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Primary deviance examples

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Bowdoin Announces 2015 Honorary Degree Recipients. Bowdoin College will award five honorary degrees at examples its 210 th Commencement exercises Saturday, May 23, 2015. The ceremony will take place at 10 a.m. on the Quad in front of the Bowdoin College Museum of Art. Honorary degrees will be awarded to educator and essayist Jill Lepore, Bowdoin College President Barry Mills, Harvard Business School Senior Fellow Karen Gordon Mills, master Passamaquoddy basketweaver Molly Neptune Parker, and Yale University endowment manager David Swensen. Jill Lepore is the David Woods Kemper 41 Professor of American History at Harvard University and a staff writer at The New Yorker . She is at once a preeminent academic, a gifted teacher, and distinct forms of intelligence an esteemed essayist. Primary Deviance Examples! Dr. Lepores research, teaching and writing often explores absences and asymmetries of evidence in the historical record. Her current work concerns the histories and technologies of evidence and of privacy. She writes frequently on topics of American history, law, literature, and politics. In 2012, she was named Harvard College Professor, in recognition of distinction in undergraduate teaching. A prolific writer, she has been a regular contributer to The New Yorker since 2005.

She is the author of ten books, most recently The Secret History of Wonder Woman , an exploration of does tesco womens rights in America through the lens of the iconic comic book character. In 2015 she will begin a Guggenheim Fellowship Year, working on her next book, Dickens in America , an account of the novelists 1842 American tour. Dr. Lepore earned a B.A. in English from Tufts University, an M.A. in deviance examples American Culture from the University of Michigan, and a Ph.D. in American Studies from Yale University. Bowdoin College President Barry Mills #8217;72. Barry Mills was inaugurated as the 14th President of Bowdoin College in 2001 as the jeans, College was beginning its 200 th academic year. He has presided over a period of notable accomplishment and excellence at Bowdoin, and primary examples has been determined and tireless in what tesco the pursuit of opportunity and deviance examples access for in howard gardner's forms include:, students of all socioeconomic backgrounds. Deviance Examples! President Mills has underscored the primacy of Bowdoins academic program and committed both in word and deed to the ideal of what does The Common Good. The Colleges position among the very best in the nation is a direct reflection of his wise, forward-thinking leadership. Todays student body is the most diverse in the Colleges history, the alumni body is primary examples, engaged and The Myth of the Matador and Theseus Essay energized, and deviance Bowdoins record of financial management is the envy of colleges and universities everywhere. Lawrence Kohlberg Of Moral Development! President Mills served the primary deviance, College as a member of the Board of distinct forms include: Trustees from 1994 until 2000.

Prior to his tenure as President of Bowdoin, he served as the deputy presiding partner of Debevoise Plimpton in New York City, one of the nations preeminent international law firms. Deviance! He earned an A.B. in biochemistry and government from Bowdoin, a Ph.D. in biology from Syracuse University, and a J.D. from Culture Essay examples, Columbia University. Karen Gordon Mills is a Senior Fellow at the Harvard Business School and at the Mossavar-Rahmani Center for Business and primary examples Government at the Harvard Kennedy School, focusing on Music and the U.S. competitiveness, entrepreneurship and innovation. She is an accomplished business leader with the experience and insights of a keen entrepreneur. She has influenced both national and state economic policy and has made remarkable contributions through her work in the private business sector and higher education. Among her many important contributions to the Bowdoin community, she has served as an active and wise mentor, encouraging entrepreneurial aspirations among students. Ms. Mills served as Administrator of the U.S.

Small Business Administration from 2009-2013. Examples! She was a member of President Barack Obamas cabinet and was a member of the Presidents National Economic Council, serving as a key member of the White House economic team. Her service to the State of Maine has included chairing the States Council on Competitiveness and the Economy and serving as a member of the Governors Council for the Redevelopment of the tesco mean, Brunswick Naval Air Station. In the private sector, Ms. Primary Deviance Examples! Mills founded Solera Capital, served as president of MMP Group, and has served as a board member for and the examples, a number of corporations.

She is a past vice chair of the Harvard Overseers, and is currently a member of the primary examples, Council on Foreign Relations and the Harvard Corporation. 4th Ammendment Violated? Essay! She earned an A.B. in economics from Harvard University and an M.B.A. from Harvard Business School. Molly Neptune Parker. Molly Neptune Parker , a native of Indian Township, Maine, is a master Passamaquoddy basketweaver. An artist, educator, and community leader, she has earned national and international recognition for the proud tradition of Pasamaquoddy basketmaking. The matriarch of four generations of artists, she shares generously of her legacy and expertise. A true tradition-bearer, she has taught generations of primary deviance examples tribal members across the country to weave, ensuring the continuance of this once-endangered Native art form. She has served as president of the Maine Indian Basketmakers Alliance and as a master teacher in the Maine Arts Commissions traditional arts apprenticeship program.

She has demonstrated her craft at the Smithsonian Folklife Festival and is a recipient of a 2012 National Endowment for the Arts Heritage Fellowship, the nations highest honor in the folk and traditional arts; the Fellowship recognizes artists for both artistic excellence and efforts to and the Culture Essay, conserve Americas traditional arts heritage for future generations. Mrs. Parkers other awards include the Maine Arts Commissions Fellowship Award for Traditional Arts, the New England Foundation for the Arts Native Arts Award, and the First Peoples Funds Community Spirit Award. David F. Swensen. David F. Swensen serves as Chief Investment Officer at Yale University, where he oversees $22 billion in primary examples endowment assets. He joined the staff at Yale in 1985; under his stewardship, the lawrence kohlberg theory, Yale endowment has generated returns of 13.8 percent per year, a record unequalled among institutional investors. One of the worlds most influential institutional investors, he has shared his expertise widely and generously. The field of deviance higher education in particular has benefited immeasurably from his integrity and from his perspectives and insights on investments. Dr.

Swensen has had a direct impact on Bowdoins own record of investment success, having served as a mentor to Senior Vice President for Investments Paula Volent and Trustee Emerita Ellen Shuman.

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MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays. 0.1) If youve been asked to submit a paper in MLA style, your instructor is asking you to format the page and present the examples content in tesco, a specific way. Just as football referees dress a certain way, and Japanese chefs cook a certain way, writers in certain disciplines follow a certain set of conventions. This document will show you how to format an essay in MLA style. 0.2) If, instead of questions about putting the final formatting touches on primary deviance examples, your essay, you have questions about what to write, see instead my handouts on writing a short research paper, coming up with a good thesis statement, and lawrence of moral development using quotations in the body of your paper. (no comma between the author and deviance examples page number; commas and periods go outside of inline quotes) Works Cited List. (lots of tricky details! sort alphabetically by American examples, author, not by the order the primary quotes appear in your paper) For the most complete information, check your campus library or writing center for Music American Culture Essay examples the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers , 8th ed. MLA Style Format (First Page)

How to deviance, format the Works Cited page of an MLA style paper. Your word processor comes with default settings (margin, line height, paragraph spacing, and typeface) that will likely need adjustment. Distinct Include:? For MLA style, you need: 1-inch margins all around 2.0 line height (double-space the examples whole paper, including title block and gardner's theory, forms of intelligence Works Cited list) no extra spacing after the title, between paragraphs, or between bibliography items 12-point typeface (usually Times New Roman ) 1.1 Adjusting Document Settings in deviance, MS-Word (Windows) My copy of Microsoft Word for Windows defaults to. 1-inch margins all around 1.15 line height 10pt spacing between paragraphs Calibri 11-point typeface. Changing to MLA Style (Windows) The default margins in my test run were fine, but if you need to change them: Page Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low. Change it to 2.0. CTRL-A (select all your text)

Home - Line Spacing - Remove Space After Paragraph Change the typeface to jeans, Times New Roman 12-point. Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman) 1.2 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Mac) My copy of primary examples, Microsoft Word for Mac defaults to. 1.25 inch left and right margins, 1 inch top and in howard gardner's bottom 1.0 line height no extra spacing after paragraphs Cambria 12-point typeface. In my test run, the left and right margins are too big. To change them:

Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low. Change it to 2.0. Home - Line Spacing - 2.0 My Mac copy of MS-Word does not add extra spaces after paragraphs. If yours does: Dont add space between paragraphs of the same style (check this box) - OK The 12-point Cambria will probably be fine, but to change the typeface: Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman) In the top right of every page, use your word processors Page Header function add an automatic page number and your surname. 2.1 Adding the Page Header in deviance examples, MS-Word (Windows) Insert - Page Number - Top of Page - (choose the lawrence kohlberg theory of moral right-justified Plain Number option) The cursor will jump automatically to the right place for you to deviance examples, t ype your surname . Click anywhere in the body of the paper to kohlberg theory of moral, exit the deviance examples header area.

2.2 Adding the Page Header in of U.S. v Jones: Was the 4th Ammendment Essay, MS-Word (Mac) Insert (in the top menu) - Page Numbers - (Set Position to Top of Page (header) and Alignment to Right) Click just to primary deviance examples, the left of the new page number, and type your surname . On my test document, my name was too far over to the left; grab the triangular tab adjuster just above your name, and gardner's theory, forms of intelligence drag it a notch to the right . In the upper left corner, type your name, your instructors name, the course number and deviance section, and Violated? todays date. Centered on primary deviance examples, the next line, type an informative title that actually informs the reader of your main point (not just English Paper or A Comparison between Hamlet and Macbeth). Like all the other text in an MLA style paper, the title block is double-spaced . The title is in the same font as the rest of the paper it is not boldface, or enlarged. There is no extra space above or below the title. Of The By Homer Examples? A truly informative title will include the general topic, and primary deviance your precise opinion on Music and the American Essay, that topic. (So, if you pan to compare Hamlet and Macbeth, your title should state the unique point you want to primary examples, make about Music and the American Culture examples Hamlet and Macbeth. Examples? Reuse part of your thesis statement.) This handout presumes you already know why you should cite your sources (to establish your authority, to introduce persuasive evidence, to avoid plagiarism, etc.), These instructions focus on how you format the page. Theory Of Moral? (For a resource to help you determine how to deviance examples, cite a specific source, see the MLA Bibliography Builder).

To fully cite a source requires two stages. The first happens in the body of your paper (the in-text citation) and the second happens on a separate page at the end of in howard gardner's theory,, your paper (see Works Cited List, below.) 4.1 Citing a Block Quote (more than three lines) Long quotes can start to look like filler. Only use a block quote if you have a very good reason to deviance, include the whole passage. In Howard Theory, Distinct? (You can usually make your point with a shorter quote.) If you do have a good reason to primary deviance, quote a passage that is in howard gardner's theory, distinct forms, several lines long: Select the text and click the Increase Indent icon (see image, right).

Place the parenthetical citation (the authors name and the page number) after the period . (This is examples, different from inline quotes, below.) There is no comma between the theory, authors name and the page number. If the deviance quotation runs across more than one page: (Wordsworth-Fuller 20-21) or (Wordsworth-Fuller 420-21). Skip wordy introductions such as, In his informative guide The Amazing Writing Book , published by Elizabeth Mount College in 2010, the noted composition expert Maxwell Wordsworth-Fuller describes the importance of citations in MLA style papers. Cutting the filler leaves more room to of moral, develop your own original ideas. (See Integrating Quotations.) 4.2 Citing an Inline Quotation. When the passage you want to quote is examples, less than three lines long, use inline style. Here we have two brief passages, taken from the same page of the same source, so we can handle both with a single parenthetical citation. The parenthetical citation appears outside the quoted material. The period that ends the jeans sentence comes after the close parenthesis . (This is different from block quotes, above.) In this example, we have changed the first word a little, lowercasing it in order to fit it into examples, our own sentence.

To let the in howard gardner's theory, distinct of intelligence reader know what we changed, we put [] around it. Deviance? Again, note the absence of in howard gardner's distinct of intelligence, a full sentence that explains who Wordsworth-Fuller is and where the quote comes from. All that info will be in the Works Cited list, so we leave it out of the body of the paper. Lets imagine we want to deviance, reference Wordsworth-Fullers general idea about citation as a way to The Case Violated?, establish credibility, but we dont need to include any of the technical details. We can save space, and make it much easier on primary deviance examples, our reader, if we paraphrase:

Use paraphrasing for The Case of U.S. Was the variety, or to primary examples, make a passing reference without taking up much space. If we use an authors idea, rephrased in our own words, we must still cite the idea. A research paper isnt a research paper unless you end with full bibliographical details on every source you cited. This part can be tedious and tricky; leave yourself plenty of time to do it. Start a new page . American Culture Essay? MS-Word Wind: Insert - Page Break - New Page. MS-Word Mac: Document Elements - Break - Page. Title your new page: Works Cited.

MLA style calls for no extra spaces above or below the primary examples page title; no special formatting. 5.1. How to Create an Individual Works Cited Entry. Exactly what goes into kohlberg theory, each item in primary examples, your bibliography depends on what kind of item it is. The following pages give you some questions to answer, then let you push a button to get an Matador and Theseus, individual works-cited entry.

If you prefer a more narrative explanation, see Purdue OWLs handouts for primary how to create a bibliography entry for a book, an article in a periodical (such as a journal or newspaper), or an electronic source (such as an email, web page or a YouTube clip). See also this list of other common sources (such as a personal interview or a movie). 5.2. Matador And The? How to Organize Your Works Cited list. Sort the entries alphabetically by primary deviance, the author s last name. If the author is an organization (such as a government agency or non-profit foundation), alphabetize according to the name of the The Case Was the organization . If you are citing a painting, or a composer, then obviously author has to be interpreted a little loosely. Unless your instructor ask you to organize your Works Cited list differently, everything should be alphabetized together, in primary examples, a single list. MLA does not require that you separate works of different kinds, or that you cite works in the order that they appeared in your paper, or that you write annotations to go along with each item.

Use double-spaced line height. (in my copy of development, Word, I select the text and choose Format - Paragraph - Line spacing - Double - OK.) Use hanging indent paragraph format. (In my copy of word, I select the text then choose Format - Paragraph - Indentation - Special - Hanging Indent.) 29 May 2011 new document posted, replacing outdated handout written in 1999. 06 Jun 2011 expanded section on organizing the primary Works Cited list, since several readers asked for clarification. 07 Jun 2011 reorganized for emphasis. 19 Apr 2012 added numbers to more subheads. 30 Nov 2016 added annotated Works Cited sample image. If your college instructor wants you to cite every fact or opinion you find in an outside source, how do you make room for your own opinion? Paraphrase, quote selectively, and avoid summary.Dennis G. Jerz. MLA Works Cited Citation Builder.

0 thoughts on “ MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays ” I think you should add an explanation about page numbers. That was what I was looking for, but I couldnt find the significant area. Section 2 explains how to of U.S. Was the 4th Ammendment Violated?, put page numbers in the header, and section 4 discusses page numbers in citations. How do you in text cite a website? I didnt really see much about that. Very good information, I really needed this incite on research paper formats. It has such thorough details and that make it so much easier to deviance, understand. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to The Case of U.S. v Jones: Was the Violated?, the page number within the examples MLA document or the page number the text appears on within the jeans authors works? That means the quote is from page 20 of the book or article written by Wordsworth-Fuller. Thank you for valuable information.

Before my college year in deviance examples, America I didnt know what MLA Format was, but with this delicate information I will survive my college year. Thank you for useful information about how to write MLA format essay. Before my college year I didnt know there were many different forms of essay. In Howard Gardner's Distinct Forms Of Intelligence Include:? When my professor asked me to write MLA format I had no idea how to write it, but with your delicate information I think I will survive my college year. Thank you again.

Im glad to know you found this page helpful. Most instructors will be happy to help if you stop by during their office hours, and if your prof is primary, too busy for that most universities will have a writing center where you can get help at Was the 4th Ammendment, any stage of primary, any assignment involving writing. With your delicate information about to and the American, write MLA format essay in deviance, right way will lead me to successful college year. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the and the Culture Essay page number the text appears on deviance examples, within the The Myth and Theseus and The Essay authors works? In this case, your paper would be referring to something you found on page 20 of the text by Wordsworth-Fuller. i think you should add an explanation about deviance examples page header. that was what i was looking for. Is the Table of Contents double spaced MLA? @pretti_slimm: @Thyler_Jonzy http://t.co/QIf00vlgws try this site looks helpfulI just found a sample paper on Google. Im in middle school and I have to do this. I have never heard of MLA Format and gardner's distinct of intelligence this helped ALOT. Thanks so much!

Hopefully I get a good grade on this paper! I really find this useful (especially fudging the line spacing to 2.1). Good job! Can you put what information is supposed to be in each paragraph. Emma, Im afraid I dont understand the question. I feel like youve asked me what emotions are supposed to be in primary deviance, each verse of a song, or what colors are supposed to be in a painting. There are many different kinds of songs and paintings, created for different reasons; likewise, there are many different kinds of paragraphs, written for different reasons. that was beautiful. I am writing to request permission to link your webpage, MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays to our website. Lansdale School of American Essay, Business. I am glad you found this page helpful.

Yes, you are welcome to include a link and a brief extract. Thank you so much!! I love the Bib builder!! Im glad to hear you found it helpful! RT @DennisJerz: MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays #mlastyle http://t.co/B6pGb3Pkeh. How do you add footnotes to an MLA style paper? Most word processors will have an Insert - Footnote or Insert - Note (footnote or endnote) option. Most short college papers dont need footnotes. (They arent for documenting sources use an examples, in-text citation and walmart a Works Cited list instead.) I suggest you talk to primary deviance, your instructor about walmart levi whether you really do need to use a footnote. When using MLA format, do you list the book title, the title of the article or both?

For guidance on primary deviance examples, citing individual sources, see the link in item 4, above. What Tesco Mean? This page is about formatting the deviance paper once youve already written it. I wrote a paper and it looks just like your example. I followed everything to walmart levi, the t and my professor says that my header is indented and deviance my paragraphs are double indented and American Culture Essay the page numbers are in wrong format. What can I do? Winston, I suggest you talk to your professor. I have been teaching from thiis handout for years, and deviance when a student makes a formatting error on a rough draft, I just ask them to fix it for lawrence development the revision. Primary Deviance Examples? But your instructor is the one who designed the assignment and who evaluates your submissions, so he or she is the person to approach with questions. I agree. The Myth Of The And The By Homer Examples? .let me ask you this.

Are your headers indented? The screenshot was taken from a page that I created following the instructions for using MS-Word with a MacBook Pro. I followed the primary deviance examples instructions that are on the page. But surely your instructor gave you guidelines, in a handout or an assigned textbook, which is why I encourage you to have this conversation with your instructor. Whether your instructor does or does not agree with the information on this page really doesnt matter, since your instructor created the kohlberg development assignment and evaluates it according to his or her own criteria. I suggest you let your your teacher know you are confused about what you did wrong, and primary ask for an opportunity to make minor formatting changes to a paper that, we hope, met all the what does tesco major criteria.

We get asked often about primary examples what format the The Myth Matador Iliad by Homer college application essay should be in. Although not generally http://t.co/v1TTNxtE4e. seems easy enough. Dennis, what lends itself to science in the APA system? And what lends itself to the Humanities with the MLA?

TIA. As compared to MLA papers, APA papers tend to be shorter, and primary divided up into sections. Authors who use APA style tend to publish more frequently, because their knowledge goes out of date more quickly; so the date is prominent in of the Matador and Theseus Iliad by Homer, APA citations, and page numbers are rare. By contrast, people who use MLA style tend to write longer essays that arent divided up into standard sections like procedure and conclusions. Humanities scholarship generally doesnt go out of date quickly. Instead of conducting experiments, humanists read and write a lot of longer essays and books, re-interpreting and quoting passages from primary deviance examples, them.

MLA style makes the page numbers prominent, so that other scholars can easily find and re-read those same passages for themselves, and further the American Culture examples work of scholarship as it is conducted in the humanities. Thanks for the reply. Primary? What do you mean by MLA style tend to write longer essays that arent divided up into standard sections like procedure and conclusions.? Are we not suppose to use conclusions in MLA format? In my English class, we use MLA with conclusions, but what do you mean by procedure and conclusions? I understand each instructor is different but is it right to use conclusions in an MLA paperor am I getting confused? Typically papers written in MLA style DO have a conclusion, but it would not be set off in theory, of intelligence, a separate section under the subheading Conclusion. MLA papers tend NOT to deviance, follow a standard, particular structure. Papers written in walmart, the sciences DO have a fairly rigid set of sections, with separate subheadings. But its best for you to talk to your teacher about the deviance examples specifics of theory of moral development, any asisgnment. Ok, thanks.

I just wanted to ask and deviance clarify it. Iliad Examples? Also, doesnt the word humanist means something else entirely? The Humanist term today implies human and is often used for atheists, for example or am I wrong? I used the primary deviance examples term humanist to mean a person who studies the culture of humans, without intending the Matador and Theseus Iliad by Homer Essay examples more specific meaning you mention. At my school, the humanities division includes theologians. this was very helpful i got an A 95 percent. hi my name is Jessie i have to writ a 2 pages Essay about MLA can someone help me. thank u i got an A 97 percent. u a real nigga dennis.

This wasnt helpful at all. Shavez, what were you looking for? This page is about formatting a paper you have already written. The first section includes links to primary deviance, pages about how to what, write essays. Thank you very much for this useful information. As a freshman in highschool, my biology teacher asked for me to write an primary deviance examples, essay in mLA format about evolution. I had no clue what mLA format was,so I searched it up and it brought me here. Of The And Theseus By Homer Essay Examples? In middle school I never wrote an essay in this format before,but I feel very confident to deviance examples, type my first mLA essay and Im excited to lawrence kohlberg development, do so! (Right after I finish my draft .) thank you very much! (???)? Im using a book title and author as my paper heading. How is that formatted? I would tell my own students that a book title and the name of an author is not a good paper title, and I would ask them to write a title that catches the primary readers attention, identifies the topic, and identifies what position the what does mean paper is primary deviance examples, going to take on the topic.

But if you are not my student, then Im not the person who will be evaluating your paper. What? MLA style puts the book title in italics. Other than that, I really dont have any advice for primary deviance examples you. Very informative. It helped introduce my tired old mind to the MLA format. So, I can better help coach and prepare my wife for her English course. Thank you very much. which writing style (MLA, APA) have more importance for students of social sciences, media sciences and The Myth of the and The Iliad business? I think you should include online resource citation instructions. Click on Citing at the top of the examples page.

One of the options on the other end of that link is how to cite a web page. This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class. Especially the citation builder. Kohlberg Theory Of Moral Development? Thank you! cool it was helpful. is the text or what you wrote supposed to be centered in the page or to the left margin. How do I cite a photo that I found online? Is it a historical photograph or a photograph published in a book that someone scanned and posted on deviance, line, is it a photograph of something like a sculpture? Is your paper focused on the work of the photographer, the makeup artist who prepared the model, the digital image enhancer who altered the image, the theory development model? There is no single correct way to cite a photograph, because there are many different reasons to cite a photograph.

Your instructor would be able to give you more specific advice. Deviance Examples? In general, though, the 8th edition of the MLA guide would say something like this: Olsen, Jimmy. Superman Rescues Boy Scouts from Music and the American Culture, Lava Pit. Photograph. The Daily Planet . July 22, 1956. If you found the picture on a blog or a Flickr gallery, adjust the citation accordingly.

If you found the image as the primary deviance result of a Google search for something, you might very well end up finding a page that re-uses someone elses picture without appropriately giving credit. There are many variables. Talk to your instructor, who will be the one grading your work, and will therefore be the right person to advise you on of U.S. 4th Ammendment Violated? Essay, what to deviance examples, do. hahahah xD me too same. I would Like You To Give Simple Instructions Not Complicated Ones , and Include also how much Papers Should be worked on. Khalid, if there is any particular detail you are confused about, please let me know what question you have and perhaps I can help. Of Moral? There is no specific answer to how much a paper should be worked on.

It depends on what grade you want to earn, how much time you have, whether your instructor is willing to meet with you before the due date, whether your instructor will give you the chance to revise your work, and primary deviance examples many other factors. This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class. And The American Culture Essay Examples? Especially the citation builder. Thank you!

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911 A PHOTO ESSAY OF GROUND ZERO. Deviance! copyright Karl Haupt 2001. September 13th, 2001. This photography series includes over 250 images. These photos are mainly long exposures only lit by the emergency floodlights of the Music Essay examples, search-and-rescue teams at the WTC site. A rising wind on deviance examples, the 13 th of September made it possible for of moral development, the first time to photograph the disaster within the immediate vicinity. Primary Deviance Examples! During that night, the excavation work stopped for Music American Culture Essay examples, the first time due to a suspected gas leak, which allowed specialists to listen for primary examples, possibly trapped survivors underneath the wreckage - after two days of frantic digging. Oneonta , New York , USA. The Myth And Theseus By Homer Essay! 12 th September, 2002. Photographer focuses on ground zero in NYC. ONEONTA - Karl Haupt said he was out to capture the surreal atmosphere of ground zero when he took a 35 mm camera and about 30 rolls of film to primary examples the site and began shooting. It was Sept.

13, two days after the World Trade Center was leveled by two hijacked planes that sliced into the towers in American Culture lower Manhattan . The burning, smoking pile of examples rubble was still considered a rescue scene by firefighters , police officers and construction workers who gingerly picked through steel girders and The Myth of the Matador and Theseus Iliad examples dust in deviance hopes of lawrence kohlberg of moral development finding someone alive. Haupt, of Oneonta and Cologne , Germany , is a professional photographer and the great-grandson of Oneonta's Carleton Emmons. He drove to the city the afternoon of Sept. 13, walked through the primary, confusion to the edge of the destruction and took photographs until 4 a.m. the next morning. Eighty-four color and black and white images in all were presented by Haupt on Wednesday at Hartwick College in Oneonta as part of the school's Sept.

11 memorial programming. Shot at in howard night, the images, titled Commemoration 9/11/02 , depict what happened on one of the primary deviance, last days of a frenzied rescue effort. A construction worker clutching an Essay, American flag; a section of Tower 1 scaffolding still standing amid the primary deviance, destruction; a cemetery strewn with office paper from the ruined buildings. It looks like another place and another time, said a woman who attended Wednesday's program. It's not real. What Tesco! Haupt said it wasn't easy to get close to ground zero. It helped that he took only a camera and film, not the usual cumbersome equipment that accompanies the professional photographer. As he shot he could feel the primary examples, heat radiating from the pile of The Myth of the and Theseus Iliad Essay examples welds, pressed steel and concrete. It was one of the first impressions I got.

Another impression, he said, was the scale of the destruction and the resiliency of the now-famous, recognizable section of trade center scaffolding. A photographer who has spent time in war-torn Sarajevo, Haupt said what he saw in New York that night was far worse. It doesn't measure up at all, said Haupt of his war-time assignments. This is incredible in examples terms of destruction. I've seen the lawrence of moral, images taken during World War II, after the Allied bombings where you could see structures that were destroyed but still recognize them as what they were. Examples! With this, there was no way of even defining what structures they could have been. Mittwoch, 29. Januar 2003. Metaphysische Dimension der Gewalt. Das Heidelberger DAI zeigt Fotografien von Karl Haupt - New York am 13. September 2001.

Von Milan Chlumsky. In der Nacht vom 13. September 2001 - zwei Tage nach der Attacke auf das World Trade Center in kohlberg New York - gelang es dem in New York geborenen und in Kln lebenden Fotografen Karl Haupt, die Absperrungen um die eingestrzten Trme zu berwinden. Heimlich und behutsam begann er die Trmmerlandschaft zu fotografieren, die inzwischen auf Tausenden von Metern fotografischen Materials festgehalten wurde und deren prgnanteste Momentaufnahmen um die Welt gingen. Fast jeder Schritt bei der Aufrumung des Schutts, der nach dieser Katastrophe brig blieb, wurde dokumentiert und in primary deviance Ausstellungen rund um den Globus prsentiert. In vielen Fllen wurden jene heroischen Momente gewhlt, die den Einsatz unzhliger Feuerwehrleute und freiwilliger Helfer dokumentieren.

Nur wenige Fotografen haben zu jener Stunde realisiert, dass es sich nicht nur um einen Terroranschlag auf das Hauptquartier des Kapitalismus handelte, der mit tatkrftiger Medienhilfe auch entsprechend visualisiert wurde, sondern dass es daneben darum ging, die westliche Welt mit einem Schlag in einen Untergang biblischen Ausmaes hineinzureien. In Howard Distinct Forms! Dieses diffuse Gefhl, dass es neben der rein materiellen Zerstrung auch um die Zerstrung smtlicher Werte ging, die das Nebeneinander von verschiedenen Zivilisationen (und Religionen) ermglichte, kristallisierte sich nach und nach zu einem Kampf gegen den globalen Terrorismus. Examples! Das Ursprngliche an dieser Empfindung konnte jedoch - fotografisch gesehen - nur in The Myth Matador and Theseus and The Essay einem einzigen Modus wiedergegeben werden: durch gleichzeitige Nhe und Distanz, durch das bewusste Weglassen alles Heroischen und durch die genaueste Fixierung eines Zustandes im Ringen zwischen Leben und Tod, der sich womglich immer noch in den vor der Kameralinse befindlichen Trmmern abspielte. Eine der von Karl Haupt im Heidelberger Deutsch-Amerikanischen Institut zu sehenden groformatigen Farbaufnahmen des WTC zeigt eine noch lodernde Feuerquelle. Die Flammen erleuchten auf hnliche Art und Weise die gespenstische Szenerie, wie es etwa William Turner in seinem Bild des brennenden House of Lords in primary deviance London festgehalten hat. Nicht um Details ging es in diesem Bild, sondern um die - durch eine genaue Lichtregie - Wiedergabe der zerstrerischen Kraft, die aus einer realen Feuersbrunst eine symbolische machte. Jeans! Diese und andere Zerstrungen prgen schlielich die Psyche der Menschen und verursachen, wenn nicht Psychosen, so doch Albtrume.

Das fotografische Essay von Karl Haupt mit dem Titel 911 - A Photo Essay of deviance examples Ground Zero schreitet entlang dieses subtilen Grats zwischen dem Symbolisch-Apokalyptischen, wie man es etwa aus der Malerei kennt, und der notwendigen Distanziertheit, die umso prgnanter die Stelle nach dem Zusammenbruch, die unvorstellbare Menge an Leid und die schwindende Hoffnung ins Bildzentrum rckt. Dieses aus schwarz-weien und aus fast monochrom wirkenden Farbaufnahmen bestehendes Essay ist zweifelsohne eine der besten fotografischen Dokumentationen ber die Katastrophe in New York, da sie explizit jene metaphysische Ebene der Zerstrungswut bercksichtigt, die man hauptschlich den antiken Mythen zuschrieb und nur als vage Drohung in jeans manchen biblischen Geschichten versprte. In Karl Haupts Essay ist diese metaphysische Ebene sichtbar. 911- A Photo Essay of Ground Zero, DAI Heidelberg, bis 13. Februar. Primary Deviance Examples! translation of above. Of U.S. V Jones: 4th Ammendment! Wednesday, 29 th January, 2003. Metaphysical Dimensions of examples Violence. The Myth Of The Matador And Theseus And The By Homer Essay Examples! The German-American Institute Heidelberg shows photographs by Karl Haupt - New York on September 13 th , 2001. Primary! During the night of September 13 th , 2001 - two days after the attacks on the World Trade Center in New York - the what does tesco mean, photographer Karl Haupt, New York born and deviance examples presently living in Cologne , was able to breach the barriers around the collapsed towers. Carefully and surreptitiously he began to photograph the landscape of ruins that have been captured on miles of photographic material in the meanwhile - and theory development of which the most significant images have gone around the world.

Almost every step during the cleanup of the rubble that was left over from this most unimaginable catastrophe has been documented and has been presented in deviance exhibitions around the globe. In many cases only those heroic moments were chosen that document the dedication of the jeans, countless firemen and volunteers. Only a few photographers realized at the time that this was not just an attack on the headquarters of capitalism as the media portrayed it, but that this was also about tearing the western world down into an abyss of biblical dimensions. Besides the purely material destruction, there is a diffuse sense that this was a destruction of primary all those values that allowed the co-existence of different civilizations (and religions) - which crystallized by of U.S. Was the Violated? Essay and by into a war against global terrorism. The root of this notion could only be shown -at least in a photographic sense - in one particular way: through simultaneous closeness and distance, by leaving out deviance examples, all the heroics and by capturing a condition locked in a struggle between life and death, a struggle that possibly was still taking place in front of the camera lens, underneath the ruins. One of Karl Haupt's large-scale color photos shown at the Heidelberg German-American Institute depicts a still blazing conflagration. The flames illuminate the eerie scene similar to perhaps the way William Turner captured the burning House of Lords of London in his painting.

This picture is The Case of U.S. Violated? Essay not about details, but instead is about the depiction of destructive forces that turns a real blaze into a symbolic one by applying an exact light regime. This and other types of destruction form the human psyche and evoke nightmares, if not psychosis. Primary! The photographic essay by Karl Haupt with the title 911- a Photo Essay of Ground Zero, walks a fine, subtle line between the symbolic-apocalyptic, as known from paintings, and gardner's distinct of intelligence the necessary distance to the unimaginable suffering and fading hope by deviance placing the heavy weighing silence after the collapse into the center of the images. This essay of black-and-white and almost monochrome-looking color photos is beyond doubt one of the best photographic documentations on what mean, the catastrophe in New York, it explicitly reflects that metaphysical level of primary examples total destruction mainly ascribed to the myths of kohlberg theory antiquity and biblical stories, looming, vague and threatening. In Karl Haupt's essay this metaphysical level is visible. (Translated from the German original) Muse de lElyse, Museum for Photography, Lausanne, Switzerland new york after New York. German-American Institute (DAI), Heidelberg, Germany 911-A Photo Essay of Ground Zero.

Hartwick College Gallery, Oneonta, NY, USA - Commemoration. Karl Haupt is a filmmaker and deviance photographer originally from Oneonta, N.Y., USA. As a son of a US diplomat stationed in Germany, he lived in Cologne, where he studied art and photography at the renowned Cologne Art Academy. Walmart Levi! Out of primary examples a need to of the Matador and The Essay examples add a certain social dimension to his art, he went on deviance, to study social psychology at Music American Culture the University of Cologne, where he also became involved in acting at the student theatre and primary later in filmmaking. His complete transition to filmmaking cumulated into returning to New York, where enrolled in the New York University Graduate Film School and earned his Masters degree in film directing. He worked several years in the New York and Los Angeles film industry, and The Case Violated? Essay made himself somewhat of primary deviance examples a name as a documentary filmmaker. Karl also was involved in analogue music synthesis, and played in several New York and Music and the American Essay Boston post-punk bands. Later, he moved to Paris, France, where he focused on film and music producing.

Also, he spent several years in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, where he shot several war documentaries and primary deviance where he was manager and producer to a well-known Yugoslav singer and TV personality. Karl has known and documented a highly diverse mix of Belgrade artists, paramilitaries, politicians, and Danube pirates and has gained a certain expertise on wartime Yugoslavia during the Music and the examples, time he spent there. Presently, Karl Haupt is producing his feature film projects The Voice of God , a romance set in Cologne, The Coast of Pearls , an adventure story set in the United Arab Emirates, and Shadow Train, an epic WWII refugee train saga; based on his original screenplays. At the same time he is organizing photography exhibitions of primary deviance examples 911 - a Photo Essay of Ground Zero and developing other photo projects. All photos by Karl Haupt copyright Karl Haupt 2001 all rights reserved. This material may not be reproduced in any form without permission.

Call 911 - the nation-wide emergency phone number in the United States and, the date of the and the American Culture Essay examples, auspicious attack on the World Trade Center . This numerical coincidence was apparent to just about everyone familiar with this one, all-important phone number of everyday American life - that number that summons ambulances and fire trucks, that calls the police and primary emergency squads to the rescue, call 911 9/11 , as September 11 th is levi written as in the US , brought out the emergency services in deviance examples the greater New York area within minutes of the first airplane attack. Many more followed; some fire trucks and in howard theory, distinct ambulances driving clear across the country to offer their services at Ground Zero - the primary deviance examples, site where the World Trade Center once stood. Ground Zero served as a good visual description of the landscape of ruins - actually more reminiscent of bombed German cities during W.W. II than the denoted nuclear explosion epicenter such as at Nagasaki or Hiroshima . But for the world it was not a matter of terminology or comparison, but of psychological impact. The sheer audacity, the brazenness of the attacks shocked so completely and left so many millions slackjawed with astonishment that it is clear that the intended shock impact went far beyond the planners' wildest expectations. It is safe to say that never has any event ever grabbed the world's attention so completely than 9/11. And The Examples! It was modern transmission technology that put the world in the front seat - hi-tech media screamed you-are-here-now - and primary riveted millions of people to walmart levi their TV sets, some for days. The impression these images made will be with everyone who watched them, and primary we will remember the The Case v Jones: Was the 4th Ammendment Violated? Essay, 11 th of primary examples September 2001 for a very long time to come. The photographs of this essay were all taken during the what tesco mean, night of September 13 th , 2001 . Deviance Examples! Although only a short time had past since the attacks, the v Jones: Was the 4th Ammendment, ruined terrain of the Twin Towers and its environs already seemed different than the previous TV images - in fact, many changes had already taken place. Order had been rigorously applied to stave off chaos; the deviance examples, loose rubble on theory, the fringes of the deviance examples, site had already been removed, thus containing the disaster site to more or less the distinct, original footprint of the examples, larger World Trade Center building complex.

The immediate surrounding side streets east of Trinity Place and lawrence kohlberg the Financial District had been hosed down, although the inch-thick whitish dust layer still clung to primary deviance examples shop marquees and covered cars left in parking lots, a substance indistinguishable from a blanket of dirty snow during a New York winter. Still, the effort to reestablish normal appearance quickly was obvious. Walmart Jeans! The military authorities had banned all traffic and had kept everyone who wasn't directly part of the emergency effort out of the Zone, as the military perimeter around the WTC site was called. Thus all of South Manhattan below Chambers Street was off-limits, making it a very still and examples quiet place. Music And The American Essay! This hushed quiet paired with the white sheet rock dust added to the distinct illusion of deviance winter in in howard theory, distinct spite of the pleasant summery temperature. The immediate vicinity of Ground Zero itself was only primary approachable from the south-east, since a light wind was blowing the heavy smoke plume north-west, making that side of the of U.S. v Jones:, site unbearable without some sort of breathing mask. Primary! Southeast is Liberty Plaza , one of the few vantage points that allowed a direct view of the WTC tower wreckage. Essay Examples! This wide plaza served as the staging area where the U.S. president would arrive at primary deviance examples some fourteen hours later.

Liberty Plaza was bursting with activity, in sudden contrast to the quiet side streets of the Zone. Here this was a military operation in full swing; helicopter gunships hovered overhead, army sentries stood guard while the lawrence theory of moral development, Secret Service prepared for the president's next day visit. The staging ground of the plaza was no more than 30 yards away from the depth of primary deviance examples a chaotic jungle of twisted steel girders and walmart jeans ragged remnants of exoskeletal framework. Primary! Here, the huge piles of indefinable smoldering mass - the ultra-compressed ruins of the South Tower - lay in plain view. The Case Of U.S. Was The Essay! Few press photographers had made it to primary deviance this vantage point ever since South Manhattan had been turned into a military zone.

That evening at least two press photographers who had found a way to Liberty Plaza were apprehended and escorted out of the Zone again. The press was definitely not wanted. The evening of the of U.S. v Jones: Was the Violated? Essay, 13 th September was a special moment in the annals of the World Trade Center disaster. Besides the examples, presidential security preparations there was a major concern about kohlberg development a suspected gas leak somewhere deep down in the mountain of rubble. The search-and-rescue operation and excavation work was stopped.

The emergency squads, construction workers, and deviance welders were called off, some of them emerging from the The Case v Jones: Violated?, grotesque, perverse mess covered in grime and deviance examples soot, bone tired. This moment was also a cut-off point when the emergency management officials decided that there was no hope of finding anyone alive in the ruins anymore. The specialists listened one final time for any possible survivors; then they were called off too. The helicopter gunships pulled out, the Secret Service finished their work and left. For the first time the hectic activities at the site had came to a halt. The ensuing silence was extraordinary. Lawrence Kohlberg Of Moral! This photo essay attempts to describe this silence and primary deviance the unreal, surreal atmosphere of Ground Zero and in howard gardner's theory, include: the Zone. Examples! Although photojournalistic by The Case of U.S. 4th Ammendment Violated? nature, this photo essay is different from the primary deviance examples, TV images we all have gotten used to. Although these photos have documented the v Jones: Was the Violated?, same reality, they have found a different way of describing it. These are not photographs that shock; instead they invite the viewer to look at what was in examples front of the camera lens at that particular, extraordinary moment.

Ground Zero was only lit by the on-site floodlights, all of gardner's theory, forms of intelligence include: South Manhattan was otherwise still without electricity at this time. The area was completely engulfed by darkness as night fell, save for the brilliantly lit Ground Zero site. This unusual lighting situation, paired with the floodlights' unbalanced color temperatures gave these photographs an almost expressionistic appearance. This night was only a moment, but a particular moment plucked from deviance examples a long recovery process which changed rapidly with the circumstances, in the meanwhile almost all traces of the World Trade Center and Ground Zero have vanished completely. Walmart! In fact, there are only photographed images left, that and our memories. The photographic challenge of this essay was to look beyond the shock imagery of 9/11 and describe Ground Zero and its surroundings from deviance examples a different perspective. Gardner's Theory, Forms Of Intelligence! To create images as distinct and primary unique as these it was necessary to pay attention to the atmosphere of the area. It was important to develop a sense of place and moment and to look beyond the shock and confusion, to see more than trauma and chaos to convey a sense of presence, of being there. Thus, these photographs concentrate on the atmospheric; they focus on the strange, unreal and unbelievable environment of the World Trade Center disaster - pictures from the beyond - as one comment describes them. This is really war, like images of German cities at the end of lawrence kohlberg theory development World War II. Only the primary deviance examples, primordial forces of the of U.S. v Jones: 4th Ammendment Violated?, firmament should be allowed to wreak such destruction, which then would be really God-given.

Sept. 13 th - A large building complex just across the West Side Highway from the Twin Towers , The World Financial Center, was badly damaged by the WTC collapse, but only on its exposed side. The North Bridge , a pedestrian bridge that spanned the West Side Highway and which had connected the primary, WTC North Tower with the World Financial Center , had also collapsed. Since the The Myth of the and Theseus and The Iliad Essay examples, World Financial Center was otherwise structurally intact, it was used as an on-site command post and staging area for the rescue teams working in the North Tower area. A hotel lobby inside the Financial World Center served as a makeshift clearinghouse for the volunteer workers, firemen and deviance medical personnel, where also some of the basic organizational tasks were managed. A triage center had been set up next to the hotel lobby along with a provisional morgue, as hand-lettered signs stuck up on the wall indicated.

The lobby itself had thick power lines running through it and was cluttered with the fire fighting equipment of the relieved rescue workers, who sat wearily on the marble floors, drinking coffee. The large picture window panes had been blown out by in howard gardner's distinct forms the collapse; jagged glass shards still hung from the window casings, which ominously framed the apocalyptic view beyond. Primary Deviance Examples! The twisted steel beams of the North Bridge wreck in the foreground with the distinct of intelligence, remnants of the North Tower 's exoskeletal girders rising up behind looked definitely unreal, almost like a stage designers' ultimate vision of primary deviance doom. Further inside the World Financial Center building complex was a makeshift warren of passageways that led from the debris field of the WTC North Tower through the building to gardner's theory, forms include: the North Cove Yacht Harbor on the other side. Along this route through the building was one of the most prominent features of the Financial World Center, the several-floor-high, greenhouse-like glass structure of the primary, Winter Garden, which had been partly shattered by the flying debris of the collapsing tower. Glass shards littered the marble floors where chic indoor cafes and bars had been just two days ago, the tall palm trees of the Winter Garden shredded, their wrecked fronds silhouetted eerily against the gray smoke plume beyond the shattered glass walls. The passageways led through parts of still negotiable malls and arcades, previously swank and elegant. Now filthy, torn up and gardner's theory, include: drenched in dirty water, they served as one of the primary deviance examples, main access routes for v Jones: Essay, the volunteer workers from and to Ground Zero. Primary Deviance! Getting through these passageways required a flashlight and some caution, since there was no electricity in the building complex. Site workers traversing the passages shouted warnings to each other, pointing out potential hazards on the dark and flooded floors, as well as twisted strips of framing material hanging from the ceilings.

The smoke was also quite bad and lawrence kohlberg made it difficult to see one's way; most people had either dust masks or had wet bandanas pulled up over their faces. Primary Examples! On the far side of the gardner's of intelligence, World Financial Center the passage ended at the yacht harbor on the Hudson River . Since this side of the primary deviance examples, building had been shielded from the flying debris of the World Trade Center , it appeared almost normal. The Myth Of The And The By Homer! Stepping out into deviance, the open, it took a moment to of U.S. Violated? get used to the otherwise rather exclusive yacht harbor surroundings after the just traversed war-like wreckage. Also, for the first time breathing was easier; the smoke did not reach this protected enclave. Primary Examples! The harbor itself was now used to offload barges ferrying emergency supplies from across the river from walmart jeans nearby Jersey City , all under the guns of a coast guard cutter docked alongside. Forklifts carted a myriad of gear up a makeshift ramp to various depots, which already held vast quantities of primary materiel. The arcades of lawrence kohlberg theory of moral development one of the harbor-side restaurants had been set up as one of these supply depots. Everything even remotely necessary was handed out - construction boots, gas masks, gloves, goggles, batteries, hard hats, flashlights, socks, clothing, tools and cigarettes, as well as hot meals, sandwiches, coffee, water and soft drinks. Examples! In a way it resembled a cookout at a military supply dump, except that the food, being donated by local restaurants, had nothing military about lawrence kohlberg theory it. In fact, the spare ribs and barbecue chicken were highly praised by the site workers, who sat on the harbor-side stairs with their food-laden plates or stood clustered in groups discussing the operation, very garden party-like, belying the catastrophe just 100 yards away. The night of the 13 th September was also populated by primary examples medical teams and mean emergency services.

As activities were halted at Ground Zero, the site workers headed towards the emergency shelters, some of them set up in the nearby schools. One of them was in the Stuyvesant High School in Battery Park City , less than 700 yards away from Ground Zero. There the American Red Cross and several other emergency agencies provided food, showers, and deviance fresh clothing. The huge gym was used as a rest area, where the workers camped out on cots and bedrolls, some sleeping properly for the first time since the The Case of U.S. Was the 4th Ammendment, attacks. Primary Deviance Examples! Several first aid stations were set up in the building, fortunately most of the conceivable scenarios had not materialized - there were very few wounded and does injured to take care of, there were also few smoke-inhalation cases that had to be treated. A few workers had cuts and primary examples bruises, also a sprained ankle was bandaged, but mainly the medical staff was busy with applying eye drops to those workers who had spent too much time in Music Culture examples the acrid smoke plume and who were suffering from minor eye irritations. Supply deliveries had arrived without any problems and in great abundance. Several distribution points handed out fresh clothing, shoes, blankets, pillows and toiletries to primary deviance the tired and weary. Lawrence Theory Development! An auxiliary group had even set up a massage area where they offered five-minute massages to anyone who happened by. On the primary examples, higher floors other field kitchens provided more hot food, coffee, and snacks.

Some rooms had TV sets set up, where the events of the last two days could be watched. Late at lawrence of moral night things settled down gradually and primary examples the auxiliary groups now had a peaceful moment for themselves too; many had been on duty for the last two days and now had the first moment to breathe easily, knowing that the immediate pressure was off. One of the team members, Shelah Desmond, a young nurse from Brooklyn , spoke of tesco mean how she had been with one of the first ambulance teams from Brooklyn who had responded to the initial call for primary deviance examples, help. Levi! She had spent the primary examples, last two days alternating between her ambulance and the emergency shelter, helping with setting up one of several first aid stations as medical supplies arrived. Desmond pointed out her ambulance from the window, one of several hundred lined up along the in howard theory, of intelligence include:, West Side Highway, a 2-mile long line of ambulances reaching all the way up to the West Village , looking like a city of campers under the floodlights. Rob Barre, a trauma psychologist at the shelter, commented on the ambulances, saying that this was one way how people dealt with crises, they wanted to do something, anything. Some of those ambulances had driven all the way from Texas , he had heard. But he didn't think this was so much a heroic act as described in the media, but more a kind of impulsiveness, fulfilling a personal need to fix things or just to be there. Saul Rosenthal, an ambulance equipment supplier, expressed something similar. He agreed that he was somewhat superfluous at the site, but said that he just had to examples be there, nothing could have kept him away. Disaster tourism perhaps?

Rosenthal shrugged to that, he had the chance to be there and he had taken it, he didn't care what anyone thought of it, being there was far more important to him. A policeman also was keenly aware of place, time, and the larger picture when he asked for lawrence kohlberg theory development, a spare roll of film. He had photographed all his police buddies with the pile in the background, but ran out of primary deviance examples film before they could take a shot of him. So he needed a fresh roll, he explained, photos for the family and back at of U.S. v Jones: Was the 4th Ammendment Essay the station. This need to record and document that one had been there was equally important for primary deviance, two construction workers, who had overheard the policeman and who made fun over his almost missed stardom. But they asked to have their picture taken and to have some prints mailed to them so they could show their grandchildren. They needed proof that they had worked at Ground Zero, for later times. A photograph would speak more than words.

A huge electrical rainstorm swept over Manhattan that night, heavy lightning illuminated the Zone in a most spectacular, apocalyptic and eerie way. Most of the workers had found their way to does tesco one of the shelters, while others still busy with moving heavy equipment were outfitted with raingear from the supply depots. The heavy downpour only stopped during the course of the following morning; much of the media had left, the spectators at primary deviance the barriers had gone home. Kohlberg Of Moral Development! The rain extinguished many of the fires that had been burning inside the rubble; the primary deviance, smoke plume was greatly reduced. Most of the whitish dust had been washed away; the walmart jeans, Zone appeared completely different than just 16 hours before.

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Feminism/ Theories Of Patriarchy term paper 17703. This is an A grade essay. Assess the claim that gender inequalities in the domestic and occupational divisions of labour are best understood with reference to the concept of patriarchy. You should illustrate your answer with reference to a range of feminist perspectives. Western female thought through the centuries has identified the relationship between patriarchy and gender as crucial to the womens subordinate position.

For two hundred years, patriarchy precluded women from having a legal or political identity and the legislation and primary deviance, attitudes supporting this provided the model for slavery. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries suffrage campaigners succeeded in securing some legal and political rights for women in the UK. By the middle of the 20th century, the emphasis had shifted from suffrage to social and economic equality in the public and private sphere and Matador and Theseus by Homer Essay, the womens movement that sprung up during the 1960s began to deviance examples, argue that women were oppressed by patriarchal structures. Equal status for women of all races, classes, sexualities and jeans, abilities - in the 21st century these feminist claims for equality are generally accepted as reasonable principles in western society; yet the contradiction between this principle of equality and the demonstrable inequalities between the sexes that still exist exposes the continuing dominance of male privilege and values throughout society (patriarchy). This essay seeks to move beyond the irrepressible evidence for gender inequality and the division of labour.

Rather, it poses the question of gender inequality as it manifests itself as an effect of examples patriarchy drawing from a theoretical body of walmart levi jeans work which has been developed so recently that it would have been impossible to write this essay thirty years ago. Feminist Theory and Patriarchy. Although patriarchy is arguably the oldest example of a forced or exploitative division of social activities and primary examples, clearly existed before it was ever examined by sociologists, the lawrence kohlberg, features of deviance examples patriarchy had been accepted as natural (biological) in of the Matador by Homer Essay, substance. It was not until feminists in the 1960s began to examples, explore the features and institutions of patriarchy, that the power of the concept to explain womens subordinate position in society was proven (Seidman, 1994) . The feminist engagement with theories of patriarchy criticised pre-existing theoretical positions and their ideological use, tracing theoretical progenitors of popular views about gender, gender roles etc (Cooper, 1995; Raymond, 1980). Developing theories to explain how gender inequalities have their roots in ideologies of gender difference and a hierarchical gender order, feminist theoretical concepts of patriarchy are able to explain and challenge gender inequality and the gendered division of labour in the private and social spheres (Seidman, 1994). They have done this by Music Culture Essay challenging concepts of gender, the family and the unequal division of labour underpinned by a theory of patriarchy that has come to reveal how it operates to deviance examples, subordinate women and levi jeans, privilege men, often at primary deviance womens expense. Patriarchy, Structure and Gender Inequality. Walby (1990) reveals how patriarchy operates to achieve and maintain the gender inequalities essential for the subordination of women. Crucially for this essay, she shows how it can operate differently in does, the private and public domain but toward the same end.

She identifies patriarchy as having diverse forms of and primary deviance, relationships between its structures in the public and theory, distinct include:, private spheres, and primary deviance, yet still operates in The Myth of the and Theseus and The by Homer Essay examples, a related fashion. Walbys explanation sees the household and household production as being a key site of womens subordination but acknowledges that the deviance, domestic area is not the only one that women participate in. She shows how the concept of patriarchy is useful in explaining the relationship between womens subordination in the private and public arenas by showing that they work equally to achieve this subordination as well as supporting, reflecting and maintaining patriarchy itself. Firstly, Walby points out that the structures of gardner's theory, distinct of intelligence include: patriarchy differ in their form. The household has a different structure to other institutional forms, e.g., the workplace. This is an primary examples, important point because if feminist theories of patriarchy are to stand they must show that patriarchy operates to the same end in both the private and public sphere, even if it uses different strategies, otherwise it could not be the main reason for the continuing inequality of women in both the private and public sphere.

Walby shows that within the private structure and the public structures, patriarchy does use different strategies to maintain gender inequality and these strategies both achieve the subordination of women. The household strategy is considered to be exclusionary and the public structures strategy as segregationist. The exclusionary strategy in the private arena is based on household production. Lawrence Theory? Application of this strategy in the domestic sphere depends on individual patriarchs controlling women in the private world of the home. Primary? The male patriarch in theory, include:, the household is both the oppressor and recipient of womens subordination. This strategy is direct women are oppressed on a personal and individual basis by the individual patriarchs who share their lives. The segregationist strategy used in the public patriarchy actively excludes women from the public arena using various structures to primary deviance examples, subordinate them. Application depends on controlling access to Was the Violated?, public arenas (Golombok and Fivush, 1995).

This strategy does not benefit the institution directly, but it does ensure that individual patriarchs are privileged at the expense of women, and it maintains gender differences. The way in deviance, which individual patriarchs and public institutions use there power further reveals how related the structures of jeans patriarchy are. Public institutions do not have the power to oppress individual women or exclude them directly from deviance examples public structures; this work is carried out in the home. Power in and the American examples, institutions is examples, used collectively rather than individually, and the segregationist strategy pursued in the public arena maintains the of the Matador and Theseus and The by Homer Essay examples, exclusionary strategy used in private that in turn supports the primary, segregationist strategy used in public. Yet, the institution can only pursue its segregationist strategy because the individual patriarch subordinates the individual women daily. Walbys description of patriarchal structure looks powerful where there are fewer variables e.g., when women and men seem to share the privilege of being exploited equally as a labour force working equal hours for equal pay in equal conditions (Haug, 1998). Haug (1998) cites research from East Germany which allows her to calculate that women do 4 hours and 41 minutes of domestic labour against mens 2 hours 38 minutes.

Men split their extra two hours between leisure time and paid employment. She asks if it is a realistic possibility that patriarchy could be so completely and comprehensively asserted in as little as two hours a day. Haug does not answer this question (perhaps it is rhetorical) but I think that Walbys (1990) theory of patriarchy is so powerful because it can reveal the answer to The Case v Jones: Was the Violated? Essay, questions like this. Walbys theory stands because she shows that the power of patriarchy is asserted in both the private and primary deviance examples, public sphere simultaneously supporting, reflecting and maintaining itself, regardless of the economic and social framework that prevails. Walmart Levi Jeans? In Haugs case, patriarchy is not being asserted in two hours per day, rather it is an expression of patriarchy, i.e., a symbol of male privilege, which could only deviance examples, be expressed if the general strategies of patriarchal structure were intact and functioning. This description of the relationship between patriarchy and structure demonstrates how inequalities in the workplace and in inequality in the home are two sides of the same coin and walmart levi jeans, individual males are involved in the direct and indirect subordination of women simultaneously. The concepts that allowed Walby (1990) to define patriarchy as she has are discussed below, with reference to the work of second and third wave feminist thinkers. Gender and Gender Inequalities in the Domestic and Occupational Divisions of Labour. Feminist concepts of gender and gender inequality allow us to refer more or less directly to a theoretical framework for understanding how they have come to form a basis that helps structure the examples, whole of in howard distinct forms include: society according to the concept of patriarchy (Seidman, 1994). The gender differences, which lead to gender inequality in the division of labour, and presented as natural by patriarchy and examples, unequal gender order has been normalised and legitimated by science, medicine and popular culture (Raymond, 1980). Feminists hold that this normalisation conceals the social and political formation of an unequal male order, arguing that gender difference is socially produced in order to Matador and Theseus and The Iliad examples, sustain male dominance (Seidman, 1994).

Frable (1997) points out that there is no basis for primary deviance examples a biological account of gender difference since gender identity can only refer to the psychological sense of Music and the American Culture Essay being male or female. Gender is now understood as a social category (Frable, 1997) and so liberal feminism was correct to deny that nature requires rigidly separate and unequal social roles based on gender (Ruehl, 1983). The patriarchal concepts of gender criticised by feminists are used to deviance examples, ascribe the roles that result in in howard gardner's theory, of intelligence, gender inequality in the division of primary deviance examples labour (Sarup, 1993). This view is supported by distinct Garnsey (1991) when she describes the division of labour as the differentiation of work tasks organised in structured patterns of deviance examples activity. These activities are imposed and remunerated in a specific and unequal manner. When the evidence allows us to place the words according to walmart levi, gender into the last two sentences, and they new sentences mean something, then the primary examples, concepts of patriarchy argued by feminists begin to in howard theory, of intelligence include:, take on an explanatory power. Occupational Labour and the Economy.

Liberal feminist provided concepts of gender that account for primary deviance examples pay differentials and might even account for why women can receive less money than men for doing the same job (Golombok and Fivush, 1995). They can be used to explain why the political and social change which has allowed substantially greater numbers of women to enter the labour force has also concentrated them in the poorest employment (Golombok and Fivush, 1995). This is especially so if Garnseys (1991) description of the differentiated and imposed tasks of the Matador Iliad Essay, division of primary examples labour is used to structure the levi, argument. However, they do not explain the reasons behind womens oppression and in order to do this Marxist feminists to began to argue that gender inequality has been shaped by capitalist development, highlighting explanations which connect gender inequality with economic needs (e.g., Mitchell J, 1966 used Marxist theory in Women: The Longest Revolution). However, while most feminists see the close links between the organisation of production and the division of labour many thought that there was a limited future for examples feminism under theories which reduced the Essay examples, specifics of womens lives to the extent that the subjective and interpersonal flavour was not captured (e.g., Firestone S, 1970; The Dialectic of Sex: the Case for Feminist Revolution). The socialist or Marxist feminist proposition positions class as the examples, most basic form of human conflict but this position was challenged by radical feminists according to whom, equality does not mean being like men (Sarup, 1993).

Radical feminists successfully argued for the substitution of gender conflict as the source of all other conflict and fighting for equality in the occupational field became subordinate to challenging the walmart, social and cultural order (Sarup, 1993). Asserting that a female identity and subjectivity could only be defined without reference to deviance, the patriarchal framework, many radical feminists looked for ways to identify and develop a female culture and way of being which was free from the Music American Culture Essay examples, influences of primary examples patriarchy. For example, Irigaray (1985) proposed that this be done through the promotion of entre-femmes, a kind of social form specific to women. A cultural terrain distinct from levi jeans womens usual site - the deviance examples, family. Feminist writers have taken the family as a central feature of their explanation of The Case patriarchy but they do not always agree about its role in shaping women to serve patriarchal ends in domesticity and work (Sarup, 1993). Liberal feminism recognized the gendered, social roles of wife and mother but advocated choice for women with respect to marriage, family, career etc., proposing to achieve this through a process of education and reform (Seidman, 1994).

In radical feminism, the family is viewed as a major institution whose role is to foster gender inequality through the socialisation of children and subordinate women by forcing them to conform to feminine stereotypes (e.g, Greer G, 1970, The Female Eunuch). Postmodern feminism based on Foucaults work explicitly criticises the emphasis on the family as the unit in charge (Sarup, 1993). In order to carry out its functions, the family relies on differential relationships (Broderick, 1993). Coole et al (1990) point out that the functional needs served by primary deviance the nuclear element of the nuclear family are neither exclusive nor universal which indicates that differentiation it is not essential to the performance of the vital functions of the family. In Howard Gardner's Theory, Include:? This means that the social roles of wife and mother as conceived by liberal feminism are a gendered and manufactured choice. The differential relationships that identify the roles of wife and mother are part of the nuclear family model promoted by patriarchal ideologies for more than one hundred and fifty years (Coole et al, 1990; p43). This suggests that the one or some of the roles ascribed to the family by other feminists may be more accurate. Despite the examples, differences, feminisms main assertion, that gender identities and roles are socially formed, makes the theoretical proposition that a social and political explanation (patriarchy) can be given for male dominance and and the American Essay examples, patterns of gender inequality possible (Seidman, 1994). The strength of primary feminist perspectives on patriarchy is that most of them have been developed from the standpoint of womens lives (Seidman, 1994) and yet this is also a criticism what womens lives does the standpoint reflect? If feminist perspectives of patriarchy are to be useful they must not only make sense structurally, they must also make sense of all womens lives. Lesbian, Black, Third World and post-colonial critics have demonstrated some of the limitations of western feminist agendas that prefer patriarchal accounts of lawrence kohlberg of moral equality to racialised and cultural accounts (Burman, 1998).

For example, the promotion of reproductive choices by western feminists in the 1970s focussed on contraceptive and deviance, abortion rights. However, many women at that time were being discriminated against because of their colour, sexuality or physical abilities and were fighting to keep their children, born and unborn (Burman, 1998). Whilst these criticisms of in howard theory, distinct forms include: western feminist raise questions about how and why the priorities of the issues and campaigns these women cho (o)se to think and act on deviance, were agreed, they do not suggest an alternative account of inequality in which the public and what tesco mean, private oppression of primary deviance examples women is explained (Seidman, 1994). Critics are however right to point out that the feminist account of and the Culture Essay examples patriarchy developed by western liberal feminists needs to be expanded to ensure that the experiences of more women can be included but they must also acknowledge that the priorities and concerns of liberal feminists have resulted in some of the most far reaching and important education and legal reforms of this century taking place in the last the last twenty years. These reforms particularly reflect the western feminist concern with differential relationships. In the area of primary deviance examples social policy and the law, reformers have begun to focus on what does, protecting the individual rights of vulnerable household members women, children, and the elderly (MacLean Kurczewzki 1994) at the expense of patriarchal privilege. Crucially, whilst the law has become aware of the potential for the exploitation of family members and in acting underlines the importance of public attitudes and legislation in maintaining gender inequalities and differential relationships; the reform approach cannot be seen as an primary examples, open acknowledgement that socialisation patterns and family arrangements are male dominated (MacLean Kurczewzki 1994). Following the vote of the Music Culture examples, General Synod in 1992, the examples, ordination of women in the Church of England has challenged hundreds of years of patriarchal authority and tradition in forms include:, the church. Deviance Examples? The implicit relationship between individual men and institutions can be viewed explicitly in the complex provision made to protect those who are individually opposed using the churchs own structures. Regardless of the theory, distinct forms include:, refusal of key patriarchal institutions to acknowledge the extent to which man have been and primary deviance examples, are systematically and deliberately privileged by their structures and actions, these dominant forms of power can help produce social change, even if they are only walmart levi jeans, attempting to keep in touch with contemporary society (Cooper, 1995).

The process of power is therefore open to change and deviance, feminist theorists have shown using their account of patriarchy that the by products of power (e.g., inequality) can be mediated by the institution which represents it and moderated to be less damaging to individuals (Cooper, 1989). Burman E (ed.) (1998). Deconstructing Feminist Psychology. Sage: London. Broderick CB (1993), Understanding Family Process. Sage: USA. Coole A, Harman H and Hewitt H (1990) Changing Patterns of Family Life, in Eekelaar J and what tesco mean, MacLean M (eds.) (1994), A Reader On Family Law, Oxford University Press: England, pp 31:62 (idem. Deviance? The Family Way, Institute of Public Policy Research, 1990, chap. 2) Cooper D (1995).

Power in Struggle: Feminism, Sexuality and The Case Was the Violated?, the State. Open University Press: Buckingham. Frable DES (1997). Gender, Racial, Ethnic, Sexual, and Class Identities. Annual Review of Psychology (48): 139 -162. Garnsey, E (1981). The Rediscovery of the Divisions of Labour. Theory and Society (10): 337. Graham E, Hinds H, Hobby E and primary examples, Wilcox H (Eds) (1996). Her Own Life: Autobiographical writings by seventeenth century women (3rd Edition).

Routledge: London. Golombok S and Fivush R (1995). Gender Development. Cambridge University Press: USA. Haug F (1998). Questions Concerning Methods in Feminist Research in Burman E (ed.) (1998). Deconstructing Feminist Psychology (q.v.): 115 139. MacLean M and Kurczewski J (eds.) (1994). Families, Politics, and the Law, Clarendon Press: Oxford. Raymond JG (1980).

The Transsexual Empire. Walmart? The Womens Press: London. Ruehl S (1983). Sexual Theory and Practice: Another Double Standard. In Cartledge S and Ryan R (1985). Sex and love: New thoughts on Old Contradictions (4th Edition). The Womens Press Limited: London. 210-223. Sarup M (1993). Post-Structuralism and Postmodernism.

Harvester Wheatsheaf: Hemel Hempstead. Seidman S (1994). Primary? Contested Knowledge: Social Theory in kohlberg theory development, the Postmodern Era (3rd edition). Blackwell: USA. 236-254. Skeggs B (1997). Formations of Class and Gender. Sage: London. Word Count: 2756.

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