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Beowulf, an Epic Hero essays

Essay on Epic of Beowulf

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Beowulf, an Epic Hero essays

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Just click the any template below to Politics in America Essay, download the one that best suits you. I have “Red Flags” in my work or personal history — should I address them in my Cover Letter? ‘Red flags’ are a critical consideration to make when writing your cover letter. A red flag is something in your professional or personal history that could negatively impact the way a hiring manager views your job application. While many red flags should be directly addressed in Essay of Beowulf a cover letter, some others are best left for the job interview stage.

The following list is of 8 of the biggest cover letter red flags. Abraham In The Civil? If any apply to you, click to learn more about how to effectively handle it so it doesn’t become a roadblock in your efforts to secure your next job. i need cover letter for my resume. You can either write your own cover letter with the guide above or use our software to build one instead. If you want to use our software just go to our homepage at Essay, https://resumegenius.com/ What about references? Can they go on the Resume or do I need a separate sheet for Students To Find Passion, those? References should NOT be included on your resume — nor should you write “References Available Upon Request” on on Epic of Beowulf, your resume. The hiring manager will request that information from you at a later date if they are interested in doing so. (Note: If the employer ASKS you to include references with your application, obviously you should do that.)

Thanks for your question! This has given me a better understanding in the resume field! Glad we could help! Good luck on the job hunt! thanks. Students Essay? you have explained clearly what i need to do. We are glad that the Essay on Epic of Beowulf article could help!

I just applied for a $14/hr job on Indeed. And Giant? After 6 years of working for the same company for $10/hr…. I’m praying this cover letter is enough to on Epic of Beowulf, land me the job. Save-A-Lot Eagle? I converted the on Epic of Beowulf “Sales Cover Letter” into a “Warehouse Manager” cover letter. Of course I tweaked it to my specifications and needs… but it turned out to be one professional piece of work when I was finished. I can’t thank you all enough for A Short of Reproductive Politics Essay, this posting. I’ll be back to update if I land the job.

We are happy to on Epic of Beowulf, hear that as well! Hope to hear back from you soon. Keep us updated throughout the process and let us know if you have any interview questions. Best luck on Eagle Essay, your job hunt! This was definitely helpful. Recently I came across a job opening and they had asked for a cover letter. I had no damn idea what a cover letter was. Googled it.. nd came here.. im thankfull to you.. #128578; We are glad that we were able to on Epic, help you with your cover letter. A Short History Of Reproductive Politics In America? We hope you get the interview!

I have a significant gap in full-time employment. I need to on Epic of Beowulf, create a cover letter that can briefly explain that gap. The template of Students Their Passion, a mother returning to work won’t cut it, IMO. Do you have a template that matches my needs? Thanks in advance #128578; We regret that you weren’t able to find what you were looking for. The stay at home mom resume is one of our most popular and has received a lot of on Epic of Beowulf, positive feedback.

We suggest that you check out essay our resume formats page: https://resumegenius.com/resume/resume-formats. You may want to of Beowulf, consider using functional format to help cover up your work gaps. If you still need help, you may also want to consider signing for a subscription with us. We offer the “Ask The Expert” service, which gives you access to a professional resume writer. Good luck on the job hunt! Hello I am applying for in the civil war, flight attendant position, but I have never worked in Essay this position before. What title I need to put in the header of the resume? Our flight attendant sample has all the information you need to intolerance essay, write your own resume. (https://resumegenius.com/resume/flight-attendant-resume-sample). Good luck on the job hunt!

I only have volunteer work how do I put that in a resume ? thanks you. Check out our “How to Write a Resume” writing guide. (https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume) It should be helpful in answering your question. Very true and Essay of Beowulf, informative. Just googled it and no doubt remains now. Cover letter will be easy for me now. Glad you found our cover letter guide useful.

Let us know if you have any additional questions. Good luck on the job hunt! This was helpful. is it same for ruth glass, Student / Entry Level Cover Letter and Essay, Internship cover letter? We are glad you found our cover letter page useful. As far as your question goes, the student cover letter above could be reworked for Nursing Essay, an internship application. Please let us know if you have any other questions. This helped me so much, I’ve never written a cover letter before. Thank you so much RG! We are glad that the information is helpful!

Please feel free to Essay of Beowulf, read other related articles and let us know if you have any questions. Hey please i want to apply for a post of an armorer in the ministry of defense in our country advertised in the dailies. It wants people with high school education and i basically have that. Please lead me through… We will need more information regarding the job posting as well as your background to lead you. Hi! Do you have cover letter samples to apply as a job intern?

Not currently, but it is on essay, our list of Essay, samples to add. For now, our student sample above should be helpful in giving you some ideas on how to format your own. Thanks a lot RG this was very helpful. Before today I have never done a one, now I have confidence with putting together a cover letter. Guiding Students To Find Passion? One small question though, what should I name the cover letter?

We are glad that you found our cover letter resources helpful. You can simply name your it “Deitric (last name)’s Cover Letter.” That way, it will be easier for the employer to spot as they go through all the applicants in their inbox. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi! I have never written a cover letter before and would like to apply to Essay on Epic of Beowulf, a “work from home” job–but, have no idea how to write it. Please help! We have plenty of industry-specific samples above. Find your industry and get a few detailed tips on how to structure your own cover letter. RG I must say this helps me a lot.

Not sure if I could master it but this would definitely help. Thank you so much for making my day 3. We are really glad to hear that and thank you for your support. Please let us know if you have any question. I remain stumped as to how to intolerance, address a cover letter in Essay on Epic of Beowulf response to a job advertisement that gives neither the company name nor the name of the person in History of Reproductive Politics in America charge of hiring. This is true of many job postings on Craigslist, for example. I dislike “To Whom It May Concern”, but what other greeting would you recommend?

Many job seekers also run into this issue. When the posting doesn’t include a name of the company or hiring manager, try copying some of the job description and searching for it on Essay on Epic of Beowulf, Google. You may find the job ad with the names included. If this doesn’t work, then it is acceptable to address the cover letter with “Dear Hiring Manager.” Good luck on the job hunt, I normally just put Dear Hiring Manager. I’ve had issues where you call and there are multiple people who do the hiring, so I don’t know who will be doing my interview until the day I have my interview.

If I ask the employee there like, “Oh I’m not sure.” I’m going to forward this to in the civil, a client of mine I was just talking to him about this. Now he’ll know that I’m not just trying to make his life miserable. Great! We hope they find our resources helpful. I have done my resume and Essay on Epic of Beowulf, now I’m preparing myself to do CL, but I have problem with it, because everything is wrote in resume – especialy introduction. It would be the best if I could copy my introduction from resume to intolerance essay, CL, because there is almost the same to Essay on Epic, write. Civil? please advise. Some of the Essay on Epic of Beowulf contents from your resume intro should be used in you CL, but should not simply be copied. If you read the above guide and download the civil war template pack, you will learn exactly what information should be included.

Also, be sure to check out our CL samples to give you a better idea on Essay of Beowulf, how you can word your cover letter. A Short Politics In America Essay? Good luck on the job hunt! I am trying to on Epic, write a cover letter for a managerial position in the hospitality field. However, I do not see any examples. We are in essay the process of adding new cover letter samples and on Epic, have included your suggestion in the list. In the meantime, follow the guide above and abraham in the, download one of cover letter templates.

Good luck on Essay of Beowulf, the job hunt! Basically, a cover letter is a letter of introduction. Usually I state the name of the position I’m applying for and why I am qualified for the position. At the end of the lincoln war letter, I’ll write something like “If you have any questions or to schedule an appointment for an interview, please contact me at on Epic of Beowulf, ***-**-****.” Then double space and type “Sincerely” and then space 4 times and type your name. You’ll be signing in abraham lincoln civil the space above your typed name. This has been most helpful. GBU. Glad you liked it. Share it with you your friends. On Epic? GBU, too!

I am working on a resume for ruth glass, an experienced welder, One of the requirements is a valid drivers license, which I do not possess at this time , but if I was hired, I could pay the traffic fine and get my license back with my first paycheck. On Epic? Should I explain this on my resume or by telephone or in essay person or not at mall. In all honesty, your best bet is to find a way to pay the traffic fine and get you license back before applying for Essay on Epic, the position. Thanks for the advice. I was thinking that very thing or appearing at traffic court and setting up a payment plan which would clear the way for a re issue. All about the Save-A-Lot and Giant Eagle Essay money. which I happen to be in short supply of. Thanks again. We know the struggle. Hang in there brother!

Try add figures that will impress an Essay on Epic, employer and that pertain to the position you are applying for. Best of luck! I live in Thailand and odd numbers here are auspicious so it probably won’t hurt to throw some of Nursing Theories: Nightingale Essay, them in. I’m still not sure what you all are referring to with bullet point ‘numbers’. Can someone explain? Thank you. thank you so much RG you really shade light on cover letters, i was clueless wat it was so mostly i would ignore it and send my applications without one from of Beowulf today i will do thngs differently.

Download our cover letter template pack and use the tips written above. That should get you started. Best of luck! How to ruth glass, address gaps in employment. My mom passed away unexpectedly in 2005. I was incapacitated by Essay of Beowulf, depression and unable to work from 2005-2008. Ruth Glass? Got a job in Essay 2008 was employed until 2012 when I had a baby. i have been a stay at home mom. Ready to go back to work again. How do I address the lincoln war gaps when posting my resume on job resource sites? I have spent the past six months working reworking my resume. I’ve searched hundreds of Essay of Beowulf, resume websites; Resme Genius is, by ruth glass, far, the best.

Would appreciate any advice. Thanks for the kind words. One of the easiest ways to mask your work gaps is to use a functional format: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Give it a try and see what you think. Good luck on the job hunt! How do explain a reason for leaving a company when you hate your job/employer, more management than the job itself.

We always recommend not to burn any bridges with former employers and to leave on a positive note. So in that case, we suggest that you explain that you are looking for an opportunity in Essay of Beowulf a new industry or a different position. Although it may sting, make sure to also thank management for the opportunity you were given. Good luck! Struggling with how to address a cover letter for a summer internship. I’m not applying for a posted internship, just going to Theories: Florence Nightingale, show up at Essay on Epic of Beowulf, an organization that my school advisor suggested I reach out to. Save-A-Lot And Giant? I have no idea who I’ll be giving my cover letter to, but I don’t want to say “dear hiring manager” because technically they wouldn’t be hiring me… right? Aside from that, this guide was still very helpful. We’re glad that you found our advice helpful. In your case, “Dear Hiring Manager” or “Dear Madam or Sir” would be appropriate. Good luck!

So i have been asked to email my salary requirements, Here is my situation though, I previously worked with this company in the same exact role. I left for on Epic, another job opportunity ( which built my skill set and abraham lincoln in the war, experience) about a year ago this month. They have asked me to come back and on Epic of Beowulf, fill that position again. Nursing Florence Nightingale Essay? How do I compose a salary requirement. In this situation you have the leverage, so it would be fair to ask for 10-20% more than you were paid before. The skills and experience you gained over the last year make you more valuable than you were before. Good luck! Hi, I am trying to help a friend who is looking to move into a completely different line of work, he has only had 1 job since high school, which has nothing to do with what he really wants to do. How do you approach that in a cover letter, since he has no experience in the field? Your friend will have to discuss their general skills or traits that are relevant to Essay on Epic of Beowulf, the job. I just turned 62 and want to Nursing Nightingale Essay, retire from my current job, but not ready to retire.

Any suggestions on how to Essay, “put my best foot forward” when applying for a new position in an industry I’ve never worked in before? When applying for a position in an industry that you’ve never worked in before, the first thing you should do is come up with a list of the relevant skills that you can transfer over to that industry. From there, you can work on ‘selling’ those particular skills in ruth glass your cover letter and resume. On Epic? Good luck! So glad I stumbled upon this. Glad you found it helpful! I’m applying for a new job but the mining company has different projects. Would I have the company’s address or the Save-A-Lot and Giant project site address?

We recommend that you use the Essay on Epic address that the cover letter is being sent to. If you are not sure, then use the Guiding company’s address. Good luck! Some cover letter here have helped me move on to another level. Through this i had to pay bills for my ailing child . Thanks you have been of Essay of Beowulf, great help through the way to write a winning cover letter. Great information! My question is I have been out of the work force for about a year and a half due to birthing children and staying home for them. I am wondering if this is Nursing Theories: Florence Nightingale Essay something i should include on my CL to Essay of Beowulf, explain my gap in work history or is intolerance this information to personal to include? Great question! If your work gap is longer than a couple of Essay on Epic, months, then you should certainly include an explanation in your cover letter. Don’t spend more than 1-2 sentences on of Reproductive Politics in America, your explanation though.

Remember that you want to keep the Essay on Epic of Beowulf focus of your cover letter on your experience and qualifications. You can say something like “After taking some time at home with my family,” then express how excited and enthusiastic you are to Essay, return to the work force and how this position is exactly what convinced you that now is the time to do so. You can use that phrase for maternity leave, or caring for older family members, or even your own issues. Shoot, you can use that even when you didn’t choose to Essay, take a break, so to speak. Good luck! I’m a college dropout and I couldn’t decide on which template to use for my cover letter. I quit school during my sophomore year.

We suggest using the ‘Non-Student’ templates. If your college experience is relevant to the job you are applying for, you might consider including it your cover letter. Best of luck on the job hunt! Thank you Resume Genius! what if there is no job description given? how do you start of with the cover application in such a scenario? Even without a job description you can still follow the template above.

Look up job descriptions for the same position from other companies to get an Save-A-Lot Eagle, idea of what the employers is Essay of Beowulf looking for. Unless requested in the job ad, leave your salary requirements off your cover letter. Good Luck! Fair point – it’s always good to be careful when sending out personal information. Lincoln Civil War? Thanks for the suggestion! Share How to Write a Cover Letter #038; 40+ Free Templates Our code geeks and Essay on Epic, HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to of Reproductive in America Essay, help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to on Epic, choose from, and essay, easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Essay of Beowulf, Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume.

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Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect (1993) IN ADDITION TO READING ONLINE, THIS TITLE IS AVAILABLE IN THESE FORMATS: MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to Essay start saving and A Short History of Reproductive Politics in America, receiving special member only perks. Child maltreatment is Essay of Beowulf a devastating social problem in American society. In 1990, over 2 million cases of child abuse and neglect were reported to social service agencies. In the and Giant Essay period 1979 through 1988, about 2,000 child deaths (ages 0-17) were recorded annually as a result of abuse and neglect (McClain et al., 1993), and an additional 160,000 cases resulted in serious injuries in 1990 alone (Daro and McCurdy, 1991). However tragic and of Beowulf, sensational, the counts of deaths and serious injuries provide limited insight into the pervasive long-term social, behavioral, and cognitive consequences of child abuse and neglect.

Reports of child maltreatment alone also reveal little about the ruth glass interactions among individuals, families, communities, and society that lead to such incidents. American society has not yet recognized the complex origins or the profound consequences of child victimization. The services required for on Epic of Beowulf children who have been abused or neglected, including medical care, family counseling, foster care, and specialized education, are expensive and are often subsidized by governmental funds. The General Accounting Office (1991) has estimated that these services cost more than $500 million annually. Of Reproductive? Equally disturbing, research suggests that child maltreatment cases are highly related to social problems such as juvenile delinquency, substance abuse, and violence, which require additional services and severely affect the of Beowulf quality of ruth glass, life for many American families. The Importance Of Child Maltreatment Research.

The challenges of conducting research in the field of Essay, child maltreatment are enormous. Although we understand comparatively little about the causes, definitions, treatment, and prevention of child abuse and neglect, we do know enough to recognize that the origins and consequences of child victimization are not confined to the months or years in which reported incidents actually occurred. For those who survive, the ruth glass long-term consequences of child maltreatment appear to be more damaging to victims and their families, and more costly for society, than the immediate or acute injuries themselves. Yet little is invested in understanding the factors that predispose, mitigate, or prevent the behavioral and social consequences of on Epic, child maltreatment. The panel has identified five key reasons why child maltreatment research should be viewed as a central nexus of more comprehensive research activity.

Research on Students, child maltreatment can provide scientific information that will help with the solution of a broad range of individual and social disorders. Research in this field is demonstrating that experiences with child abuse and neglect are a major component of many child and adult mental and behavioral disorders, including delayed development, poor academic performance, delinquency, depression, alcoholism, substance abuse, deviant sexual behaviors, and domestic and criminal violence. Many forms of child abuse and neglect are treatable and avoidable, and many severe consequences of child maltreatment can be diminished with proper attention and assistance. Research on child abuse and neglect provides an opportunity for society to address, and ultimately prevent, a range of individual and social disorders that impair the health and quality of Essay, life of millions of America's children as well as their families and Nursing Nightingale Essay, communities. Research on child maltreatment can provide insights and knowledge that can directly benefit victims of child abuse and neglect and on Epic of Beowulf, their families. Individuals who have been victimized as a result of child maltreatment deserve to have research efforts dedicated to their experience, in the same manner as our society invests in scientific research for burn victims, victims of genetic or infectious diseases, or those who are subjected to other forms of trauma. Yet the intolerance families of child abuse and neglect victims are often not active in social and political organizations. Unable to speak for themselves or employ paid representatives to promote their interests, they have been discounted and overlooked in of Beowulf, the process of intolerance essay, determining what social problems deserve public resources and attention from the American research community. Research on child maltreatment can reduce long-term economic costs associated with treating the consequences of Essay of Beowulf, child maltreatment, in areas such as mental health services, foster care, juvenile delinquency, and family violence.

Economic issues must also be considered in evaluating long-term treatment costs and Nursing Theories: Florence, loss of earnings associated with the consequences of child victimization. One analysis cited by the General Accounting Office that used prevalence and treatment rates generated from multiple studies (Daro, 1988) calculated potential fiscal costs resulting from child abuse estimates as follows: (1) Assuming a 20 percent delinquency rate among adolescent abuse victims, requiring an average of 2 years in a correctional institution, the public cost of their incarceration would be more than $14.8 million. (2) If 1 percent of severely abused children suffer permanent disabilities, the annual cost of community services (estimated at $13 per day) for treating developmentally disabled children would increase by $1.1 million. (3) The future lost productivity of severely abused children is $658-1300 million annually, if their impairments limit their potential earnings by only 5-10 percent. Research on of Beowulf, child maltreatment can provide empirical evidence to improve the quality of many legal and organizational decisions that have broad-based social implications. Government officials, judges, legislators, social service personnel, child welfare advocates, and others make hundreds of crucial decisions each day about the lives and futures of child victims and their offenders. Intolerance Essay? These decisions include the selection of cases of suspected child abuse and neglect for investigation and determinations about which children should remain with families in which abuse has occurred.

Individuals making such decisions will benefit from informed guidance on the effectiveness and on Epic of Beowulf, consequences of various social interventions that address child maltreatment. Such guidance can evolve from Politics Essay, research on the outcomes of alternative responses to reports of child abuse and neglect, results of therapeutic and of Beowulf, social service interventions, and cost-effectiveness studies. In America? For example, research that describes the conditions under which family counseling and family preservation efforts are effective has tremendous implications for the importance of attachment relationships for children and on Epic of Beowulf, the disruption of these relationships brought on by foster care. Research on the etiology of child maltreatment can provide a scientific basis for primary prevention of To Find, child abuse#151;that is, through programs that will counteract etiological factors before they have a chance to produce child abuse in the next generation. Research On Child Maltreatment Is Currently.

Undervalued And Undeveloped. Research in the field of Essay, child maltreatment studies is relatively undeveloped when compared with related fields such as child development, so- cial welfare, and criminal violence. Although no specific theory about the causes of intolerance, child abuse and neglect has been substantially replicated across studies, significant progress has been gained in the past few decades in identifying the dimensions of Essay on Epic, complex phenomena that contribute to Guiding Students Passion Essay the origins of child maltreatment. Efforts to improve the quality of research on any group of children are dependent on the value that society assigns to the potential inherent in young lives. Although more adults are available in American society today as service providers to care for children than was the case in 1960, a disturbing number of recent reports have concluded that American children are in trouble (Fuchs and Reklis, 1992; National Commission on Children, 1991; Children's Defense Fund, 1991). Efforts to encourage greater investments in research on children will be futile unless broader structural and social issues can be addressed within our society. Research on general problems of violence, substance addiction, social inequality, unemployment, poor education, and the treatment of children in the social services system is incomplete without attention to child maltreatment issues. Research on Essay on Epic of Beowulf, child maltreatment can play a key role in informing major social policy decisions concerning the services that should be made available to children, especially children in families or neighborhoods that experience significant stress and violence. As a nation, we already have developed laws and regulatory approaches to in the civil reduce and prevent childhood injuries and deaths through actions such as restricting hot water temperatures and requiring mandatory child restraints in automobiles.

These important precedents suggest how research on risk factors can provide informed guidance for social efforts to protect all of Essay on Epic of Beowulf, America's children in both familial and other settings. Not only has our society invested relatively little in research on children, but we also have invested even less in research on children whose families are characterized by multiple problems, such as poverty, substance abuse, violence, welfare dependency, and Nursing Theories:, child maltreatment. Essay? In part, this slower development is influenced by Their Essay, the complexities of research on major social problems. But the state of research on of Beowulf, this topic could be advanced more rapidly with increased investment of funds. In the competition for scarce research funds, the underinvestment in child maltreatment research needs to be understood in the context of bias, prejudice, and the lack of a clear political constituency for Guiding Students To Find children in general and disadvantaged children in particular (Children's Defense Fund, 1991; National Commission on Children, 1991). Factors such as racism, ethnic discrimination, sexism, class bias, institutional and on Epic, professional jealousies, and social inequities influence the development of our national research agenda (Bell, 1992, Huston, 1991). The evolving research agenda has also struggled with limitations im- posed by attempting to transfer the results of sample-specific studies to diverse groups of individuals. The roles of culture, ethnic values, and economic factors pervade the development of parenting practices and family dynamics. Abraham In The Civil War? In setting a research agenda for this field, ethnic diversity and multiple cultural perspectives are essential to improve the quality of the research program and to Essay on Epic of Beowulf overcome systematic biases that have restricted its development.

Researchers must address ethical and legal issues that present unique obligations and dilemmas regarding selection of subjects, provision of services, and disclosure of data. For example, researchers who discover an ruth glass, undetected incident of child abuse in the course of an interview are required by state laws to disclose the identities of the victim and offender(s), if known, to appropriate child welfare officials. These mandatory reporting requirements, adopted in the interests of protecting children, may actually cause long-term damage to Essay on Epic children by restricting the scope of research studies and discouraging scientists from developing the Guiding Students To Find Their Passion Essay knowledge base necessary to guide social interventions. Substantial efforts are now required to reach beyond the limitations of current knowledge and to gain new insights that can improve the of Beowulf quality of social service efforts and Students Passion Essay, public policy decisions affecting the health and welfare of abused and neglected children and their families. Most important, collaborative long-term research ventures are necessary to diminish social, professional, and Essay, institutional prejudices that have restricted the development of a comprehensive knowledge base that can improve understanding of, and ruth glass, response to, child maltreatment. Dimensions Of Child Abuse And Neglect. The human dimensions of child maltreatment are enormous and tragic. On Epic? The U.S. Politics In America? Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect has called the Essay on Epic of Beowulf problem of child maltreatment ''an epidemic in essay, American society, one that requires a critical national emergency response. The scale and severity of child abuse and neglect has caused various public and private organizations to mobilize efforts to raise public awareness of individual cases and societal trends, to improve the reporting and tracking of child maltreatment cases, to strengthen the responses of social service systems, and to develop an on Epic, effective and fair system for protecting and offering services to victims while also punishing adults who deliberately harm children or place them in danger. Over the past several decades, a growing number of state and federal funding programs, governmental reports, specialized journals, and research centers, as well as national and Theories: Essay, international societies and conferences, have examined various dimensions of the problem of child maltreatment.

The results of these efforts have been inconsistent and uneven. In addressing aspects of on Epic, each new revelation of abuse or each promising new intervention, research efforts often have become diffuse, fragmented, specific, and narrow. What is lacking is a coordinated approach and a general conceptual framework that can add new depth to our understanding of child maltreatment. A coordinated approach can accommodate diverse perspectives while providing direction and guidance in establishing research priorities and synthesizing research knowledge. Organizational mechanisms are also needed to facilitate the application and integration of research on child maltreatment in related areas such as child development, family violence, substance abuse, and juvenile delinquency. Child maltreatment is not a new problem, yet concerted service, research, and policy attention toward it is just beginning. Although isolated studies of child maltreatment appeared in the medical and sociological literature in the first half of the A Short of Reproductive Politics twentieth century, the publication of The Battered Child Syndrome by C. Henry Kempe and associates (1962) is generally considered the Essay of Beowulf first definitive paper in the field in the United States. The efforts of Kempe and others to publicize disturbing medical experience with child abuse and History of Reproductive, neglect led to the passage of the first Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act in 1974 (P.L. 93-247). The act, which has been amended several times (most recently in of Beowulf, 1992), established a governmental program designed to guide and A Short History Politics, consolidate national and state data collection efforts regarding reports of Essay of Beowulf, child abuse and neglect, conduct national surveys of A Short History, household violence, and sponsor research and demonstration programs to Essay prevent, identify, and ruth glass, treat child abuse and neglect.

However, the federal government's leadership role in building a research base in this area has been complicated by changes and inconsistencies in research plans and priorities, limited funding, politicized peer review, fragmentation of effort among various federal agencies, poorly scheduled proposal review deadlines, and bias introduced by competing institutional objectives. 1 The lack of comprehensive, long-term planning for a research base has resulted in a field characterized by contradictions, conflict, and on Epic, fragmentation. The role of the National Center for Child Abuse and Neglect as the lead federal agency in supporting research in this field has been sharply criticized (U.S. Ruth Glass? Advisory Board, 1991). Many observers believe that the federal government lacks leadership, funding, and an effective research program for studies on child maltreatment. The Complexity Of Child Maltreatment. Child maltreatment was originally seen in the form of the battered child, often portrayed in terms of physical abuse. Today, four general categories of child maltreatment are generally recognized: (1) physical. abuse, (2) sexual abuse, (3) neglect, and (4) emotional maltreatment. Each category covers a range of behaviors, as discussed in Chapter 2. These four categories have become the on Epic of Beowulf focus of separate studies of incidence and essay, prevalence, etiology, prevention, consequences, and on Epic of Beowulf, treatment, with uneven development of research within each area and poor integration of knowledge across areas.

Each category has developed its own typology and framework of reference terms, revealing certain similarities (such as the intolerance importance of developmental perspectives in considering the consequences of maltreatment) but also important differences (such as the predatory behavior associated with some forms of sexual abuse that do not appear in the etiology of Essay, other forms of child maltreatment). In addition to the category of child maltreatment, the duration, source, intensity, timing, and situational context of incidents of child victimization are now recognized as important factors in studying the Guiding Students Their Passion origin and consequences of of Beowulf, child maltreatment. Yet information about these factors is rarely requested or recorded by social agencies or health professionals in the process of identifying or documenting reports of child maltreatment. A Short History Politics In America Essay? Furthermore, research is often weakened by variation in Essay, research definitions of Students To Find Their, child maltreatment, bias in the recruitment of Essay on Epic, research subjects, the absence of information regarding circumstances surrounding maltreatment reports, the absence of measures to assess selected variables under study, and the absence of a developmental perspective in many research studies. The co-occurrence of different forms of child maltreatment has been examined only to a limited extent. Relatively little is lincoln civil war known about areas of Essay of Beowulf, similarity and differences in terms of causes, consequences, prevention, and treatment of selected types of child abuse and neglect. Inconsistencies in definitions often preclude comparative analyses of clinical studies. For example, studies of sexual abuse have indicated wide variations in its prevalence, often as a result of differences in the types of behavior that might be included in the definition adopted by each research investigator. Emotional abuse is also a matter of controversy in some quarters, primarily because of broad variations in its definition.

Research on Nursing Florence Nightingale Essay, child maltreatment is also complicated by the fragmentation of services and responses by on Epic, which our society addresses specific reports of intolerance, child maltreatment. Essay On Epic? Cases may involve children who are victims or witnesses to single or repeated incidents of child abuse and neglect. Sadly, child maltreatment often involves various family members, relatives, or other individuals who reside in the homes or neighborhoods of the civil war affected children. Adult figures may be perpetrators of offensive incidents or mediators in Essay of Beowulf, intervention or prevention efforts. The importance of the Nursing Theories: Nightingale social ecological framework of the child has only recently been recognized in studies of maltreatment. Of Beowulf? Responses to child abuse and neglect involve a variety of social institutions, including commu- nities, schools, hospitals, churches, youth associations, the media, and other social structures that provide services for children.

Such groups and History in America, organizations present special intervention opportunities to reduce the scale and scope of the problem of child maltreatment, but their activities are often poorly documented and Essay on Epic of Beowulf, uncoordinated. Finally, governmental offices at the local, state, and federal levels have legal and social obligations to develop programs and resources to address child maltreatment, and their role is critical in developing a research agenda for this field. In the past, the research agenda has been determined predominantly by ruth glass, pragmatic needs in the development and delivery of Essay, treatment and prevention services rather than by theoretical paradigms, a process that facilitates short-term studies of specialized research priorities but impedes the development of a well-organized, coherent body of scientific knowledge that can contribute over time to understanding fundamental principles and issues. As a result, the research in this field has been generally viewed by the scientific community as fragmented, diffuse, decentralized, and of poor quality. The research literature in the field of child maltreatment is immense#151;over 2000 items are included in Essay, the panel's research bibliography, a portion of which is referenced in this report. Despite this quantity of literature, researchers generally agree that the quality of research on child maltreatment is relatively weak in Essay on Epic of Beowulf, comparison to health and social science research studies in areas such as family systems and child development. Only a few prospective studies of child maltreatment have been undertaken, and Nursing Theories: Nightingale Essay, most studies rely on Essay on Epic, the use of clinical samples (which may exclude important segments of the research population) or adult memories. Both types of samples are problematic and can produce biased results. Clinical samples may not be representative of all cases of lincoln civil war, child maltreatment. For example, we know from epidemiologic studies of disease of cases that were derived from Essay on Epic, hospital records that, unless the phenomenon of interest always comes to a service provider for treatment, there exist undetected and untreated cases in the general population that are often quite different from those who have sought treatment. Similarly, when studies rely on adult memories of intolerance, childhood experiences, recall bias is always an issue.

Longitudinal studies are quite rare, and Essay on Epic of Beowulf, some studies that are described as longitudinal actually consist of hybrid designs followed over time. To ensure some measure of quality, the panel relied largely on studies that had been published in the peer-reviewed scientific literature. More rigorous scientific criteria (such as the use of appropriate theory and methodology in the conduct of the study) were considered by the panel, but were not adopted because little of the existing work would meet such selection. criteria. Given the early stage of development of this field of research, the ruth glass panel believes that even weak studies contain some useful information, especially when they suggest clinical insights, a new perspective, or a point of departure from commonly held assumptions. Thus, the report draws out issues based on clinical studies or studies that lack sufficient control samples, but the panel refrains from drawing inferences based on this literature.

The panel believes that future research reviews of the child maltreatment literature would benefit from the identification of explicit criteria that could guide the Essay on Epic selection of exemplary research studies, such as the following: The extent to which the study is guided by theory regarding the A Short History Politics in America Essay origins and on Epic of Beowulf, pathways of child abuse and Nursing Florence Nightingale, neglect; The use of appropriate and replicable instrumentation (including outcome measures) in the conduct of the study; and. The selection of appropriate study samples, including the use of experimental and control groups in etiological studies or in the analysis of outcomes of of Beowulf, child maltreatment or intervention efforts. For the most part, only ruth glass a few studies will score well in each of the above categories. It becomes problematic, therefore, to rate the Essay of Beowulf value of studies which may score high in one category but not in others. The panel has relied primarily on studies conducted in the past decade, since earlier research work may not meet contemporary standards of methodological rigor. However, citations to earlier studies are included in this report where they are thought to be particularly useful and when research investigators provided careful assessments and analysis of Guiding Students Their Essay, issues such as definition, interrelationships of various types of on Epic of Beowulf, abuse, and the social context of child maltreatment. A Comparison With Other Fields of Family and Child Research. A comparison with the intolerance field of of Beowulf, studies on family functioning may illustrate another point about the status of the studies on child maltreatment. The literature on normal family functioning or socialization effects differs in many respects from the literature on child abuse and neglect.

Family sociology research has a coherent body of literature and Students Passion Essay, reasonable consensus about Essay, what constitutes high-quality parenting in middle-class, predominantly White populations. Family functioning studies have focused predominantly on large, nonclinical populations, exploring styles of parenting and parenting practices that generate different kinds and levels of competence, mental health, and character in children. Ruth Glass? Studies of Essay on Epic of Beowulf, family functioning have tended to follow cohorts of subjects over long periods to identify the effects of Nursing, variations in childrearing practices and on Epic of Beowulf, patterns on children's. competence and adjustment that are not a function of social class and circumstances. By contrast, the vast and burgeoning literature on child abuse and neglect is applied research concerned largely with the adverse effects of personal and social pathology on children. The research is abraham in the war often derived from very small samples selected by clinicians and case workers. Research is generally cross-sectional, and almost without exception the samples use impoverished families characterized by multiple problems, including substance abuse, unemployment, transient housing, and so forth.

Until recently, researchers demonstrated little regard for incorporating appropriate ethnic and cultural variables in comparison and control groups. In the past decade, significant improvements have occurred in the development of of Beowulf, child maltreatment research, but key problems remain in the area of definitions, study designs, and the use of instrumentation. As the nature of research on child abuse and neglect has evolved over time, scientists and practitioners have likewise changed. The psychopathologic model of child maltreatment has been expanded to include models that stress the interactions of individual, family, neighborhood, and larger social systems. The role of intolerance, ethnic and of Beowulf, cultural issues are acquiring an emerging importance in formulating parent-child and family-community relationships. Earlier simplistic conceptionalizations of perpetrator-victim relationships are evolving into multiple-focus research projects that examine antecedents in family histories, current situational relationships, ecological and neighborhood issues, and interactional qualities of relationships between parent-child and offender-victim. In addition, emphases in ruth glass, treatment, social service, and legal programs combine aspects of both law enforcement and therapy, reflecting an international trend away from punishment, toward assistance, for families in Essay, trouble. The commissioner of the Administration for Florence Nightingale Essay Children, Youth, and Families in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services requested that the National Academy of Sciences convene a study panel to undertake a comprehensive examination of the theoretical and pragmatic research needs in the area of child maltreatment.

The Panel on Research on Child Abuse and Neglect was asked specifically to: Review and assess research on child abuse and neglect, encompassing work funded by the Administration for on Epic Children, Youth, and Families and other known sources under public and private auspices; Identify research that provides knowledge relevant to the field; and. Recommend research priorities for abraham civil war the next decade, including new. areas of research that should be funded by public and private agencies and suggestions regarding fields that are no longer a priority for funding. The report resulting from this study provides recommendations for allocating existing research funds and also suggests funding mechanisms and topic areas to which new resources could be allocated or enhanced resources could be redirected. By focusing this report on research priorities and the needs of the research community, the of Beowulf panel's efforts were distinguished from related activities, such as the reports of the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Students To Find, Neglect, which concentrate on the policy issues in the field of child maltreatment. The request for recommendations for research priorities recognizes that existing studies on child maltreatment require careful evaluation to improve the evolution of the field and to build appropriate levels of human and financial resources for these complex research problems. Through this review, the panel has examined the strengths and weaknesses of Essay on Epic of Beowulf, past research and identified areas of ruth glass, knowledge that represent the greatest promise for Essay of Beowulf advancing understanding of, and ruth glass, dealing more effectively with, the problem of child maltreatment. In conducting this review, the panel has recognized the special status of studies of child maltreatment.

The experience of child abuse or neglect from any perspective, including victim, perpetrator, professional, or witness, elicits strong emotions that may distort the design, interpretation, or support of empirical studies. The role of the media in dramatizing selected cases of child maltreatment has increased public awareness, but it has also produced a climate in which scientific objectivity may be sacrificed in Essay on Epic, the name of lincoln civil, urgency or humane service. Many concerned citizens, legislators, child advocates, and others think we already know enough to Essay on Epic address the root causes of child maltreatment. Critical evaluations of treatment and prevention services are not supported due to ruth glass both a lack of funding and a lack of appreciation for the role that scientific analysis can play in improving the quality of existing services and identifying new opportunities for Essay of Beowulf interventions. Intolerance Essay? The existing research base is Essay small in Theories:, volume and spread over a wide variety of topics. The contrast between the importance of the problem and the difficulty of approaching it has encouraged the of Beowulf panel to proceed carefully, thoroughly distinguishing suppositions from facts when they appear. Research on essay, child maltreatment is at of Beowulf a crossroads#151;we are now in a position to merge this research field with others to abraham lincoln in the civil war incorporate multiple perspectives, broaden research samples, and focus on fundamental issues that have the potential to strengthen, reform, or replace existing public policy and social programs. We have arrived at a point where we can. recognize the complex interplay of forces in the origins and consequences of child abuse and neglect.

We also recognize the limitations of our knowledge about the effects of different forms of social interventions (e.g., home visitations, foster care, family treatment programs) for changing the developmental pathways of abuse victims and their families. The Importance Of A Child-Oriented Framework. The field of child maltreatment studies has often divided research into Essay, the types of child maltreatment under consideration (such as physical and sexual abuse, child neglect, and emotional maltreatment). Within each category, researchers and abraham lincoln war, practitioners have examined underlying causes or etiology, consequences, forms of treatment or other interventions, and prevention programs. Each category has developed its own typology and framework of reference terms, and researchers within each category often publish in separate journals and attend separate professional meetings. Over a decade ago, the National Research Council Committee on Child Development Research and Public Policy published a report titled Services for Children: An Agenda for Research (1981). Commenting on the development of various government services for children, the report noted that observations of children's needs were increasingly distorted by the unmanageably complex, expensive, and confusing categorical service structure that had produced fragmented and Essay, sometimes contradictory programs to address child health and nutrition requirements (p. 15-16). The committee concluded that the actual experiences of children and their families in different segments of society and History of Reproductive Politics Essay, the conditions of their homes, neighborhoods, and communities needed more systematic study.

The report further noted that we need to learn more about who are the important people in on Epic of Beowulf, children's lives, including parents, siblings, extended family, friends, and caretakers outside the family, and what these people do for abraham in the war children, when, and of Beowulf, where. These same conclusions can be applied to studies of child maltreatment. Our panel considered, but did not endorse, a framework that would emphasize differences in the categories of Nursing Theories:, child abuse or neglect. We also considered a framework that would highlight differences in the current system of detecting, investigating, or responding to child maltreatment. In contrast to on Epic conceptualizing this report in terms of categories of History Politics in America Essay, maltreatment or responses of the on Epic of Beowulf social system to child maltreatment, the panel presents a child-oriented research agenda that emphasizes the importance of essay, knowing more about the backgrounds and experiences of developing children and their families, within a broader social context that includes their friends, neighborhoods, and communities. This framework stresses the importance of knowing more about the qualitative differences between children who suffer episodic experiences of abuse or neglect and those for whom mal- treatment is a chronic part of their lives. And this approach highlights the need to know more about circumstances that affect the consequences, and therefore the treatment, of on Epic of Beowulf, child maltreatment, especially circumstances that may be affected by family, cultural, or ethnic factors that often remain hidden in small, isolated studies.

An Ecological Developmental Perspective. The panel has adopted an ecological developmental perspective to examine factors in the child, family, or society that can exacerbate or mitigate the incidence and destructive consequences of child maltreatment. In the panel's view, this perspective reflects the understanding that development is a process involving transactions between the Essay growing child and the social environment or ecology in which development takes place. Positive and negative factors merit attention in shaping a research agenda on child maltreatment. We have adopted a perspective that recognizes that dysfunctional families are often part of of Beowulf, a dysfunctional environment. The relevance of child maltreatment research to child development studies and other research fields is only now being examined. New methodologies and new theories of child maltreatment that incorporate a developmental perspective can provide opportunities for researchers to consider the interaction of multiple factors, rather than focusing on single causes or short-term effects.

What is required is the ruth glass mobilization of new structures of support and resources to concentrate research efforts on significant areas that offer the greatest promise of improving our understanding of, and our responses to, child abuse and neglect. Our report extends beyond what is, to what could be, in a society that fosters healthy development in children and families. We cannot simply build a research agenda for the existing social system; we need to develop one that independently challenges the system to on Epic of Beowulf adapt to new perspectives, new insights, and ruth glass, new discoveries. The fundamental theme of the report is the recognition that research efforts to Essay of Beowulf address child maltreatment should be enhanced and incorporated into a long-term plan to improve the quality of children's lives and the lives of their families. By placing maltreatment within the framework of healthy development, for example, we can identify unique sources of Eagle Essay, intervention for infants, preschool children, school-age children, and adolescents. Each stage of development presents challenges that must be resolved in order for a child to achieve productive forms of thinking, perceiving, and behaving as an adult.

The special needs of a newborn infant significantly differ from those of a toddler or preschool child. Children in the early years of Essay of Beowulf, elementary school have different skills and distinct experiential levels from those of ruth glass, preadolescent years. Adolescent boys and girls demon- strate a range of awkward and exploratory behaviors as they acquire basic social skills necessary to Essay on Epic move forward into and Giant Essay, adult life. Of Beowulf? Most important, developmental research has identified the significant influences of family, schools, peers, neighborhoods, and the broader society in supporting or constricting child development. Understanding the phenomenon of child abuse and neglect within a developmental perspective poses special challenges.

As noted earlier, research literature on ruth glass, child abuse and neglect is generally organized by on Epic, the category or type of maltreatment; integrated efforts have not yet been achieved. For example, research has not yet compared and contrasted the causes of physical and sexual abuse of a preschool child or the differences between emotional maltreatment of toddlers and adolescents, although all these examples fall within the domain of child maltreatment. A broader conceptual framework for research will elicit data that can facilitate such comparative analyses. By placing research in the framework of factors that foster healthy development, the ecological developmental perspective can enhance understanding of the research agenda for child abuse and neglect. The developmental perspective can improve the quality of treatment and prevention programs, which often focus on particular groups, such as young mothers who demonstrate risk factors for abuse of newborns, or sexual offenders who molest children. There has been little effort to cut across the categorical lines established within these studies to understand points of convergence or divergence in studies on child abuse and neglect. The ecological developmental perspective can also improve our understanding of the consequences of ruth glass, child abuse and of Beowulf, neglect, which may occur with increased or diminished intensity over Save-A-Lot, a developmental cycle, or in different settings such as the family or the school.

Initial effects may be easily identified and addressed if the abuse is detected early in the child's development, and medical and Essay on Epic, psychological services are available for the victim and A Short History in America, the family. Undetected incidents, or childhood experiences discovered later in adult life, require different forms of treatment and intervention. In many cases, incidents of abuse and neglect may go undetected and unreported, yet the child victim may display aggression, delinquency, substance addiction, or other problem behaviors that stimulate responses within the social system. Finally, an ecological developmental perspective can enhance intervention and prevention programs by identifying different requirements and potential effects for different age groups. Children at separate stages of their developmental cycle have special coping mechanisms that present barriers to#151;and opportunities for#151;the treatment and prevention of child abuse and neglect. Intervention programs need to consider the extent to which children may have already experienced some form of maltreatment in order to.

evaluate successful outcomes. In addition, the perspective facilitates evaluation of which settings are the most promising locus for Essay on Epic of Beowulf interventions. A series of national reports associated with the health and welfare of children have been published in the past decade, many of which have identified the issue of child abuse and neglect as one that deserves sustained attention and creative programmatic solutions. Their Essay? In their 1991 report, Beyond Rhetoric , the on Epic National Commission on Children noted that the lincoln in the civil war fragmentation of social services has resulted in the nation's children being served on the basis of their most obvious condition or problem rather than being served on the basis of multiple needs. Although the needs of on Epic, these children are often the same and are often broader than the mission of any single agency emotionally disturbed children are often served by the mental health system, delinquent children by the juvenile justice system, and abused or neglected children by the protective services system (National Commission on Children, 1991).

In their report, the commission called for the protection of abused and Essay, neglected children through more comprehensive child protective services, with a strong emphasis on efforts to keep children with their families or to provide permanent placement for those removed from of Beowulf, their homes. In setting health goals for the year 2000, the Public Health Service recognized the problem of child maltreatment and recommended improvements in reporting and diagnostic services, and ruth glass, prevention and educational interventions (U.S. Public Health Service, 1990). For example, the report, Health People 2000 , described the four types of child maltreatment and of Beowulf, recommended that the rising incidence (identified as 25.2 per 1,000 in 1986) should be reversed to less than 25.2 in the year 2000. These public health targets are stated as reversing increasing trends rather than achieving specific reductions because of difficulties in Save-A-Lot Eagle, obtaining valid and reliable measures of child maltreatment.

The report also included recommendations to expand the implementation of state level review systems for unexplained child deaths, and to increase the number of states in on Epic, which at least 50 percent of children who are victims of physical or sexual abuse receive appropriate treatment and Essay, follow-up evaluations as a means of Essay on Epic, breaking the intergenerational cycle of abuse. The U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect issued reports in 1990 and 1991 which include national policy and research recommendations. A Short History Of Reproductive In America Essay? The 1991 report presented a range of research options for action, highlighting the following priorities (U.S. Of Beowulf? Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, 1991:110-113): To increase general knowledge about the abraham civil war causes, precipitants, consequences, prevention, and treatment of child abuse and neglect; To increase knowledge about the child protection system; To increase specific knowledge about the social and cultural factors related to child maltreatment; To increase human resources in the field of Essay on Epic of Beowulf, research on child abuse and and Giant, neglect;

To ensure that procedures for stimulation and analysis of research on child abuse and neglect are scientifically credible; To facilitate the planning of research; and. To reduce obstacles to the generation of of Beowulf, knowledge about child abuse and neglect. This report differs from those described above because its primary focus is on establishing a research agenda for the field of studies on child abuse and neglect. In contrast to Nursing Florence Nightingale the mandate of the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, the panel was not asked to Essay prepare policy recommendations for federal and state governments in developing child maltreatment legislation and programs. The panel is clearly aware of the need for ruth glass services for abused and of Beowulf, neglected children and of the difficult policy issues that must be considered by the Congress, the essay federal government, the states, and municipal governments in of Beowulf, responding to the distress of children and and Giant Eagle, families in crisis. The charge to this panel was to design a research agenda that would foster the development of scientific knowledge that would provide fundamental insights into on Epic, the causes, identification, incidence, consequences, treatment, and prevention of child maltreatment. This knowledge can enable public and private officials to execute their responsibilities more effectively, more equitably, and more compassionately and empower families and communities to resolve their problems and conflicts in a manner that strengthens their internal resources and reduces the need for external interventions. Early studies on child abuse and neglect evolved from a medical or pathogenic model, and research focused on specific contributing factors or causal sources within the individual offender to be discovered, addressed, and prevented.

With the development of research on child maltreatment over the past several decades, however, the complexity of the phenomena encompassed by the terms child abuse and neglect or child maltreatment has become apparent. Clinical studies that began with small sample sizes and Guiding Essay, weak methodological designs have gradually evolved into Essay, larger and longer-term projects with hundreds of research subjects and sound instrumentation. Although the pathogenic model remains popular among the Eagle Essay general public in explaining the sources of of Beowulf, child maltreatment, it is limited by its primary focus on risk and protective factors within the individual. Essay? Research investigators now recognize that individual behaviors are often influenced by factors in on Epic of Beowulf, the family, community, and society as a whole. Elements from these systems are now being integrated into more complex theories that analyze the roles of interacting risk and ruth glass, protective factors to explain and understand the phenomena associated with child maltreatment. In the past, research on child abuse and neglect has developed within a categorical framework that classifies the research by the type of maltreatment typically as reported in administrative records. Although the quality of Essay of Beowulf, research within different categories of child abuse and neglect is uneven and in the war, problems of definitions, data collection, and study design continue to characterize much research in this field, the of Beowulf panel concluded that enough progress has been achieved to integrate the four categories of maltreatment into a child-oriented framework that could analyze the similarities and A Short of Reproductive Politics in America Essay, differences of research findings. Essay On Epic? Rather than encouraging the Nursing Theories: Nightingale continuation of a categorical approach that would separate research on physical or sexual abuse, for example, the panel sought to develop for on Epic of Beowulf research sponsors and the research community a set of priorities that would foster the History of Reproductive Politics in America integration of scientific findings, encourage the development of comparative analyses, and also distinguish key research themes in such areas as identification, incidence, etiology, prevention, consequences, and treatment. This approach recognizes the need for the construction of collaborative, long-term efforts between public and private research sponsors and research investigators to strengthen the knowledge base, to integrate studies that have evolved for Essay different types of child maltreatment, and eventually to reduce the problem of Students Their Passion Essay, child maltreatment.

This approach also highlights the Essay of Beowulf connections that need to be made between research on the causes and the prevention of Save-A-Lot and Giant Essay, child maltreatment, for the more we learn about the origins of child abuse and neglect, the more effective we can be in seeking to prevent it. In the same manner, the on Epic of Beowulf report emphasises the connections that need to be made between research on the consequences and treatment of child maltreatment, for knowledge about the effects of essay, child abuse and neglect can guide the development of interventions to address these effects. In constructing this report, the panel has considered eight broad areas: Identification and definitions of child abuse and neglect (Chapter 2) Incidence: The scope of the problem (Chapter 3) Etiology of child maltreatment (Chapter 4) Prevention of child maltreatment (Chapter 5) Consequences of child maltreatment (Chapter 6) Treatment of Essay of Beowulf, child maltreatment (Chapter 7) Human resources, instrumentation, and research infrastructure (Chapter 8) Ethical and legal issue in child maltreatment research (Chapter 9)

Each chapter includes key research recommendations within the topic under review. The final chapter of the report (Chapter 10) establishes a framework of research priorities derived by the panel from these recommendations. The four main categories identified within this framework#151;research on the nature and and Giant Eagle Essay, scope of child maltreatment; research on the origins and consequences of child maltreatment; research on the strengths and limitations of existing interventions; and the need for a science policy for child maltreatment research#151;provide the priorities that the on Epic panel has selected as the most important to address in the decade ahead. 1. The panel received an anecdotal report, for Save-A-Lot Eagle Essay example, that one federal research agency systematically changed titles of its research awards over on Epic of Beowulf, a decade ago, replacing phrases such as child abuse with references to maternal and child health care, after political sensitivities developed regarding the appropriateness of its research program in this area. 1992 Faces at the Bottom of the Well: The Permanence of Racism . New York: Basic Books. Children's Defense Fund. 1991 The State of America's Children . Save-A-Lot And Giant Eagle? Washington, DC: The Children's Defense Fund. 1988 Confronting Child Abuse: Research for Effective Program Design . New York: The Free Press, Macmillan. Cited in the General Accounting Office, 1992. Child Abuse: Prevention Programs Need Greater Emphasis. Essay Of Beowulf? GAO/HRD-92-99.

Daro, D., and K. McCurdy. 1991 Current Trends in Child Abuse Reporting and Fatalities: The Results of the 1990 Annual Fifty State Survey . Chicago: National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse. Fuchs, V.R., and D.M. Reklis. 1992 America's children: Economic perspectives and essay, policy options. Science 255:41-46. General Accounting Office. 1991 Child Abuse Prevention: Status of the Challenge Grant Program . May. On Epic Of Beowulf? GAO:HRD91-95.

Washington, DC. 1991 Children in A Short of Reproductive in America, Poverty: Child Development and Essay on Epic of Beowulf, Public Policy . New York: Cambridge University Press. Kempe, C.H., F.N. Silverman, B. Steele, W. Droegemueller, and H.R. Silver. 1962 The battered child syndrome. Theories: Florence Essay? Journal of the Essay of Beowulf American Medical Association 181(1): 17-24. McClain, P.W., J.J. Ruth Glass? Sacks, R.G. Froehlke, and B.G.

Ewigman. 1993 Estimates of fatal child abuse and neglect, United States, 1979 through 1988. On Epic? Pediatrics 91(2):338-343. National Commission on Children. 1991 Beyond Rhetoric: A New American Agenda for Children and abraham lincoln civil, Families . Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. National Research Council. 1981 Services for Children: An Agenda for Research . Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education.

Washington, DC: National Academy Press. U.S. On Epic? Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect. 1990 Child Abuse and intolerance essay, Neglect: Critical First Steps in Response to a National Emergency . Essay On Epic Of Beowulf? August. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Nursing Theories: Nightingale, Human Services. August. 1991 Creating Caring Communities . September. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

U.S. Public Health Service. 1990 Violent and abusive behavior. Pp. 226-247 (Chapter 7) in Healthy People 2000 Report . Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 500 Fifth St., NW | Washington, DC 20001. The tragedy of child abuse and neglect is in the forefront of public attention.

Yet, without a conceptual framework, research in this area has been highly fragmented. Understanding the on Epic of Beowulf broad dimensions of this crisis has suffered as a result. This new volume provides a comprehensive, integrated, child-oriented research agenda for the nation. The committee presents an overview of three major areas: o Definitions and scope --exploring standardized classifications, analysis of incidence and prevalence trends, and more. o Etiology, consequences, treatment, and prevention --analyzing relationships between cause and effect, reviewing prevention research with a unique systems approach, looking at short- and ruth glass, long-term consequences of abuse, and evaluating interventions. o Infrastructure and ethics --including a review of current research efforts, ways to strengthen human resources and research tools, and guidance on sensitive ethical and legal issues. This volume will be useful to organizations involved in research, social service agencies, child advocacy groups, and researchers. FRONT MATTER i–xii SUMMARY 1–37 1 INTRODUCTION 38–56 2 IDENTIFICATION AND DEFINITIONS 57–77 3 SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM 78–105 4 ETIOLOGY OF CHILD MALTREATMENT 106–160 5 PREVENTION 161–207 6 CONSEQUENCES OF CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT 208–252 7 INTERVENTIONS AND TREATMENT 253–291 8 HUMAN RESOURCES, INSTRUMENTATION, AND RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURE 292–323 9 ETHICAL AND LEGAL ISSUES IN CHILD MALTREATMENT RESEARCH 324–342 10 PRIORITIES FOR CHILD MALTREATMENT RESEARCH 343–362 APPENDICES 363–364 A PANEL ACTIVITIES 365–370 B SUPPLEMENTARY VIEWS 371 C BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 372–378 INDEX 379–393. You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999.

Based on feedback from Essay, you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features? Show this book's table of contents , where you can jump to any chapter by name. . or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to A Short of Reproductive Politics in America go directly to that page in the book. Switch between the Original Pages , where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text. To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter . Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email. View our suggested citation for this chapter. Ready to take your reading offline?

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essay on lord buddha His Life and Teaching. Namo tassa bhagavato. arahato sammaa sambuddhassa! The ages roll by and the Buddha seems not so far away after all; his voice whispers in our ears and tells us not to run away from the struggle but, calmeyed, to face it, and to on Epic of Beowulf see in life ever greater opportunities for growth and advancement. Personality counts today as ever, and a person who has impressed himself on Theories: Florence Nightingale, the thought of mankind as the Buddha has, so that even today there is something living and vibrant about the thought of him, must have been a wonderful mana man who was, as Barth says, ‘the finished model of calm and sweet majesty of infinite tenderness for all that breathes and compassion for all that suffers, of perfect moral freedom and exemption from every prejudice.’ His message old and yet very new and original for those immersed in Essay on Epic, metaphysical subtleties, captured the imagination of the intellectuals; it went deep down into the hearts of the intolerance essay, people. Buddhism had its birth at Sarnath near the on Epic of Beowulf, city of Vaaraanasi (Benares), India.

With only five followers at the beginning, it penetrated into Save-A-Lot and Giant Eagle Essay, many lands, and is today the religion of Essay, more than 600 million. In The Civil War? Buddhism made such rapid strides chiefly due to its intrinsic worth and its appeal to the reasoning mind. But there were other factors that aided its progress: never did the dhammaduutas, the messengers of the Dhamma, the teaching, use any iniquitous methods in spreading the on Epic, Dhamma. Florence Nightingale Essay? The only weapon they wielded was that of universal love and compassion. Furthermore, Buddhism penetrated to these countries peaceably without disturbing the creeds that were already there. Buddhist missions, to which the annals of religious history scarcely afford a parallel, were carried on neither by force of arms nor by Essay on Epic of Beowulf the use of any coercive or reprehensible methods. Conversion by compulsion was unknown among the Buddhists, and repugnant to To Find Their Passion Essay the Buddha and his disciples. No decrying of other creeds has ever existed in Buddhism.

Buddhism was thus able to diffuse itself through a great variety of on Epic of Beowulf, cultures throughout the civilized world. There is no record known to me, wrote TW Rhys Davids, in the whole of the long history of intolerance, Buddhism throughout the many centuries where its followers have been for such lengthened periods supreme, of any persecution by the Buddhists of the followers of any other faith. The Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, lived over 2,500 years ago and is known as Siddhattha Gotama. His father, Suddhodana, the kshatriya king, ruled over the land of the Saakyans at Kapilavatthu on the Nepalese frontier. On Epic? As he came from the Gotama family he was known as Suddhodana Gotama. Mahaamaayaa, princess of the Koliyas, was Suddhodana’s queen. In 623 B.C. on a full-moon day of MayVasanta-tide, when in India the trees were laden with leaf, f lower, and fruit, and man, bird, and beast were in A Short of Reproductive in America, joyous moodQueen Mahaamaayaa was travelling in state from Kapilavatthu to Essay on Epic Devadaha, her parental home, according to Save-A-Lot and Giant Eagle Essay the custom of the times, to give birth to her child. But that was not to be, for halfway between the two cities, in the beautiful Lumbini Grove, under the shade of a flowering Sal tree, she brought forth a son. Lumbini, or Rummindei, the name by which it is now known, is one hundred miles north of Vaaraanasi and within sight of the Essay of Beowulf, snowcapped Himalayas. Their Passion? At this memorable spot where Prince Siddhattha, the future Buddha, was born, Emperor Asoka, 316 years after the event, erected a mighty stone pillar to mark the Essay on Epic, holy spot.

The inscription engraved on the pillar in five lines consists of ninety-three Asokan characters, among which occurs the following: hida budhe jaate saakyamuni. Here was born the Buddha, the sage of the Saakyans. The mighty column is still to be seen. The pillar, as crisp as the day it was cut, had been struck by lightning even when Hiuen Tsiang, the Chinese pilgrim, saw it towards the ruth glass, middle of the seventh century A.C. The discovery and identification of Lumbini Park in 1896 is attributed to the renowned archaeologist, General Cunningham. On the fifth day after the birth of the prince, the king summoned eight wise men to choose a name for the child and to speak of the royal babe’s future. He was named Siddhaartha, which means one whose purpose has been achieved. The brahmins deliberated and seven of on Epic of Beowulf, them held up two fingers each and declared: O King, this prince will become a cakravarti, a universal monarch, should he deign to rule, but should he renounce the world, he will become a sammaa-sambuddha, a Supremely Enlightened One, and deliver humanity from ignorance.

But Ko.n.dañña, the wisest and the youngest, after watching the Essay, prince, held up only Essay on Epic of Beowulf, one finger and essay said: O King, this prince will one day go in search of truth and become a Supremely Enlightened Buddha. Queen Mahaamaayaa, the mother, passed away on the seventh day after the birth of of Beowulf, her child, and the babe was nursed by Theories: Florence his mother’s sister, Pajaapati Gotami. Essay On Epic? Though the of Reproductive Politics, child was nurtured till manhood in refinement amid an abundance of material luxury the father did not fail to Essay give his son the education that a prince ought to receive. He became skilled in many branches of knowledge, and in the arts of war easily excelled all others. Save-A-Lot And Giant Eagle Essay? Nevertheless, from on Epic his childhood the Theories: Florence Essay, prince was given to serious contemplation. The Four Significant Visions. When the prince grew up, the father’s fervent wish was that his son should marry bring up a family and be his worthy successor; for he often recalled to mind with dread the prediction of the sage Ko.n.dañña, and feared that the prince would one day give up home for the homeless life of an ascetic. According to the custom of the time, at the early age of sixteen the prince was married to his cousin, the beautiful Princess Yasodharaa, the only daughter of King Suppabuddha and Queen Pamitaa of the Koliyas. The princess was of the same age as the prince.

His father provided him with the greatest comforts. He had, so the story tells, three palaces, one for each of the Indian year’s three seasons. On Epic Of Beowulf? Lacking nothing of the earthly joys of life, he lived amid song and dance, in luxury and pleasure, knowing nothing of sorrow Yet all the efforts of the father to hold his son a prisoner to the senses and make him worldly minded were of no avail. King Suddhodana’s endeavours to keep away life’s miseries from his son’s inquiring eyes only heightened Prince Siddhaartha’s curiosity and his resolute search for truth and Enlightenment. With the Save-A-Lot and Giant Eagle, advance of age and maturity the prince began to Essay on Epic glimpse the woes of the world. On one occasion, when the prince went driving with his charioteer Channa to abraham civil the royal gardens, he saw to his amazement what his eyes had never beheld before: a man weakened with age, and in the last stage of ageing, crying out in a mournful voice: Help master! lift me to Essay my feet; oh, help!

Or I shall die before I reach my house! This was the first shock the prince received. Civil War? The second was the of Beowulf, sight of a man, mere skin and bones, supremely unhappy and forlorn, smitten with some pest. The strength is abraham in the gone from ham, and loin, and neck, and all the grace and joy of manhood f led. On a third occasion he saw a band of lamenting kinsmen bearing on their shoulders the on Epic of Beowulf, corpse of one beloved for cremation. These woeful signs, seen for the first time in his life, deeply moved him.

From the charioteer he learned that even he, his beloved Princess Yasodharaa, and his kith and kinall, without exception, are subject to ageing, disease, and death. Soon after this the prince saw a recluse moving with measured steps and down-cast eyes, calm and serene, aloof and independent. He was struck by the serene countenance of the Essay, man. He learned from Channa that this recluse was one who had abandoned his home to live a life of purity to seek truth and answer the riddle of life. Thoughts of renunciation flashed through the prince’s mind and in deep contemplation he turned homeward. The heart throb of an agonized and ailing humanity found a responsive echo in his own heart. The more he came in contact with the world outside his palace walls, the more convinced he became that the Essay on Epic of Beowulf, world was lacking in true happiness. But before reaching the palace he was met by a messenger with the news that a son had been born to intolerance Yasodharaa. Essay? A fetter is set upon intolerance me, uttered the prince and returned to the palace. The Great Renunciation.

In the silence of that moonlit night (it was the full-moon day of July Aasaa.lha) such thoughts as these arose in him: Youth, the prime of life, ends in old age and man’s senses fail him at Essay on Epic, a time when they are most needed. Essay? The hale and hearty lose their vigour and health when disease suddenly creeps in. Finally death comes, sudden perhaps and unexpected, and puts an end to Essay on Epic this brief span of life. Surely there must be an escape from this unsatisfactoriness, from ageing and death. Thus the great intoxication of youth (yobbana-mada), of health (aarogya-mada), and of life (jivita-mada) left him. Having seen the A Short of Reproductive Politics, vanity and the danger of the three intoxications, he was overcome by Essay of Beowulf a powerful urge to seek and win the Deathless, to strive for deliverance from Theories: Florence Nightingale Essay old age, illness, misery and death not only for himself but for all beings (including his wife and child) that suffer.

It was his deep compassion that led him to Essay on Epic the quest ending in enlightenment, in Buddhahood. A Short History Of Reproductive Politics? It was compassion that now moved his heart towards the on Epic of Beowulf, great renunciation and opened for him the in the civil, doors of the golden cage of his home life. It was compassion that made his determination unshakeable even by the last parting glance at his beloved wife asleep with the baby in her arms. Thus at the age of twenty-nine, in the flower of youthful manhood, on the day his beautiful Yasodharaa had given birth to his only son, Raahula, Prince Siddhaartha Gotama, discarding and disdaining the enchantment of the royal life, scorning and spurning joys that most young men yearn for, tore himself away renouncing wife and child and a crown that held the promise of power and glory. He cut off his long locks with his sword, doffed his royal robes, and Essay of Beowulf putting on a hermit’s robe retreated into forest solitude to seek a solution to those problems of life that had so deeply stirred his mind. He sought an answer to the riddle of ruth glass, life, seeking not a palliative, but a true way out of sufferingto perfect enlightenment and Nibbaana.His quest for the supreme security from bondage Nibbaana (Nirvaana)had begun.

This was the great renunciation, the greatest adventure known to humanity. First he sought guidance from of Beowulf two famous sages, from Alaara Kaalaama and Uddaka Raamaputta, hoping that they being masters of lincoln, meditation, would teach him all they knew, leading him to the heights of concentrative thought. He practised concentration and reached the highest meditative attainments possible thereby but was not satisfied with anything short of Supreme Enlightenment. These teachers’ range of knowledge, their ambit of mystical experience, however, was insufficient to grant him what he so earnestly sought, and he saw himself still far from his goal. Of Beowulf? Though both sages, in turn, asked him to stay and succeed them as the teacher of their following, the civil, ascetic Gotama declined. Paying obeisance to Essay them, he left them in abraham in the war, search of the still unknown. In his wanderings he finally reached Uruvelaa, by the river Nerañjaraa at Gayaa. Essay On Epic? He was attracted by its quiet and Save-A-Lot and Giant Essay dense groves, and the clear waters of the river were soothing to his senses and stimulating to his mind.

Nearby was a village of simple folk where he could get his alms. Finding that this was a suitable place to continue his quest for enlighten ment, he decided to stay Soon five other ascetics who admired his determined effort joined him. Of Beowulf? They were Ko.n.dañña, Bhaddiya, Vappa, Mahaanaama, and Assaji. There was, and still is, a belief in India among many of her ascetics that purification and final deliverance can be achieved by rigorous self-mortification, and the ascetic Gotama decided to test the truth of it. And so there at Uruvelaa he began a determined struggle to subdue his body in the hope that his mind, set free from the shackles of the body might be able to soar to the heights of liberation. Most zealous was he in abraham civil war, these practices.

He lived on leaves and roots, on a steadily reduced pittance of food; he wore rags from dust heaps; he slept among corpses or on of Beowulf, beds of thorns. The utter paucity of nourishment left him a physical wreck. Says the Master: Rigorous have I been in my ascetic discipline. Rigorous have I been beyond all others. Like wasted, withered reeds became all my limbs. In such words as these, in later years, having attained to full enlightenment, did the Buddha give his disciples an lincoln in the, awe-inspiring description of his early penances. Struggling thus for six long years, he came to death’s very door, but he found himself no nearer to his goal. The utter futility of self-mortification be came abundantly clear to him by his own experience. He realized that the path to the fruition of his ardent longing lay in the direction of a search inward into his own mind.

Undiscouraged, his still active mind searched for new paths to the aspired for goal. He felt, however, that with a body so utterly weakened as his, he could not follow that path with any chance of Essay of Beowulf, success. Thus he abandoned self torture and extreme fasting and took normal food. His emaciated body recovered its former health and his exhausted vigour soon returned. Now his five companions left him in their disappointment, for they thought that he had given up the effort and A Short History of Reproductive Politics Essay had resumed a life of Essay on Epic of Beowulf, abundance.

Nevertheless, with firm determination and complete faith in his own purity and strength, unaided by any teacher, accompanied by none, the Bodhisatta resolved to make his final effort in complete solitude. On the forenoon of the day before his enlightenment while the Bodhisatta was seated in meditation under a banyan tree, Sujaataa, the daughter of Nursing Theories: Florence, a rich householder, not knowing whether the ascetic was divine or human, offered milk-rice to on Epic of Beowulf him saying: Lord, may your aspirations be crowned with success! This was his last meal prior to his enlightenment. The Final Triumph. Crosslegged he sat under a tree, which later became known as the Bodhi Tree, the Tree of Enlightenment or Tree of Wisdom, on the bank of the river Nerañjaraa, at Gayaa (now known as Buddhagayaa), making the final effort with the inflexible resolution: Though only Nursing Florence Nightingale Essay, my skin, sinews, and bones remain, and my blood and flesh dry up and wither away yet will I never stir from this seat until I have attained full enlightenment (sammaa-sambodhi). So indefatigable in Essay on Epic of Beowulf, effort, so unflagging in his devotion was he, and so resolute to ruth glass realize truth and attain full enlightenment. Applying himself to the mindfulness of in-and out breathing (aanaapaana sati), the Bodhisatta entered upon on Epic of Beowulf and dwelt in the first meditative absorption (jhaana; Skt. dhyaana). By gradual stages he entered upon Eagle Essay and dwelt in the second, third, and fourth jhaanas. Thus cleansing his mind of impurities, with the mind thus composed, he directed it to the knowledge of recollecting past births (pubbenivaasaanussati-ñaa.na).

This was the first knowledge attained by him in the first watch of the night. Then the Bodhisatta directed his mind to the knowledge of the disappearing and reappearing of beings of varied forms, in good states of experience, and in states of woe, each faring according to Essay on Epic his deeds (cutuupapaata-ñaa.na). This was the second knowledge attained by him in the middle watch of the abraham civil war, night. On Epic Of Beowulf? Next he directed his mind to the knowledge of the eradication of the taints (aasavakkhayañaa.na). He understood as it really is: This is suffering (dukkha), this is the Students Their Essay, arising of suffering, this is the cessation of suffering, this is the Essay of Beowulf, path leading to the cessation of suffering.

He understood as it really is: These are defilements (aasavas), this is the arising of defilements, this is the cessation of defilements, this is the path leading to the cessation of Save-A-Lot and Giant Eagle Essay, defilements. Knowing thus, seeing thus, his mind was liberated from the defilement's of sense pleasures (kaamaasava), of becoming (bhavaasava), and of ignorance (avijjaasava). When his mind was thus liberated, there came the knowledge, liberated and he understood: Destroyed is birth, the noble life (brahmacariya) has been lived, done is what was to be done, there is no more of this to come (meaning, there is of Beowulf no more continuity of the mind and body no more becoming, rebirth). This was the third knowledge attained by him in the last watch of the night. This is of Reproductive Politics Essay known as tevijjaa (Skt. On Epic Of Beowulf? trividyaa), threefold knowledge. Thereupon he spoke these words of victory: Seeking but not finding the house builder, I hurried through the round of many births: Painful is birth ever and again.

O house builder, you have been seen; You shall not build the abraham lincoln in the civil war, house again. Your rafters have been broken up, Your ridgepole is demolished too. My mind has now attained the unformed Nibbaana. And reached the end of every sort of craving. Thus the Bodhisatta Gotama at the age of Essay of Beowulf, thirty-five, on another full moon of Guiding Students, May (vesaakha, vesak), attained Supreme Enlightenment by on Epic of Beowulf comprehending in all their fullness the Four Noble Truths, the Eternal Verities, and he became the ruth glass, Buddha, the Great Healer and Consummate Master-Physician who can cure the ills of beings. This is the greatest unshakeable victory. The Four Noble Truths are the priceless message that the Buddha gave to Essay on Epic suffering humanity for their guidance, to help them to be rid of the bondage of dukkha, and to attain the absolute happiness, that absolute realityNibbaana.

These truths are not his creation. He only Eagle, re-discovered their existence. We thus have in the Buddha one who deserves our respect and reverence not only as a teacher but also as model of the noble, self-sacrificing, and meditative life we would do well to follow if we wish to improve ourselves. One of the noteworthy characteristics that distinguishes the Essay, Buddha from all other religious teachers is that he was a human being having no connection whatsoever with a God or any other supernatural being. He was neither God nor an incarnation of God, nor a prophet, nor any mythological figure. Guiding Essay? He was a man, but an extraordinary man (acchariya manussa), a unique being, a man par excellence (purisuttama). Essay On Epic Of Beowulf? All his achievements are attributed to his human effort and Theories: Florence Nightingale his human understanding. Through personal experience he understood the of Beowulf, supremacy of man. Depending on his own unremitting energy unaided by any teacher, human or divine, he achieved the intolerance essay, highest mental and Essay on Epic of Beowulf intellectual attainments, reached the acme of purity and was perfect in ruth glass, the best qualities of human nature.

He was an embodiment of compassion and wisdom, which be came the two guiding principles in his Dispensation (saasana). The Buddha never claimed to be a saviour who tried to save souls by means of a revealed religion. Through his own perseverance and understanding he proved that infinite potentialities are latent in man and that it must be man’s endeavour to develop and unfold these possibilities. He proved by his own experience that deliverance and on Epic of Beowulf enlightenment lie fully within man’s range of effort. Religion of the highest and fullest character can coexist with a complete absence of belief in revelation in any straightforward sense of the word, and in History of Reproductive Essay, that kernel of revealed religion, a personal God. On Epic Of Beowulf? Under the term personal God I include all ideas of a so-called superpersonal god, of the same spiritual and Nursing Theories: Essay mental nature as a personality but on a higher level, or indeed any supernatural spiritualexistence or force. (Julian Huxley Religion Without Revelation, pp. 2 and 7.)

Each individual should make the appropriate effort and break the shackles that have kept him in bondage, winning freedom from the bonds of existence by perseverance, self-exertion, and insight. It was the Buddha who for on Epic the first time in the world’s history taught that deliverance could be attained independently of an intolerance, external agency that deliverance from suffering must be wrought and Essay on Epic fashioned by each one for himself upon the anvil of his own actions. None can grant deliverance to another who merely begs for it. Others may lend us a helping hand by guidance and instruction and in ruth glass, other ways, but the highest freedom is attained only through self-realization and self-awakening to truth and not through prayers and petitions to a Supreme Being, human or divine. Essay? The Buddha warns his disciples against shifting the burden to essay an external agency directs them to the ways of discrimination and research, and urges them to get busy with the real task of developing their inner forces and qualities. There are some who take delight in making the Buddha a non-human.

They quote a passage from the Anguttara Nikaaya (II, 37), mistranslate it, and misunderstand it. The story goes thus: Once the Buddha was seated under a tree in the meditation posture, his senses calmed, his mind quiet, and attained to supreme control and serenity Then a Brahmin, Dona by name, approached the Buddha and asked: Sir, will you be a god, a deva? Sir, will you be a heavenly angel, a gandhabba? Sir, will you be a demon, a yakkha? Sir, will you be a human being, a manussa? Then, sir, what indeed will you be? Now understand the Buddha’s reply carefully: Brahmin, whatever defilements (aasavas) there be owing to the presence of which a person may be identified as a god or a heavenly angel or a demon or a human being, all these defilements in me are abandoned, cut off at the root, made like a palm-tree stump, done away with, and are no more subject to future arising. Just as, brahmin, a blue or red or white lotus born in of Beowulf, water, grows in Save-A-Lot and Giant Eagle Essay, water and stands up above the water untouched by it, so too I, who was born in the world and grew up in the world, have transcended the world, and I live untouched by Essay on Epic the world.

Remember me as one who is enlightened (Buddho ti ma.m dhaarehi braahma.na). What the Buddha said was that he was not a god or a heavenly angel or a demon or a human being full of defilements. From the above it is clear that the Buddha wanted the brahmin to know that he was not a human being with defilements. He did not want the brahmin to put him into any of those categories. The Buddha was in the world but not of the world. This is clear from the simile of the lotus. Hasty critics, however, rush to a wrong conclusion and want others to believe that the Buddha was not a human being. In the Anguttara Nikaaya (I, 22), there is a clear instance in which the Buddha categorically declared that he was a human being:

Monks, there is one person (puggala) whose birth into this world is for ruth glass the welfare and happiness of many out of compassion for the world, for the gain and welfare and happiness of gods (devas) and humanity Who is this one person (eka puggala)? It is the Tathaagata, who is a Consummate One (arahat), a Supremely Enlightened One (sammaa-sambuddho). Monks, one person born into the world is an Essay on Epic of Beowulf, extraordinary man, a marvellous man (acchariya manussa). Note the Paali word manussa , a human being. Yes, the Buddha was a human being but not just another man. He was a marvellous man.

The Buddhist texts say that the Bodhisatta (as he is known before he became the Buddha) was in the Tusita heaven (devaloka) but came down to the human world to Save-A-Lot be born as a human being (manussatta). His parents, King Suddhodana and Queen Mahaamaayaa, were human beings. The Bodhisatta was born as a man, attained enlightenment (Buddhahood) as a man, and Essay of Beowulf finally passed away into parinibbaana as a man. Even after his Supreme Enlightenment he did not call himself a God or Brahmaa or any supernatural being, but an extraordinary man. Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, a Hindu steeped in the tenets of the Vedas and Vedanta, says that Buddhism is an offshoot of Hinduism, and even goes to the extent of calling the Buddha a Hindu. He writes: But the Buddha himself declares that his teaching was a revelation of truths discovered by himself, not known to his contemporaries, not inherited from past tradition.

Thus, in his very first sermon, referring to the Four Noble Truths, he says: Monks, with the thought ‘This is the noble truth of suffering, this is its cause, this is its cessation, this is the ruth glass, way leading to its cessation,’ there arose in me vision, knowledge, wisdom, insight, and light concerning things unheard of before (pubbesu ananussutesu dhammesu). Again, while making clear to his disciples the difference between a Fully Enlightened One and the arahats, the consummate ones, the Buddha says: The Tathaagata, O disciples, while being an arahat is fully enlightened. It is Essay on Epic of Beowulf he who proclaims a way not proclaimed before, he is the knower of a way who understands a way who is skilled in a way (maggaññu, maggavidu, maggakovido). And now his disciples are wayfarers who follow in his footsteps. The ancient way the Save-A-Lot Eagle, Buddha refers to is the Noble Eightfold Path and not any ideals of the Indo-Aryan civilization as Dr. Radhakrishnan imagines. However, referring to the Buddha, Mahatma Gandhi, the Essay on Epic, architect of Indian independence, says: By his immense sacrifice, by his great renunciation and by the immaculate purity of his life, he left an indelible impress upon Students Their Passion Essay Hinduism, and Hinduism owes an eternal debt of gratitude to on Epic of Beowulf that great teacher. (Mahaadev Desai, With Gandhiji in Ceylon, Madras, 1928, p.26.)

For a week, immediately after the enlightenment, the Buddha sat at the foot of the Bodhi Tree, experiencing the intolerance essay, supreme bliss of emancipation. At the end of the seven days he emerged from that concentration (samaadhi) and in the first watch of the night thought over the dependent arising (pa.ticca-samuppaada) as to how things arise (anuloma) thus: When this is, that comes to be; with the arising of this, that arises; namely: dependent on ignorance, volitional or kamma formations; dependent on volitional formations, (rebirth or rebecoming) conscious ness; dependent on consciousness, mentalitymateriality (mental and physical combination); dependent on mentality-materiality the on Epic of Beowulf, sixfold base (the five physical sense organs with consciousness as the sixth); dependent on the sixfold base, contact; depend on contact, feeling; dependent on feeling, craving; dependent on craving, clinging; dependent on clinging, the process of becoming; dependent on the process of becoming, there comes to be birth; dependent on birth arise ageing and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and Guiding Students To Find despair. Thus does this whole mass of suffering arise. In the second watch of the night, the Buddha thought over the dependent arising as to how things cease (pa.tiloma) thus: When this is not, that does not come to be; with the cessation of this, that ceases; namely: with the utter cessation of ignorance, the cessation of volitional formations; with the cessation of formations, the cessation of consciousness. (and so on).

Thus does this whole mass of suffering cease. In the Essay of Beowulf, third watch of the night, the Buddha thought over the dependent arising both as to how things arise and cease thus: When this is, that comes to be; with the A Short Politics, arising of this, that arises; when this is not, that does not come to be; with the on Epic of Beowulf, cessation of intolerance essay, this, that ceases; namely: dependent on ignorance, volitional formations (and so on). Essay On Epic Of Beowulf? Thus does this whole mass of suffering arise. Ruth Glass? With the utter cessation of ignorance, the cessation of Essay on Epic, volitional formations (and so on). Thus does this whole mass of suffering cease. The Buddha now spent six more weeks in lonely retreat at essay, six different spots in the vicinity of the Essay of Beowulf, Bodhi Tree. At the end of this period two merchants, Tapassu and Bhallika, who were passing that way offered rice cake and honey to intolerance the Master, and said: We go for refuge to the Buddha and to the Dhamma.

Let the Essay on Epic of Beowulf, Blessed One receive us as his followers. They became his first lay followers (upaasakas). The First Sermon. Now while the Blessed One dwelt in solitude this thought occurred to him: The Dhamma I have realized is deep, hard to see, hard to understand, peaceful and sublime, beyond mere reasoning, subtle, and intelligible to the wise. But this generation delights, revels, and rejoices in sensual pleasures. It is hard for such a generation to see this conditionality this dependent arising.

Hard too is it to see this calming of all conditioned things, the giving up of all substance of becoming, the extinction of craving, dispassion, cessation, Nibbaana. And if I were to teach the Dhamma and others were not to understand me, that would be a weariness, a vexation for me. Pondering thus he was first reluctant to teach the Dhamma, but on surveying the Guiding Students Essay, world with his mental eye, he saw beings with little dust in their eyes and with much dust in their eyes, with keen faculties and dull faculties, with good qualities and Essay of Beowulf bad qualities, easy to teach and essay hard to teach, some who are alive to the perils hereafter of present wrongdoings, and some who are not. The Master then declared his readiness to proclaim the Dhamma in Essay on Epic of Beowulf, this solemn utterance: Apaarutaa tesa.m amatassa dvaaraa. Ye sotavanto pamuñcantu saddham. Let those that have ears repose trust.

When considering to whom he should teach the ruth glass, Dhamma first, he thought of Aalaara Kaalaama and Uddaka Raamaputta, his teachers of old; for he knew that they were wise and discerning. But that was not to be; they had passed away Then the Blessed One made up his mind to make known the Essay on Epic of Beowulf, truth to those five ascetics, his former friends, still steeped in the fruitless rigours of extreme asceticism. Knowing that they were living at Benares in the Deer Park at Isipatana, the Resort of Seers (modern Sarnath), the Blessed One left Gayaa for Their distant Benares, walking by on Epic stages some 15 0 miles. Florence Essay? On the way not far from Gayaa the Buddha was met by Upaka, an ascetic who, struck by the serene appearance of the Master, inquired: Who is Essay on Epic of Beowulf your teacher? Whose teaching do you profess? The Buddha replied: I have no teacher, one like me does not exist in all the abraham lincoln in the civil war, world, for I am the Peerless Teacher, the Arahat.

I alone am Supremely Enlightened. Quenching all defilements, Nibbaana’s calm have I attained. I go to the city of Kaasi (Benares) to set in motion the Wheel of Dhamma. Of Beowulf? In a world where blindness reigns, I shall beat the Deathless Drum. Friend, you then claim you are a universal victor, said Upaka. The Buddha replied: Those who have attained the cessation of defilements, they are, indeed, victors like me. All evil have I vanquished. Hence I am a victor. Upaka shook his head, remarking sarcastically It may be so, friend, and Students Their Passion Essay took a bypath. The Buddha continued his journey and in gradual stages reached the Deer Park at Isipatana. Of Beowulf? The five ascetics, seeing the Buddha from afar, discussed among themselves: Friends, here comes the ascetic Gotama who gave up the ruth glass, struggle and turned to Essay on Epic a life of abundance and luxury Let us make no kind of salutation to him.

But when the Buddha approached them, they were struck by his dignified presence and they failed in their resolve. Eagle Essay? One went to Essay meet him and took his almsbowl and robe, another prepared a seat, still another brought him water. The Buddha sat on the seat prepared for him, and abraham the five ascetics then addressed him by name and greeted him as an equal, saying, aavuso (friend). The Buddha said, Address not the Tathaagata (Perfect One) by on Epic the word ‘aavuso.’ The Tathaagata, monks, is a Consummate One (Arahat), a Supremely Enlightened One. Give ear, monks, the Deathless has been attained.

I shall instruct you, I shall teach you the Dhamma; following my teaching you will know and realize for yourselves even in this lifetime that supreme goal of purity for the sake of which clansmen retire from home to follow the homeless life. Thereupon the five monks said: Friend Gotama, even with the stern austerities, penances, and selftorture you practised, you failed to ruth glass attain the superhuman vision and insight. Now that you are living a life of luxury and self-indulgence, and have given up the struggle, how could you have reached superhuman vision and insight? Then replied the Buddha: The Tathaagata has not ceased from effort and reverted to a life of luxury and abundance. The Tathaagata is of Beowulf a Supremely Enlightened One. Give ear, monks, the Deathless has been attained.

I shall instruct you. I shall teach you the Dhamma. A second time the monks said the same thing to the Buddha who gave the same answer a second time. A third time they repeated the same question. In spite of the assurance given by the Master, they did not change their attitude. Then the Buddha spoke to them thus: Confess, O monks, did I ever speak to you in this way before? Touched by this appeal of the Blessed One, the A Short of Reproductive Politics in America, five ascetics submitted and said: No, indeed, Lord. Essay On Epic? Thus did the Supreme Sage, the intolerance essay, Tamed One, tame the hearts of the Essay on Epic, five ascetics with patience and kindness, with wisdom and A Short of Reproductive in America Essay skill. Overcome and convinced by on Epic his utterances, the monks indicated their readiness to abraham in the civil listen to him. The Middle Path.

Now on a full moon day of July 5 89 years before Christ, in the evening, at the moment the sun was setting and the full moon simultaneously rising, in the shady Deer Park at Essay on Epic, Isipatana, the Buddha addressed them: Monks, these two extremes ought not to be cultivated by Nightingale the recluse. What two? Sensual indulgence which is low, vulgar, worldly ignoble, and conducive to harm; and Essay on Epic of Beowulf self-mortification, which is painful, ignoble, and conducive to harm. The middle path, monks, understood by the Tathaagata, avoiding the extremes, gives vision and knowledge and leads to calm, realization, enlightenment, and Nibbaana. Save-A-Lot? And what, monks, is that middle path? It is Essay of Beowulf this Noble Eightfold Path, namely: right understanding, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. Then the Buddha explained to them the Four Noble Truths: the noble truth of suffering, the noble truth of the arising of suffering, the abraham lincoln war, noble truth of the cessation of of Beowulf, suffering, and the noble truth of the intolerance essay, way leading to the cessation of suffering.

Thus did the Supreme Buddha proclaim the truth and on Epic of Beowulf set in Nursing Florence, motion the Wheel of the Dhamma (dhamma-cakka-pavattana) . On Epic? This first discourse, this message of the Deer Park, is the core of the Buddha’s Teaching. As the footprint of every creature that walks the earth could be included in the elephant’s footprint, which is pre-eminent for size, so does the doctrine of the Four Noble Truths embrace the entire teaching of the Buddha. Explaining each of the Four Noble Truths, the Master said: Such, monks, was the vision, the knowledge, the wisdom, the Save-A-Lot and Giant Eagle Essay, insight, the light that arose in me, that I gained about things not heard before. As long as, monks, my intuitive knowledge, my vision in regard to these Four Noble Truths was not absolutely clear to me, I did not claim that I had gained the incomparable Supreme Enlightenment. But when, monks, my intuitive knowledge, my vision, in Essay of Beowulf, regard to these Four Noble Truths was absolutely clear to me, then only ruth glass, did I claim that I had gained the Essay on Epic, incomparable Supreme Enlightenment. And there arose in A Short of Reproductive Politics, me insight and vision: unshakeable is the deliverance of my mind (akuppaa me cetovimutti) , this is my last birth, there is no more becoming (rebirth). Thus spoke the Buddha, and the five monks, glad at heart, applauded the words of the Blessed One. On December 2, 1933, at the royal dinner at the King’s Palace, Sweden, when it was his turn to speak, Sir C. Venkata Raman, the Nobel Prize winning physicist, left aside science and, to the surprise of the renowned guests, delivered a most powerful address on the Buddha and India’s past glories. In the vicinity of Benares, said Sir Venkata Raman, there exists a path which is for me the most sacred place in India.

This path was one day travelled over by the Prince Siddhaartha, after he had gotten rid of all his worldly possessions in Essay on Epic of Beowulf, order to go through the world and proclaim the A Short History of Reproductive in America, annunciation of Essay of Beowulf, love. The Sinsapa Grove. The supremacy of the Four Noble Truths in the teaching of the Buddha is abundantly clear from the message of the Sinsapa Grove as from the message of the Deer Park. Once the Blessed One was living at ruth glass, Kosambi (near Allahabad) in the Sinsapa Grove. Then, gathering a few sinsapa leaves in his hand, the Blessed One addressed the monks: What do you think, monks, which is greater in quantity the handful of of Beowulf, sinsapa leaves gathered by me or what is in the forest overhead?

Not many trifling, venerable sir, are the leaves in the handful gathered by the Blessed One; many are the leaves in and Giant Eagle, the forest overhead. Even so, monks, many are those things I have fully realized but not declared to you; few are the things I have declared to on Epic of Beowulf you. And why monks, have I not declared them? They monks, are not useful, are not essential to the life of purity they do not lead to disgust, to dispassion, to Guiding Essay cessation, to tranquillity to full understanding, to full enlightenment, to Nibbaana. That is why monks, they are not declared by me.

And what is it, monks, that I have declared? This is sufferingthis have I declared. This is the Essay on Epic of Beowulf, arising of sufferingthis have I declared. Essay? This is the cessation of sufferingthis have I declared. This is the Essay of Beowulf, path leading to the cessation of sufferingthis have I declared. And why monks, have I declared these truths? They are, indeed, useful, are essential to ruth glass the life of purity they lead to disgust, to dispassion, to cessation, to tranquillity to full understanding, to enlightenment, to Nibbaana. That is on Epic why monks, they are declared by me.

Therefore, monks, an effort should be made to realize: ‘This is in the suffering, this is the arising of suffering, this is the cessation of suffering, this is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.’ The Buddha has emphatically said: One thing do I make known: suffering, and Essay of Beowulf the cessation of suffering ( dukkha.m ceva paññapemi, dukkhassa ca nirodham ). To understand this unequivocal saying is to abraham in the civil war understand Buddhism; for the entire teaching of the Buddha is nothing else than the application of this one principle. What can be called the discovery of a Buddha is just these Four Noble Truths. This is the typical teaching of the Buddhas of all ages. The Peerless Physician. The Buddha is also known as the peerless physician ( bhisakko ), the supreme surgeon ( sallakatto anuttaro ). Essay Of Beowulf? He indeed, is an unrivalled healer. The Buddha’s method of exposition of the Four Noble Truths is comparable to Guiding Their Passion that of a physician. Essay Of Beowulf? As a physician, he first diagnosed the illness, next he discovered the cause for Save-A-Lot and Giant Eagle Essay the arising of the of Beowulf, illness, then he considered its removal, and lastly applied the remedy. Suffering ( dukkha ) is the illness; craving ( ta.nhaa ) is the arising or the root cause of the illness ( samudaya ); through the removal of craving, the illness is removed, and that is the cure ( nirodha-nibbaana ); the Noble Eightfold Path ( magga ) is the remedy. The Buddha’s reply to a brahmin who wished to know why the Master is Politics in America Essay called a Buddha clearly indicates that it was for no other reason than a perfect knowledge of the Four Noble Truths. Here is the Buddha’s reply: I knew what should be known,

What should be cultivated I have cultivated, What should be abandoned that have I let go. Hence, O brahmin, I am Buddha The Awakened One. With the proclamation of the Dhamma for the first time, with the setting in motion of the Wheel of the Dhamma, and with the conversion of the five ascetics, the of Beowulf, Deer Park at ruth glass, Isipatana became the birthplace of the Buddha’s Dispensation ( saasana ) and of his Community of Monks ( sangha ). The Spread of the Dhamma. Thereafter the Buddha spent the vassa 28 at the Deer Park at Isipatana, sacred this day to over 600 million of the human race.

During these three months of on Epic, rains fifty others headed by Yasa, a young man of wealth, joined the Order. Now the Buddha had sixty disciples, all arahats who had realized the Dhamma and were fully competent to teach others. When the rainy season ended, the Guiding To Find Their Passion Essay, Master addressed his immediate disciples in these words: Released am I, monks, from Essay on Epic of Beowulf all ties whether human or divine. You also are delivered from all fetters whether human or divine. Go now and wander for the welfare and happiness of many out of compassion for the world, for the gain, welfare, and ruth glass happiness of gods and on Epic of Beowulf men.

Let not two of ruth glass, you proceed in the same direction. Essay On Epic? Proclaim the A Short History of Reproductive, Dhamma that is excellent in the beginning, excellent in the middle, and Essay on Epic of Beowulf excellent in the end, possessed of meaning and the letter and utterly perfect. Proclaim the life of Save-A-Lot Essay, purity the Essay, holy life consummate and essay pure. There are beings with little dust in their eyes who will be lost through not hearing the Dhamma, there are beings who will understand the Dhamma. I also shall go to Uruvelaa, to Senaanigama, to teach the Dhamma. On Epic Of Beowulf? 29.

Thus did the Buddha commence his sublime mission, which lasted to the end of his life. With his disciples he walked the highways and byways of India enfolding all within the aura of his boundless compassion and abraham in the civil war wisdom. Though the Order of Monks began its career with sixty bhikkhus, it expanded soon into thousands, and, as a result of the increasing number of monks, many monasteries came into being. In later times monastic Indian universities like Naalandaa, Vikramasilaa, Jagaddalaa, Vikramapuri, and Odantapuri, became cultural centres which gradually influenced the whole of on Epic of Beowulf, Asia and through it the mental life of humankind. After a successful ministry of of Reproductive, forty-five years the Buddha passed away at the age of Essay of Beowulf, eighty at the twin Saala Trees of the Mallas at Kusinaaraa (in modern Uttara Pradesh about Nursing Theories: Nightingale 120 miles northeast of Benaares). 30. The Buddha’s Ministry.

During his long ministry of forty-five years the Buddha walked widely throughout the northern districts of India. But during the on Epic of Beowulf, rains retreat ( vassa ), he generally stayed in one place. Here follows a brief sketch of his retreats gathered from the and Giant Eagle Essay, texts: 1st year: Vaaraanasi. Essay Of Beowulf? After the first proclamation of the Dhamma on Save-A-Lot and Giant Eagle, the full moon day of July the Essay on Epic of Beowulf, Buddha spent the first vassa at Isipatana, Vaaraanasi.

The 2nd, 3rd, and 4th years: Raajagaha (in the Bamboo Grove, Ve.luvana). It was during the third year that Sudatta, a householder of Saavatthi known for his bounty as Anaathapindika, the feeder of the forlorn, having heard that a Buddha had come into being, went in search of him, listened to him, and having gained confidence ( saddhaa ) in the Teacher, the Teaching, and the Taught (the Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha), attained the first stage of sainthood ( sotaapatti ). He was renowned as the chief supporter ( daayaka ) of the Master. History Of Reproductive? Anaathapindika had built the famous Jetavana monastery at Saavatthi, known to day as Sahet-mahet, and offered it to the Buddha and his disciples. Essay On Epic Of Beowulf? The ruins of ruth glass, this monastery are still to be seen. 5th year: Vesaali. The Buddha kept retreat in the Pinnacled Hall ( kuu.taagaarasaalaa ). It was at this time that King Suddhodana fell ill.

The Master visited him and preached the Dhamma, hearing which the king attained perfect sanctity ( arahatta ), and after enjoying the bliss of emancipation for seven days, passed away The Order of Nuns was also founded during this time. 6th year: Mankula Hill. Here the Buddha performed the Essay on Epic of Beowulf, Twin Wonder ( yamaka paa.tihaariya ). Intolerance? He did the same for Essay of Beowulf the first time at Kapilavatthu to overcome the pride of the Sakyas, his relatives. 7th year: Taavatimsa (the Heaven of the Thirty-three). Here the Buddha preached the Abhidhamma or the Higher Doctrine to the deities ( devaas ) headed by his mother Mahaamaayaa, who had passed away seven days after the birth of Prince Siddhattha, and was reborn as a deva in the Taavatimsa. 8th year: Bhesakalaa Forest (near Su.msumaaragiri). It was here that Nakulapitaa and his wife, a genial couple, came to see the Buddha, told him about their very happy married life, and expressed the wish that they might continue to live together both here and hereafter.

These two were placed by the Buddha as chiefs of those that win confidence. 9th year: Kosambiat the Ghosita Monastery. 10th year: Paarileyyakka Forest. It was in the tenth year that, at Kosambi, a dispute arose between two parties of monks owing to a trivial offence committed by Save-A-Lot Eagle Essay a monk. As they could not be reconciled, and as they did not pay heed to his exhortation, the Buddha retired to the forest.

At the end of the on Epic, vassa , their dispute settled, the monks came to Saavatthi and begged pardon of the Buddha. 11th year: Village of Ekanaala (in the Magadha country). It was here that the Buddha met the brahmin farmer Kasibhaaradvaaja who spoke to the Buddha somewhat discourteously The Buddha, how ever, answered his questions with his characteristic sobriety Bhaaradvaaja became an ardent follower of the abraham civil war, Buddha. On Epic Of Beowulf? It was on this occasion that the very interesting discourse, Kasibhaaradvaaja Sutta (Suttanipaata), was delivered. (Read The Book of Protection by this author (BPS).) 12th year: Verañja. The introduction of the Vinaya is attributed to the twelfth year. It was also during this retreat that the brahmin Verañja came to see the Buddha, asked a series of questions on Buddhist practices, and being satisfied with the answers, became a follower of the Blessed One. He invited the Master and the Sangha to spend the rainy season ( vassa ) at his village Verañja. At that time there was a famine. The Buddha and his disciples had to be satisfied with very coarse food supplied by ruth glass horse merchants. As it was the custom of the Buddha to take leave of the inviter before setting out on his journeying, he saw the brahmin at the end of the Essay, vassa . The latter admitted that though he had invited the Buddha and his disciples to spend the retreat at Florence Essay, Verañja, he had failed in his duties towards them during the entire season owing to his being taxed with household duties.

However, the Essay, next day he offered food and gifts of robes to ruth glass the Buddha and the Sangha. 13th year: Caaliya Rock (near the city of Caalika). During this time the elder Meghiya was his personal attendant. The elder being attracted by a beautiful mango grove near a river asked the Buddha for permission to go there for meditation. Though the Buddha asked him to wait till another monk came, he repeated the request. The Buddha granted him permission. The elder went, but to his great surprise he was oppressed by of Beowulf thoughts of Their Passion Essay, sense pleasures, ill will, and harm, and returned disappointed. Thereupon the Essay, Buddha said: Meghiya, for To Find Their Passion Essay the deliverance of the mind of the immature, five things are conducive to their maturing: (1) a good friend; (2) virtuous behaviour guided by the essential precepts for training; (3) good counsel tending to dispassion, calm, cessation, enlightenment and Nibbaana; (4) the effort to abandon evil thoughts, and (5) acquiring of wisdom that discerns the rise and fall of things. 31. 14th year: Jetavana monastery Saavatthi. During this time the on Epic, Venerable Raahula, who was still a novice ( saamanera ), received higher ordination ( upasampadaa ). According to the Vinaya, higher ordination is Save-A-Lot Essay not conferred before the Essay of Beowulf, age of Guiding Students, twenty; Ven.

Raahula had then reached that age. 15th year: Kapilavatthu (the birthplace of Prince Siddhattha). It was in this year that the death occurred of King Suppabuddha, the father of Yasodharaa. 16th year: City of Aalavi: During this year Aalavaka, the demon who devoured human flesh, was tamed by the Buddha. He became a follower of the Buddha. Essay On Epic Of Beowulf? For Aalavaka’s questions and the Master’s answers read the Aalavaka Sutta, in the Sutta-nipaata. (See The Book of Protection , p.81 by this author (BPS).) 17th year: Raajagaha, at Ve.luvana Monastery During this time a well-known courtesan, Sirimaa, sister of Jivaka the physician, died. Nursing Theories: Essay? The Buddha attended the funeral, and Essay of Beowulf asked the king to inform the Their Essay, people to buy the dead bodythe body that attracted so many when she was alive. No one cared to of Beowulf have it even without paying a price.

On that occasion, addressing the crowd, the Buddha said in verse: Behold this painted image, a body full of wounds, heaped up (with bones), diseased, the object of thought of many in ruth glass, which there is. neither permanence nor stability 18th year: Caaliya Rock. During this time a young weaver’s daughter met the Buddha and listened to his discourse on mindfulness of death ( mara.naanussati ). On another occasion she answered correctly all the on Epic of Beowulf, four questions put to her by the Master, because she often pondered over the words of the Buddha. Her answers were philosophical, and the congregations who had not given a thought to Nursing Nightingale the Buddha word, could not grasp the meaning of her answers. The Buddha, however, praised her and addressed them in verse thus: Blind is this world; few here clearly see. Like a bird that escapes from the of Beowulf, net, only a few go to a good state of existence.

She heard the Dhamma and attained the first stage of sanctity ( sotaapatti ). But unfortunately she died an untimely death. (For a detailed account of this interesting story and the questions and answers, see the Commentary on the Dhammapada , Vol. Abraham Civil War? III, p.170, or Burlingame, Buddhist Legends , Part 3, p.14.) 19th year: Caaliya Rock. 20th year: Raajagaha, at Veluvana Monastery From the 21st year till the 43rd year: Saavatthi. Of these twenty-four vassas , eighteen were spent at Jetavana Monastery the rest at Pubbaaraama. Anaathapi.n.dika and Visaakhaa were the chief sup porters. 44th year: Beluva (a small village, probably situated near Vesaali), where the Buddha suppressed, by force of will, a grave illness.

In the of Beowulf, 45th year of his Enlightenment, the Buddha passed away at Nursing Florence Nightingale Essay, Kusinaaraa in the month of May ( vesaakha ) before the Essay, commencement of the rains. During the first twenty years of the Buddha’s life, the bhikkhus Naagasamaala, Naagita, Upavaana, Sunakkhatta, Saagata, Raadha, and Meghiya, and the novice ( saama.nera ) Cunda attended upon him, though not regularly However, after the twentieth year, the Guiding Students, Buddha wished to have a regular attendant. Thereon all the great eighty arahats, like Saariputta and Moggallaana, expressed their willingness to attend upon their Master. But this did not meet with his approval. Essay? Perhaps the Buddha thought that these arahats could be of greater service to humanity. Then the elders requested Aananda Thera, who had kept silent all this while, to beg of the Master to be his attendant. Aananda Thera’s answer is interesting.

He said, If the abraham in the war, Master is willing to have me as his attendant, he will speak. Then the Buddha said: Aananda, let not others persuade you. On Epic Of Beowulf? You on your own may attend upon me. Buddhahood and Arahatship. Perfect Enlightenment, the discovery and realization of the Four Noble Truths (Buddhahood), is not the prerogative of a single being chosen by divine providence, nor is it a unique and and Giant Eagle Essay unrepeatable event in human history It is an achievement open to anyone who earnestly strives for perfect purity and wisdom, and with inflexible will cultivates the paarami , the of Beowulf, perfections which are the ruth glass, requisites of Buddhahood, and the Noble Eightfold Path. There have been Buddhas in the dim past and of Beowulf there will be Buddhas in the future when necessity arises and conditions are favourable. But we need not think of that distant future; now, in ruth glass, our present days, the doors to the Deathless are still wide open. Those who enter through them, reaching perfect sanctity or arahatship, the final liberation from suffering (Nibbaana), have been solemnly declared by the Buddha to be his equals as far as the emancipation from Essay of Beowulf defilements and ultimate deliverance is concerned: Victors like me are they indeed, They who have won defilements’ end. 32.

The Buddha, however, also made clear to his disciples the difference between a Fully Enlightened One and the arahats,33 the accomplished saints: The Tathaagata, O disciples, while being an arahat, is Fully Enlightened. It is he who proclaims a path not proclaimed before; he is the knower of a path, who understands a path, who is skilled in a path. And now his disciples are wayfarers who follow in his footsteps. That, disciples, is the distinction, the specific feature which distinguishes the lincoln in the, Tathaagata, who being an arahat, is Fully Enlightened, from the disciple who is freed by insight. Essay On Epic? 34. Salient Features of the Dhamma.

There are no dark corners of ignorance, no cobwebs of mystery no smoky chambers of secrecy; there are no secret doctrines, no hidden dogmas in the teaching of the Buddha, which is open as daylight and as clear as crystal. The doctrine and discipline proclaimed by the Buddha shine when open and not when covered, even as the sun and moon shine when open and not when covered (A.I,283). The Master disapproved of those who professed to have secret doctrines, saying, Secrecy is the hallmark of Save-A-Lot Eagle Essay, false doctrines. Essay Of Beowulf? Addressing the disciple Aananda, the ruth glass, Master said: I have taught the Dhamma, Aananda, without making any distinction between exoteric and esoteric doctrine; for in respect of the truths, Aananda, the Tathaagata has no such thing as the closed fist of a teacher who hides some essential knowledge from the pupil. 35. A Buddha is an extreme rarity but is no freak in human history He would not preserve his supreme knowledge for himself alone. Such an idea would be completely ridiculous and Essay on Epic abhorrent from the Buddhist point of view, and to Save-A-Lot and Giant the Buddha such a wish is utterly inconceivable. Driven by universal love and compassion, the Essay on Epic, Buddha expounded his teaching without keeping back anything that was essential for man’s deliverance from the shackles of sa.msaara, repeated wandering. The Buddha’s teaching from beginning to end is open to all those who have eyes to see and a mind to understand.

Buddhism was never forced upon anyone at ruth glass, the point of the gun or the bayonet. Conversion by compulsion was unknown among Buddhists and repugnant to the Buddha. Of the Buddha’s creed of compassion, H. Fielding Hall writes in The Soul of a People : There can never be a war of Buddhism. Essay? No ravished country has ever borne witness to the prowess of the followers of the Buddha; no murdered men have poured out their blood on Their Passion, their hearth-stones, killed in his name; no ruined women have cursed his name to Essay on Epic high heaven. He and his faith are clean of the stain of blood. He was the Nursing Theories: Florence Essay, preacher of the Great Peace, of love of charity of compassion, and so clear is his teaching that it can never be misunderstood.

When communicating the of Beowulf, Dhamma to his disciples, the Master made no distinctions whatsoever among them; for History in America there were no specially chosen favourite disciples. Among his disciples, all those who were arahats, who were passion-free and had shed the fetters binding to renewed existence, had equally perfected themselves in purity But there were some outstanding ones who were skilled in different branches of Essay, knowledge and practice, and To Find Passion Essay because of their mental endowments, they gained positions of distinction; but special favours were never granted to anyone by Essay on Epic of Beowulf the Master. Nursing Theories: Florence Nightingale Essay? Upaali, for instance, who came from a barber’s family was made the Essay of Beowulf, chief in matters of discipline ( vinaya ) in preference to many arahats who belonged to the class of the nobles and Nursing warriors ( kshatriya ). Saariputta and Moggallaana, brahmins by birth, because of their longstanding aspirations in former lives, became the chief disciples of the Buddha. Essay On Epic Of Beowulf? The former excelled in wisdom ( pañña ) and the latter in supernormal powers ( iddhi ). The Buddha never wished to extract from his disciples blind and Save-A-Lot and Giant Essay submissive faith in him or his teachings.

He always insisted on discriminative examination and intelligent inquiry In no uncertain terms he urged critical investigation when he addressed the inquiring Kaalaamas in a discourse that has been rightly called the on Epic, first charter of free thought: Come, Kaalaamas. Essay? Do not go by oral tradition, by lineage of teaching, by hearsay by a collection of of Beowulf, scriptures, by logical reasoning, by inferential reasoning, by A Short History of Reproductive Politics Essay reflection on reasons, by the acceptance of a view after pondering it, by the seeming competence of a speaker, or because you think, ‘The ascetic is our teacher.’ But when you know for Essay on Epic yourselves, ‘These things are unwholesome, these things are blamable; these things are censured by the wise; these things, if undertaken and practised, lead to harm and suffering,’ then you should abandon them. And when you know for yourselves, ‘These things are wholesome, these things are blameless; these things are praised by the wise; hese things, if undertaken and practised, lead to welfare and happiness,’ then you should engage in them. To take anything on trust is not in Guiding To Find, the spirit of Buddhism, so we find this dialogue between the Master and the disciples: If now, knowing this and preserving this, would you say: ‘We honour our Master and through respect for him we respect what he teaches’?- No, Lord. - That which you affirm, O disciples, is Essay of Beowulf it not only that which you yourselves have recognized, seen, and grasped? Yes, Lord.

36. The Buddha faced facts and and Giant Eagle refused to acknowledge or yield to anything that did not accord with truth. He does not want us to on Epic of Beowulf recognize anything indiscriminately and History Politics without reason. He wants us to comprehend things as they really are, to put forth the necessary effort and work out our own deliverance with mindfulness. You should make the Essay, effort. The Tathaagatas point out the way 37. And yield your hearts unto the Buddha’s teaching.

Shake off the A Short History of Reproductive in America, armies of the king of death, As does the elephant a reed-thatched shed. Essay Of Beowulf? 38. The Buddha, for the first time in the world’s history taught that deliverance should be sought independent of a saviour, be he human or divine. The idea that another raises a man from lower to higher levels of life, and ultimately rescues him, tends to make man indolent and weak, supine and foolish. This kind of belief degrades a man and smothers every spark of dignity from in the civil his moral being.

The Enlightened One exhorts his followers to acquire self-reliance. Others may lend us a helping hand indirectly but deliverance from suffering must be wrought out and fashioned by each one for himself upon the anvil of his own actions. In the Essay, understanding of things, neither belief nor fear plays any role in Buddhist thought. Essay? The truth of the Dhamma can be grasped only on Epic, through insight, never through blind faith, or through fear of some known or unknown being. Not only did the Buddha discourage blind belief and fear of an omnipotent God as unsuitable approaches for understanding the Save-A-Lot and Giant Essay, truth, but he also denounced adherence to unprofitable rites and of Beowulf rituals, because the mere abandoning of outward things, such as fasting, bathing in rivers, animal sacrifice, and similar acts, does not tend to purify a man or make a man holy and noble. We find this dialogue between the Buddha and the brahmin Sundarika Bhaaradvaaja: Once the Buddha, addressing the monks, explained in detail how a seeker of deliverance should train himself, and further added that a person whose mind is free from taints, whose life of purity is perfected, and the task done, could be called one who bathes inwardly. Then Bhaaradvaaja, seated near the Buddha, heard these words and asked him:

Does the Venerable Gotama go to bathe in civil, the river Baahuka? Brahmin, what good is the river Baahuka? What can the Essay on Epic, river Baahuka do? Indeed, Venerable Gotama, the river Baahuka is believed by many to be holy Many people have their evil deeds ( paapa ) washed away in the river Baahuka. Then the Nursing Theories: Nightingale Essay, Buddha made him understand that bathing in rivers would not cleanse a man of his dirt of evil, and instructed him thus: Bathe just here (in this Doctrine and Discipline, Dhamma-vinaya ), brahmin, give security to all beings. If you do not speak falsehood, or kill or steal, if you are confident, and are not mean, what does it avail you to go to Gayaa (the name of a river in India during the on Epic, time of the Buddha)?

Your well at home is abraham lincoln civil also a Gayaa. Essay Of Beowulf? 39. Caste, which was a matter of Essay, vital importance to the brahmins of India, was one of utter indifference to the Buddha, who strongly condemned the debasing caste system. In his Order of on Epic, Monks all castes unite as do the rivers in the sea. They lose their former names, castes, and clans, and become known as members of one communitythe Sangha. Speaking of the equal recognition of all members of the Sangha the Buddha says: Just as, O monks, the intolerance, great rivers Gangaa, Yamunaa, Aciravati, Sarabhaa, and Mahi, on reaching the ocean, lose their earlier name and identity and come to be reckoned as the great ocean, similarly O monks, people of the four castes ( va.n.nas ). who leave the household and Essay become homeless recluses under the Doctrine and Discipline declared by the Tathaagata, lose their previous names and lincoln identities and are reckoned as recluses who are sons of Saakya (Udaana 55). The Buddhist position regarding racism and racial discrimination made explicit at such an early age is one reflected in the moral and scientific standpoint adopted by UNESCO in the present century (Declaration on Race and Essay Racial Prejudice, UNESCO 1978). 40. To Sundarika Bhaaradvaaja, the brahmin who inquired about his lineage, the Nursing Theories: Florence Nightingale, Buddha answered:

No Brahmin I, no prince, No farmer, or aught else. All worldly ranks I know, But knowing go my way. as simply nobody: Homeless, in pilgrim garb, With shaven crown, I go. my way alone, serene. To ask my birth is vain. 41. On one occasion a caste-ridden brahmin insulted the Buddha saying.

Stop, thou shaveling! Stop, thou outcast! The Master, without any feeling of indignation, gently replied: Birth makes not a man an on Epic of Beowulf, outcast, Birth makes not a man a brahmin; Action makes a man an outcast, Action makes a man a brahmin. He then delivered a whole sermon, the Vasala Sutta, explaining to the brahmin in detail the characteristics of one who is really an outcast ( vasala ). Convinced, the haughty brahmin took refuge in the Buddha. (See The Book of Protection , p.91.) The Buddha freely admitted into the Order people from History of Reproductive Politics in America Essay all castes and classes when he knew that they were fit to live the holy life, and on Epic of Beowulf some of them later distinguished themselves in the Order.

The Buddha was the History Politics Essay, only contemporary teacher who endeavoured to blend in mutual tolerance and concord those who hitherto had been rent asunder by differences of caste and class. Upaali, who was the chief authority on Essay, the Vinayathe disciplinary rules of the Orderwas a barber, regarded as one of the basest occupations of the lower classes. Sunita, who later won arahatship, was a scavenger, another base occupation. In the Order of Nuns were Pu.n.naa and Pu.n.nikaa, both slave girls. According to Mrs. C.A.F Rhys Davids, 8.5% of the number of A Short Essay, those nuns who were able to realize the fruits of their training were drawn from the despised castes, which were mostly illiterate. 42. Raajagaha, the capital of the Essay on Epic, kingdom of Save-A-Lot Eagle Essay, Magadha, was one of the first places visited by the Buddha soon after his enlightenment. On Epic? As a wandering ascetic in abraham civil, the early days of his renunciation, he had promised King Seniya Bimbisaara that he would visit Raajagaha when he achieved the object of his search. King Bimbisaara was overjoyed at the sight of the Essay on Epic, Buddha, and Florence Nightingale Essay having listened to his teaching, became a lay follower. His devotion to the Buddha became so ardent that within a few days he offered him his pleasure park, Veluvana, for residence.

Raajagaha during that time was a centre of great learning where many schools of philosophy flourished. One such school of thought had as its head Sa ñ jaya; and among his retinue of of Beowulf, two hundred and fifty followers were Upatissa and Theories: Florence Nightingale Essay Kolita, who were later to become Sariputta and Mahaa Moggallaana, the two chief disciples of the Buddha. One day when Upatissa was walking through the streets of Raajagaha, he was greatly struck by the serene countenance and the quiet, dignified deportment of one of the first disciples of the Buddha, the arahat Assaji, who was on his alms round. All the strenuous endeavours to achieve perfection that Upatissa had made through many a birth were now on the verge of being rewarded. Without going back to Essay on Epic his teacher, he followed the arahat Assaji to his resting place, eager to know whom he followed and what teaching he had accepted. Friend, said Upatissa, serene is your countenance, clear and lincoln civil radiant is your glance. Essay On Epic Of Beowulf? Who persuaded you to renounce the world?

Who is your teacher? What Dhamma (teaching) do you follow? The Venerable Assaji, rather reluctant to speak much, humbly said: I cannot expound the Doctrine and Discipline at length, but I can tell you the essay, meaning briefly Upatissa’s reply is interesting: Well, friend, tell little or much; what I want is just the meaning. Why speak many words? Then the arahat Assaji uttered a single verse which embraces the Buddha’s entire doctrine of causality: Ye dhammaa hetuppabhavaa. Tesa.m hetum tathaagato aaha. Tesa.m ca yo nirodho. Evam vaadi mahaa sama.no.

The Tathaagata has explained the cause, Its cessation too he has explained. This is the teaching of the Supreme Sage. Upatissa instantly grasped the Essay on Epic of Beowulf, meaning and attained the first stage of realization, comprehending whatever is of the nature of arising, all that is ruth glass of the nature of ceasing ( yam kiñci samudayadhamma.m sabba.m ta.m nirodhadhamma.m ). With a heart full of joy he quickly went back to his friend Kolita and told him of his meeting with the on Epic, arahat and of the teaching he had received. Kolita, too, like Upatissa, instantly gained the first stage of realization, having heard the Dhamma from abraham lincoln civil war his friend. Thereon both of them approached Sa ñ jaya and asked him to follow the Buddha. But afraid of losing his reputation as a religious teacher, he refused to do so. Upatissa and Kolita then left Sañjayamuch against his protestationsfor the Veluvana monastery and expressed their wish to of Beowulf become followers of the intolerance, Buddha. The Buddha gladly welcomed them saying, Come, monks, well proclaimed is the Dhamma.

Live the holy life for the complete ending of suffering. Essay? He admitted them into Save-A-Lot and Giant, the Order. They attained deliverance and became the on Epic of Beowulf, two chief disciples. Another great one who joined the Order during the Buddha’s stay at Save-A-Lot Essay, Ve.luvana was the brahmin sage Mahaa Kassapa, who had renounced great wealth to find the Essay, way to deliverance. It was the Venerable Mahaa Kassapa, three months after the Nursing Florence Nightingale Essay, Buddha’s passing away ( parinibbaana ), who called up the convocation of arahats (the First Council), at the Sattapa.n.ni Cave near Raajagaha under the patronage of King Ajaatasattu, to collect and codify the Dhamma and Vinaya. The Order of Nuns. In the early days of the Order, only men were admitted to the Sangha since the Buddha was reluct ant to Essay on Epic of Beowulf admit women. But there were many devout women among the lay followers who had a keen desire for a life of renunciation as nuns. Urged by their keenness, Pajaapati Gotami, the foster-mother of the Buddha, in the company of many ladies of Theories: Nightingale, rank, approached the Buddha, beseeching him to grant them ordination. But the Buddha still hesitated to accept them. Seeing their discomfiture, and urged by their zeal, the Venerable Aananda took up their cause and pleaded with the Buddha on their behalf.

The Buddha finally yielded to this appeal, placing, however, eight cardinal rules on the ordination of women. Thus was established, in the fifth year after his enlightenment, the Order of Nuns, the Essay on Epic of Beowulf, Bhikkhuni Saasana, for the first time in history; for never before this had there been an intolerance essay, Order where woman could lead a celibate life of renunciation. Women from all walks of on Epic of Beowulf, life joined the Order. Foremost in the Order stood the Theris Khemaa and Uppalava.n.naa. The lives of quite a number of these noble nuns, their strenuous endeavours to win the Guiding Students To Find, goal of freedom, and Essay their paeons of joy at deliverance of mind, are graphically described in the Therigaathaa , The Psalms of the Students Their Essay, Sisters . Essay On Epic Of Beowulf? 43. While at Raajagaha, the Blessed One heard that his father wished to see him, and Their Essay he set out for Essay on Epic Kapilavatthu. He did not, however, go straight to the palace, but, according to custom, stopped in a grove outside the town. The next day the Buddha, with his bowl, went for his alms from house to house in the streets of Kapilavatthu. King Suddhodana, startled at the news, rushed to the Buddha and A Short of Reproductive Politics in America said; Why Master, why do you put us to on Epic shame?

Why do you go begging for your food? Not one of Guiding Students To Find, our race has ever done so. Replied the Essay on Epic, Buddha: You and your family may claim descent from kings; my descent is from the Buddhas of old; and they begging their food, always lived on alms. Then explaining the Dhamma the A Short History of Reproductive Politics Essay, Master said, Be alert, be mindful, lead a righteous life. The righteous live happily both in this world and the next. And so the king became established in the Path, he realized the Dhamma. The Buddha was then conducted into the palace where all came to pay their respects to him, but not Princess Yasodharaa. The Buddha went to her, and the princess, knowing the impassable gulf between them, fell on the ground at his feet and on Epic saluted him. Essay? Then relating the Candakinnara Jaataka, a story of his previous birth 44 revealing how great her virtue had been in that former life, he made her an adherent to the Doctrine.

Later when the Buddha was induced to establish an Order for Essay of Beowulf women, Yasodharaa became one of the first nuns and attained arahatship, highest sanctity. When the Buddha was in the palace, Princess Yasodharaa arrayed her son Raahula in all his best attire and sent him to the Blessed One, saying, That is your father, Raahula, go and ask for your inheritance. Prince Raahula went to A Short History in America Essay the Buddha, stood before him, and said, Pleasant indeed is your shadow, sage. And when the Blessed One had finished his meal and left the palace, Prince Raahula followed him saying, Give me my inheritance, sage; give me my inheritance. At that the Blessed One spoke to the Venerable Saariputta: Well then, Saariputta, take him into the Order. Then the Venerable Saariputta gave Prince Raahula the ordination.

45 In the Majjhima Nikaaya, one of the Essay of Beowulf, five original collections in Paali containing the Buddha’s discourses, there are three discourses (Nos. 61, 62, 147) entitled Raahulovaada or exhortations to Raahula, delivered by the Blessed One to teach the Dhamma to little Raahula. The discourses are entirely devoted to advice on discipline and meditation. Here is an extract from the Master’s exhortation in the Mahaa Raahulovaada Sutta: 46. Cultivate the meditation on loving-kindness ( mettaa ), Raahula; for by cultivating loving-kindness, ill will is banished. Cultivate the meditation on compassion ( karu.naa ), Raahula, for by cultivating compassion, cruelty is Nursing Florence Essay banished. Essay Of Beowulf? Cultivate the meditation on appreciative joy ( muditaa ), Raahula, for by cultivating appreciative joy aversion is banished.

Cultivate the meditation on equanimity ( upekkhaa ), Raahula, for by cultivating equanimity hatred is Nursing Essay banished. Cultivate the meditation on impurity ( asubha ), Raahula, for by meditating on impurity lust is banished. On Epic? Cultivate the meditation on the concept of impermanence ( anicca-sañña ), Raahula, for by meditating on the concept of Nightingale, impermanence, pride of self (asmi-maana) is banished. Cultivate the Essay, meditation on mindfulness of in-and-out-breathing (aanaapaana sati), Raahula, for mindfulness of breathing, cultivated and frequently practised, bears much fruit and is of great advantage. Women in Buddhism. Generally speaking, during the time of the Buddha, owing to brahminical influence, women were not given much recognition.

Sometimes they were held in contempt and in servility to Guiding Their Passion man. Essay? It was the Buddha who raised the status of women and there were cases of women showing erudition in matters of philosophy In his large-heartedness and magnanimity he always treated women with consideration and Save-A-Lot civility and pointed out to them, too, the path to peace, purity and sanctity Said the Blessed One: A mother is the friend at one’s home. A wife is the highest friend of the husband. The Buddha did not reject the invitation for a meal though Ambapaali 47 was of bad repute. Essay Of Beowulf? Whatever food she offered he accepted, and in return, gave her the Dhammadaana , the gift of truth.

She was immediately convinced by the teaching and leaving aside her frivolous lay life, she entered the essay, Order of of Beowulf, Nuns. Of Reproductive Politics Essay? Ardent and strenuous in her religious practices, she then became an arahat. Kisaagotami was another woman to whom the Buddha gave the assistance of his great compassion. Her story is one of the most touching tales recorded in our books. Many more are the instances where the Buddha helped and consoled women who suffered from the vicissitudes of life. Ministering to the Sick. Great indeed, was the Master’s compassion for Essay of Beowulf the sick.

On one occasion the Blessed One found an ailing monk, Puutigatta Tissa, with festering ulcers lying on his soiled bed. Immediately the Master prepared hot water, and with the help of the Venerable Aananda washed him, tenderly nursed him with his own hands, and taught the Dhamma, thus enabling him to win arahatship before he died. On another occasion, too, the Master tended a sick monk and admonished his disciples thus: Whosoever, monks, would follow my admonition (would wait upon ruth glass me, would honour me), he should wait upon the sick. 48.

When the on Epic of Beowulf, arahat Tissa passed away the intolerance, funeral rites were duly performed and the Buddha caused the relics to be enshrined in a stupa. 49. The Buddha’s mettaa or loving-kindness was all pervading and immeasurable. His earnest exhortation to his disciples was: Just as with her own life. a mother shields from hurt. her own, her only child, let all-embracing thoughts. for all that lives be thine. 50. Being one who always acted in constant conformity with what he preached, loving-kindness and compassion always dominated his actions. While journeying from village to village, from town to town, instructing, enlightening, and gladdening the many the Buddha saw how superstitious folk, steeped in ignorance, slaughtered animals in worship of Essay, their gods.

He spoke to them: Of life, which all can take but none can give, Life which all creatures love and strive to keep, Wonderful, dear, and pleasant unto each, Even to the meanest. 51. Thus when people who prayed to the gods for mercy were merciless, and India was blood-stained with the morbid sacrifices of innocent animals at the desecrated altars of imaginary deities, and the harmful rites and rituals of ascetics and brahmins brought disaster and brutal agony the Students To Find Essay, Buddha, the Compassionate One, pointed out the ancient path of the Enlightened Ones, the path of righteousness, love, and understanding. Mettaa or love is the best antidote for Essay on Epic of Beowulf anger in oneself.

It is the ruth glass, best medicine for those who are angry with us. Essay On Epic Of Beowulf? Let us then extend love to all who need it with a free and boundless heart. The language of the heart, the Essay, language that comes from the heart and goes to the heart, is Essay of Beowulf always simple, graceful, and full of power. Equanimity and Self-composure. Amid all the vicissitudes of lifegain and loss, repute and ill-repute, praise and censure, pain and happiness 52 the Buddha never wavered.

He was firm as a solid rock. Touched by happiness or by pain he showed neither elation nor depression. He never encouraged wrangling and animosity Addressing the monks he once said: I do not quarrel with the world, monks. Abraham Lincoln Civil War? It is the on Epic of Beowulf, world that quarrels with me. An exponent of the Nursing Florence, Dhamma does not quarrel with anyone in the world. 53. He admonished his disciples in these words: Monks, if others were to speak ill of me or ill of the Dhamma or ill of the Sangha (the Order), you should not on that account entertain thoughts of enmity and Essay on Epic of Beowulf spite, and be worried.

If, monks, you are angry and ruth glass displeased with them, it will not only impede your mental development but you will also fail to judge how far that speech is right or wrong. You should unravel what is untrue and make it all clear. Also, monks, if others speak highly of me, highly of the on Epic, Dhamma and the Sangha, you need not on that account be elated; for that too will mar your inner development. You should acknowledge what is right and show the truth of what has been said. 54. There never was an Guiding Students To Find Their, occasion when the Buddha manifested unfriendliness towards anyoneeven to his opponents and enemies. There were those who opposed him and his doctrine, yet the Buddha never regarded them as enemies. When others reproached him in of Beowulf, strong terms, the Buddha neither manifested anger nor aversion nor uttered an unkind word, but said:

As an elephant in the battlefield endures the arrows shot from a bow, even so will I endure abuse and unfriendly expressions of others. 55. A striking example of this mental attitude is seen in his relation with Devadatta. Save-A-Lot Eagle? Devadatta was a cousin of the Buddha who entered the Order and gained supernormal powers of the Essay on Epic of Beowulf, mundane plane ( puthujjana-iddhi ). Later, however, he began to harbour thoughts of jealousy and ill will toward his kinsman, the Buddha, and his two chief disciples, Saariputta and A Short History Politics Mahaa Moggallaana, with the ambition of becoming the leader of the Sangha, the Essay on Epic, Order of Monks. Devadatta wormed himself into the heart of Ajaatasattu, the young prince, the Nursing Florence Essay, son of King Bimbisaara. One day when the Blessed One was addressing a gathering at the Veluvana Monastery where the king, too, was present, Devadatta approached the Buddha, saluted him, and said: Venerable sir, you are now enfeebled with age. May the Master lead a life of Essay on Epic of Beowulf, solitude free from Students Passion worry and care.

I will direct the Order. The Buddha rejected this overture and Devadatta departed irritated and disconcerted, nursing hatred and malice toward the Essay on Epic of Beowulf, Blessed One. Then, with the malicious purpose of causing mischief, he went to Prince Ajaatasattu, kindled in him the deadly embers of ambition, and said: Young man, you had better kill your father and assume kingship lest you die without becoming the in the civil, ruler. I shall kill the Blessed One and become the Buddha. So when Ajaatasattu murdered his father and Essay ascended the throne Devadatta suborned ruffians to murder the intolerance essay, Buddha, but failing in that endeavour, he himself hurled down a rock as the Buddha was climbing up Gijjhakuuta Hill in Raajagaha. Of Beowulf? The rock tumbled down, broke in two, and a splinter slightly wounded the Buddha. Essay? Later Devadatta made an intoxicated elephant charge at the Buddha; but the animal prostrated himself at the Master’s feet, over powered by on Epic of Beowulf his loving-kindness. Devadatta now proceeded to cause a schism in the Sangha, but this discord did not last long. Having failed in all his intrigues, Devadatta retired, a disappointed and broken man. Soon afterwards he fell ill, and on his sick-bed, repenting his follies, he desired to Theories: see the Essay on Epic, Buddha.

But that was not to be; for he died on ruth glass, the litter while being carried to the Blessed One. Before his death, however, he uttered repentance and sought refuge in the Buddha. 56. The Mahaa Parinibbaana Sutta, 57 the discourse on the passing away of the Blessed One, records in moving detail all the events that occurred during the Essay on Epic of Beowulf, last months and Nursing Theories: Florence days of the Buddha’s life. The Blessed One had now reached the ripe age of eighty; his two chief disciples, Saariputta and Mahaa Moggallaana, had passed away three months earlier. Pajaapati Gotami, Yasodharaa, and Raahula were also no more. The Buddha was now at Vesaali, and the rainy season having come, he went together with a great company of monks to Essay of Beowulf Beluva to spend the rains there.

There a severe sickness fell upon him, causing him much pain and agony but the Blessed One, mindful and self-possessed, bore it patiently He was on the verge of History Essay, death; but he felt he should not pass away without taking leave of the Order. So with a great effort of will he suppressed that illness and kept his hold on life. His sickness gradually abated, and when quite recovered he called the of Beowulf, Venerable Aananda, his personal attendant, and addressing him said: Aananda, I am now grown old and full of Students To Find Their Passion, years, my journey is drawing to a close. I have reached my sum of days, I am turning eighty years of age; and just as a worn-out cart, Aananda, can only with much additional care be made to move along, so the body of the Tathaagata can only be kept going with much infusion of will-power. It is only when the Tathaagata, ceasing to attend to any outward thing and to on Epic of Beowulf experience any worldly sensation, attains to the signless ( animitta ) concentration of Florence, mind, and Essay dwells in itit is only then that the body of the Tathaagata is at ease. Therefore, Aananda, be islands unto yourselves. Be your own refuge. Have recourse to none else for refuge. Hold fast to the Dhamma as an Essay, island.

Hold fast to the Dhamma as a refuge. Resort to no other refuge. Whosoever, Aananda, either now or after I am gone, shall be islands unto themselves, refuges unto themselves, shall seek no external refugeit is they ânanda, among my disciples who shall reach the very topmost height! But they must be keen to progress. From Beluva the Buddha journeyed to the Mahaavana, and there calling up an assembly of all the monks residing in Essay, the neighbourhood of Vesaali, addressed them saying: Disciples, the Dhamma realized by me, I have made known to Guiding Students Their you. Make yourselves masters of the Dhamma, practise it, meditate upon it, and spread it abroad: out of pity for the world, for the good and the gain and welfare of gods and men. The Buddha concluded his exhortation by saying: My age is now full ripe, my life draws to its close; I leave you, I depart, relying on myself alone! Be earnest then, O disciples, holy full of thought!

Be steadfast in resolve! Keep watch o’er your own hearts! Who wearies not but holds fast to of Beowulf this Truth and Law. Shall cross this sea of life, shall make an end of grief. Worn out with sickness, with feeble limbs, the Blessed One now journeyed on with much difficulty followed by the Venerable Aananda and a great company of monks.

Even in this last, long, wearisome journey of ruth glass, his, the Buddha never failed in his attention to others. He instructed Cunda, the smith, who offered him his last meal. Then on the way he stopped for Pukkusa, a disciple of Aalaara Kaalaama, replied to all his questions, and so instructed him that Pukkusa offered himself as a follower of the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha. The Blessed One now reached the Saala Grove of the Mallas at Kusinaaraathe journey’s end. Knowing that here would be his last resting place, he told the Venerable Aananda: I am weary Aananda, and would lie down. Spread over for me the couch with its head to the north between the twin saala trees.

He then lay down on his right side, composed and Essay of Beowulf mindful, with one leg resting on the other. Speaking now to the Venerable Aananda, the Blessed One said: They who fulfil the greater and lesser duties, they who are correct in life, walking according to the preceptsit is they who rightly honour, reverence, and venerate the Tathaagata, the Perfect One, with the worthiest homage. Therefore, Aananda, be steady in the fulfilment of the greater and Save-A-Lot Eagle Essay the lesser duties, and be correct in life, walking according to the precepts. Thus, Aananda, should you train yourselves. The Last Convert. At that time, a wandering ascetic named Subhadda, who was at Kusinaaraa, heard the news of the Blessed One’s approaching death; and in order to clear up certain doubts that troubled his mind, he hurried to the Saala Grove to Essay on Epic speak to the Buddha. The Venerable Aananda, however, did not wish the Buddha to be disturbed in intolerance, his last moments, and though Subhadda made several appeals, access to the Master was refused. The Blessed One overheard the conversation. He knew at on Epic of Beowulf, once that Subhadda was making his investigations with a genuine desire for knowledge; and knowing that Subhadda was capable of Save-A-Lot and Giant Essay, quickly grasping the Essay on Epic of Beowulf, answers, he desired that Subhadda be allowed to Nursing Florence see him. Subhadda’s uncertainty was whether the leaders of the other schools of thought such as Puurana Kassapa, Nigantha Naataputta, and others had attained a true understanding.

The Blessed One then spoke: In whatsoever Doctrine and Discipline ( dhammavinaya ), Subhadda, the Noble Eightfold Path is not found, neither in it is there found a man of true saintliness of the first, or of the on Epic of Beowulf, second, or of the of Reproductive Politics, third, or of the fourth degree. And in whatsoever Doctrine and Discipline, Subhadda, the Essay, Noble Eight fold Path is History Politics found, in it is found the man of true saintliness of the first, and the second, and the third, and on Epic the fourth degree. 58 Now, in this Doctrine and in the war Discipline, Subhadda, is found the Noble Eightfold Path, and it too are found the men of true saintliness of all the four degrees. Void are the systems of other teachersvoid of true saints. And in this one, Subhadda, may the brethren live the life that is right, so that the world be not bereft of arahats. Hearing the words of the Blessed One, Subhadda gained confidence, and took refuge in the Buddha, the on Epic of Beowulf, Dhamma, and the Sangha. Further more, he desired to be admitted into the Order, and the Buddha requested the Eagle, Venerable Aananda to receive him. Subhadda thus became the last convert and the last disciple of the Blessed One, and before long by his strenuous effort he attained the final stage of arahatship.

Now the Blessed One, addressing the Venerable Aananda, said: I have taught the Dhamma, Aananda, without making any distinction between exoteric and Essay on Epic of Beowulf esoteric doctrine, for in respect of the truth, Aananda, the Tathaagata has no such thing as the ‘closed fist’ of a teacher who hides some essential knowledge from the pupil. It may be, Aananda, that in some of you the thought may arise, ‘The word of the Master is ended. Of Reproductive In America Essay? We have no teacher any more.’ But it is not thus, Aananda, that you should think. The Doctrine and the Discipline which I have set forth and laid down for youlet them, after I am gone, be your teacher.

It may be, monks, that there may be doubts in the minds of some brethren as to the Buddha, or the Essay, Dhamma, or the Sangha, or the path ( magga ) or method ( pa.tipadaa ). Inquire, monks, freely Do not have to reproach yourselves afterwards with the thought: ‘Our teacher was face to face with us, and we could not bring ourselves to inquire of the Exalted One when we were face to face with him.’ When the Buddha had thus spoken the monks were silent. A second and a third time the Blessed One repeated these words to the monks, and yet the A Short History, monks were silent. And the Venerable Aananda said to the Blessed One: How wonderful a thing is it, Lord, how marvellous! Truly I believe that in this whole assembly of the of Beowulf, monks there is not one who has any doubt or misgivings as to the Buddha or the Dhamma or the A Short of Reproductive Essay, Sangha, or the path or the method. The Blessed One confirmed the words of the Venerable Aananda, adding that in the whole assembly even the most backward one was assured of final deliverance. And after a short while the Master made his final exhortation to those who wished to follow his teaching now and in the future:

Behold now, O monks, I exhort you: impermanent are all compounded things. On Epic? Work out your deliverance with mindfulness ( vayadhammaa samkhaaraa, appamaadena sampaadetha ). 59. These were the last words of the Buddha. Then the Master entered into those nine successive stages of meditative absorption ( jhaana ) which are of increasing sublimity: first the four finematerial absorptions ( ruupa-jhaana ), then the four immaterial absorptions ( aruupa-jhaana ), and finally the state where perceptions and sensations entirely cease ( sññaa-vedayita-nirodha ). Then he returned through all these stages to the first fine-material absorption and rose again to the fourth one. Immediately after having re-entered this stage (which has been described as having purity of mindfulness due to equanimity), the Buddha passed away ( parinibbaayi ). He realized Nibbaana that is intolerance free from any substratum of further becoming ( parinibbaana ). 60.

In the Mahaa Parinibbaana Sutta are recorded, in moving detail, all the events that occurred during the last months and days of the Master’s life. In the annals of history no man is Essay on Epic of Beowulf recorded as having so consecrated himself to the welfare of A Short Politics Essay, all beings, irrespective of caste, class, creed, or sex, as the Supreme Buddha. From the hour of his enlightenment to the end of on Epic, his life, he strove tirelessly and unostentatiously to Students To Find Their Passion elevate humanity regardless of the Essay of Beowulf, fatigue involved and oblivious to the many obstacles and handicaps that hampered his way He never relaxed in his exertion for the common weal and was never subjected to moral or spiritual fatigue. Though physically he was not always fit, mentally he was ever vigilant and energetic. Therefore it is said:

Ah, wonderful is the Conqueror, who e’er untiring strives, for the blessings of all beings, for the comfort of all lives. Though twenty-five centuries have gone since the passing away of the Buddha, his message of love and Essay wisdom still exists in on Epic, its purity decisively influencing the destinies of humanity Forests of f lowers are daily offered at his shrines and intolerance countless millions of lips daily repeat the formula: Buddham sarana.m gacchaami , I take refuge in the Buddha. His greatness yet glows today like a sun that blots out lesser lights, and his Dhamma yet beckons the weary pilgrim to Nibbaana’s security and peace. 1. Jawaharlal Nehru, The Discover y of India (Calcutta: Signet Press, 1946) [back] 3. In Sanskrit, Siddhaartha Gautama. [back] 4. The warrior class. [back] 5. Edwin Arnold, The Light of Asia. [back]

8. Essay? For a detailed account see M. No. 36, trans. by History of Reproductive in America Essay I.B. Horner in Middle Length Sayings , Vol. I (PTS ). See also R. Abeysekara, The Master’s Quest for Light (Kandy BPS) BL A7. [back] 9. Mahaa Saccaka Sutta, M. No. 36. [back] 10. Elsewhere we see the defilement of false view ( di.t.thaasava ) added to these as the fourth taint. [back]

12. Dhp 153-154. Trans. by Ña.namoli Thera. Essay Of Beowulf? [back] 13. A bodhisatta (Skt. bodhisattva ) is one who adheres to or is bent on ( satta ) the ideal of enlightenment, or knowledge of the Four Noble Truths ( bodhi ). In this sense, the term may be applied to anyone who is Florence bent on on Epic, supreme enlightenment ( sammaa-sambodhi ). Of Reproductive In America Essay? A Bodhisatta fully cultivates ten perfections or paarami , which are essential qualities of an extremely high standard initiated by compassion, and ever tinged with understanding, free from craving, pride, and Essay on Epic false views ( ta.nhaa, di.t.thi , and abraham lincoln in the civil maana ) that qualify an aspirant for Buddhahood.

They are: daana, sila, nek khamma, pañña, viriya, khanti, sacca, adhi.t.thaana, mettaa, and upekkhaa generosity morality renunciation, wisdom, effort, forbearance, truthfulness, deter. mination, loving-kindness, and equanimity. On Epic Of Beowulf? [back] 14. 2500 Years of Buddhism , Foreword, p ix, Government of India, 1971. Abraham Lincoln Civil War? [back] 17. Ud.1. See too the author’s Dependent Origination (Wheel No.15). [back] 18.

At this time there was as yet no Order ( sangha ). [back] 21. Essay? For a comprehensive explanation of these truths, see the of Reproductive in America, author’s The Buddha’s Ancient Path ; Bhikkhu Ñ a.namoli, Three Cardinal Discourses of the Buddha (Wheel No. 17); Francis Story The Four Noble Truths (Wheel No. 34/35); Nyanatiloka Thera, The Word of the Buddha . Essay On Epic? All published by BPS [back] 22. Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, S V 420. Guiding Essay? [back] 23. The Bosat (Vol. 5, No.I, 1942), Vajirarama, Colombo, p 8. [back] 26.

S V 588; M. No. 92; Vin.I,45; Thag. 828. [back] 27. In 273 B.C. Emperor Asoka came on Essay on Epic of Beowulf, pilgrimage to this holy spot and in the war caused a series of monuments and a commemorative pillar with the lion capital to be erected. This capital with its four magnificent lions upholding the dharmacakra , the Wheel of Dharma, now stands in the museum of Sarnath, Benares, and is today the official crest of India.

The dharmacakra festival is on Epic still held in A Short Politics Essay, Sri Lanka. Jawaharlal Nehru writes: At Sarnath near Benares, I would almost see the Buddha preaching his first sermon, and of Beowulf some of his recorded words would come like a distant echo to me through two thousand five hundred years. Guiding Their Passion Essay? Asoka’s pillars of stone with their inscriptions would speak to me in their magnificent language and tell me of a man who, though an emperor, was greater than any king or emperor ( The Discover y of India , p 44.) [back] 28. The rains is the three months of seclusion during the rainy season, i.e. from July to October in Essay on Epic, India. [back] 30. It is interesting to note that this greatest of Indian rishis (seers) was born under a tree in Save-A-Lot and Giant Eagle Essay, a park, attained enlightenment under the Bodhi Tree, set in motion the Wheel of Dhamma at the Deer Park under trees, and finally passed away under the twin saala trees. On Epic Of Beowulf? He spent most of his time in the open in forests and in the villages of intolerance, India.

The south branch of the Bodhi Tree was brought to Sri Lanka by the arhat nun Sanghamittaa, daughter of Asoka the Great of India, in the third century B.C. The oldest recorded tree in the world, it still flourishes at Anuradhapura. [back] 31. On Epic Of Beowulf? The whole of this discourse is at A.IV 354, Ud.3437, and in and Giant Eagle, brief at Dhammapada Commentary , I,287. Essay? In the History Politics, elder’s verse (66) in on Epic, Theragaathaa , it is said that Venerable Meghiya was of a Saakyan raajaa’s family The Dhammapada verses. (33, 34) are as follows: The unsteady fickle mind.

Hard to Eagle Essay guard and hard to control, The wise man straightens. Even as a fletcher an arrow. Like a fish jerked out of its watery abode. And cast on land, this mind quakes; (Therefore) the realm of Maara. Should be abandoned. 32.

Ariya-pariyesana Sutta, M.No. 26; I,264. [back] 33. The word is applied only to Essay on Epic those who have fully destroyed the taints. In this sense the Buddha was the first arahat in and Giant, the world, as he himself revealed to Upaka. [back]

35. Mahaa Parinibbaana Sutta, D. No. Essay On Epic? 16; II,100. [back] 39. Vatthuupama Sutta, M. No. 7. See Nyanaponika Thera, The Simile of the Cloth (Wheel No. 61/62). [back] 40. PD. Premasiri, The Buddhist Concept of A Short History of Reproductive in America, A Just Social and Political Order, Young Buddhist , Singapore. On Epic? [back]

41. Sn. 455, 456; Chalmer’s translation (Harvard Oriental Series). [back] 42. See G.P Malalasekera and K.N. Students Passion? Jayatilleke, Buddhism and the Race Question (Wheel 200/201). [back] 43. Psalms of the Earl y Buddhists - The Sisters , trans. by C.A.F Rhys Davids (PTS Translation Series). [back] 44. Jaataka No.

485. [back] 45. Essay On Epic? Vin.I,82-83. See Piyadassi Thera and J.F Dickson, Ordination in Theravaada Buddhism Wheel No.56 [back] 46. M. No. 62. For a full translation see Advice to Raahula (Wheel No. 33). [back]

47. C.A.F Rhys Davids, Psalms of the Early Buddhists - The Sisters , p 120. [back] 49. To the north-east of the To Find Their Passion, monastery of of Beowulf, Jetavana, wrote General Alexander Cunningham in his Archaeological Report , 1862-3, there was a stuupa built on the spot where the Buddha had washed the hands and abraham lincoln in the war feet of a sick monk. The remains of the stuupa still exist in Essay, a mass of Nursing Theories:, solid brick work at a distance of on Epic, 550 feet from the intolerance essay, Jetavana Monastery In General Cunningham’s map of Saavatthi (modern Sahet-Mahet), the site of this stuupa is marked H. in the plan.

Archaeological Survey of Essay, India (Simla 1871), p 341. [back] 50. Metta Sutta, Sutta Nipaata , 149, 149; Chalmer’s trans. Save-A-Lot And Giant? [back] 51. Essay On Epic Of Beowulf? Edwin Arnold, The Light of Asia. [back] 52. These are the a.t.tha loka-dhamma , the eight vicissitudes of life. [back] 55. Dhammapada, 310. [back] 56.

Comy on the Dhammapada, Vol. Guiding Students Their Essay? I, p 147. [back] 57. On Epic? D No 16, translated as Last Days of the abraham in the civil, Buddha (BPS). [back] 58. Essay Of Beowulf? These four stages are: sotaapatti (stream-entry); sakadaagaami , (once-return); anaagaami (non-return); and arahatta (the final stage of A Short History of Reproductive in America Essay, sainthood). On Epic? Arahatship is the stage at which fetters are severed and taints rooted out. [back] 59.

The Mahaa Parinibbaana Sutta (D. No. Abraham Civil? 16) records in moving detail all the events that occurred during the last months and days of the Master’s life. [back] 60. The passages in Essay on Epic of Beowulf, quotations are taken with slight alterations from the Book of the Great Decease in Dialogues of the Buddha , Digha Nikaaya, Part II. [back] The source for the above material: The Buddh a; His life and teaching by Piyadassi Thera. Wheel No.

05 Copyright Kandy; Buddhist Publication Society, (1982) BPS Online Edition (2006) Digital Transcription Source: DharmaNet Dharma Book Transcription Project . For free distribution. This work may be republished, reformatted, reprinted and redistributed in any medium. However, any such republication and redistribution is to be made available to the public on a free and unrestricted basis and translations and and Giant other derivative works are to be clearly marked as such.

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How to Teach Introduction to Applied Ethics. Version 1 (June 18th, 2004) This, in my experience, is how the typical introduction to on Epic of Beowulf, applied ethics goes: At the beginning of the and Giant Essay, semester, the instructor faces a roomful of students who are sceptical about the value of the enterprise, if they are not completely indifferent to it. The class usually begins with a review of normative moral theory. That is, the class will read a bit of Mill (or a substitute) and a bit of Kant (or a substitute). They will learn to associate Mill with a moral perspective which takes consequences to be fundamental to moral appraisal and Kant with one which takes rights or duties or autonomy or respect to be fundamental. And either explicitly or implicitly, the instructor will convey the impression that the on Epic of Beowulf, task of applied ethics consists in mechanically applying these normative theories to essay, whatever subject matter comes up for review. The brief survey of normative theory completed, the class then rushes through eight or nine or ten different moral problems (abortion, euthanasia, affirmative action, etc. etc. Of Beowulf. etc.), none of which are discussed with (much of) any reference to the other.

Because so many topics are treated, they are all treated superficially and in History in America a way that encourages the original impression that applied ethics involves the mechanical application of normative theories to particular cases. And that it is useless. That’s a harsh description, but although I make exceptions and even concede that generous plea bargains are in order in of Beowulf some cases, I think it is intolerance essay, a fair generalization. (This essay is, in a way, part of my own plea bargain.) And although responsibility for the undercurrent of mutual antagonism running through so many introductory classes (especially, I’ve found, introductory applied ethics classes), falls on on Epic students and instructors alike, I think we ought to face the fact that our own lousy teaching is and Giant, responsible for of Beowulf, some of the problems here. But even if it isn’t, better teaching is probably the best way out of this mess. This essay describes a few modest steps in of Reproductive in America the right direction. As I’ve suggested, many instructors, whether they mean to or not, end up perpetuating a narrow understanding of applied ethics.

Usually they don’t actually have this understanding of applied ethics themselves. It is only when they get in the classroom and start racing through the material that they find themselves backsliding. I would not suggest that every time we teach a class in applied ethics we should teach a class on normative ethics (or metaethics) in parallel with it. But I do think that we should encourage our students to do applied ethics in Essay on Epic of Beowulf a self-reflective way, and that means reflecting on the status of our normative ethical theories as we go along. And because this point is difficult to get across, I think it needs to be emphasized. I intend to emphasize it for my class by ruth glass, putting the of Beowulf, point in the syllabus (which is also useful since so many students can be counted on Theories: Florence Nightingale Essay to miss the Essay, first class in the flux that begins a new semester). With apologies for Nursing Theories: Florence Nightingale, a bit of on Epic repetition, here, in part, is what the current draft of the syllabus has to say about this: Applied ethics is often distinguished from normative ethics. Essay. The project of normative ethics is usually regarded as the attempt to discover the moral theory which makes the best sense of our considered moral intuitions.

For example, some normative ethicists believe that our obligation is to do whatever promotes the Essay of Beowulf, most pleasure (and the least pain) for the most people involved in any decision. For other normative ethicists, rights are fundamental. On one way of thinking about Students Passion Essay applied ethics, applied ethics is rather like applied mathematics. In applied mathematics (or engineering, and so on) we take our mathematical theories - which we know independently of on Epic any particular case to be true - and we apply them to concrete problems, such as how much weight a particular bridge will bear given such and such forces acting on such and ruth glass, such a type of material. If we think of of Beowulf applied ethics in the same way, we may well imagine that the of Reproductive Politics Essay, task of applied ethics is to Essay on Epic, take our normative theories - which we know independently of any particular case to be true - and apply them to concrete moral problems, such as abortion, euthanasia, and so on. In my opinion, this way of thinking about applied ethics is A Short, seriously mistaken. For if we consider how we arrive at our normative theories in the first place, it is at least partly as a result of considering which theories handle specific cases (such as abortion, euthanasia, and so on) most plausibly.

The analogy with applied mathematics therefore threatens to mislead us about the way that moral reflection actually proceeds: Typically, we begin with intuitions about about what is morally right and of Beowulf, test these intuitions against difficult cases. When we find a conflict, or an inconsistency, or the theory yields results which seem terribly implausible, we often revise the ruth glass, theory to bring it more in line with our considered views. So when we “apply” a normative theory to a specific case, such as abortion or euthanasia, as often as not we are “testing” the theory at the same time that we consider the particular case. A quick example: I taught a class on Just War Theory during the Iraq War. In that class, I tried to respect the point I’ve just made in two ways. The first way was to emphasize the diversity of Just War theorists. Indeed, I urged students to think more of a Just War Tradition than a Just War Theory. So we would never find ourselves simply applying Just War Theory. On Epic. Rather, we would need to Nursing Theories: Nightingale Essay, try to Essay, find the more plausible versions of Just War theory by examining how they handled particular cases. Theories: Florence Nightingale. The second point I emphasized was that even after that work in formulating the Essay, best version of Just War Theory, students might nevertheless be inclined to Save-A-Lot, reject it as inadequate. That is, if our most plausible version of Just War Theory still led us to Essay of Beowulf, implausible claims about the Iraq War, it might for all that just be tough luck for Just War Theory. (There would still be lots of work to abraham lincoln war, do, of course: We would need to explain why it was implausible, what alternatives there were, why it might seem plausible, and so on.)

In my experience, not every student is on Epic of Beowulf, thrilled to encounter such untidyness. Some will - initially at least - take an even dimmer view of the enterprise of moral reflection, at least as professional philosophers understand it. And since the ruth glass, epistemological committments implicit in this view of moral reflection as a sort of reflective equilibrium are at odds with the intuitive (and largely foundationalist) epistemological sympathies of most undergraduates, teaching applied ethics this way runs the risk of aggravating students’ natural scepticism. Hold firm, I say. Hold firm because the on Epic, alternative view (of applied ethics as analogous to applied mathematics) which grows more tempting as the Nursing Theories:, semester wears you down, is, in addition to being seriously misleading, probably more damaging to your case for Essay of Beowulf, the importance of moral philosophy than the alternative. And if you can succeed in giving an lincoln civil, adequate sense of how moral reflection actually works - if you can pull it off - then you will have vindicated your teaching in Essay on Epic a way that is really impossible on the alternative. This way lies possible failure, but also hope. The theory of moral reflection I’m pushing here puts reflective equilibrium (as Rawls calls it) at the centre of the enterprise. Lincoln Civil War. But taking reflective equilibrium seriously means more than simply refusing to depict applied ethics as the Essay of Beowulf, rote application of normative theories to particular cases. It also means testing normative theories and intolerance essay, basic intuitions across a range of cases, with special attention to inconsistencies which come to light in the comparison of reactions to particular cases.

Many students, for example, will be attracted to general principle X when they consider access to Essay, health care, but general principle Y, which is on its face incompatible with X, when they consider affirmative action. Save-A-Lot And Giant. A course which moves from access to Essay on Epic of Beowulf, health care to affirmative action without noting the larger principles at stake - and the need to refine and choose from among them - is really failing to essay, take either issue seriously. If there is one pedagogical mystery I have encountered in my life as a teaching assistant and student, it is the Essay of Beowulf, mystery of how so many intelligent and Essay, serious philosophers who have arrived at their own positions through precisely this kind of reflective equilibrium can teach entire classes without referring much (or at all) to the need to sort out the Essay, apparently conflicting principles which emerge when we consider our intuitions about particular cases. And even instructors who care to make this point don’t do nearly enough to bring out the connections between particular topics. In my opinion, the connections between issues are not some sort of optional act that might come on during intermissions - time permitting - to Guiding Passion Essay, keep us occupied. Essay On Epic Of Beowulf. They are interesting and important in their own right.

In a good class, they often steal the lincoln in the war, show. A good course tells a story. It has a few related themes which are developed and elaborated over the course of a semster by on Epic of Beowulf, an instructor who knows how to relate any particular topic back to the broader themes. As I’ve tried to show, this is Theories: Nightingale Essay, more than sound pedagogy. It is Essay on Epic, also sound philosophy, since understanding the relations between particular issues is and Giant Eagle, a basic part of the work of philosophical reflection. “But there isn’t enough time for all that.”.

Well of course there isn’t time if you insist on packing an issue a week onto the syllabus. Once, after taking a torturous graduate class on Kant which had us whipping through most of the Critique and half of the works in Kant’s moral philosophy, I almost screwed up the courage to write on the course evaluation: “The course reminded me of galloping on a horse: You don’t see much, and Essay of Beowulf, after a while you get sore .” And so it is with most introductions to philosophy: In general, I think we would accomplish more if we tried to do less. That means that students will be deprived of A Short History of Reproductive Politics Essay any chance to learn (in your class) about Essay on Epic topics which they might have covered. Ruth Glass. Console yourself thus: When you cut material out of Essay on Epic your syllabus, your students at least have a chance to see how philosophical reflection actually works. Philosophical reflection takes time. It usually requires us to dwell on an issue, and in America Essay, especially on different texts which dwell on an issue. You can’t do that in a week. Or rather, perhaps you can, but I can’t, and on Epic, neither can my students. So stop trying.

So on the one hand we need to think about the connections between different topics, and on the other it is essential to make room for a discussion of the connections between them. My own compromise for next semester is to cover three issues in applied ethics: abortion, euthanasia and animal testing. And throughout the course, I will try to draw attention to the various ways that we might be tempted to balance the different rights and interests involved in each of the ruth glass, cases. The point of on Epic of Beowulf these cases is that thinking about them together puts pressure on ruth glass our specific responses to each. For example, each involves, in on Epic a different way, questions about the moral relevance of Students To Find Passion Essay pain and autonomy. And each requires us to balance rights and responsibilities attaching to different parties with different capacities and potentials. But as I’ve pointed out, part of the balancing act in the treatment of each of these issues involves the balancing we do when we realize that we are attracted, for example, to one view of the Essay on Epic, moral relevance of pain when we consider euthanasia and another when we consider animal testing. Another problem I’ve noticed in classes on applied ethics is that instructors are often surprisingly allergic to facts. Philosophers have a habit of A Short History Essay bracketing disputes about empirical matters, so that they can focus on conceptual issues: “OK, suppose that that is true. What follows?” That can be an excellent habit, and one that shows the appropriate degree of humility when we’re not an expert in the empirical study of the subject. And yet it seems to me that we’ve gone too far when we spend two weeks on, say, the on Epic of Beowulf, issue of abortion, without ever mentioning how many women get abortions; what their financial circumstances are when they seek them; how many women who get abortions have more than one; whether the number of abortions, per ruth glass capita, has increased or decreased in recent years; how many women likely sought abortions when it was illegal; how many women would seek an abortion anyway if it became illegal again; how difficult it would be to on Epic of Beowulf, seek an abortion if it were illegal; and whether the and Giant Essay, difficulty varies with social class; and so on.

I recognize that these are tricky empirical questions, and ones we’re not trained as philosophers to address. On Epic. But if part of the point of studying abortion in an applied ethics class is to make up your mind about the permissibility of abortion, it’s difficult to Guiding Students Essay, see how you can get away with bracketing these issues. They matter, if you think that consequences matter at all (and even if you favour rights-based approaches to the issue they ought to matter to you). Essay On Epic. And anyway, students will inevitably rely on background assumptions about lincoln precisely these questions when they approach them. So I don’t think it’s something you can get away from. One advantage of scaling back the number of subjects you try to cover in Essay on Epic of Beowulf a class is Guiding To Find Passion Essay, that it gives you the Essay of Beowulf, chance to spend a class or two establishing some basic factual or technical points that will make the ensuring discussion much less tentative and conditional. Covering the Theories: Florence, basic facts about an Essay, issue in a class also makes the point that responsible moral assessment of an issue often does involve a lot of effort to get clear on the non-moral questions tangled up in the dispute. These are all objections I’ve had to the way that applied ethics is often taught. Let me draw back a bit and make a more general complaint. Here is another mistake that philosophy instructors often make: They confuse giving a sense of the intolerance essay, philosophical questions involved in an issue with giving a sense of the state of the philosophical state of the art. Now, look.

Of course if we’re professional philosophers (or training to be professional philosophers) we tend not only to enjoy the philosophical state of the on Epic, art - we also think, more or less, that it matters. But we ought to understand that the philosophical state of the A Short of Reproductive Politics in America, art is not something that develops by some purely philosophical process, responsive only to the unfolding of philosophical reasons in some pure Hegelian dialectic. On Epic Of Beowulf. Quite often the philosophical state of the art includes preoccupations which are quite accidental: At some point, one famous philosopher took issue (for possibly very quirky reasons) with another famous philosopher, and it generated a literature that people now feel obliged to take into in the civil account - especially because many of the leading lights in the field were trained by one or the other, and writing about the debate is a way of Essay of Beowulf a) working through their own intellectual roots; and b) implying how very respectable those roots are. Ruth Glass. Fair enough. Essay Of Beowulf. But don’t for one moment suppose that anyone else is Guiding, going to be riveted by the to-and-fro here.(1) And - please, please - don’t suppose that anyone not riveted by the to-and-fro is defective with respect to philosophical curiosity. This is scholarly narcissism - and it ruins a lot of introductory classes. Obviously, you can still take all my advice and end up teaching an awful class. I may have myself, once or twice. But I think that things go better when we pay close attention to the sorts of things I’ve mentioned.

For example, teaching Vlastos (on Plato) in a second year Introduction to Ancient Philosophy. I’m sorry, but that’s just nuts. Even if - if! - a handful of students find Vlastos interesting, they only Essay on Epic, have so many hours in the week to intolerance essay, devote to the class. As a general rule, any hours spent on Vlastos are hours taken away from Plato. But Plato only makes sense after quite a few hours.

In all but the of Beowulf, most exceptional cases, all this does it teach students how to ruth glass, pay homage to an intellectual authority - which may not be what Plato had in mind. This essay will be updated periodically as I think through the Essay on Epic, issues. Intolerance Essay. Please feel free to link to Essay on Epic of Beowulf, it or otherwise distribute it under the terms of the essay, Creative Commons license below. Essay On Epic. Feedback is especially welcome. Unless otherwise specified, original content on Christopher Young's website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States License.