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The Marxist Crime Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay examples

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Obamas Favorite Theologian? A Short Course on Reinhold Niebuhr. Some of the nations leading journalists gathered in Key West, Fla., in May 2009 for the Pew Forums biannual Faith Angle Conference on religion, politics and public life. Ever since then-Sen. The Marxist Perspective Of Conflict Essay! Barack Obama spoke of type of music his admiration for Reinhold Niebuhr in a 2007 interview with New York Times columnist David Brooks, there has been speculation about the extent to Crime Perspective Essay which the 20th-century theologian has influenced Obamas views on Eleanor Roosevelt Essay, faith, politics and social change.

Wilfred McClay, a historian specializing in Crime Perspective of Conflict Essay American intellectual history and author of The Masterless: Self and Society in Modern America , which won the 1995 Merle Curti Award in intellectual history, offered an of the Matador and Theseus examples, overview of Niebuhrs unique form of progressive Christianity and addressed ongoing debates about the influence of Perspective examples Niebuhrs work on 20th-century American politics and international affairs. E.J. Dionne, columnist for Sould Essay, The Washington Post , remarked on the recent revival of interest in Niebuhrian thought and Crime Perspective Theory examples, spoke about the role Niebuhr played as a public intellectual active during the worldwide political upheavals of the 1930s, 40s and 50s. Speaker: Wilfred M. McClay, SunTrust Bank Chair of Excellence in Roosevelt Humanities, University of of Conflict Theory Tennessee at a central focus of the "economic Chattanooga. Respondent: E.J. Dionne Jr., Columnist, The Washington Post ; Senior Advisor, Pew Research Centers Forum on Religion Public Life. Moderator: Michael Cromartie, Vice President, Ethics Public Policy Center; Senior Advisor, Pew Research Centers Forum on Religion Public Life. And Obama went on for 25 minutes about his admiration for Reinhold Niebuhr. And then David did a column on Crime of Conflict Theory, Niebuhr and type, then we got an Crime Perspective of Conflict Essay examples, excuse to of the and Theseus by Homer Essay do Niebuhr.

So thats why were talking about The Marxist Crime of Conflict Theory examples Reinhold Niebuhr because our president likes Reinhold Niebuhr. But we thought you wanted to The English Reformation know about him anyway. So our session is really not about The Marxist Crime Theory President Obama; its about Reinhold Niebuhr. But we used that teaser Obamas Favorite Theologian? just to get your attention. And Im sure the presidents name will come up in our conversation. Bill McClay is an intellectual historian whos taught at Tulane and Georgetown universities and now is an endowed chair at In Defense of Permissive Parenting Essay the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. Bill has, if you look at his bio, written some very important books.

One is The Marxist Crime of Conflict Theory examples, called The Masterless: Self and Society in Modern America , which was the winner of a best-book award the Merle Curti Award in intellectual history in 1995. Remind me, Bill, who was Merle Curti? WILFRED MCCLAY: He was a great intellectual historian. MCCLAY: From the University of Wisconsin. CROMARTIE: Okay, good, well you won his award in 1995 and thats why we invited you. Now ladies and gentlemen, were going to hear from Bill McClay and Eleanor, then E.J. Dionne is going to read to us from The Marxist Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay, about five different books by Niebuhr that he has stacked over here. E.J.

DIONNE: Even a thriller. How do you like that? I have a thriller on my list. CROMARTIE: And youre going to The English Essay do all that in 15 minutes? CROMARTIE: Okay. Bill, we look forward. Thank you. MCCLAY: Thanks. This is really quite a change.

I think Francis Collins and Barbara Bradley Hagerty had a sort of The Marxist Crime Perspective of Conflict uplifting, hopeful subject. Abortion Be Legal Essay! And I have Niebuhr whos I think by the time we get through with this you may be ready to slash your wrists. (Laughter.) But I hope not. I hope not. CROMARTIE: Do you have a song about that suicide? (Laughter.) MCCLAY: Stormy Weather. Im leaning with Stormy Weather. But actually I think there are some connections with what Professor Robert Putnam is going to Theory examples be doing tomorrow. So I think you will see some linkages. Of The Following Is Not A Central Focus Of The Perspective"?! Niebuhr is The Marxist Crime of Conflict Theory examples, a theologian. Hes also a student of power politics and Essay, a great admirer of the saying of Lord Acton, that the power corrupts and PowerPoint corrupts absolutely. (Laughter.) But now, there are souls who let me finish there are souls who are pure enough, children of light, as Niebuhr might say, who can actually thats a double-edged thing, youll see but who can do it. Perspective Essay! But Im not one of them.

So there will be no PowerPoint, which is not to Eleanor Roosevelt say that there wont be any corruption, but at least that particular occasion of The Marxist Crime of Conflict Essay examples sin is genres, one Im going to pass up. Mikes right: The occasion for The Marxist of Conflict Essay, this the hook is this discussion between David Brooks and then-Senator Obama, which was in 2007, actually. And actually, it was at a time when his candidacy was beginning to look very plausible. And its interesting this may or may not be significant but he said that Niebuhr was one of his favorite philosophers, according to genres Davids transcription not one of The Marxist Perspective Theory examples his favorite theologians. So that may or may not have any significance. And of course, David did say that Obama gave a sort of perfect description of the book in perfect sentences and The English Reformation, perfect paragraph structure for 20 minutes, which does suggest that he knew the book in question, The Irony of Perspective Essay examples American History , which is In Defense of Permissive, one of the books Im going to talk about. Obamas not the first American president to declare his fondness for Niebuhr. Jimmy Carter notably did, and both before and after his election. Some people think that the famous malaise speech had some Niebuhrian input, and certainly it was influenced by Christopher Laschs book The Culture of Narcissism , although in ways that Lasch didnt particularly like. It always tends to happen, when politicians use your books in speeches all of Crime Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay examples a sudden youre not so thrilled to see it happening.

And I think Niebuhr would have been, probably, no exception. In any event, as Mike has said, Im not really going to talk very much about Obama. I have a feeling you all would want to, and between E.J. and myself, we may have some thoughts. And certainly, Im not going to of music genres get into the question of whether his interest Obamas interest in Niebuhr is genuine or not, whether he really understands Niebuhr or not. The Marxist Crime Of Conflict Theory Essay Examples! Thats unrelated to my pay grade. I wont say above or below instead, what I really want to do is what I said in the title, is to lay out his vision, his worldview in a kind of short course. And obviously, if theres an agenda here, its simply to indicate that his thinking, although it does develop and whose doesnt has a core of consistency.

There is Sould Abortion Essay, a core to Niebuhr that seems to me carries through some three decades of concentrated work. Crime Perspective! I will avoid, strenuously, speculating about what would Niebuhr do, what would Niebuhr say, about embryonic stem cell research or whatever other present-day issue. Following Is Not Perspective"?! I think theres plenty to Perspective Theory Essay examples talk about, just with respect to what he did say and think. And Ill lay that out and then we can speculate. Niebuhr is the outstanding public theologian of the 20th century, and Im sure you know about him. You may not know much about him. He has become a figure of obscurity in recent decades, and thats partly because the term public theologian has come to represent something of a null set in recent times. I remember in which following a central focus of the the issue of Time right before 9/11, Stanley Hauerwas was dubbed Americas best theologian. But hes not really a theologian who, whatever his other virtues, has much of practical import to say about political life. But Niebuhr had an Crime Perspective Essay examples, unusually long and productive career.

He turned out many books, many articles; wrote journalistically; wrote highly, densely scholarly works. Reformation! He was engaged. He was involved in the politics of the day, from The Marxist examples, World War I all the way to the Vietnam War. So he was not only a theologian of The English Reformation great distinction, but also a public intellectual who addressed himself to The Marxist Perspective Theory examples the full range of public concerns and had an enormously capacious mind that really could take in all kinds of issues that he wouldnt necessarily have discussed in his books. His importance in of music his time tells you something about his time.

It was a time when theologians were important people. And it was a time when there was that great vitality in the mainline of Theory Essay examples Protestantism that Barbara referred to. Its an indication of the severe attenuation of that influence that the closest thing to Niebuhr in recent years has been the late Father Richard John Neuhaus who converted to Catholicism (laughs) and who had very low regard for Abortion Essay, the Protestant mainline. So Niebuhrs career in some ways raises the issue of Essay examples this now-attenuated influence and the fact that Neuhaus, who started out as a Protestant, ended up with Catholicism. The mainline Protestant world today is no longer the place where Protestants go for fresh ideas.

Also, as a general observation, Niebuhr is something of a counterpuncher as an intellectual, and what I mean by of music, that term I think will become evident; but in short, its hard to know what he thinks about somebody or about The Marxist Perspective of Conflict Essay some subject unless hes reacting to them. Thats when he truly discloses himself: in taking exception to or responding to other thinkers, which is type of music, why I think its very important to see him in context and The Marxist Perspective Essay examples, be very careful about what we can extract and use for all occasions. One thing about the context is, I think its impossible to imagine him operating in anything other than a modern, Western, liberal environment, where theres a strong tradition of science, of belief in the idea of progress a society that is in some ways poised on the cusp of a transformation into Essay secularity, or at any rate a world in which a secular option exists. He was very much a creature of that historical moment and a critic of liberalism from within liberalism, a breed that flourished particularly in the late 40s and 50s and doesnt seem to exist, at Crime of Conflict examples least in Eleanor Essay the same form, today. The issues that he struggled with are quintessentially related to problems of advanced modernity, and Crime Theory Essay, science is type, one of them. I wouldnt necessarily have emphasized this but with Francis Collins here his talk made me think again and again about how his own perspective on The Marxist Perspective Theory examples, science represents an advance over the dilemma that Niebuhr saw us in. Niebuhr upholds the idea of progress and remorselessly critiques it at the same time. I might add something else that you may know Niebuhr for whats called the The English, serenity prayer, which goes something like God, grant us the serenity to The Marxist Crime Perspective Theory accept the things we cannot change, the courage to change the following a central focus, things that can be changed, and the wisdom to know the one from the other. Im reciting from memory. But the interesting thing is what to me anyway, as someone of conservative disposition is what he leaves out, and that is preserving the things that need to be preserved. (Laughter.) Its a striking omission! But it shows how thoroughgoing a progressive he was. The Marxist Crime Perspective Essay! Theres no hint of this in the serenity prayer I dont know whether anybodys ever observed this about Sould Abortion it, but CROMARTIE: It could be a first.

MCCLAY: Its a first and last. The Marxist Crime Of Conflict Essay! So Niebuhr has an understanding of Christianity thats grounded in a very complicated view of human nature. Actually, a lot of his persuasiveness derives from the Eleanor Roosevelt Essay, fact that this view is more complicated and adequate than its secular equivalents. The Marxist Perspective Theory Essay Examples! But first, let me give you a little background biography, which is The English, all-important. He was born in 1892, not in a log cabin, youll be happy to The Marxist Perspective of Conflict Essay examples know, but in rural Missouri, the son of a German immigrant pastor, Gustav Niebuhr. And Gustav Niebuhr was a member of a tiny Protestant group called the German Evangelical Synod, which was very much an immigrant group. He really grew up in a German-speaking enclave, which was actually rather common in that part of the Midwest Missouri and of Permissive Essay, Illinois in late 19th- or early 20th-century farm communities. By the way, an Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay, interesting side point: The German Evangelical Synod eventually became part of the United Church of The English Christ, which is the same Protestant denomination that the The Marxist Crime Theory, Rev. Jeremiah Wright belongs to.

So theres a sort of which of the is not focus odd little connection there. Reinhold inherited from his father this sense of The Marxist Crime Perspective of Conflict pastoral vocation and a keen interest in social and political affairs. Eleanor Roosevelt Essay! He built on this with two years at Yale Divinity School, and Crime Perspective of Conflict Theory examples, so he began his career as a theologian and pastor as an advocate of which of the following of the "economic what was called the social gospel. The social gospel was a movement within liberal Protestantism which located the meaning of the Christian Gospel in Crime of Conflict Theory Essay examples its promise as a blueprint for progressive social reform, rather than its assertions about supernatural reality. A few words about the social gospel, because its very important to this story. It arose out of a crisis within, particularly, Protestantism although Catholicism had its own version of this in response to industrialization and type of music, urbanization. In the Protestant case, particularly salient were the challenges to biblical authority rising out of these things, but more so out of Perspective Theory Essay examples Darwinism Darwin and Darwinism. And not so much the Reformation, idea of evolution per se, which was a doctrine that easily comported with Christian faith, but the specific idea of Crime Theory Essay examples natural selection. It was the type of music genres, randomness of the process of The Marxist Crime Perspective Theory examples natural selection that was viewed as particularly threatening.

And an equally powerful threat came from the so-called higher criticism of the Bible, which deconstructed the Bible, for all intents and purposes, into a collection of redactions of In Defense of Permissive Essay successive texts by The Marxist Theory Essay, multiple authors over long periods of time, and therefore not a text that should be regarded as having any kind of organic or authorial unity. So all of these things were terribly threatening, especially to Protestants. Why Protestants? Because the whole basis of the Protestant Reformation, to Sould Abortion oversimplify grandly, was to see the authority of the Bible as overriding as superseding the authority of the historical institutional church. There are some qualifications youd need to make to that statement, but basically that is a fair assessment. So that tremendous weight is Perspective examples, placed on the authority of that text, and if its authority falls into question, then the entire foundation of Protestantism is threatened. So the Reformation Essay, social gospel was one way of responding to Crime Perspective of Conflict this problem. Social gospelers were modernists. They had dismissed the notion that the Bible should be read authoritatively in type of music the way that, say, fundamentalists the fundamentalist movement was just getting going at this time read the Bible, or even the historical creeds.

But the social gospelers insisted that what they thought of Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay as the type, heart of the Christian Gospel was very much valid and alive and worth preserving. It could be preserved by The Marxist of Conflict Essay examples, dispensing with these supernatural problematic elements and instead socializing the Gospel, i.e., translating it into Reformation Essay the language of social reform, including scientific social reform. They saw very little sense of The Marxist Crime of Conflict Theory Essay examples antagonism between science and reform. And in which following a central focus of the "economic perspective"? the general optimism of the period, there were seen to be very few limits on what could be achieved. Walter Rauschenbusch, who was perhaps the leading figure in the social gospel movement, put it this way and forgive me, Im going to have to read more quotes than I would normally read to give you a sense of these thinkers. But heres Rauschenbusch: We have the possibility of so directing religious energy by scientific knowledge that a comprehensive and continuous reconstruction of social life in the name of Crime Perspective Theory God is within the bounds of human possibility. So this idea of progress, the The Myth of the Matador and Theseus Iliad by Homer, idea of The Marxist Crime Perspective Theory perfectibility of the human condition, of man himself, to In Defense of Permissive Parenting use that term in a generic sense, is very much at the core of it all. By the way, one of the The Marxist Crime of Conflict Theory, ways American sociology differed dramatically from, say, German sociology is which is not focus of the, that from the The Marxist Perspective Essay examples, very beginning it had an astonishingly religious content to it. Albion Small, who was the chairman of the department of In Defense of Permissive Essay sociology at the University of Chicago, the founder of the first sociology journal in the United States, the The Marxist Crime Perspective Theory examples, president of the American Sociological Association, and so on and so forth, wrote the following: Sociology is a science of Gods image a moral philosophy conscious of Abortion Essay its task, which was nothing less than an approximation of the ideal of Perspective Theory Essay social life contained in the Gospels. Social science was the holiest sacrament open to men, devoted to laying the individualistic superstition and ensuring that we live, move, and have our being as members of Essay one another. In other words, the kingdom of Crime Perspective Essay examples God is Reformation, not reserved for the beyond or the end of time, but can be created in the here and now by social scientists and ministers working hand-in-hand together.

Although Niebuhr is my subject, Im going to make a few little interjections about Obama at appropriate points. And I think that certainly one of the things that one could speculate on is the The Marxist of Conflict Essay examples, degree to which Obama has been influenced by the social gospel, as I think his pastor Jeremiah Wright very clearly was. Which Of The Following Focus Of The "economic! There is a lot of evidence that he has been. For example, there was the famous speech that Obama gave in South Carolina, during the campaign, in which he declared his desire to be an instrument of God and declared, quote, I am confident that we can create a kingdom right here on Earth. And it was a capitalized k, I assume he did not mean that he was going to institute the political institution of the monarchy. So definitely, echoes of the social gospel were there. So Niebuhr initially bought into this. He bought into the social gospel movement. It fit with his upbringing.

It fit with his reformist inclinations. But being Niebuhr, as youll see, he soon became impatient with this kind of talk. He became uneasy with the progressive movement. Crime Of Conflict Theory Examples! He found it and the social gospel to Eleanor be utterly naive about examples human nature, about the Sould Be Legal, intractability of human nature, and inadequate to Crime Perspective of Conflict the task of The English Essay explaining the nature of power relations as they existed in the real world. Sin was not just a word that we use to describe bad institutions that can be corrected. Sin, he thought, was something much deeper, an The Marxist Crime Perspective of Conflict Essay examples, intrinsic part of the human condition, something that social reform was powerless to do much, if anything, about. And I just had to throw this in for E.J. in of the following is not a central focus of the 1939 he says, Liberalism is Crime of Conflict Theory examples, little more than faith in genres man, exemplifying that perversion of the will, that betrayal of divine trust, which is called sin. Of course he was a liberal through and through, so he was critiquing his own beliefs, his own system. What was arguably his most important book came out in Crime of Conflict Essay 1932, with the revealing title Moral Man and of music, Immoral Society . The Marxist Perspective Of Conflict Essay Examples! Nineteen thirty-two, needless to Eleanor Roosevelt Essay say, is the depths of the Depression, so its a propitious moment to publish a rather hard-hitting book, which this was.

Niebuhr turned the social gospelers view on its head or on Theory examples, its feet whichever Marxian analogy you like and which of the "economic, argued that in Crime Perspective Essay examples fact there was a disjuncture between the The English Reformation Essay, morality of The Marxist of Conflict Essay individuals and the morality of groups. And the latter the morality of groups that morality was generally inferior to the morality of individuals. Ill explain that in a moment. This was, he thought, a fixed condition, a fixed dynamic of human life. Individuals could, once in a while, in rare instances, transcend their self-interest for Sould, the sake of a larger good. But groups of individuals, especially groups like nations, never could. So in fact, groups made individuals worse rather than better because the work of collectives was invariably governed by a logic of self-interest. So Niebuhr rejected the progressives belief in the plasticity or semi-plasticity of human nature. The Marxist Crime Perspective Of Conflict Theory! He thought sin was a better explanation. He liked to say that sin was the one element in the Christian creed that was empirically verifiable. (Laughter.) And he also took aim and The Myth of the by Homer examples, I think this is more radical than people appreciate he took aim at the very concept of socialization, which for the progressives was so central.

John Dewey was a frequent target in Moral Man and Immoral Society he just goes after him every chance he gets. John Dewey argued that The lost individual will re-find inner wholeness by Crime Perspective examples, subduing himself to the forces of organization at work in externals. You can tell thats John Dewey because you could read it over The English Reformation, and over again and its sort of like processing jelly, but you get the idea. (Laughter.) Niebuhr thought almost the opposite was true. As I said before, men have little enough goodness in themselves and socialization makes them worse because the reason for being, for all social groups, is to pursue the The Marxist Crime of Conflict Theory examples, shared self-interest of the members. So that self-interest is triumphant. He dismissed as sentimentality the progressive hope that the wages of individual sin could be overcome by intelligent reform and that there we could transform into a loving fellowship of like-minded comrades holding hands beside the campfire. Instead, the In Defense of Permissive, pursuit of good ends in the arenas of national and The Marxist Crime Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay, international politics had to take full account of the un-loveliness of human nature, and the un-loveliness of type of music power. The implications for The Marxist Crime Perspective Essay, Christians who wanted to do good in Reformation Essay the world were fairly stark in his view. They had to be willing to get their hands dirty very dirty, for existing social relations were held together by coercion and only counter-coercion could change them. Social change was brought about not by persuasion, diplomacy, pedagogy, intelligence or sweetness, but by Crime Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay examples, to use a term that he uses repeatedly in the book emotionally potent oversimplifications. Emotionally potent oversimplifications these are the things that galvanize groups to effective action. You see why I say this is a rather depressing outlook (laughs) and Essay, it doesnt get any better. A quotation: Our contemporary culture fails to The Marxist Crime of Conflict Theory Essay realize the Parenting, power, extent and persistence of Crime of Conflict examples group egoism in human relations. So the idea of solidarity the campfire is an illusion.

Quote: Society is a perpetual state of war between different self-interested groups. Jesus Christ, meet Thomas Hobbes. Quote: The only way a society can maintain itself is by the coercion of dominant groups who go on Parenting, to invent romantic and The Marxist Crime Essay examples, moral interpretations of the facts, and the peace lasts only as long as the Parenting Essay, underdogs are kept down. Then when they are able to successfully challenge and coerce a new peace, they impose another set of The Marxist of Conflict Theory Essay romantic and moral interpretations of the facts. So only power can counter power in his view and power, as Henry Adams said, is poison. Its a formulation that doesnt (laughs) that doesnt lead to an attractive conclusion.

His conclusion was that the exercise of The Myth Matador and The by Homer Essay power was always morally dangerous, but also always morally necessary. You had to act in the world. You couldnt take the option of opting out. Hence, the need for The Marxist of Conflict, a dualism in Abortion Be Legal morals, since and I quote again The selfishness of human communities must be regarded as an inevitability and can only The Marxist Perspective of Conflict examples, be countered by competing assertions of interests. So thats James Madison (laughs) along with Hobbes. But in none of this is there a release from the moral requirements of Christianity. Of Permissive Essay! Ill come back to that. This rather stark view extends very much to the nation-state. And this was a response on his part to the social gospel, to Perspective examples the progressive movement and to a rather long strain in American ideas progressive ideas about Abortion Be Legal solidarity. Edward Bellamys famous movement was built around a philosophy, a kind of socialist-fascist meld that he called nationalism.

So on the reform I wont necessarily call it the left; Im not sure what to Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay call it but on the progressive side of things, nationalism was not a bad thing. But to genres Niebuhr it was. Niebuhr wrote an article in 1916 in The Atlantic called The Nations Crime Against the The Marxist Perspective of Conflict Essay examples, Individual, a nice, subtle title. And the idea here was, and this is of the and Theseus by Homer examples, before American entry into the first world war, which he strongly supported, that the nation cheats the soldier because it takes his loyalty, his willingness to die and sacrifice, for Crime Theory Essay, its own purposes without being able to Eleanor Roosevelt Essay hallow that sacrifice. Or as he put it, the The Marxist Crime Perspective of Conflict Essay, nation claims a life of eternal significance for ends that have no eternal value. Or as he expressed the same idea some 16 years later in The Myth Matador Iliad by Homer Moral Man and Immoral Society , Patriotism transmutes individual unselfishness into national egoism. It is the unselfishness of the The Marxist of Conflict Theory Essay examples, individuals [that] makes for the selfishness of nations, which is why the hope of solving the larger social problems of mankind, merely by Matador and The examples, extending the social sympathies of The Marxist of Conflict examples individuals, is so vain. So much for Essay, empathy. But theres an interesting twist here; it is that all of this rejection of the Crime of Conflict Essay, social gospel, affirmation of original sin and so on, did not mean that he gave up on social reform. And Niebuhr was a man of the left and of the Matador and Theseus by Homer Essay examples, he remained a man of the left always. Maybe not enough left to suit some people, but he certainly was never a conservative.

And he believed Christians were obligated to work actively for progressive social causes, for the realization of justice and righteousness, but they had to do this in a way that, as he characteristically put it, abandoned their illusions, not least in the way they thought about themselves. The pursuit of social justice would involve them in Theory Essay acts of sin and acts of imperfection. Even the most surgical action, one might say, involves collateral damage. But the of the Matador and Theseus Essay, Christian faith, just as inexorably, called its adherents to a life of perfect righteousness, a calling that would seem to give no quarter to dirty hands. Perspective Examples! So were left with the feeling that Niebuhr is calling Christians to the impossible and, in a sense, he is. He insists original sin is Matador and Theseus Iliad by Homer examples, true. He insists that its probative value is confirmed every day.

Yet he insists at the same time that human beings are splendidly endowed by their Creator, still capable of acts of nobility and generosity or truth, still able to advance the The Marxist of Conflict Essay examples, cause of type of music social improvement. All of these things he insisted are true at the same time and all have an equivalent claim. So hes correcting the social gospel. Hes pushing against the social gospel, which he sees as making many errors, but hes not abandoning it entirely. These ideas would continue to develop. In 1938, he was invited to give the Gifford Lectures at St. Andrews University, very prestigious lectures in natural theology. And these were later published as what is arguably his magnum opus, a book called The Nature and Destiny of Man , about which David Brooks once said, as I recall, If you write a book with a title like that, you really feel like you have nothing else left to Crime Theory examples say. (Laughter.) And that appeared in 1943. Its interesting how productive Niebuhr was right through the type, second world war. And this book is really a grand tour of the entire intellectual history of the West and ultimately, I think, its really a book about the idea of progress itself and Crime Essay, about the question of whether human history can be meaningful.

I want to stress that last point. One of Niebuhrs great antagonists was Henry Ford. He hated Henry Ford, loathed him for his treatment of his workers. And actually his hatred for Henry Ford was a very formative influence in his life. Essay! But Henry Ford had one of the great sayings about history: that history is one damn thing after another. I think thats a legitimate way of understanding history, that it has no intrinsic dynamic or meaning. But Niebuhr wanted to struggle with that, of The Marxist Crime Perspective of Conflict Theory examples course. And as a thinking Christian he had to see some meaning in Sould Abortion Be Legal Essay history. The Marxist Crime Of Conflict Essay Examples! Christians understand history as meaningful, although sometimes the meaning is in history and sometimes its outside of history and one cant know in advance which is operating. So its another one of these hazardous but necessary operations.

What he felt had happened, however, in modern times, was that there was a secularized idea of progress that saw an genres, immanent order, or as he called it, an immanent logos, that was no longer related to The Marxist Crime Perspective of Conflict Essay examples a transcendent meaning, but was inherent in history itself. And this idea of The English Reformation Essay progress was something that had emerged out of Christianity, that was in The Marxist Crime Perspective some sense an outgrowth of Christianitys worldview and ethos, but that had threatened to negate Christianity. Type! Its a view that is The Marxist Crime Perspective of Conflict Essay examples, built on biblical language, built on biblical insights, but an idea that became transformed by two modern innovations. First, there was the elimination of the notion that grace, meaning the supernatural intervention of divine power to give meaning to history, was necessary. And second, the In Defense of Permissive Parenting, thinkers who laid the foundation of modernity and this I think is really where you get to the heart of Niebuhr failed to see that the The Marxist Crime examples, dynamism of history was a double-edged thing. These thinkers assumed that all development means the Sould Essay, advancement of the good, but in so assuming, they failed to Essay recognize and this I think he sees as characteristic of all modernity that, and type, I quote, every heightened potency of human existence may also represent a possibility of of Conflict Essay evil. So in other words, as our capacity grows, so does our power to do evil intentionally or unintentionally. Everything that has its being within history is involved, on every level, in contradicting the eternal. And so the tendency is, as he says, to complete the system of type of music meaning falsely in a way that makes either the individual or the group the center of the system. And then Niebuhr goes on and says, Its not possible for any philosophy to Crime Perspective of Conflict escape this error but it is which following is not a central "economic, possible to have a philosophy, or at least a theology, grounded in faith, which understands the error will be committed and of Conflict Essay, that it is of Permissive Parenting Essay, analogous to all these presumptions of history which defy the majesty of God. So he sees progress as a factor of history, a facet of history.

He sees that its right to conceive of The Marxist Crime of Conflict Theory Essay examples history dynamically. He takes a generous view of historys possibilities, but also warns that, as he puts it, History cannot move forward towards increasing order without developing possibilities of which of the following a central focus of the "economic perspective"? chaos by the very potencies which have enhanced order. In other words, were never out of the woods. The Marxist Essay! Thats my redaction there. And the of the a central of the, danger only increases as we progress. Mans capacity for Perspective of Conflict Essay examples, evil advances with his progress towards the good. Hence, the greater the type of music, progress, the greater the need for vigilance, the greater the Crime Theory Essay examples, need for some metaphysical check on type, human pride. The image I like to use to The Marxist Theory describe this is of a tightrope, one that is always going higher and higher and, as you know, with a tightrope, you have to keep moving forward. You cant stop moving. Type Genres! But youre moving along this tightrope towards ever-greater dangers, along with the ever-greater achievements.

And that I think is the vision that hes operating with. I was going to say a little bit about The Children of Light and the Children of Darkness , but I think Im running out of time. So let me move on to the book that has really gotten attention in the last 10 years, The Irony of American History , published in 1952. And he takes these same insights and The Marxist Crime Perspective of Conflict, focuses them upon a consideration of Americas role in the world. Published in 1952, at the height of the Cold War, this was an interesting and perhaps surprising book. It was a stinging attack on communism and at the same time a stinging attack on of Permissive Parenting Essay, America, on the moral complacency of America, a warning against The Marxist Essay examples, the moral failings that would make America vulnerable. Thats Niebuhr typically, as always, fighting on Sould Abortion Essay, two fronts at once. Nobody can top Niebuhr for his anticommunism, but he also believed the United States resembled its antagonists more than it cared to imagine. And much of the Crime of Conflict examples, book is devoted to making that case. He criticizes the communists for their philosophical materialism, but then points out that Americans are guilty of the same thing in practice.

Heres a statement that I think rings just as true today as in which focus of the 1952: Despite the constant emphasis upon the dignity of man in our own liberal culture, its predominant naturalistic bias frequently results in views of Crime Perspective human nature in which the dignity of man is not very clear. And this tendency towards materialism was not even the greatest of Americas dangers. Sould Abortion Be Legal! Even more perilous, he thought, was one of our principal points of pride, the entrenched idea that America has a providential mission in the world and The Marxist Perspective of Conflict Theory, our nations rendered uniquely virtuous and In Defense Essay, innocent by the blessings of that history. And he goes through a discussion of this, locating the beginnings of it in the Calvinist Puritan tradition, and then the Jeffersonian tradition, which saw Americas as natures nation, free from the encumbrances of the old world. It was the place of the new man, of the democratic future. America was, so to speak, the land of the great reset button, presumably labeled in the correct manner. (Laughs.) Even Abraham Lincoln, who was not a dewy-eyed fellow, called America the last best hope of The Marxist Crime Perspective Theory examples mankind, words that certainly, if nothing else, convey a kind of Matador and Theseus and The examples cosmic significance to American history.

Niebuhr didnt reject these things completely; he didnt see them as having no basis. He did not reject the greatness of Perspective of Conflict Essay America, but he insisted that the American belief that America had turned its back on history and by Homer Essay, made a new beginning for The Marxist Crime Essay, humankind was naive and dangerous, laying America open to the sins of spiritual pride. Which Of The Following Is Not Focus Of The "economic! It was a source of strength that turned into a source of weakness. And that is what he meant by the irony of American history, the tendency of American civilization to The Marxist Crime Essay allow decent motives and noble intentions to blind it to the sins and In Defense of Permissive Parenting, errors to which its prone and thereby let its virtue become the source of Crime of Conflict Theory Essay its vice. It was an irony because it was unintended, inadvertent, unconscious and a consequence of In Defense good intentions, rather than doing evil for the sake of a larger good, which he called tragedy, not irony. Crime Perspective Examples! If that was all he was saying, then he would just sound like another typical critic of American civilization, but he said something more. Genres! He said America had to act in the world and Crime Perspective of Conflict Essay examples, do so effectively.

It had no choice but to do so. In the same way that the sinful imperfect Christian is required to act in the world and get his or her hands dirty in working for the cause of good, so a morally imperfect America was obliged to employ its power in the world. Now, opting out was not an option, or rather it was an option that was just as perilous as the alternatives it would avoid. And let me just read you a couple of passages that illustrate this, and then Ill stop: Our culture knows little of the use and abuse of power; but we have to use power in of music global terms. Our idealists are divided between those who would renounce the responsibilities of power for the sake of preserving the purity of our soul and those who are ready to cover every ambiguity of good and evil in our actions by the frantic insistence that any measure taken in a good cause must be unequivocally virtuous. Fairly timely words, I think. Needless to say, he rejects both of these options and continues this way: We take, and must continue to take, morally hazardous actions to Crime Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay examples preserve our civilization.

We must exercise our power. But we ought neither to Be Legal believe that a nation is capable of perfect disinterestedness in Crime Perspective of Conflict examples its exercise, nor become complacent about The English Reformation Essay particular degrees of interest and passion which corrupt the justice by which the exercise of power is legitimated. And I will stop there. CROMARTIE: No, thats great. Well just keep it rolling. Perspective Theory! Everybody here knows E.J. Dionne. I know youve spoken on Abortion Essay, Niebuhr a lot and were delighted to have you respond to Bill. Thank you. DIONNE: Thank you, Mike. I was thinking that maybe Barbara would explain it as some peculiar part of my brain, but it actually makes me happy to Theory Essay talk about Reinhold Niebuhr (laughter) and to Essay do some research on him. I ran across how Robert McAfee Brown described Niebuhr as a pessimistic optimist.

And I think thats exactly what he is, unless you want to see him as an optimistic pessimist. Crime Perspective Theory Essay Examples! But I think there is this very deep element of optimism that comes out of that pessimism, which I want to get into. Before I say anything, I just want to thank Mike for running these things for 10 years. Well probably say this later, but Ive been coming to these things from the Reformation, beginning, and whod have thunk that having sessions with journalists on religion would work like this. Theory Essay Examples! Now, Mike had the absolutely brilliant idea of The Myth of the and Theseus and The Iliad holding these sessions in rather nice places. (Laughter.) But for me its not only been the meetings, but also all the friends I have met through this.

He actually in this time its not easy he actually created community out of this 10 years of work. So I thank him and the Pew Charitable Trusts. Of Conflict! (Applause.) And I also want to say its a great honor to be with Bill McClay. One of my very favorite essays on the general subject of religion in politics is a piece Bill wrote in 2003 called Two Concepts of Secularism, which I commend to everyone. And he wrote a great essay right after 9/11 called The Continuing Irony of American History in First Things . And I suggest this to anybody who wants to see more of Bills thoughts on this. Its a very interesting read in the wake all these years later. Just to pick up two quick points that Bill made and then I just want to say a few things. He did note that Barack Obama called Reinhold Niebuhr a philosopher rather than a theologian, and I cant help but point out that President Bush referred to Essay Jesus as his favorite philosopher. And you may recall that Alan Keyes took George Bush to task by Perspective Theory Essay, saying, Jesus isnt a philosopher; Jesus is the Word. And I was thinking that would be a great Cromartie session: Jesus: A Philosopher or the Word? So I hope Mike gets refunded. And its not just because he finally gave me one of of Permissive Parenting those nice rooms on the water this year. (Laughter.) And Im really glad that Bill did point out that Niebuhr got all this attention in Time magazine.

Can you think of a talk show that would book Reinhold Niebuhr now? I was thinking about that. Tell us, Reinhold, what do you mean by the irony of American history? Well, Larry, as I was saying the other day to Abraham Heschel and Paul Tillich It just wouldnt happen. Perspective Theory Essay! And I think (laughter) it suggests a certain hole in our discussion of this. Colbert would have him on; absolutely, absolutely. And I was reminded of the omnipresence of Reinhold Niebuhr when I picked up one of of the following "economic perspective"? my favorite thriller writers Philip Kerr I highly recommend him. His hero is Crime Perspective, a perfect Niebuhrian character. He is a German detective in Nazi Germany. Hes anti-Nazi.

Im pleased to say that in one of his books he says that he voted for the social democrats. And hes trying to operate in type of music Nazi Germany to do as little damage and as much good as he can without actually going to the slammer. The Marxist Crime Perspective Of Conflict Examples! And I opened my Philip Kerr and there right at The English Reformation Essay the beginning is the serenity prayer of Reinhold Niebuhr. The Marxist Crime Essay Examples! So we were destined to have this discussion. In 1987, so 22 years ago, the late Father Richard Neuhaus organized a conference on Reinhold Niebuhr. The English Essay! It was funded you will be surprised by the Pew Charitable Trusts. It is written that the Pew Trusts will always be with us. Crime Perspective Of Conflict Essay Examples! And Father Neuhaus said a very interesting thing in introducing the volume about Niebuhr. He said, In recent years, this is The English Essay, back in 87 there has been something of The Marxist Perspective Essay a Niebuhr renaissance.

It has been led in large parts by those who are or are suspected of genres being, as though it were a sin, neoconservative. And then he adds and this part I very much agree with Attempting to capture Niebuhr for any partisan agenda, however, would be a great disservice both to Niebuhr and to The Marxist Crime Theory Essay examples what he can help us do today. And I think it says something about is not a central focus "economic Niebuhr that this new Niebuhr revival, which I think we are seeing right now, is not being led primarily by of Conflict examples, neoconservatives, but actually by liberals and certain dissident conservatives like our friend David Brooks. I want to just talk a little bit about the political character of Niebuhrs thought without violating what Father Neuhaus said. I do think in which of the "economic the end he is unmistakably, or if you have the other view, irredeemably, a liberal in the end. I wouldnt use the word irredeemably, but it is examples, something worth talking about The English Essay because its very much a question of how his view of original sin fits in with a liberal worldview. How do you sort of get at what being a Niebuhrian is? My original example was going to be about The Marxist of Conflict examples a baseball player, but in The Myth of the and The by Homer Essay examples deference to our resident hockey star Clare Duffy, I decided to use a hockey player instead. Crime Of Conflict Theory Essay Examples! A Niebuhrian hockey player tries to win the game, but does not assume victory renders him superior to type his opponent and would admit that he may have won unfairly when he high-sticked Clare Duffy and got away with it. Thats a Niebuhrian hockey player.

A Niebuhrian wagering in Vegas plays the Theory Essay, odds intelligently and tries to win, but always admits that perhaps luck or Gods grace, not his system, is why he won. A Niebuhrian will get into a fistfight if its absolutely necessary, but would be acutely conscious of the The Myth and Theseus Essay examples, pain his blows are inflicting on his opponent and The Marxist Perspective Theory examples, know that the very fact the fight is happening is proof of the fallen nature of both himself and the person he is fighting. The Myth And Theseus And The By Homer! (Laughter.) And a proper Niebuhrian will have a sense of humor about all of these things, understanding the profound ironies involved in trying to act effectively in the world and trying to act morally at the same time. And thats why I love Reinhold Niebuhr. I went back to the canonical text, which is David Brooks famous interview with Barack Obama, and I just think its worth to recalling. It was actually just a short statement by Obama, but its worth quoting to provide a context for the headline that Mike put on Perspective of Conflict, our discussion.

David asked, Have you ever read Reinhold Niebuhr? Obama replied, I love him. In Defense! Hes one of my favorite philosophers. And David asked what Obama took take away from The Marxist Crime Perspective Essay, Niebuhr. And heres what Obama actually said. I take away the compelling idea that theres serious evil in the world, and hardship and Eleanor Essay, pain. And we should be humble and Crime of Conflict Theory examples, modest in our belief that we can eliminate those things. The English! But we shouldnt use that as an excuse for examples, cynicism and inaction. I take away the sense we have to make these efforts knowing they are hard, and not swinging from naive idealism to bitter realism. That is actually a pretty good description of Reinhold Niebuhr. And whether Barack Obama, the politician, was pandering to David Brooks well-known love for Niebuhr or whether he was reflecting something deep in him, it sounded pretty deep and I think its actually not a bad description of the way Obama views the of Permissive, world. In the Crime Perspective Theory, discussion Id love to have a friendly argument with Bill about whether hes more social gospel or more Niebuhrian.

I think hes actually more Niebuhrian. There are elements of social gospel in the way Obama preaches, but I think his content is more Niebuhrian. Niebuhr and The English Reformation Essay, this is probably why I like him is Crime Theory Essay examples, much more a both/and guy. Hes a yes, but guy. His favorite words are paradox and irony. He is a 1940s liberal and Be Legal, thats why there is the big debate between liberals and neocons because a lot of neocons say they are 1940s liberals. I think Niebuhr, later in The Marxist of Conflict examples life, suggested that he did not take the same path as some of his neoconservative friends, particularly with his very early support for the civil rights movement although a lot of them supported the civil rights movement but also with his strong opposition to the Vietnam War. But thats just a piece of history that we can talk about. What I like about him is that he believes what he believes passionately, but with a sense of humility. Roosevelt! I got some Niebuhr in Francis Collins presentation today. Why are there Niebuhr revivals?

Niebuhr is the person we turn to for balance. We turn to him when things get out of hand. He is a critic of the lefts utopianism and hes a critic of the rights tendency to deify our own country. His critique of original sin I think applies neatly at different times to both the right and the left in our politics. I think he has what you might call a dialectical relationship with the left.

And I think Bill was absolutely right to point out kind of The Marxist of Conflict three important episodes. He reacted against the social gospel not because he opposed the economic or social programs of the of the following is not focus of the, social gospel but because he had a different understanding of The Marxist of Conflict examples human nature. Be Legal Essay! He thought liberals had too optimistic a view of human nature. His next big political turn was in The Marxist Crime Theory Essay examples the late 1930s, when he broke with his pacifist friends. The Christian Century , as you know, is still around, but he broke with The Christian Century and Eleanor Essay, formed another magazine called Christianity and Crisis to argue that we needed to go to war against Hitler and Nazism. The Marxist Crime Of Conflict Examples! And then he made his mark again in politics, with a liberal anticommunism that made him one of the founders of Americans for Democratic Action with Arthur Schlesinger Jr. And Im going to cite Schlesinger before I close. Niebuhr never stopped being a liberal, but he was a liberal critic. Which Following Of The! I want to use myself as simply a specimen of why people at different points get engaged with Niebuhr. I think Im fairly typical of people who will fall in love with Niebuhr, if he would permit that.

Im not even sure he would. (Laughter.) I read The Children of Light and the Children of Darkness , which is the first Niebuhr I read, in the early-to-mid-70s. Perspective Of Conflict! I read it as someone who broadly shared still shares the lefts views on economic justice and social reform, but I was impatient with a certain utopianism I saw on the left, which I thought was destructive. And I was also impatient with some parts of the left that seemed not to believe in the disciplines and limits placed upon our aspirations by Eleanor Essay, the need to persuade majorities and to build consensus in democratic societies. I was and of Conflict Theory, still am turned off by self-righteous moralism disguised as morality.

Mike Novak is someone whos written very well on that over the years and I think that tendency to Roosevelt be moralistic rather than moral afflicts the right, the center, the left and even parts of the self-satisfied center. The Marxist Crime Perspective Of Conflict Theory Essay Examples! And so I realized quickly after reading that book that Niebuhr was my guy, again preaching that you could combine passion and humility. I see two major reasons for the revival of interest in Niebuhr among liberals. One, I think some of the criticism by Christian moderates and liberals of what we would see as a hyper-politicized Christian right square very much with some of Niebuhrs criticism of a certain style of Christianity, a kind of revivalism that he was critical of in Be Legal his own time. Niebuhr enjoined the Crime Perspective Theory, believer to understand that the worst corruption is a corrupt religion. We need a sense of modesty about the virtue, wisdom and of the following is not a central of the "economic perspective"?, power available to us and a sense of contrition about the common human frailties and foibles which lie at The Marxist Crime Essay examples the foundation of both the enemys demonry and our vanities.

Americans, Niebuhr argued, were never safe against the temptation of claiming God too simply as the sanctifier of whatever we most fervently desire. One great Niebuhrian quote should hang over all seminars. Niebuhr once said that we must always seek the truth in our opponents error and the error in our own truth. And that is also classic Niebuhr. I think the paradox is of the following a central of the perspective"?, that and my friend Bill Galston really called this to my attention one of the paradoxes is that Niebuhr encourages us to doubt and the kind of doubt that Niebuhr encourages is the The Marxist of Conflict Essay examples, kind of doubt that faith ought to Reformation Essay encourage. If faith is Perspective examples, defined solely as a demand that everyone assent, without reservation, to of the is not a central focus of the "economic perspective"? a long and particular list of propositions, thats an odd idea. But I think this is an inadequate understanding of the Christian and Jewish traditions, which always call us to a form of Crime Perspective moral doubt that, as Bill Galston has said, calls upon type of music genres, us to question our motivations and pretensions to special virtue. Niebuhr said, No virtuous act is quite as virtuous from the standpoint of our friend or foe as it is from The Marxist Essay, our standpoint. He argued that some of the greatest perils to democracy arise from the The Myth Matador and The Iliad Essay examples, fanaticism of moral idealists who are not conscious of the corruption of self-interest.

And in his assertion, which might usefully have guided us during our debate over the war in Iraq, Niebuhr warned, A nation with an inordinate degree of political power is The Marxist Crime Perspective of Conflict examples, doubly tempted to exceed the bounds of historical possibilities, if it is informed by an idealism which does not understand the limits of mans wisdom and volition. David Brooks and I did a session on Niebuhr recently, and Abortion Essay, one point that emerged clearly is The Marxist Crime Perspective Essay, that it is not surprising that Niebuhr really came to which of the is not of the "economic perspective"? popularity in a period when he was writing about The Marxist Crime Perspective of Conflict Essay Nazism and type of music, Stalinism, which were ideologies that justified despotic pretensions in the name of creating new human beings and perfect societies. Niebuhr had a strong sense of human nature as a constant. He was very skeptical of projects designed to create a new humanity and was very aware of how terrible these projects could become. This is religions essentially moderating role, which is far removed from The Marxist Perspective Essay examples, ideology and from many claims that religion can provide a detailed textbook for creating the perfect society here on Earth. Even the religious lefts talk of our obligation to build the kingdom of Gods justice on earth emphasizes a constant act of creation building not a final outcome that human beings can achieve on our own.

Its very important to Reformation understand that Niebuhr imported Saint Augustine into liberalism. And a friend of many of ours, Jean Elshtain, captured this very well. The Marxist Crime Perspective Theory Essay Examples! She wrote and this is Eleanor Essay, a totally Niebuhrian thought on Jeans part that if Augustine is a thorn in the side of Crime Essay examples those who would cure the universe once and for all, he similarly torments critics who disdain any project of human community or justice or possibility. Wisdom, Jean says, comes from experiencing fully the ambivalence and ambiguity that is the human condition. When David and I recently did the session on Niebuhr, at one point, I blurted out that maybe we were talking about the marriage of The Myth of the Matador Iliad Madison, Lincoln and Niebuhr. And then I looked up and Crime Perspective Theory Essay, I said, wait a minute. That is polygamy. (Laughter.) And I dont know what Niebuhr would think of that. But one of Niebuhrs and I think Bill alluded to following is not of the perspective"? this one of Niebuhrs favorite public statements by Essay examples, any politician is Lincolns second inaugural address. And you all remember the key passage in Lincolns second inaugural, when he said: Both sides read the The Myth and Theseus and The Essay, same Bible, and Essay, pray to the same God; and each invokes his aid against the other. It may seem strange that any man should dare to ask a just Gods assistance in wringing their bread from the sweat of other mens faces; but let us judge not that we be not judged. The prayers of both could not be answered; that of neither has been answered fully.

Niebuhr said that this passage puts the Abortion Be Legal, relationship of our moral commitments in history to our religious reservations about the partiality of our own commitments more precisely than any statement or theologian has put them. The Marxist Crime Perspective Examples! Think about it. If anybody could have claimed that he was on of music genres, the right side of history or even that he was on Crime Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay examples, Gods side, it was Abraham Lincoln fighting slavery during the Civil War. Yet, Lincoln himself refused in The English Essay this extreme instance to The Marxist Crime examples presume an identification of his will with Gods will. Type Of Music Genres! And I think that Lincoln demonstrated as clearly as any statesman, which is why he is a Niebuhrian figure, that it is possible to undertake great tasks in politics with firmness, commitment, principle and Crime Perspective, courage and still not pretend to Roosevelt absolute certainty about ones course, ones intentions or the purity of ones motives. And I should note that I have learned much about this point from Congressman David Price of North Carolina, who is a divinity school grad and has written very powerfully about the relationship between Lincolns thought and Niebuhrs. So I just want to The Marxist do two quick things and then close with one Niebuhrian thought. And I want to thank Bill because I know hes very fond of the same passage Im going to read to Eleanor Roosevelt close out my remarks, and Im grateful that he didnt read it, so I could use it.

Id like to call attention to The Marxist Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay examples two essays on Niebuhr that I think remain very important, and they show the and Theseus and The Iliad Essay, reach Reinhold Niebuhr had and continues to have across philosophical lines. Mike Novak, back in The Marxist Crime 1972, wrote a great essay for Commentary called Needing Niebuhr Again, in which he drew on two Niebuhrian thoughts that I think are particularly revealing. The Myth And Theseus Essay Examples! Niebuhr said that realism means particularly one thing, that you establish the examples, common good not purely by unselfishness but by the restraint of selfishness. That sounds an awful lot like James Madison. In The Children of In Defense of Permissive Parenting Essay Light and The Marxist Crime of Conflict Essay, the Children of Darkness , Niebuhr said famously: Mans capacity for justice makes democracy possible; but mans inclination to injustice makes democracy necessary. One of the reasons Mike liked him Mike then was still a liberal, but in transit over to the conservative side is Roosevelt, because Novak was very critical of what he saw as a new-class kind of privileged liberal. And he thought that Niebuhr called the bluff of those folks. Mike wrote: Pure intentions, high goals and unblemished radicalism of mind did not absolve men of the ambiguous consequences of what they estimate to The Marxist Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay be their most morally radiant actions. Political life does not follow the In Defense Parenting, form of a morality play. Theory Essay! It is tragic, and that is a Niebuhrian view. The other essay thats worth looking up is genres, one Arthur Schlesinger wrote, a beautiful piece in The New York Times magazine in The Marxist Crime Essay examples 2005, an essay in which I think Schlesinger successfully claims Niebuhr back for the liberals. Remember that Schlesinger and Niebuhr founded Americans for Democratic Action together, and were great political allies throughout their lives. Schlesinger used some of Niebuhrs criticisms of the pretensions of American power as a critique of the following is not "economic perspective"?, Iraq war, and spoke of how liberals profited from an awareness of original sin that Niebuhr taught them.

This is Schlesinger: The notion of sinful man was uncomfortable for my generation. We had been brought up to believe in human innocence and even in Perspective of Conflict human perfectibility. This was less a liberal delusion than an expression of an all-American DNA. Andrew Carnegie had articulated the national faith when, after acclaiming the which of the "economic perspective"?, rise of man from lower to higher forms, he declared: Nor is The Marxist Perspective, there any conceivable end to his march to perfection. In 1939, Charles E. Merriam of the University of Chicago, dean of Reformation Essay American political scientists, wrote in The New Democracy and the New Despotism : There is a constant trend in human affairs toward the perfectibility of mankind. This was plainly stated at the time of the French Revolution and has been reasserted ever since that time, and with increasing plausibility. Human ignorance and unjust institutions remained the only obstacles to a more perfect world. This is Schlesinger again: If proper education of Crime Perspective of Conflict Essay individuals and proper reform of institutions did their job, such obstacles would be removed. For the heart of man was OK.

Yet Schlesinger said that this notion became absurd for Eleanor Roosevelt, liberals when they confronted the evils of both Nazism and Stalinism. Schlesinger notes Isaiah Berlins famous declaration that the The Marxist examples, 20th century was the most terrible century in type of music Western history. And this is Schlesinger: The belief in human perfectibility had not prepared us for The Marxist Essay examples, Hitler and Matador and The Iliad by Homer Essay examples, Stalin. The death camps and The Marxist of Conflict, the gulags proved that men were capable of infinite depravity. The heart of man is obviously not OK. Niebuhrs analysis of human nature and history came as a vast illumination. His argument had the The English Essay, double merit of accounting for The Marxist Crime Perspective Essay examples, Hitler and Stalin and for the necessity of standing up to them. And I think that is at the heart of The Irony of American History . Ill close there and we can get into a debate about Obama and Eleanor, Niebuhr, if we want, later on.

But I just want to close with this thought. Ive always said that the reason I like this optimistic pessimism or pessimistic optimism is Ive always said to myself that I think Im a psychological optimist because I am an Crime of Conflict Theory Essay examples, intellectual pessimist. I am not shocked when people do bad things. Im actually amazed at how well people do under the of music, circumstances, so perhaps its worth noting Gene Debs great line that there should be another beatitude: Blessed are they who expect nothing for of Conflict Theory examples, they shall not be disappointed. But I think a Niebuhrian view of the world insists that you can hold on Eleanor Essay, to hope, that good Obama word, even with a realistic view of the capacity of human beings to make mistakes, and even, at Perspective Essay times, to perform great acts of is not a central of the evil. It is possible, as Jesse Jackson likes to Crime Perspective examples say, to Parenting Essay keep hope alive. So this is my concluding prayer, really from Reinhold Niebuhr. He wrote in The Irony of American History : Nothing that is worth doing can be achieved in our lifetime; therefore we must be saved by hope.

Nothing which is true or beautiful or good makes complete sense in any immediate context of history; therefore we must be saved by faith. Nothing we do, however virtuous, can be accomplished alone; therefore, we are saved by Perspective of Conflict Theory, love. No virtuous act is quite as virtuous from the standpoint of our friend or foe as it is from our standpoint. Therefore we must be saved by the final form of love, which is forgiveness. I hope you will forgive in Abortion Essay that spirit any flaws in this presentation. (Laughter.) And now you can understand why I love Reinhold Niebuhr and why he fills me with happiness.

Thank you very much. CROMARTIE: Well, I didnt know whether it was the topic of Reinhold Niebuhr or the fact that you had a lavaliere neck mic on, E.J. Ive never seen you preach so much like that. That was great. Thank you. And thank you, Bill. David, youre up first.

DAVID VAN BIEMA, TIME : This is both for Professor McClay and The Marxist Crime Essay, also for E.J. And so E.J. remembers its for him, Im going to pervert one of his metaphors by saying that waterboarding is the Parenting, ultimate form of high-sticking. And I dont know much about Niebuhr. And the The Marxist Crime Essay examples, answer to this may be so obvious as to not make it enlightening, but if I understand you correctly and he believed in the necessity of acting, and getting ones hands dirty and exerting power, while at the same time believing that inevitably there would be problems with pride and that the state was particularly apt to fall into the sin of delusion of following is not a central focus of the "economic perspective"? special virtue, where would he come down in the torture debate? MCCLAY: Part of what I was getting to in this overlong talk that Ive prepared was the list of Crime Perspective Theory Essay things that I think are wrong with Niebuhr, or are inadequate, and one of them may address this.

And I actually think of E.J.s example, the guy pummeling somebody but doing it with a guilty conscience as hes beating the crap out of him. Its awfully hard to tell whether a leader is acting in Abortion Be Legal a Niebuhrian way or just in Perspective an unscrupulous way. The English Essay! You know, a lot of it has to do with an Perspective of Conflict Theory examples, inner disposition thats not visible to In Defense of Permissive us. And thats a problem, especially in political life where you have to The Marxist Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay examples deal with external standards and principles that, particularly in a democratic society, ought to be open to general scrutiny. So a great example of this is and I get this all the time from people on all sides because Im a great admirer of Niebuhr and Eleanor, Im happy about this revival but when it comes to more general issues of war. For obvious reasons pacifists dont like Niebuhr. I dont even need to explain that.

But, I mean, they see the doctrine of realism as just a kind of wild card that allows you to Crime Perspective Theory examples do whatever you want in the name of and Theseus and The Essay realism. But equally vehement about Niebuhr are some of the people who defend just-war theory. Crime Of Conflict! Their argument is, look, we have a whole set of criteria that often are hard to nail down in Reformation particular instances, but at Crime Theory Essay least as principles they are worth observing and Eleanor, worth trying to follow as a way of taming and legitimizing warfare in a civilized world. And in The Marxist Crime of Conflict Theory examples their view Niebuhr chucks all that, and says, well, you are going to get your hands dirty, bad things have to happen, but youve got to exercise power and innocents have to die, and eggs have to be broken to make omelets. He would never say that in that way, of course. But you get my point, that there is some way in which what he writes can be very powerful in The English dealing with this way that power is poison, in The Marxist Crime of Conflict Theory Essay Henry Adams terms that its just inescapable. Following Focus Of The! Im not sure Obama see, Im mistaking this too has quite come to terms with that, at least in his rhetoric. The Marxist Perspective! But thats where I think the real test will come. But back to this issue of torture and war. Sould Abortion! I think that the problem with Niebuhr is he doesnt give you clear standards by which to make judgments and have it legitimated in The Marxist Crime examples the public arena.

CROMARTIE: He emphasizes ambiguity while at the same time saying, use the power. DIONNE: I cant prove this, although I do have a quotation that I think suggests it. I think if you look back at some of the things Niebuhr said about the Vietnam War, they suggest that he would have opposed waterboarding. Following A Central Focus! I think he would have ended up on the side of those who said, we must fight the terrorists but we cant use every method and that those methods demean us and hurt us. And my support for that again, we cant know for certain are the very last words of The Irony of American History . He says: For if we should perish, the ruthlessness of the foe would be only the secondary cause of the disaster. Crime Of Conflict Theory Essay Examples! The primary cause would be that the strength of a giant nation was directed by eyes too blind to see all the hazards of the struggle; and the blindness would be induced not by of the Matador Iliad by Homer, some accident of nature or history but by Crime of Conflict, hatred and vainglory. If you want to type genres make a case against Crime of Conflict Theory Essay examples, waterboarding, thats a pretty good text to cite. MCCLAY: I was just going to type say, since were going to play this what would Reinhold say game, I want to Perspective Essay go in Essay with all four limbs. I think that, certainly, if you were updating The Irony of American History , there would be a discussion of the ways in which the The Marxist Perspective of Conflict, jihadists have elements of truth in their critique of following is not perspective"? American culture.

Astonishing as it may sound, I think he would raise that issue. I dont think theres any doubt about it. ROSS DOUTHAT, THE NEW YORK TIMES : Just to bounce one alternative possibility, especially off you E.J.: I wonder what you think of the idea that maybe what Niebuhr would say is that the waterboarding of Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay Khalid Sheikh Mohammed in 2003 is the kind of forgivable excess that you expect from governments, but that the torture memos of 2005 are the kind of Abortion thing that shouldnt be forgiven. And I dont know. What do you think about that kind of Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay examples distinction, the sort of institutionalization versus the and The Iliad, sort of crisis mentality, getting your hands dirty with an individual case? DIONNE: First of all, Bill is fundamentally right.

The what would Niebuhr say and do debate is pretty tough to carry out. DOUTHAT: And all the questions are going to (inaudible) DIONNE: And so, thats fair enough. The Marxist Perspective Examples! I could imagine Niebuhr saying: I understand in the heat of the days and the few weeks after 9/11 why the people in power erred on the side of keeping us safe and The English Essay, they may have done things they shouldnt do. I still find it hard again, we can debate this. I still think he would have ended up on the critical side because whats so fascinating about Niebuhr is the neocons have always sort of liked him, as Father Neuhaus suggests, because he always talked about the The Marxist Crime Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay, legitimacy of using American power in the world. Which A Central Of The "economic! And there were moments when the people on The Marxist examples, the left were seen as always declaring that American power in the world, the Sould Be Legal Essay, use of American power, is of Conflict Essay examples, wrong and of the a central focus "economic perspective"?, illegitimate. Crime Of Conflict Theory Examples! So if you are someone who believes that American power can be used morally, then, yes, Reinhold Niebuhr is your friend.

But, he was also always very wary of The English Reformation jingoism, of our tendency not to look at our own flaws, the danger of overreach, the The Marxist Theory, danger of The English Reformation doing things that were immoral in a moral cause. And those are two sides of Niebuhr, and in some ways, you can say its an ambiguity, but I think fundamentally it actually holds together; you know, a shorthand is: American power can be used morally but it should be used with fear and Crime Perspective Theory Essay examples, trembling and we have to be very careful about how we use it. Eleanor! I dont know. Would Bill disagree with that summary? MCCLAY: Yes. What I would say is, one of the The Marxist of Conflict Essay, fundamental building blocks of the argument in The Irony of American History is that Americans are utterly bedazzled by this notion of innocence, desire for innocence. And I dont know what he would say about this, but I think he might react to Sould Abortion Be Legal Essay the current kind of orgy of interest in this subject that has to come up on every occasion. And Im not criticizing you for bringing it up, and there has been a lot of The Marxist Essay this, I think, in the early months of this administration, this pushing the reset button, this desire to kind of scapegoat and exorcise the past.

This is contrary to the spirit of Niebuhr. Theres no basis in Niebuhr for Be Legal Essay, thinking that America was ever innocent, that any administration is innocent or that theres any reset button that any administration can ever push to make itself innocent. So that doesnt answer the specific question about this one issue, but I think its reasonable to deduce from his work given that I dont know what hed say but its reasonable to deduce that he might think that the emphasis on whether sending John Yoo and Perspective examples, Jay Bybee to prison is going to atone for Eleanor, our national sins, over a war that began as a very broadly popular undertaking but later became a great burden to the national psyche, is examples, a morally misplaced emphasis. Whether thats an appropriate deduction thats a different question. I think theyre connected. MICHAEL GERSON, THE WASHINGTON POST : Ill change the subject. I think I played this role before in this kind of setting.

But let me maybe defend the social gospel GERSON: at Roosevelt least properly understood, against the Niebuhrians, and ask your opinion on one point. There seems to be a difference between Niebuhr as corrective and Niebuhr as guide, to me. It seems like you wouldnt necessarily want, historically, a nation of Niebuhrs. You look at Perspective of Conflict Essay the way social progress took place in America. It was often true believers, patriots who believed we were a new order for Parenting Essay, the ages, or William Lloyd Garrison who believed in absolute social equality between blacks and whites when no one else did, for purely religious reasons, or William Jennings Bryan, who had this kind of fundamentalist social gospel because he believed in it absolutely. You know, true believers in this context.

Clearly, there are risks and these were often eccentric people with kind of odd views, easy to make fun of. But it seems like the history of American justice, social inclusion was propelled by The Marxist Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay, believers, not by Niebuhrians. And I guess, in the sense that I would want a Niebuhrian to do the navigation in my car, but he doesnt provide the fuel to get us there. In Defense Of Permissive Parenting Essay! The fuel is a belief in justice and truth in American history. So Im wondering how you combine that kind of respect for Niebuhr as corrective with a recognition that that has not been the motivating principle of either the founding of our country or the progress of justice? MCCLAY: Well, I think that theres a big difference between that and the kind of Crime reform impulse growing out of 19th-century evangelicalism, which was oriented toward social reform but also had a strong emphasis on conversion. And, certainly, its supernatural face was part of a reform of the individual. And theres a way in which the genres, social gospel moves against that notion of individual conversion and individual accountability towards simply seeing the The Marxist of Conflict examples, Christian faith as a kind of mythic version of what we, through greater and great advances in social science, know about the way that social structures form the individual psyche.

So I think GERSON: If I could, Bill, youre missing the question: religiously, the more motivated moral idealism of American politics rather than just the social gospel. GERSON: Its hard to regard William Jennings Bryan, who had a fundamentalist theology, as evidence of the social gospel, but he was, certainly, probably politically more influential of any of the advocates of the social gospel in type of music changing the definition of the Democratic Party and doing all sorts of other things. Maybe it might not be the right word, but I guess I just wanted your reaction to the point that its been important in and of itself, and that Niebuhr cant replace or explain that. DIONNE: Now I see what you mean. Let me just say Bill, do you want to DIONNE: What I want to say, first of Perspective of Conflict all, is of Permissive Parenting, bless you for defending the Crime Theory Essay examples, social gospelers, because I have affection for them too, and in Eleanor Essay particular for of Conflict Theory examples, their critique of the which following is not focus of the, society that surrounded them.

But I think you shortchange Niebuhr in terms of his own passion for justice. And by the way, youre completely right about Bryan, who was an extraordinary progressive. The Marxist Crime Perspective Of Conflict Essay Examples! We forget how everybody sees him in of Permissive Parenting Essay light of the The Marxist Perspective of Conflict Essay, Scopes trial and forgets that he rejected Darwinism because he hated social Darwinism and how Darwin was used to justify radical inequality. So I identify with all that. But I think youre shortchanging Niebuhr in terms of In Defense of Permissive Parenting his concern for justice. Richard Fox talks about how well into the 1950s Niebuhr could be very passionate in The Marxist Theory his critique of In Defense of Permissive Parenting Essay how capitalism actually works.

In 1954, he wrote that capitalism had again become too complacent. We havent, for instance, solved the The Marxist Perspective Theory, economic problem short of Essay war preparations. There was a passion in him for justice. Perspective Of Conflict Essay! His critique of the social gospelers was not against their mission. And he certainly did not lack for a willingness to The English fight for labor, or for Social Security, or for The Marxist Crime Theory Essay examples, all kinds of corrections to Reformation a system of unfettered capitalism. I think he was critical of social gospelers on two grounds. One, he thought they had too optimistic a view of human nature and thought too much about salvation through social action. They forgot about sin along the way.

And that in Crime Perspective Essay turn led to sort of a politics that didnt work. He was not against the original motives of the social gospelers. I think Obama shares the social gospelers goals, but with a kind of Niebuhrian correction. You know, in that famous speech at Sojourners, he talked a lot about social injustice, but then, he also talked about individual accountability and responsibilities. He said when a gang member shoots indiscriminately into a crowd theres a hole in that young mans heart, a hole that the government alone cannot fix.

Contraception could reduce teen pregnancy rates, he said, but he also talked about faith and guidance, which help fortify a young womans sense of self, a young mans sense of responsibility, and The Myth and Theseus Iliad, a sense of reverence that all young people should have for the act of sexual intimacy. In other words, I think that Obama accepts some of the Niebuhrian critique of the social gospel but, still, like Niebuhr, believes in the social gospels core purposes. CROMARTIE: Quick comment? Although, I must say weve got two people in and these guys are so rich with their Niebuhrian illustration. MCCLAY: I would only say that one of the things that Niebuhr insisted on, and it was another source of his criticism of the social gospel because it was so completely subservient to the idea of the nation, was the idea that an Perspective examples, emphasis upon the collectivity over the individual could easily lend support to a kind of quasi-totalitarianism. And he says explicitly in his later book The Self and the Dramas of History that you have to have some source of Eleanor value standing above the values inherent in The Marxist Perspective examples history in order for those values to have validity. And even though he was himself very much of a theological liberal, he worried that the social gospel dispensed unwisely with the entire supernatural element of faith, which not only was necessary as a driving force for reform, but kept that balance, serving as a corrective to the tendency of all social aggregates to tyrannize the individual. LAUREN GREEN, FOX NEWS: Ive not studied Niebuhr, so please forgive my ignorance if I say something that is so obvious that youll laugh or something. But it seems to of the and Theseus and The Iliad me that Niebuhr has this incredible understanding of the paradigm of the original sin, the fall, that we live in a broken world; but also of this narrative of The Marxist Crime Perspective of Conflict Theory examples redemption that there is definitely hope out there, this understanding that there are two prodigal sons, not just one. The English Essay! You know, we see the sins of the one that went away and squandered his wealth, but we fail sometimes to see the sins of the self-righteous older brother. One of the things that is obvious is that his understanding of Crime Perspective of Conflict Essay examples morality appeared in type the context of the time: communism, the Nazis.

What would he view as the The Marxist of Conflict Theory Essay examples, evil today? What would his position be on the economic crisis? But also, is his effect on The Myth of the and Theseus and The Essay, policy quantifiable? Did he have access to presidents like a Billy Graham did? Is there any quantifiable effect of him on American policy in any kind of administration? MCCLAY: On the last part, I dont think so. The Marxist Crime Perspective Examples! Actually an interesting little side point he and Arthur Schlesinger were very good friends for a long time, but Schlesinger had a very hard time persuading Niebuhr to support Kennedy. Niebuhr finally did, but with some reluctance. He was no fan of the family. He hated, he just absolutely loathed and distrusted Bobby. And the father, Joseph Kennedy, of course was awful, in Niebuhrs view.

JFK was OK, by comparison, but the thing he really held against JFK and this is all amply documented in correspondence were his sexual dalliances CROMARTIE: He knew about them? MCCLAY: Oh, yes. Quite a few people knew about them, people who were around politics at that time. Yes, absolutely. And Niebuhr was very, very concerned not only about the sorts of risks that this would entail in terms of blackmail and national security, which he was very savvy about, but also what it said about the character of the man. So he was not close to Kennedy, who he saw as a somewhat reckless figure from time to Eleanor Essay time during his brief administration. DIONNE: Niebuhr, however, despite that, was very important in supporting Kennedy against anti-Catholicism. Shaun Casey writes about this in his new book, The Making of a Catholic President . Theory! Not all liberal Protestants were comfortable with having a Catholic president, and within liberal Protestantism, Niebuhr was passionately opposed to In Defense Parenting bigotry against Catholics, and he played a very important role there.

So despite his doubts, he was there. DIONNE: I think, when you think about his impact on policy over the whole period his work in the labor movement, his support for The Marxist Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay, the civil rights movement and all the work around Americans for Democratic Action - he was engaged in all of the core social reform movements of the 30s, 40s and 50s. And he was an activist you know, he started life as an activist pastor in Essay a poor neighborhood. He wasnt a community organizer, but he almost was. So, I think its just hard to get into our heads the The Marxist of Conflict Theory Essay examples, notion of this very serious theologian as a celebrity. He really was a celebrity in that period, of a certain kind. So I dont know how much he went in and out of the White House. He might not have even particularly wanted to do that, but I think he had a real impact on the direction of type of music genres American politics as a New Dealer and a Fair Dealer.

MCCLAY: Well, one area in which I think you can document influence is in the way that the Crime Perspective Theory examples, doctrine of containment came to be formulated. Because containment was really a sort of Niebuhrian halfway between a kind of appeasement, on the one hand, and what John Foster Dulles called rollback, on the other hand. It was an answer to Douglas McArthurs famous statement, There is no substitute for victory. You know, it was this notion that containing which is actually a very Lincoln-esque strategy containing the expansion of communism, not rolling it back but containing it, would eventually lead to the destruction, the internal unraveling and destruction of the system. Containment is Be Legal, a very difficult doctrine because it forswears those kind of big victories and upbeat parades that wars generally have been about. George Kennan, who arguably played a major role in the formulation of the doctrine, was directly influenced by Niebuhr, knew Niebuhr, read Niebuhr. And I dont think theres any doubt that something of the Niebuhrian mood influenced Kennan in that long telegram and Mr. X article and these other documents that ended up becoming formative to containment the way those policies and The Marxist of Conflict Theory examples, perspectives became formulated. So thats a big influence. GREEN: But the Eleanor Roosevelt Essay, other part about the great evil what would he see as the Crime of Conflict Theory Essay examples, great evil today? MCCLAY: That I just dont know. Hed be very concerned about of music biotechnology, I suspect.

He already was. The Marxist Crime Of Conflict Essay Examples! In The Irony of American History there are already passages about it. So I think hed be very concerned about that. NAOMI SCHAEFER RILEY, THE WALL STREET JOURNAL : Ill try to be quick. Writing about religion for The Wall Street Journal , I always look for openings to Essay talk about economics. So I wanted to press you, E.J., and The Marxist of Conflict examples, you, Bill, a little more on his views on which of the following a central focus "economic, economics. It was interesting to me that from the quote you read from Obama, he seemed right away to want to talk about Niebuhrs view of economics, and I think a lot of us tend to think about his views of foreign policy as the The Marxist Perspective of Conflict Theory, most formative ones. Of The And Theseus And The By Homer Essay! And you seem to say that he was on Perspective Essay, board with the social gospelers as far as their view of economics went.

And, if you can clarify that, that would be great. And then, I guess the second half of that question is, if he saw institutions as so inherently sinful, even more so than individuals, I wonder what he thought about the potential for institutions to solve economic problems like poverty as opposed to individuals sort of of the and Theseus Iliad Essay bringing themselves out of it. MCCLAY: I think his instincts were socialist. The Marxist Perspective Of Conflict Examples! He supported Norman Thomas on the Socialist Party ticket in 1932, and his doing so was actually a moderate position compared with what some of his friends were doing. There were a lot of people, intellectuals, supporting the Communist Party that year. However, I do think you can deduce from Niebuhr some support for is not a central focus of the "economic, free market principles, simply because really, by the time he writes The Irony of American History , hes completely sold on the structure and dynamics of the U.S. Constitution, on the sort of Madisonian idea or Montesquieu, really that its important to divide and disperse power as much as possible. But hes clearly sold on all of that. I think economics is one area in which he could be a little formulaic and weak and just kind of go with the journalism of the day rather than thinking and reading deeply into it, and thinking independently.

I think you can deduce free market principles, or at least mixed-capitalist, mixed-economy kinds of principles from Crime Essay, his view of politics. The English Reformation Essay! But I think it would be anachronistic to go too far with that. In terms of his political commitments, he cordially disliked businessmen. The Marxist Of Conflict Theory Essay Examples! He disliked Eisenhower and Eisenhowers support for Abortion, the business community. He was much more of an Adlai Stevenson kind of Crime Perspective of Conflict guy. DIONNE: A quick concrete answer that parallels this. Of Permissive Parenting Essay! He was either a liberal or a social democrat. This is from Richard Foxs biography. Fox says: To remember Niebuhr is to The Marxist Crime Perspective of Conflict examples remember the union movement in its heyday.

For most of his life, the The English, word justice, a term constantly on Crime, his lips, meant justice for Eleanor, workers, especially industrial workers. Only at the very end of his life did justice come to mean racial justice to the same degree that it meant industrial justice. Although he was still earlier than most in supporting civil rights. When Niebuhr tried to give concrete content to his notion of justice, he instinctively thought about equalizing standards of living, reducing job insecurity and enacting social insurance schemes. He was irreversibly shaped by his encounter with Henry Ford in open shop, Detroit, in the 1920s. So I think he would have had differences with the Wall Street Journal editorial page on these questions. (Laughter.) CARL CANNON, POLITICS DAILY : I was interested in what other presidents thought of Niebuhr. Of Conflict Essay Examples! Bill mentioned Jimmy Carter. Three presidents have mentioned Reinhold Niebuhr.

Lyndon Johnson gave him a Presidential Medal of Freedom. Bill Clinton gave a Presidential Medal of Freedom to Joseph Rauh and mentioned that he worked for The English Reformation, Niebuhr. But Jimmy Carter spoke about Reinhold Niebuhr on three separate occasions. Ill go through it real quick because I want to ask each of you a question, what the implications are. One was in Crime Essay examples May of 1978. Carter was talking to the Los Angeles Bar Association and Reformation, he said, As a governor and as a president and this made me think that he was thinking about Niebuhr even when he was governor he said that hed learned that as Reinhold Niebuhr said, it is the Crime of Conflict Theory Essay examples, sad duty of politics to Reformation establish justice in a sinful world. In March 1978, he said, From the experience of the urban renewal program of the 1950s, we learned to be skeptical about what Reinhold Niebuhr called the doctrine of salvation through bricks the idea that we can bulldoze away our urban problems. That was a bit of a straw man. Niebuhr probably was talking about building our way, not bulldozing, but still. And then, in June, same year, he actually quoted and named Moral Man in Immoral Society , and Crime Perspective Theory examples, Carter went on this riff, and he said that Niebuhr pointed out the difference between a society and people. The expectations and demands on In Defense of Permissive Parenting Essay, a person are a much higher standard.

A person should have as our goal ungrammatical was his, not mine complete agape love. The sitting president. He just went on this riff. The most we can expect from a society is to Perspective of Conflict Theory institute simple justice. So my question for Bill is, what does this tell us about a president who embraces Niebuhr in The Myth and Theseus and The Essay this way and keeps coming back to him? And then, I would ask you, E.J., as a Niebuhrian: Should we reconsider Carter now that weve established his Niebuhrian credentials? Carter was Mike Gersons candidate in 1976, it should be pointed out. CROMARTIE: Carl, what was your source? I thought you were going to bring out a PowerPoint or something like that. CANNON: No.

Trust me on those quotes. CROMARTIE: Okay. Crime! You were just quoting. (Laughter.) CANNON: From the public papers of the president. CROMARTIE: You brought them with you?

MCCLAY: I think those are fairly anodyne observations by Carter that have Reinhold Niebuhrs name tacked onto Reformation Essay the end of them. The thing about bricks, I cant even really quite imagine Niebuhr saying that. The Marxist! But he wrote so much that its quite possible he did. I think Carter may have at some point been a serious student of Niebuhr. I just dont know. Type Genres! But theres a kind of Niebuhr line that you can embrace which is to say, well, you cant expect the same things of institutions that you do of individuals. True, but that seems fairly obvious. You dont really need all that heavy theological artillery to Perspective examples make that point. And the belief that one should have a sense of humility about oneself as a leader I dont know whether this came before or after he identified himself as born-again, which scandalized the press corps. The English Essay! Such referencing of Niebuhr was a way of The Marxist Perspective of Conflict Theory examples redeeming his reputation as a man of some education and breeding. I dont want to Matador Iliad by Homer be too harsh about it.

But if you look at Carters presidency, I think, in fact, many of the criticisms that Niebuhr makes of the Crime Essay, children of type genres light that they have a kind of conviction about their virtuousness and the virtuousness of their cause, and that by being virtuous and showing their virtue they will sway the opinions of others this just doesnt work in Niebuhrs view. The biblical passage DIONNE: The children of The Marxist Crime Perspective Theory Essay darkness are wiser in of Permissive this world than the children of light. MCCLAY: In this generation. Yes. DIONNE: Yes.

In this generation. MCCLAY: And it comes from the parable of the dishonest steward in the Bible, which is one of the most perplexing things in the entire New Testament. I never have known what it means. But I think Carter, in practice, didnt show an ability to exercise the kind of shrewdness and deviousness even that Niebuhr thought an effective leader needed to show. He hadnt really taken in all of Moral Man and Immoral Society . By the Theory Essay, way, as we were talking I did think of something else in Niebuhr: that he was a tremendous influence on Martin Luther King. DIONNE: Yes. I was going to say that.

Thats really important. MCCLAY: Because if you look back I believe its the The Myth Iliad Essay examples, last chapter of Moral Man and Immoral Society theres a discussion of The Marxist Crime of Conflict Theory Essay non-violent resistance thats a blueprint for what King does, and King evidently read it and was very influenced by it. King is not an example of a political leader, but an example of a social leader, a movement leader. DIONNE: And I just wanted to of the following focus perspective"? underscore too, that if you talk about somebodys influence by their fruits shall ye know them King did a lot of The Marxist Crime of Conflict examples his academic work on Niebuhr. Richard Fox says Niebuhr didnt see race as early as he saw the injustice of which is not a central focus of the "economic perspective"? labor, but he was pretty early in understanding how important racial equality was. And in terms of Jimmy Carter: Jimmy Carter was, and The Marxist Perspective Theory examples, is, an intellectually serious believer and Eleanor Roosevelt, hes an intellectually serious believer of a certain age. And if you were, like Carter, an evangelical but not a fundamentalist, someone who was a moderate or a liberal, you could not help but encounter Niebuhr and take him seriously. You can debate, as Bill suggested, exactly how he applied Niebuhr. But I dont think Jimmy Carter lost in Crime Perspective of Conflict Theory 1980 because he sort of of the Matador and Theseus and The Iliad Essay examples loved Reinhold Niebuhr.

I dont think it changes our view of him. I think we knew that he was a thoughtful Christian. He lost because of stagflation and the hostage crisis and Crime Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay examples, the Soviet invasion of The English Afghanistan. And I dont know what one can draw from his love for Perspective Theory examples, Niebuhr out of those things. I dont mean to be glib about it.

I just think what you said proves what I think we already knew about Carter, and a good side of of music Carter that a lot of people liked even if they disagreed with him. AMY SULLIVAN, TIME : Professor McClay, you warned us at the beginning that Niebuhr often wrote as a counterpuncher speaking in reaction to other people. And it seems like thats particularly true, at least in the way you outlined his criticism of religious liberals and particularly the social gospel. The Marxist Crime! You could be excused for coming away from that thinking that he wasnt that different and that he believed Christians still should be engaged in efforts to make the world a better place and progress in social causes. Roosevelt! They just shouldnt be surprised if bad things happen and The Marxist Crime Perspective Theory, their hands got dirty. Which A Central Of The! But there must be more to Crime Theory Essay examples it than that. Roosevelt! And I wondered if one or both of you could talk just a little bit about what his affirmative theology was, or his sense of how religious people or institutions should operate? MCCLAY: Well, Im afraid this is going to sound like Im rehashing what I said but maybe I didnt say it well enough. I think that Niebuhr wanted to stress and yes, he is counterpunching when he does this that there is no resolution to the problems of The Marxist of Conflict Theory examples politics in this life. You can ameliorate suffering here and there, and you are obliged to try to do so.

But the notion that history is somehow moving towards some sort of omega point where frictionless social relations will come into being, where the self-realization of individuals is going to occur in an unimpeded way, that its possible to imagine that the interests of different individuals and different groups are not going to clash, and In Defense Parenting, clash in a way thats more or less permanent in character, that those interests may shift around in complexion but will not clash thats an illusion. MCCLAY: Yes. I dont believe in being concise. They pay me by the word. The Marxist Crime Perspective Theory Examples! But you know, Im trying to unpack what anti-utopian means in this context. It doesnt just mean having moderate expectations. It doesnt mean that perfection can only The Myth Matador and The Essay examples, be approached asymptotically, and The Marxist Perspective of Conflict Essay, is not achievable for us here below. For Niebuhr, it is something much more disturbing. Its the notion that the more we progress, the of Permissive Parenting Essay, more we put ourselves in danger.

Thats a very scary but very powerful principle. And I think thats very different from the kind of The Marxist Crime Perspective of Conflict Essay examples progressive view that the social gospelers, by and large, took. In Defense Parenting Essay! But theres an argument to be made that he oversimplifies people like Walter Rauschenbusch, who are not quite as blithe and naive as he makes them out to be. The Marxist Crime Of Conflict Theory Examples! And John Dewey even. SULLIVAN: I guess my question, which I may not have made clear, is what do Christians then do with that? That may be the view, but then, how should they proceed?

DIONNE: See, I think that he assumed that Christians it was a deep assumption reflected in the way he lived his life and the way he was a pastor that Christians would be, should be engaged in social action. When you were a minister in a poor parish in Detroit a place you love at a time of The English Reformation union organizing, low wages and all the struggles going on. It was built into the cake, if you were his kind of Perspective Essay Christian, that you would be engaged in social action. What he was about of the following is not a central focus perspective"? was trying to Perspective Theory examples think through not only what was the most effective form of social action, but also how should one think about that social action as a Christian. He came to believe he started out as a socialist, and still maintained some of the socialist aspirations nonetheless he came to see utopianism as both theoretically flawed and In Defense Essay, also as ineffectual in politics. Larry OBrien, who was an aide to The Marxist Crime examples Kennedy and a Democratic National Committee chairman, had a great book title for Be Legal, his memoirs. The book title was No Final Victories . The Marxist Crime Perspective Of Conflict Essay! And I think thats an excellent view of of the a central of the perspective"? democratic small d politics.

I suppose, for that matter, capital d too. There are no final victories in Perspective democratic politics because we are imperfect. The world is imperfect. Type Of Music Genres! All political systems are imperfect, so you have to The Marxist Crime Perspective Essay examples just keep fighting. And you shouldnt give up because you dont win a final victory. Its a philosophy of constant improvement and accepting that setbacks happen along the way.

And he would have said this in a more profound way than I just said it, but I think thats what it comes down to. And, at least to me, that is probably the most rational way to Sould Be Legal Essay approach democratic politics. MCCLAY: Can I say one other thing? I think Im getting a better feel for what youre really asking. And I think it bears on Mike Gersons question and point, which I didnt initially understand either. Niebuhr lived in a time when you could count on Christian culture as a propulsive force, when your real task was how to channel that, how to correct it, how to keep it from its worst excesses and make it more self-aware and self-critical.

This is of Conflict Theory Essay, one of the problems about Eleanor Roosevelt Essay reviving Niebuhr the fact that his time isnt the one we live in now. Today, an intelligent person is faced with the question: Why should I be a Christian rather than nothing? Why should I take a Christian view of politics rather than a strictly secular view? What does the of Conflict Theory, Christian modifier contribute to Sould Be Legal all of The Marxist Crime Perspective Essay this? And I think Mikes point about the problem of religion being a corrective rather than being an engine bears on this too. Of Music Genres! These are questions that Niebuhr didnt really have to face. DAN GILGOFF, U.S. Perspective Theory Essay Examples! NEWS WORLD REPORT : It struck me that so far, a lot of the In Defense of Permissive, conversation about Niebuhr has centered on his enduring, or perhaps not-so-enduring, influence on American politics and on policymakers both current and past. And Im wondering if you could talk a little bit about whether that influence is discernable at all in The Marxist of Conflict Essay American Christianity today, given that that was the realm in which he was operating. And also, I know you both do a lot more in terms of examining politics and theologians influence on of music, it besides Niebuhr. Crime Examples! Looking at Obama, his public statements, the degree to which is not a central of the which he invokes the Bible, or religion, or father, or morality, do you see any other specific figures besides Niebuhr and The Marxist Theory Essay, traditions like the social gospel shining through his words? And I dont know if youd go so far as to say actions.

I mean, I think thats more difficult to analyze, but if you could speak to that point too, beyond Niebuhr. MCCLAY: Well, let me make one observation to start with, and The Myth and Theseus and The by Homer Essay examples, I think E.J. would be better on Obama than I am. One thing thats curious about all of Perspective Theory this, and I think it tells you something about the times were living in too, is that I think I mentioned this in passing if you venture into of the and Theseus and The by Homer Essay examples the seminaries, what you will find is that Niebuhr is almost universally held in low esteem. And I think among many of the Crime Perspective of Conflict Essay examples, brightest young theologians I know, and some who are still graduate students, there are some who see him as completely irrelevant. CROMARTIE: Is it because they dont like the ambiguity?

MCCLAY: I think they dont like the Eleanor Roosevelt, ambiguity, and, in some ways, they dont see him as being bold enough. The Marxist Perspective Essay! Hes tailored too much for a secularist worldview. Stanley Hauerwas is CROMARTIE: A theologian at Reformation Essay Duke University. MCCLAY: is, in some ways, far more influential. And Stanley Hauerwas to talk about Crime of Conflict examples a counterpuncher he has pretty much made a career out of eviscerating Reinhold Niebuhr at every turn, including in of the following is not focus perspective"? his own Gifford lectures. So whats odd is that people in the position of David Brooks and E.J. and others I suspect E.J. has a little more contact with the Crime Perspective of Conflict Essay, academy than David does theyre the ones who are interested in Niebuhr. Roosevelt Essay! And people like me. Im a historian. Im not even in a theological world. But the Crime of Conflict Theory, theologians, I think they see him as a back number.

Now, what that means, I dont know. People like Hauerwas have a much more to use the word these theologians would use prophetic engagement with the genres, culture and with politics. The Marxist Perspective Of Conflict Theory Essay Examples! One way of Eleanor translating prophetic means without any sort of The Marxist Theory examples acknowledgement of the sort of half-measures and compromises and acquiescence that you need to make to be politically effective. These theologians are much more interested in people who make very bold statements. And in that sense, ambiguity is which of the following a central focus of the "economic perspective"?, indeed part of the complaint. CROMARTIE: Let me just ask, Bill, before E.J. responds: Professor Putnam, if you could tell us your perception of what Niebuhr is, say, in Cambridge, Mass. The Marxist Crime Of Conflict Theory Essay! Or at by Homer Essay examples least, if you know, in the divinity school or in The Marxist Perspective Theory Essay examples the political science world in which you work. MCCLAY: Well, there is The Myth of the Iliad by Homer Essay examples, a Reinhold Niebuhr chair at Union Theological Seminary, where he taught.

And the guy who occupies it DIONNE: Hes a great guy. Gary Dorrien. MCCLAY: Yes. Hes a big critic of Essay Niebuhr. DIONNE: Hes an affectionate critic of Niebuhr. CROMARTIE: Professor Putnam, you dont have to answer the question, but I was just thinking, as we are talking about Niebuhr in the academy, what you might want to tell us. ROBERT PUTNAM, HARVARD UNIVERSITY: This is In Defense of Permissive Parenting, what will cause you to withdraw the invitation to me to speak here even tomorrow because actually, I have relatively little contact with the of Conflict examples, divinity school at Harvard and almost no contact with theologians. Genres! Its not a matter of principle. The Marxist Perspective Theory Essay Examples! (Laughter.) In my own field, political science, when I was growing up, which was actually a long time ago in the 60s, Niebuhr was a major figure actually. And essentially along the of music genres, lines of whats been discussed here, in this kind of tragic realism kind of sense.

So, probably, most political scientists of my generation know a little bit about of Conflict Essay examples Niebuhr. But I frankly doubt if contemporary political scientists know much about him. And maybe they should, I think, from a political-science point of view, not from a theological point of view. This recent Niebuhr revival is actually quite interesting because I do think it reflects a little bit of whats happening religiously, but mostly whats happening sociologically, in America. I think this notion is partly the Lincoln tolerance part and of music, partly the unintended consequences part: Dont start pushing grand plans and distant ideals because youre almost certain to get it wrong.

That part, along with the hope part. I dont know if that fits theologically or not now, but I think I see it as a little bit of the The Marxist, ethos of Sould Abortion Essay our times. But actually I dont have any reason to disagree with the account that was offered about Niebuhrs standing among academic or non-academic theologians. DIONNE: Can I have a different view than CROMARTIE: I know you do, but I want DIONNE: Its overlapping but different. DIONNE: Bill, you may not completely disagree with this. Crime Perspective Examples! It seems to me that Niebuhr went out of fashion somewhere in the 1960s and that was partly a product of the anti-war movement, which saw him as more of a realist. And, you know, there was a rebellion against realism. He wasnt left-wing enough. And also, when you think back to which of the following is not a central focus of the perspective"? some of the Perspective Theory Essay examples, theological trends in the late 60s and 70s, the death of of music genres God movement, the Crime Perspective Essay examples, theology of hope, the of music genres, theology of liberation I would love to know what Niebuhr would have made of Theory liberation theology; what he would have agreed with, what he would have critiqued. I think that the journalistic and political comeback of Niebuhr has some parallels now in the academy. For example, Harvey Cox was one of my old teachers at Harvard Divinity School, and he was to Niebuhrs left.

And he had a very interesting little letter in The New York Times after Arthur Schlesinger wrote his piece that I think was probably friendlier to Niebuhr than Harvey would have been circa 1969 or 1970. I want to The Myth Matador Iliad examples ask Cox about this. I think it reflects Niebuhrs resurrection a good theme for a Christian theologian and the new engagement with Niebuhr thats going on Crime of Conflict examples, now. Bill is absolutely right about of Permissive Parenting Hauerwas. Hauerwas, by Perspective of Conflict Essay, the way, played a big role in the symposium about Niebuhr I quoted earlier. So I dont dispute much of what Bill said, but I think that for a variety of reasons, some of them having to do with the zeitgeist, there is a kind of rediscovery of Niebuhr. There are probably some neo-Niebuhrian theologians being born right now. MCCLAY: Just one quick thing. One of the following is not a central focus of the "economic perspective"?, appeals of Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay examples Hauerwas, and Roosevelt Essay, I think one of the The Marxist Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay examples, concerns this is a Putnam-esque theme, thats why Im bringing it up Niebuhr really was in of the Matador Iliad Essay his heyday in the 30s through the Perspective of Conflict Theory examples, 50s.

Living in those years, it is not surprising that individualism and Sould Abortion Essay, what might be called the Crime Perspective Theory Essay, sort of defense of the integrity of the individual over against which following "economic, collectivities and groups of any kind became one of his greatest themes. That is not, it seems to Crime Theory me, so large a concern now. Which Is Not Of The! I think theres a lot more concern with, if I may coin the phrasing, bowling alone with anomie. To take it to a theological level, one sees a lot of concern, particularly among the young, that our churches are not organizations in The Marxist Crime Perspective of Conflict which people really are experiencing community, being bound together. A Central Focus! And I think there is The Marxist Crime Perspective Essay examples, a lot more interest, particularly among the younger people, with finding a more vibrant and type of music genres, vital form of community than Niebuhr really has to offer, because Niebuhr is very guarded. The Marxist Of Conflict Theory! He offers a very low level of social trust, Niebuhr.

Hes always looking out for the ways the individual can be captured and co-opted by groups, and which of the following is not focus perspective"?, trying to maintain that individuals independence. DIONNE: Ten seconds just 10 quick seconds on that. Theres a debate over of Conflict examples, whether the Niebuhr of Moral Man and Immoral Society , which is Roosevelt, decidedly against the collective but remember, hes writing in a moment when Hitler and Stalin are rising whether that emphasis is quite as strong in some of the later work. The Marxist Of Conflict Theory Essay Examples! And Id argue that there is Abortion Essay, a greater concern for community in the Niebuhr of the 40s and 50s than there was in that particular book. PUTNAM: People around the table have also observed that Niebuhr is primarily a counterpuncher. The culture and theology against Crime Perspective Theory Essay, which he was counterpunching then is just very different from the The English, kind of Perspective of Conflict Theory examples theology and society in which it would be useful to have counterpunching now. Thats my view, and The English Reformation Essay, I guess thats close to what you were just saying. DIONNE: He is more than a counterpuncher. The Marxist Crime Of Conflict Theory Essay! (Laughter.) MCCLAY: And I agree with that, too. LYNN SWEET, C HICAGO SUN-TIMES : My question is aimed at you, professor: How did the Sould Be Legal Essay, Holocaust influence Niebuhr?

As you said or as E.J. might have said he was in his heyday during this period, and The Marxist Perspective of Conflict Essay examples, I know he certainly was a supporter of the state of Israel and Eleanor Essay, all that, but you know, you often dont get these great figures who are working real-time with one of the The Marxist Perspective Theory examples, great issues of the world happening. So Im just wondering, how did the Holocaust influence him as it was unfolding, as he was on The English Essay, duty? MCCLAY: You mean during the40s? Well, I dont know. I cant answer for The Marxist Perspective Theory, that. I think its not a theme that figures all that prominently in his work, but I think and this is sort of a cliche, but I think its true that it was really after the 67 and 73 wars that the Holocaust as a theme becomes much more prominent in American Jewish consciousness and in American public life. So there are a lot of people who we might have expected to give more attention to it who didnt. But that doesnt answer, and I really cant answer the point about how he saw the Holocaust.

I mean, he was very aware of issues like the firebombing of type genres Dresden and strategic bombing in general and the use of nuclear weapons and the moral calculus involved in those things. DIONNE: He was a very, very strong opponent of anti-Semitism, a very early person in inter-religious dialogue, and one of the reasons he broke with his pacifist friends is because he believed Nazism was evil. And his whole critique of Nazism was rooted in the idea that it was demonic in general, but in particular, demonic in its treatment of the Jews. So I dont know what he was. The Marxist Crime Examples! I just dont know the answer to the question of what he said as we learned about the Holocaust. But everything in his history all of his associations with people like Abraham Heschel and lots of Eleanor Essay other Jewish leaders, and his writing about Crime Perspective Theory Nazis, says this was all very important to him. I dont have in front of me more detail than that. But it mattered to him.

It mattered to him enormously. CROMARTIE: How close was he to Sould Abortion Dietrich Bonhoeffer? Were they close at all? DIONNE: I dont know if they knew each other. They may well have. MCCLAY: Someone asked me about that yesterday. The Marxist Crime Perspective Of Conflict Essay! Im going to look it up actually. I have Foxs biography so Im going to look it up. I think they met when Bonhoeffer came to America, but I dont think CROMARTIE: It was brief. Essay! It was brief.

CROMARTIE: Were moving the Crime Theory, Niebuhr library books back and Sould Essay, forth. (Laughter.) MCCLAY: Can I say something? This doesnt only, necessarily, relate to Jews, but he has always had a strong cadre of supporters in the academy, described in a term variously attributed to Morton White and Perry Miller and Crime Perspective Theory examples, others as atheists for Niebuhr. He had a remarkably ecumenical outlook, aside from his rather dismissive view of evangelicals like Billy Graham or Billy Sunday. But he had very good relations with Jews, both religious and secular. Theres a story about the Niebuhr family place in a little town called Heath, near Stockbridge in western Massachusetts, where they spent a lot of Sould Be Legal Essay time.

And Niebuhrs daughter, Elizabeth Sifton, has written a book about the serenity prayer, which also talks a lot about Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay this little town. Felix Frankfurter came out there once and went to Essay a service that Niebuhr conducted where he preached, and as he was leaving, he shook Niebuhrs hand and said, Thank you for preaching such a wonderful sermon that really warmed the heart of a believing unbeliever. And Niebuhr, without missing a beat, said, Thank you, that means so much to me, an unbelieving believer. So he had a great degree of comfort with people of Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay non-Christian, particularly secular outlook. DIONNE: Just to answer the a central perspective"?, question from Foxs biography: Niebuhr actually wrote a piece for The Nation called Jews after the War. And Fox notes that one of his major reasons for favoring intervention was his concern with what Hitler was doing to the Jews. By the early 30s, he grasped that Hitler was bent on the cultural annihilation of the Jews. From that time on, he was a firm, though sometimes qualified, backer of the Zionist cause. So it was a big part of him. FRED BARNES, THE WEEKLY STANDARD : What was Niebuhrs objection to Billy Graham? MCCLAY: I think it was part of Crime of Conflict Theory examples this sort of critique that people like Will Herberg made of American religion in the 50s: that it was too culturally complacent, too adapted to American life. I mean, Billy Graham was, in a sense, the quintessence of the emphasis on Matador and The, individual conversion and nothing else, at least in Niebuhrs view. And let me quickly add that this was not at of Conflict Essay examples all fair to Billy Graham. In fact, Billy Graham was remarkable in the area of civil rights, for examples, example, and did things that went beyond a lot of Perspective of Conflict Essay examples what Niebuhr did.

But that was Niebuhrs view. And its true that Graham didnt challenge social structures. He became cozy with presidents, saw himself as a kind of counselor to them, which was something that Niebuhr thought was perhaps inappropriate and which following a central of the "economic perspective"?, certainly not anything that he ever sought to Crime of Conflict examples do. CROMARTIE: Actually let me add quickly, if I could here, that Graham tried to meet with Niebuhr in New York because Niebuhr was very critical of Grahams New York crusade. Of The Matador Iliad! And because of that criticism, Graham tried to meet with Niebuhr and Niebuhr refused to meet with him. DIONNE: Mike Gerson will like this. This is from Foxs book: Niebuhr found himself pushed to a defense of the same liberal social gospel he had been repudiating for decades by Graham.

It might have lacked realism, he said, but it was infinitely more realistic than the of Conflict Essay, pietistic individualism which it replaced and of Permissive, which Graham was resurrecting. Graham was certainly better, Niebuhr urged, than the popular religious therapists who dispensed with a God of judgment altogether, but Fox quotes Niebuhr this is about Graham Evangelism has a blandness which befits the Eisenhower era.' ADRIAN WOOLRIDGE, THE ECONOMIST : Im going to Crime Perspective Theory Essay examples ask two questions. One is about Niebuhrs influence outside the United States. We have a very American-centric view of things. Sould! I wonder if he had much influence in Britain or Europe? And the second is about this other character who seems to have suffered the same fate as a lot of people in the politburo when they fell out of The Marxist of Conflict Theory favor, sort of being written completely out of history Jeremiah Wright. I wondered what sort of influence Niebuhr had on Jeremiah Wright, if anything? MCCLAY: Oh yeah, I wouldnt know about the Essay, second one. I mean, my sense of Jeremiah Wright is that hes much more influenced by The Marxist Perspective Essay examples, James Cone and by black liberation theology, although Im sure he had some contact.

You dont associate a whole lot of ambiguity with Reverend Wright, but (laughter) I really dont know that much about him other than the Cone influence. CROMARTIE: What about The Myth of the and The Essay British influence? MCCLAY: Well, Niebuhr was part of this transatlantic group of liberal anticommunists, membership in which ended up being part of what counts for a decline in his reputation, too. People like Fox, who were new-left types, found him too much of a prop to the status quo, too anticommunist for their taste. But he was part of the Congress for Cultural Freedom crowd, and wrote for Encounter magazine occasionally, and well you get the picture. Crime Of Conflict Theory Essay! So he was part of that world and Reformation, was read all over Europe, not just in Great Britain. And theres a bit of a revival of Niebuhr going on in the Perspective Theory Essay examples, U.K. now.

Theres a British scholar named Martin Halliwell at Leicester whos written a very good book on Niebuhr thats well worth reading. CROMARTIE: Is it a biography or an explication of him? MCCLAY: Its more of an explication. It has biographical elements. WOOLRIDGE: Is it more than 700 pages?

DIONNE: You know, I think thats right. Reformation! I agree with what Bill said in terms of the Crime Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay, transatlantic influence of his liberal anticommunism and his view of foreign policy. He very much influenced Hans Morgenthau, who had a lot of influence over there. On Jeremiah Wright, I did an interview with Obama in that period for a piece I wrote for The New Republic . Obama had a very interesting observation on genres, Wright, where Obama made a distinction between King and Wright. Theory Essay Examples! He noted that in his early stage King had the combination that was all about publicly, especially reconciliation, but that King was angrier toward the Sould Be Legal, end of his life, particularly about the Vietnam War, and that Wright came along in that late stage and Essay, was much more influenced by the period of disillusionment at the end of the civil rights years than by the spirit of hope at the beginning of the civil rights years.

And so my hunch is that, just as Bill said, Wright clearly was influenced by James Cone and his black liberation theology, which was part of all those post-liberal theological developments in divinity schools that led to more radical forms of theology. In Defense Parenting Essay! But I bet you Im sure Wright had to have some contact with the ideas of Niebuhr. He was in the United Church of Christ which, you know, had a lot in Crime of Conflict Theory Essay examples common with Niebuhr at one point. CROMARTIE: Well, he may well have introduced President Obama to Niebuhrs work, one would think. DIONNE: Thats an interesting question. MCCLAY: Well, you know who did read Niebuhr was Malcolm X, who clearly is a major influence on Jeremiah Wright. I mean the Roosevelt, whole chickens coming home to roost trope thats a Malcolm phrase from his famous description of the Kennedy assassination. DAN HARRIS, ABC NEWS: The second part of the question about beyond Niebuhr, who are the theologians, religious figures, religious traditions that you see, you know, embodied in some of Obamas rhetoric or perhaps beyond that, if youre daring enough to read it into his actual policies. Just to kind of get beyond Niebuhr while still on the subject of Obama.

DIONNE: I have tried to figure out who has influenced him. If you read the Sojourners speech, hes clearly spent some time, or somebody has, looking at the whole debate around John Rawls: What are the obligations of the The Marxist Crime Perspective, religious person in the public square in making arguments that are accessible to those who do not share the same religious commitments? With the public reason debate, he seems familiar with that, so thats one set of influences on him. I think the formative influences, both rhetorically and to some degree substantively, are all the traditions of following focus perspective"? civil rights Christianity. And, you know, clearly there are a lot of echoes of King and not only Kings rhetoric but also his theology, in the way he speaks.

And in some ways, what I see in Crime of Conflict Theory Obama is an of Permissive Parenting, effort to go back to civil rights Christianity as part of Crime examples his way of reformulating a sort of progressive gospel to make a link between that and In Defense of Permissive, Niebuhr, which is Crime Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay, quite a natural link since King himself was influenced by Niebuhr in a lot of his language. But beyond that, I dont know. Id be very curious. Its a good question. CROMARTIE: Bill, you have anything to add to that? MCCLAY: Well Im sure youre right about that and this is just something I dont know enough about.

But Ive read The Audacity of Hope and the other autobiographical book and I dont think his rhetoric has the kind of yeastiness of a lot of the 60s-era civil rights people who were really coming right out of the black Baptist church. You know that book by Abortion Be Legal Essay, David Chappell, A Stone of Hope ? This is a terrific exposition of the ways in which the The Marxist Perspective of Conflict Essay examples, civil rights movement was a religious movement. He may overemphasize it a little, but I think its a corrective worth making. And you know, someone like Fannie Lou Hamer who admittedly is hardly typical everything she says sounds like it comes out of the Bible or out of a black sermon. And Obama is In Defense, much more of The Marxist Crime Perspective of Conflict Essay examples a guy who went to prep school, who went to elite colleges and universities and wants to kind of draw on that religious language and imagery, but I just dont know that it steers him. DIONNE: A book that I think is really important in understanding King is type genres, Jonathan Rieders The Word of the Lord is The Marxist Crime Essay, Upon Me , and the subtitle is The Righteous Performance of Martin Luther King Jr. Of Permissive Essay! And what Jonathans book points out is that King had many different rhetorical styles used at Crime Theory Essay different moments and with different audiences. And I think its a really good account of type genres King taken whole.

Theres a lot of use of King for particular purposes and people quote the more-conciliatory King when they want to, they quote the more-angry King when they want to. And Jonathan argues, youve got to take him whole with all of these parts, and its a very interesting take on King, I think. MICHAEL GERSON, THE WASHINGTON POST : Follow-up on Crime Theory Essay examples, that question to maybe return it to Niebuhr a little bit. You know, he points to Lincoln as the example of Niebuhrian rhetoric in American history. If you look at the history of American rhetoric, Niebuhrian rhetoric is pretty rare. I mean, during World War II, Franklin Roosevelt didnt use it he used The Children of Light and the Children of Darkness . During the Cold War, John Kennedy didnt use that language; he actually used much more morally charged language. And a lot of Kings rhetoric, whatever his influences by Niebuhr, were certainly more in the social justice tradition. Of Music! You know, the kingdom of God on Earth. But I think theres a misinterpretation of Lincoln in The Marxist Perspective of Conflict a lot of ways. I think the subtext of the second inaugural address is the evil of slavery, not some kind of paradox or irony in that circumstance.

Theres a certain humility in its application, but this sin of slavery affected both North and South they were both complicit in it. But I think its a misunderstanding of Lincoln in a lot of ways to say that this represents a Niebuhrian viewpoint, filled with irony and paradox; theres none there. But what does it say that when people need to Abortion Be Legal motivate in American history if youre Franklin Roosevelt and youre engaged in Crime Perspective of Conflict Theory the long twilight struggle, that you dont use Niebuhrian language that it isnt even a rhetorical option in American history? You call people to grand purposes and The English, moral missions and The Marxist of Conflict Essay, American exceptionalism and a lot of other things and which is not focus "economic perspective"?, how did Niebuhr himself kind of Crime Perspective of Conflict examples deal with that notion? DIONNE: Just on Lincoln: I dont think theres any ambiguity in Niebuhrs view about which of the a central "economic perspective"? slavery. The paradox and irony around and of Conflict Essay, about slavery the paradox and Abortion Be Legal, irony are that even though you are engaged in a just struggle against slavery, you may nonetheless be inveigled in its evils, as you suggest. The struggles of war create sin on both sides even though the core sin of slavery is at Crime Perspective of Conflict Theory the heart of The English it. So I dont think he is ironic about The Marxist Crime slavery itself and I was not asserting that and would not assert that.

GERSON: And I guess my point was not necessarily to assert that. I think, actually, if you look at Lincolns rhetoric and actions on these issues, it was a fairly extreme course that he took in these situations, insisting essentially on certain views at the cost of the Union and, you know, the cost of hundreds of thousands of lives on moral principle. That had a terrible cost, which he realized. But he was willing to do those things. But just on the broader point, about the kind of moral clarity in rhetoric. I mean, how would he diagnose that? Is it just that Americans are ignorant, that they need to be motivated by moral clarity, but the reality is the moral ambiguity? Im just curious about the level of rhetoric.

MCCLAY: I think its worth pointing out of the Iliad by Homer Essay that at The Marxist Perspective the time that he gave the second inaugural, there was no doubt about who was going to The Myth Matador and The by Homer Essay win and that it was going to happen very soon. So, while I do think it is of Conflict examples, a tremendously magnanimous speech, its the magnanimity of the victor. And thats important to note, but the other thing is that there is a different task that the rhetorician is called upon to play in type of music genres that instance, in calling the nation to The Marxist of Conflict Theory Essay examples a task that has yet to be performed to heal, to reconcile. Particularly in the case of Roosevelt this particular war, the The Marxist Crime of Conflict Theory Essay examples, point is not just to crush the South; its to Be Legal Essay bring the South back into the Union, into this sort of family that they had thought to extricate themselves from, for whatever reason. So the strategy that they use, the Niebuhrian part, I think, comes in maybe E.J. already said this in not saying well, weve defeated the bad guys and now were going to Crime of Conflict examples be a morally better nation because weve defeated the of Permissive Parenting, bad guys. What he says is, that this is Crime of Conflict Essay examples, a national sin for type of music genres, which we all bear some responsibility; it is Perspective Essay examples, a mark upon all of is, and maybe this war came because of the need to expiate the sin of slavery, and if it has to go on and on and on, the judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether. So hes GERSON: Maybe I shouldnt have mentioned Lincoln, because, you know, thats a different debate.

GERSON: The point is the difference between Niebuhrs diagnosis of the moral conflicts of the Cold War or World War II. Maybe one of the reasons, to just put it bluntly, that Niebuhrs influence waned in the aftermath of Roosevelt that is that he was talking about the ironies of American history just at the point that America was on the verge of some of the greatest moral achievements in human history. It wasnt as though these were deeply conflicted circumstances; liberating death camps was a pretty good thing. Americans were pretty confident about our moral role in the world in the aftermath of Crime of Conflict Essay World War II because it had been a very good one. The Cold War was conducted with a language of which of the following is not focus of the "economic moral certainty DIONNE: Can we go back and forth on this?

Because I think the very notion of The Marxist Crime Perspective Essay examples containment, as opposed to rollback, was in The English fact full of Niebuhrian ambiguity. In other words, I think whats important is that Niebuhr was unambiguous about the morality of the The Marxist Crime Theory Essay, struggle. Type! And its good, actually, that you brought up Lincoln, because Niebuhr, just so we get him on the record correctly, said that Lincolns brooding sense of charity was derived from a religious awareness of another dimension of Crime Perspective Theory examples meaning than that of which of the following a central immediate political conflict. This combination a moral resoluteness about the immediate issues with a religious awareness of another dimension of meaning and judgment must be regarded as almost a perfect model of the difficult but not impossible task of remaining loyal and responsible toward the moral treasures of The Marxist Crime Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay examples a free civilization on the one hand, while yet having some religious vantage point over the struggle on the other. Niebuhr was at his high tide in The English Essay the 40s and 50s because he believed in the struggle against Crime Perspective Essay examples, the Nazis, the liberation of death camps and anticommunism. But he was not a jingoist. He did not believe America was automatically moral or always right. And the very idea that he was in favor of of music containment as opposed to rollback says that we can behave in the world in a way that is responsible in confronting communism but does not carry all the The Marxist, risks that rollback would entail.

I think possibly and we would probably both have to look this up and then we could debate the Abortion Essay, text I do think some of Kennedys rhetoric had some of that in it. The very notion of a long twilight struggle is quite different from what you say in the middle of The Marxist Crime Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay examples a war for example, what FDR would say in the middle of the war. Kennedys speech in favor of disarmament at American University in 1963, I think, has some Niebuhrian elements. And then Obama going to Europe and Eleanor Essay, saying, we Americans have sometimes been arrogant, but you Europeans have engaged in of Conflict a kind of anti-Americanism thats dangerous. That struck me now, maybe I was looking for it but that struck me as a very Niebuhrian sort of balance. I thought it was a good thing to say. Others didnt think it was a good thing to say. But I thought that sounded like somebody who, whether he was influenced directly by Niebuhr or not, clearly was carrying that message. JOHN SINIFF, USA TODAY : Last night there were a few of us who were having a discussion about the office of faith-based initiatives, or whatever it has become under President Obama, and I realized that at In Defense of Permissive Parenting Essay the end we came to this unsatisfactory, very Niebuhrian conclusion as to what hes trying to do to with this office. And I wondered, E.J., if you see anything Niebuhrian in the re-casting of the office because ultimately I think four or five of us at the table couldnt quite figure out what hes trying to do.

Maybe thats the purpose. You know, the worst thing is to kill it off, and the second-worst thing is what hes doing in letting it sit there and fester. DIONNE: As far as I can tell Niebuhr has no direct influence or indirect influence on Obamas thinking on the White House Office of Faith-Based and of Conflict, Neighborhood Partnerships. (Laughter.) God knows what Niebuhr would think of Matador and Theseus by Homer Essay this, and he does, but we dont know. The Marxist Crime Theory Essay Examples! (Laughter.) I think what Obama is trying to do is walk a line between not wanting to overturn it and thinking there is good work done here; and in which following fact, partnerships between government and faith-based groups pre-date President Bush. I think that it distorts the debate on both sides if liberals say, this is a Bush creation and were against Crime Perspective Theory examples, it. Well, it wasnt a Bush creation; he pushed it in certain directions, he did certain things, you know, and that can distort the conservative view as well. And I think Obama is trying to figure out, How can I be true to things I say or believe about church-state separation and The Myth and The by Homer examples, religious liberty and still keep this thing going? So I think theyre still struggling toward resolving that, and hes clearly kicked down the road the The Marxist Crime of Conflict Theory Essay examples, hardest question, which is the religious hiring issue, and hes clearly tried to fudge that for Sould Abortion Essay, a while, and my impression is that hes going to fudge it for a while longer. I think hes going to The Marxist Crime of Conflict examples have to confront it, but the shrewd thing I think he did shrewd because I thought he did the right thing was to say we dont want this whole effort to get blown up immediately in a debate over this hiring issue when we know there is quite a lot of In Defense of Permissive Parenting Essay common ground on these partnerships. Bill Clinton had some of the The Marxist Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay examples, first faith-based offices at the Department of Housing and Urban Development and other parts of the administration. So what Obamas doing is not that far out of line with what a number of Democrats have done, and certainly Clinton before him. And so I think theyre still figuring it out, is the short answer.

CROMARTIE: You have anything to add to that, Bill? MCCLAY: I agree about the continuity with Clinton. You know, Charitable Choice came in during the Clinton administration, with welfare reform, with the idea that you cant discriminate against a faith-based organization in awarding government contracts for the provision of social welfare. You cant discriminate against them simply because of Essay their religious identity. The Marxist Perspective Of Conflict Theory Examples! This goes to the point that Amy Sullivan, Fred Barnes and others have brought up, or maybe it was in In Defense of Permissive Parenting our conversation on the side: that we live in a very different world. I mean, at one time in the past correctives seemed to have been needed to protect the secular, to keep the religious realm from overwhelming the secular. Now, it seems to me both Democratic and Republican administrations have seen the The Marxist Crime of Conflict, need to push back the other way, to some extent. Whether Obama will sustain that or not, I dont know. But I agree with E.J.; this has lasted for a while, even if it hasnt always been so effective. CROMARTIE: Well, on that note of The English Reformation heated agreement (Laughter.) CROMARTIE: raging moderation and heated agreement, you are allowed to continue these conversations, I promise you.

There will be another reception out there where we were last night, so bring all your copies of Niebuhr and Perspective of Conflict Theory Essay, well continue the conversation. Join me in thanking both these gentlemen for their time. This transcript has been edited for clarity, accuracy, spelling and grammar. Religious Belief and Sould Abortion, National Belonging in Central and Eastern Europe. Video: Israel's Religiously Divided Society. Where the Public Stands on Religious Liberty vs.

Nondiscrimination. American and Israeli Jews: Twin Portraits From Pew Research Center Surveys. Fact Tank 05/11/2016. Are you in The Marxist of Conflict Essay the US middle class? Try our income calculator. Fact Tank 09/28/2017. Views about whether whites benefit from societal advantages split sharply along racial and partisan lines.

Fact Tank 05/11/2016. Are you in type of music genres the US middle class? Try our income calculator. Internet Tech 11/11/2016. About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is Crime Perspective of Conflict Theory, a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping America and the world.

It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. The Myth Matador Iliad By Homer Examples! It is The Marxist Crime Perspective of Conflict, a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts.

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A Murder Mystery Unfurled in a College Admissions Essay. Every so often on Perspective Theory Essay The Choice, we traverse into do-not-try-this-at-home territory, and type genres, the story told in a new novel called #8220;The November Criminals#8221; would seem to fit that category. As described in The Marxist Crime Perspective Essay examples a review in The Times Book Review on Sunday, the book, by The Myth Matador Essay Sam Munson, is #8220;a murder mystery that takes the form of a rambling college admissions essay.#8221; Here#8217;s how the reviewer, Joseph Salvatore, who teaches writing and literature at the New School, synthesizes the plot: Addison Schacht, the The Marxist Perspective Essay, conflicted hero of #8216;The November Criminals,#8217; is less interested in genres committing a crime than solving one. And though no one in the admissions office at the University of Chicago has asked Addison to discuss the murder of his high school classmate Kevin Broadus, he uses the Crime of Conflict Theory, applications essay assignment (#8216;What is The English Essay, your best quality? What is your worst quality?#8217;) as a chance to Crime Theory examples get some things off his chest. The result is no tidy, eager-to-please essay but a book-length spiel concerning, among other things, Virgils #8216;Aeneid,#8217; Holocaust jokes, dope dealing, friends with benefits, classic cinema, adolescent ennui, Latin grammar and syntax, Jewish numerology, anti-Semitism, struggles with guilt, the hypocrisy of liberal politics, race relations in the United States, the philosophical downside of living in D.C. Genres. and, oh yeah, who killed Kevin Broadus.

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