The Discovery of America. Our discussion concentrates on the Mafia in Sicily . It is worth mentioning, however, that outside Italy, the Mafia and its progeny have been the object of every form of consequences revolution, fame that modern society carries in its sophisticated cinematic arsenal. The first films to depict the Mafia in an appealing light were made not in Italy, but in the United States, where authors like the late Mario Puzo presented American mafiosi as pseudo-aristocrats. It is an image still bolstered by television and cinematic portrayals despite the fact that the American Mafia, if indeed it ever conformed very closely to such stereotypes, has been overshadowed in its own country by criminal organizations from South America, the Far East and Russia. In Italy, films such as I Grimaldi (The Grimaldis) present the glossy cinematic portrayal of the Essay about homegrown version of the Mafia based on symbolism, the American model, complete with lavish homes, luxury cars and attractive, well-dressed people (its use of the name of the ruling dynasty of Essay about, Monaco implicitly associating mafiosi with royalty). Salary Cap Mlb? This is an image that contrasts sharply with the reality we see on the evening newscasts - of plump, ugly men with unattractive wives and ordinary cars, living underground as latitanti (fugitives) despite their wealth. When Bernardo Provenzano, a Mafia boss, was finally arrested, he was living in a makeshift bunker outside his native Corleone. On the other side of the ocean, several Italian-American cultural organisations decry the persistent cinematic image as nothing less than bigotry, citing the (accurate) statistic that fewer than one percent of Italo-Americans are in Urban Planning, the Mafia.
A few of these organisations, echoing the official position held by effects of smoking, the FBI until the 1970s, denied the very existence of the Mafia until it was mentioned in criminal cases in federal courts in the 1980s. Essay Urban Planning? Until then, anti-defamation lobbying garnered some isolated and unexpected results; it was strange, for instance, to hear references to the syndicate in American telefilms when everybody knew from context that the teleplays' characters were referring to the Mafia, which American mafiosi usually referred to as our thing or our business. Sicilians laugh at The Marxist Crime Perspective of Conflict Essay, the charming Italo-American myth that the Mafia doesn't exist, but they also enjoy The Sopranos and Goodfellas. Unfortunately, cultural factors have sometimes added to about, the confusion; to outsiders, New Yorkers Rudolph Giuliani and John Gotti seemed to represent opposite symbolism sides of the same ethnic coin, and the negative side of that coin still appeals to some of America's Italian descendants in Essay, search of an The Marxist of Conflict Theory Essay examples easily-acquired cultural identity, the so-called guido. Renting The Godfather trilogy at the DVD store is easier than reading Dante's Divine Comedy . The Freshman and Planning, Married to the Mob were successful parodies, while The Untouchables and Goodfellas presented a slightly more accurate, and checker, less varnished, view of the Mafia in Essay Urban Planning, America. In Italy, the cultural element creates fewer complexities. Italians recognise that today's mafiosi are drawn from the lowest social stratum, and negitive effects, nobody outside that (rather large) social class would ever aspire to Essay, be a mafioso. Collaborating with the Mafia, however, is another story. It is impossible to separate the Mafia from today's Sicilian political corruption. Indeed, it is this aspect of Sicilian life which permits the Mafia's survival.
Its adaptability has always distinguished the Mafia. Now that heroin smuggling is passé the organisation has infiltrated many parts of the legitimate economy. This is more than mere money laundering. Mafia front men (often associates not yet tainted by criminal records) have established everything from supermarkets and shopping malls to stores selling computers and cell phones. These businesses - a source of alcoholism uk, revenue in themselves - feed the Mafia. Planning? So do betting parlors and Perspective of Conflict Essay, bingo salons. Crime and Punishment. The 1980s saw greater international collaboration in Mafia cases, especially between the Italian and American governments. The former passed a law against associazione mafiosa (Mafia-type association), whose effects are similar to those of the American RICO Statutes. Essay About Urban? Unlike Americans, Italians refer to originality, organized crime not for the sake of euphemism but because there are so many independent criminal organizations in Italy (the Mafia in Sicily, the Comorra in Urban, Naples, etc.). Mafiosi are occasionally (if not routinely) jailed, and sentences are fairly harsh for Crime of Conflict, the worse offenders.
Some of the captured mafiosi have begun to turn state's evidence, actually breaking the code of silence to unmask their accomplices. The most famous of these pentiti is Tommaso Buscetta. About Urban Planning? Italy has no death penalty, and leftists want to make life sentences illegal. Despite the laws regarding Mafia association, the burden of legal proof required for conviction is very high. Examples? Unfortunately, while it's sometimes easy enough to Essay about Planning, confiscate a chain of supermarkets or even a clinic owned by mafiosi (yes, they're in health care too), the related matters of of industrial, bribery and corruption in public life are more difficult to address. Many Sicilians, including judges Giuseppe Falcone and Paolo Borsellino, have literally given their lives in Essay Urban Planning, the war against the Mafia. Some of effects, Sicily's more prominent politicians would have us believe that the Mafia is Planning, nearly extinct. (Perhaps those who promote such a fantasy are themselves involved with it in some way.) Reports of its early demise are greatly exaggerated.
Though by now somewhat dated, the most authoritative book published in English on the Sicilian Mafia is the late Claire Sterling's Octopus - The Long Reach of the International Sicilian Mafia (New York and London 1990). Of Brown? Its extensive bibliography provides a wealth of material for anybody interested in reading further on about Urban, this topic. Our history of the Perspective Essay examples Mafia presents information on Essay about, its origins.
Buy an Essay Online for Cheap 24/7 -
Essay Urban Planning - 1050 Words | Bartleby
“Life Story,” Virginia Lee Burton’s Picture Book for the Ages. “Life Story” involves an audacious expanse of time and space, but it’s very definitely about our home. In 1962, Virginia Lee Burton, the Gloucester, Massachusetts, writer and illustrator of “Mike Mulligan and His Steam Shovel,” “Katy and the Big Snow,” and the Caldecott Award-winning “The Little House,” among others, published her final picture book, “Life Story,” a hardy, quiet work of genius that starts with the birth of the sun, proceeds through fires and ferns and glaciers, and ends with you, the Essay about Urban Planning reader, living your life in the present day. Crime Perspective Of Conflict? “Life Story,” a Wagnerian opera of Essay about Urban a book with a Hansel and Gretel aesthetic, is not as famous, somehow, as “Mike Mulligan and His Steam Shovel” or “The Little House.” It can be maddeningly hard to consequences, find at average bookstores, but good ones have it and loyal fans value it. For children, “Life Story” is one of the first works of art or science that will attempt to explain natural history, contextualizing the dinosaurs, those megastars of kid-dom, in Essay Urban, time and place among the stars and on the planet, and it does so with a humanizing artistic realism; the Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay examples final section, fittingly and comfortingly, zooms in on life as we recognize it. Much of it depicts the world of a century or half-century ago, but compared with the Mesozoic it’s quite familiar. Virginia Lee Burton grew up in Massachusetts and Urban California; her mother was a poet and negitive effects an artist, and her father was an engineer and about Urban a dean at M.I.T. She attended art school in San Francisco, then moved to Boston. She married the artist George Demetrios, and they moved to Gloucester and raised a family.
There, in alcoholism uk, Cape Ann, Burton founded a textile collective, Folly Cove Designers. When she wrote books, she designed them in their entirety, from the typeface to the illustrations to the layout. After the about Urban failure of her first book submission, about a piece of dust, she learned to test the stories on her own children first. “Children are very frank critics,” she said. Much of Burton’s work concerned nature and the passing of time, with subthemes of industrialization and checker urbanization. ( The New Yorker wrote, of “Katy and the Big Snow,” “Another unusual picture book by this author artist, who is adept at personifying machines. Her new heroine is a beautiful red crawler tractor of many talents… Spirited, imaginative, and even somewhat informative about how city highway departments work.”) “The Little House” is about a thoughtful pastoral cottage that weathers many years, wondering about life in the city, until eventually a city grows around her. (More eventually, she is moved back to an idyll, where she remains.) The novelist Anne Tyler, who earlier this year cited The Little House as the one book that made her who she is today, once wrote in the Times , “When I see those words now (and when I hear them, murmuring across the decades in Essay about Urban Planning, my mother#x27;s voice), I recall the feeling of elderly sorrow that came over me at age four. At age four, listening to ‘The Little House,’ I had a sudden spell of . Of Brown? . . wisdom, I guess you could say.
It seemed I#x27;d been presented with a snapshot that showed me how the world worked: how the years flowed by and people altered and nothing could ever stay the same.” The mood of “The Little House” hovers between cozy and elegiac, wistful and realistic. In “Mike Mulligan and His Steam Shovel,” Mike Mulligan’s steam shovel, Mary Anne, who had contributed to about, the irrevocable remaking of the American landscape—digging canals, cutting through mountains for trains, straightening curves for highways, smoothing ground for airport runways, digging holes for skyscrapers in big cities—is displaced by newer shovels: gasoline shovels and their ilk. (A sign that says “No Steam Shovels Wanted” might prompt thoughts about waves of immigrants—including Mulligan, perhaps.) Joy is restored when they find a town-hall basement to dig, in a country town called Popperville; in the end, Mary Anne becomes its furnace, and effects of smoking Mulligan its janitor. “Life Story” involves a more audacious expanse of Essay about Planning time and space, but it’s very definitely about our home. Its opening pages introduce a cast of narrators (including an astronomer, a geologist, a paleontologist, and the author); leading animals (trilobites, cephalopods, sea scorpions) and plants (seaweeds, moss plants, ferns), and supporting players (protozoa, jellyfish, corals, brachiopods; worms, round, flat, and segmented). The Table of Contents is a playbill of alcoholism uk sorts. Prologue, Scene 6 is Introducing Sedimentary Rocks.
Act I, Scene 5 is Life in the Ordovician Seas. Act II, Scene 3 is Life by the Cretaceous Seas Lakes. If you have an about Urban Planning, old one, as I do, there are nine planets, and Permian Deserts, and Prehistoric Man. Salary Cap Mlb? If you have a new one, from 2009 or later, there are eight planets—Pluto, once spinning toward the edge of its page, has spun off—and a Permian Climate, and Prehistoric Humans. The action unfolds in a theatre.
On the left-hand page of Essay Urban each spread, text and salary cap mlb single-color art, featuring galaxies, Gorgosauruses, or cross-sections of earth, swirl up toward a globe, locating each player in its context. On each right-hand page, a gorgeous full-color painting illustrates the action behind the proscenium arch. Burton’s style is Essay Urban, like that of a bold, science- minded Grandma Moses with a keen sense of negitive perspective; her dawn-of-time stuff has the near-psychedelic energy of about Planning van Gogh’s “Starry Night”; her dinosaurs have the monstrous drama of Zallinger’s “The Age of alcoholism uk Reptiles.” At the beginning of the play, and Planning the end, there are red velvet curtains. In real life, it would be a very challenging production. “Eons and eons ago our sun was born, one of the millions and billions of stars that make up our galaxy, called the Milky Way,” it begins.
It reads like a bedtime story; it is a bedtime story. (A comprehensive one.) “Our Earth is the third largest planet out salary cap mlb, from the Sun. It is not the biggest planet, nor is it the smallest, but to us it is the most important, for this is where we live.” This simple observation is a life lesson about perspective: “to us it is the Essay most important” could be said of symbolism of brown your home town, your neighborhood, your block. Children are beginning to understand home and how it feels, home versus the Essay Urban Planning rest of the alcoholism uk world. It’s a good stage of life to begin contemplating the about Urban Planning planets orbiting the sun, the celestial neighborhood, our place in things. Burton goes on Crime Perspective examples, to explain time, and the Earth’s axis, and to offer solid theories about how the moon came about—“But nobody really knows because there was nobody there,” she writes. As flaming meteorites from outer space bombard a “red-hot sea of lava,” we see fireworks over fiery mountaintops in Essay, a bright-red soup: a beautifully horrifying hellscape, necessary to create what we now inhabit. Negitive Effects? Reassuring us, as ever, is the proscenium arch, the Essay about Urban Planning sign that says “Scene 4.” Then: heat from the consequences revolution interior, metamorphic rock, clouds of steam hiding the sun; clouds, torrential rains, ocean basins filling, rivers, mountains, streams, sand, gravel, clay, sedimentary rock.
Life! Tiny cells, microorganisms. Now we’re cooking. Sea plants, animals without backbones. Trilobites rule, and then their rule ends. Cephalopods show up. (“The name ‘cephalopod’ simply means ‘having feet on the head,’ ” Burton tells us, respectfully understanding what we will enjoy.) Squid, fish, and lichens join the party; eventually, vertebrates come to town. Creatures develop lungs and Essay Urban crawl onto land . Great swamp forests, proto-frogs, the Age of salary cap mlb Plants. A mass extinction. Planning? Warming. Reptiles continue to “play the leading roles”; early mammals, and symbolism of brown dinosaurs appear; a “few of the reptiles” return “to a life in the water,” she writes. (“Screw this,” I like to imagine them saying.)
Ah, the dinosaurs. Some of the herbivores among them, she writes, have “grown tremendous.” If you have an original “Life Story,” you’ll find your old friend Brontosaurus, the thunder lizard; in new editions, it’s an Apatosaurus, but I’m holding out hope for the Bronto#x27;s return someday . Mountains rise, seas flood the lowlands, flowering plants appear. Welcome, flowers! “Life Story” has the beautiful effect, each time you read it, of making you appreciate and acknowledge each kind of life form in turn, and each kind of atmospheric and geologic force that contributed to its existence. A meteor kills the dinosaurs; their bones remain in our museums. Things get hot and humid, and about dense forests cover the lowlands. Negitive Effects Of Smoking? Birds and mammals take center stage. Cooling, drying, grasses. More flowers.
Very weird mammals, lumbering and snoutish. Things normalize, then get very cold. Essay About? The Ice Age! Humans, playing a “very minor role,” doubtless are freaking out. Humans are new to this story, Burton writes, compared with “the long length of time that all other Life had been present.” She tells us about The Marxist cave paintings, fire, tools.
The humans learn to grow plants and Essay about domesticate animals. Soon enough we’ve got villages, towns, ships, languages, the Old World and salary cap mlb the New World. We see teepees, Native Americans in canoes, a Mayflower-looking thing in the distance. Urban? Uh-oh. Now the scene zeroes in on the New World, the life of the “settlers.” Not easy, she writes. (The locals would agree.) Burton writes, “When our great-grandparents were young, our country was mostly a farming country.” (Future editions could slap on a couple more greats.) Later, cities grew, and farms were deserted.
This is where “The Little House” might begin. As we proceed to symbolism of brown, modernity, the compositions of Burton’s paintings have fixed elements—a central curving river or a central curving driveway snaking off into Essay about the mountains. The setting becomes a farm, a farm with a farmhouse, a cheerful dwelling that remains the same from season to season as nature changes around it. This aspect is like a progenitor to free originality checker, Richard McGuire’s “Here,” published last year, which examines a house in the woods from decade to decade, inside and out, human and material, deep into the past and far into the future; where McGuire’s book is adult and psychological, Burton’s is child-focussed and geological. A tender painting shows a young family standing in Urban Planning, front of a wild lot. “Twenty-five summers have passed quickly since we bought the old orchard, meadow, and woodland and salary cap mlb moved a little house and my barn studio into the middle of it,” Burton writes. (This is life in Folly Cove, though she doesn’t explicitly say so.) She paints the house and Essay Planning orchard in effects of smoking, fall, winter, and spring, in pinks, indigos, and Essay about Urban spring green, describing the frost, the leaves, the evergreens, the symbolism migrating birds, days growing longer and shorter, thaw, buds, rising sap. In spring, lichens, liverworts, ferns, and mosses, those primordial Act I scene-stealers, return to Essay, the stage. As the book ends, night falls—Burton looks up at free originality checker the Big Dipper, the Milky Way, the hands on Urban Planning, the clock—and a new day begins: dawn, a new baby lamb in the meadow, sunrise. The beautiful red velvet curtain is shown on the sides of the proscenium arch. “And now it is negitive, your Life Story,” she writes. You play the leading role. “The stage is about Planning, set, the time is now, and the place wherever you are.” The endpages, a pen-and-ink drawing of people in a natural-history museum whose design evokes “Babar” and Richard Scarry and other delights, introduce comforting notes of urbanity and society, while reinforcing the wondrous lessons of the consequences of industrial revolution whole book—all of time and life—in a single spread. You close the book in a state of mild shock. How did she do it?
How do we account for all of Essay Urban this glory? Burton is a master of the curlicue, the sine curve, the zigzag; her colors morph from mood to consequences revolution, mood, unafraid of darkness and drama. As the story proceeds through time, the contrast of dark and Planning light almost evokes American Romantic painting. Consequences Of Industrial Revolution? But her style is more like sophisticated folk art, her line drawings clear and intelligent, with hand-lettered warmth. Part of the brilliance of her style, and Essay about of the book over all, is that the coziness and alcoholism uk domestication on Essay about Planning, the final pages, including in the Native American scene, includes and alcoholism uk depends on the thunderous nature surrounding it and contributing to it. Essay About Urban Planning? We couldn’t have the teepee and canoe or the farm and baby lambs without the sea of fire and the Ice Age. Alcoholism Uk? Between curtains, we observe and absorb the progression of time, the interconnectedness of life, of humans and animals, time and space and our place in the world.
“Life Story” is Essay Planning, beloved, and, in predictable quarters, loathed, or even feared. A one-star review of of industrial revolution “Life Story” on Amazon has the headline “Theory of Evolution Taught.” The reviewer, a kindly proponent of Scriptures and creationism who loves Burton’s other works, worries that children reading “Life Story” will learn that they “come from sludge and by chance,” and says that “no matter how sentimental or awesome the illustrations are,” the book might undermine how children view themselves, their worth, and Urban the world they live in. Another, seeming to negitive, agree, replies, “After reading it, religious stories always seemed so . small.” That makes sense. The Biblical world is Urban Planning, a younger and smaller world than what we see in “Life Story.” Burton’s world—our world—is a warm, expansive universe, glorious and swirling and operatic and beautiful. Here, like a family in a Cape Ann apple orchard looking at the Milky Way, we feel awe and comfort at once—at home in a cozy speck of the galaxy. Sarah Larson is a staff writer at The New Yorker .