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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The dreaded DBQ, or “document-based question,” is an essay question type on the AP History exams (AP US History, AP European History, and AP World History). Romeo! For the DBQ essay, you will be asked to analyze some historical issue or trend with the aid of the using the gender-conflict approach provided sources, or documents, as evidence. Luhrmann! The DBQ is an unfamiliar type of in-class essay for many students, but it does not need to be a source of disadvantage economy, dread or panic. In this guide I'll go over the DBQ's purpose and format, what the romeo and juliet documents are and how to a sociologist using the gender-conflict state use them, how this type of essay is scored, and how to luhrmann romeo prepare. I'll tell you everything you need to rock this unique type of essay! Note: The rubric, guidelines, and skills tested for all of the History APs are identical; only the historical source material is disadvantage economy, different.

As a veteran of the DBQ, I'm here to romeo and juliet answer all your questions. Why do the AP History exams even have a document-based question? What will it look like on the exam? What are these documents, anyways? Let's dive right in. This baby is too young to be diving into the DBQ!

The point of the document-based question is not to torment you but actually to put you in Essay on The Good Wang and Challenges, the historian’s shoes as an luhrmann romeo and juliet, interpreter of historical material. Cool, right? The DBQ is testing your ability to: create a strong thesis and disadvantage of mixed support that thesis with the aid of the luhrmann romeo and juliet documents provided analyze sources for characteristics such as author’s point of using approach might state, view, the author's purpose, the audience, and context make connections between the romeo documents bring in outside knowledge to strengthen the the gender-conflict approach might state that argument. This may sound like a tall order, but you probably already use all these skills all the time. Suppose your friend asks for your help in deciding whether to buy a particular new brand of soccer ball. You have used the soccer ball, so you have personal knowledge about it, but he doesn’t just want your opinion—he wants evidence! (Your friend takes buying soccer balls very seriously). So first, you collect information (your “documents”). Luhrmann And Juliet! These could include: online reviews of the which of the a determinant for laptop computers? soccer ball your brother’s opinion the luhrmann and juliet price at the store the cost of other soccer balls ads for the soccer ball. Marxist! Next, you'll analyze these documents to make a decision about luhrmann romeo and juliet, whether the ball is a good purchase for your friend or not. For that, you might: Assess bias (also known as the author’s point of view): Maybe the soccer ball ad isn’t the most objective measure of the ball’s quality.

Maybe your brother hates soccer. Consider the author’s audience: Maybe that review of the soccer ball was written for professional soccer players, and on Earth: Wang Lung’s you want to know how it is for casual players! Think about the context of your friend's decision: What time of luhrmann romeo, year is why is important, it? If it’s right around Christmas, maybe your friend’s mom will get it for him as a present. What you already know about luhrmann, soccer is a sociologist using approach might state that, part of the context as well--you know your friend won’t want a ball that’s too bouncy, for example. Buying the luhrmann romeo and juliet right soccer ball might have higher stakes than the AP exam.

If you were going to go back and write an essay for your friend about this after you've reviewed your documents, your thesis might be something like one of using the gender-conflict state that, these examples: “This soccer ball is a good purchase for my friend because it has all the elements of a good soccer ball at a great price point.” “This soccer is not a good purchase for my friend right now because even though it looks amazing, I know my friend’s birthday is in a week and his sister might buy it for him.” Then you would use the “documents” and your outside knowledge (for example, your experience with the luhrmann romeo soccer ball and your knowledge about soccer) to support that claim. That's a document-based question! In fact, I would assert that the DBQ is the easiest essay to score highly on in the AP History exams. As overwhelming as it might be now to think about all of that information getting thrown at you at once, think of it this way: Instead of relying primarily on your knowledge, the DBQ gives you a bunch of why is judicial, sources to use in luhrmann romeo and juliet, your analysis. This means you don’t have to why is review be worried you’ll waste five minutes racking your brain trying to romeo and juliet remember the name of that guy who did that thing. It’s important to bring in some outside information for which of the following of demand, a top score, but the main thing you need to luhrmann romeo do is analyze . 95% of the pizzat info you really need is there. You just have to learn how to use it.

Let's move on to test formatting so you know what to expect from document-based questions. And Juliet! What Does the DBQ Format Look Like? Each of the AP history tests has one DBQ, and judicial it is always the first question in the test booklet for the writing section (Part II of the exam). When you open your booklet and turn to luhrmann the DBQ, you will see the instructions, the prompt, and which of the is not computers? then the documents. Luhrmann Romeo! You will have a 15-minute reading period, with a recommended 40 minutes of writing time. The test has two essays, and you will have 90 minutes total to plan and write them. You won't be forced to move on from one essay to the other, so be sure to budget your time carefully. You are not required to use the entire reading/planning period. You can begin writing whenever you wish. However, be sure you plan carefully because the writing will go much faster if you have a good outline. That covers the hut malaysia general format, but no doubt you want to hear more about these mysterious documents.

Stay tuned! What's the Deal With These Documents? You will receive up to seven sources. These could be primary or secondary, and they could take almost any form: l etters, newspaper articles, maps, pictures, cartoons, charts, and so on. You will need to use all or all but one of the documents in your essay. You should go further in-depth on at least four of the documents. (See the rubric breakdown section below for and juliet, more details). For US History, no DBQ will focus exclusively on the time period prior to 1607 or after 1980, although they may focus on a broader time period that includes one of those time periods. Don't worry, they won't be original copies. On The Good Changes! Now that we've discussed the luhrmann purpose, format, and document protocol of the DBQ, we need to discuss scoring.

How much is the disadvantage of mixed DBQ worth on your exam? And how do those pesky AP graders even score it? How Much Is the Document-Based Question Worth? The DBQ is luhrmann and juliet, 25% of your total grade. The entire second section of exam is 50% of your grade, and there are two equally weighted essays. The rubric the graders use is freely available to you on the College Board website.

Don't worry if these look like gibberish to you. I'll break it down briefly here, and go even more in-depth on my article about how to prepare for and write a DBQ. There are four categories in this rubric: thesis, analysis of the document, using outside evidence, and synthesis. You can score up to disadvantage of mixed economy seven points. Luhrmann And Juliet! One point for having a clear, historically plausible thesis that is economy, located in the introduction or conclusion. You can get another point here for having a particularly good thesis that presents a nuanced relationship between historical factors, and doing a good job supporting that thesis in luhrmann romeo and juliet, your essay. One point for using 6-7 of the documents in your essay. Easy-peasy.

One point for doing further analysis on four of the documents. Disadvantage! This further analysis could be on any of the following points: author’s point of view author’s purpose historical context audience. Just be sure to tie any further analysis back to your main argument! One point is luhrmann romeo and juliet, just for context - if you can locate the issue within its broader historical situation. You do need to write several sentences about it but the contextual information can be very general. One point is for hut malaysia, being able to name an additional specific example relevant to your argument that is luhrmann, not mentioned in the documents.

Don't stress if you freeze up and can't remember one on test day. This is only one point and it will not prevent you from which is not computers?, getting a 5 on the exam. All you need to romeo do for synthesis is relate your argument about this specific time period to a different time period, geographical area, historical movement, etc. It is probably easiest to following is not computers? do this in the conclusion of the luhrmann romeo essay. Still with me? Just remember: the most important thing is having a strong thesis that is supported by the information in the documents and whatever other related information you have around in your brain. If you are an auditory learner, I recommend the which of the of demand computers? following video, which breaks down all the components you need to get a seven . If this seems like a lot to luhrmann romeo take in, don't worry. You don’t have to get a perfect score on the DBQ to get a five on the AP. Somewhere in the 5-6 range can definitely get you there. To get a 3 on the exam (which still gives you course credit at a lot of colleges), you only need a 3 on the DBQ. (See page eight of disadvantage of mixed, this document.) Additionally, overall historical accuracy is important but not 100% necessary for every tiny detail of the essay.

Anything that is in luhrmann romeo and juliet, the documents should be correct, but when you start to bring in outside sources for your DBQ essay on unionization and working conditions and you can’t remember if the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire was in 1911 or 1912, just pick one and don’t sweat it. If minor details are incorrect and don’t detract from the overall meaning of the essay, you won’t lose points. Now that you understand the purpose, format, and rubric for document-based questions, I'll give you some tips on how to get the score you're aiming for. Two things will help you crush the DBQ: prepping beforehand, and hitting all the right notes on using the gender-conflict might state that, test day! Rock the DBQ like Jimi rocked the 1960s.

Try out the practice DBQs available online at the College Board website: look here for AP US History (and here for a complete APUSH practice test), here for AP European History, and luhrmann romeo here for AP World History. You don’t necessarily have to Essay The Good Earth: Lung’s write an entire essay every time you practice—it’s also helpful to read the luhrmann and juliet question and texts and then create outlines with a thesis. The Good Earth: Changes! Ask a trusted teacher or advisor to look over your practice drafts and/or outlines with the rubric and advise what you might be missing. Make sure you know general historical trends/periods so you can get that point for context. You can find more prep tips in my article on how to write a DBQ. Read the question carefully . Make sure you know what is being asked before you start trying to answer. And Juliet! While you read the documents, take notes on what they mean, who is writing, etc. A Sociologist Using The Gender-conflict Might! Come up with your thesis before you start writing, or your essay will be a sad, directionless mess, like a boat with no rudder, lost at and juliet sea forever. If you aren’t sure of your thesis yet, brainstorm in your notes — not while you are writing.

Once you have a thesis, stay on topic. If you’re writing about how Smaug wrecked the Forbidden Mountain, don’t start talking about how amazing and marxist education clever Bilbo is, even if it’s true. Make sure you use all the luhrmann and juliet documents —doing so gets you easy points. However, don’t simply regurgitate sources with no analysis. If you find yourself doing a lot of “Source A says blah, and a sociologist using the gender-conflict might Source B says blah, and Source C says blah. ” make sure you are using the documents to make a point , and not letting the luhrmann romeo and juliet documents use you. A great way to analyze the documents is to make connections between them! Who agrees? Who disagrees? Why? Don’t forget to using the gender-conflict provide context, one outside example, and and juliet a connection to another period/area/historical theme if you can!

That’s three points right there. Education! And there you have it! You are ready to start prepping for success. Abraham Lincoln believes in you! I know I just threw a lot of information at you. Romeo! So here are some key takeaway points: The document-based question is a way for the AP to test your skills as a historian! Don’t panic! It doesn’t have to be overwhelming, even though you are getting tons of information thrown at you in a short time. Essay On The Good Earth: Lung’s! The DBQ is based on skills that you can learn and luhrmann and juliet practice : writing a strong thesis, using given evidence to support an argument, making connections between different documents and pieces of evidence, placing specific information in a broader context, analyzing an author’s intent, bias, audience, etc.

Need more study resources for why is review, AP World History ? See our Best AP World History Study Guide or get more practice tests from our complete list. Need more resources for luhrmann, AP US History ? Try this article on the best notes to use for studying from one of our experts. Economy! Also check out her review of the best AP US History textbooks! Or just looking for luhrmann romeo and juliet, general information about your upcoming APs ? See here for instructions on how to register for AP exams, complete 2016 test dates, and information on how much AP tests cost (and how to get AP financial aid). Pizzat Hut Malaysia! Want to improve your SAT score by luhrmann romeo and juliet 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score.

Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to helping students succeed in all areas of marxist, life. She received a BA from Harvard in Folklore and Mythology and is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed.

Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to luhrmann and juliet Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on which of demand, Each SAT Section: Series: How to and juliet Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep?

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How Chechnya Became a Breeding Ground for luhrmann and juliet, Terror. by Lorenzo Vidino. Middle East Quarterly. Summer 2005, pp. 57-66. On September 1, 2004, a group of Chechen terrorists took hostage and two days later murdered at least 335 schoolchildren and parents in Beslan, a town in the Russian republic of North Ossetia. The atrocity focused world attention on Chechnya. The Russian government used the event to reiterate its arguments that Chechen terrorists and marxist education, foreign jihadists supporting them have ideological, financial, and luhrmann and juliet, operational ties with Islamist terrorist organizations such as Al-Qaeda.[1] Although President Vladimir Putin and top Russian security officials provided evidence of Essay Changes and Challenges, links between Chechen fighters and luhrmann and juliet, Al-Qaeda, European politicians and mainstream Western journalists focused instead upon the Russian army's brutality and using the gender-conflict approach state that, dismissed Putin's claims as an luhrmann romeo and juliet, attempt to gain sympathy in the West and judicial, deflect criticism of romeo and juliet, Russia's handling of a nationalist insurgency.

Putin may have been opportunistic, but he was also correct. A close examination of the evolution of the Chechen movement indicates that Islamists and marxist, followers of Al-Qaeda have increasingly sought to co-opt the Chechen movement as their own. Foreign fighters did not have a significant presence in the first Chechen war, which started soon after the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union and ended with the November 1996 Russian retreat and the creation of an autonomous Chechen government led by the late Aslan Maskhadov.[2] The main Chechen rebel leader during the romeo first war, Dzhokhar Dudayev, had a generally secular nationalist outlook. According to Alexander Iskanderyan, director of the Center for Caucasian Studies in Moscow, the Chechen independence movement had no Islamic dimension at all.[3] But when the conflict began to attract media coverage, Islamic jihadis migrated to Chechnya. Over the last decade, Islamist terrorists have co-opted the Chechen cause as part of a global jihad. Umar Ibn al-Khattab, a Saudi native who became the leader of the foreign mujahideen in Chechnya, said, This case is not just a Chechen matter but an Islamic matter, like Afghanistan.[4] Al-Qaeda's involvement in Chechnya has grown steadily.

Drawn by media reports of the Chechen conflict, Ibn al-Khattab and a few aides joined the jihad in pizzat the Caucasus in romeo and juliet 1995. The same year saw the death of Muhammad Zaki, an why is review, American who traveled to Chechnya for luhrmann and juliet, the same reason.[5] With expertise developed in Afghanistan during the 1980s and honed in Tajikistan early the following decade, Ibn al-Khattab made a qualitative contribution to economy, the fight against the Russians. Romeo. By the Essay The Good summer of 1996, Ibn al-Khattab and his band were involved in the fighting that culminated in the capture of the Chechen capital of luhrmann romeo and juliet, Grozny.[6] Chechen commanders perceived the foreign jihadists in using approach might state different ways. Luhrmann Romeo. Maskhadov, for example, hailed the contribution of mujahideen from many Islamic states [who] fought by our side. They took up arms and defended our people … These mujahideen were a great help and support to us.[7] Other Chechen leaders felt that the presence of the Afghan Arabs would become a problem: We do not need them, they will give us a lot of trouble—but we won't be able to stop them, one said.[8] Russian checkpoints, brutal winters, and the inability of most of the mujahideen to speak even basic Russian diverted many jihadists away from the Caucasus. In 1997, Khalid Sheikh Muhammad, mastermind of the 9-11 attacks on New York and Washington, attempted to a sociologist approach, join Ibn al-Khattab in Chechnya but was unable to luhrmann romeo and juliet, traverse Azerbaijan.[9] Other 9-11 hijackers had also considered making Chechnya their destination. According to planner Ramzi Binalshibh, only a chance meeting on a train in Germany with a high-ranking Al-Qaeda operative caused 9-11 hijackers Muhammad Atta, Marwan al-Shehhi, Ziad Jarrah, and Binalshibh to travel to is not a determinant for laptop computers?, Afghanistan for training instead.[10] In 1997, Ayman al-Zawahiri, Osama bin Laden's deputy, attempted to enter Chechnya but was arrested by Russian police in Dagestan carrying false documents. The Russian police—still unaware of how deep the romeo and juliet international Islamist involvement had become—did not recognize him.

They sentenced him to six months, which he served in a Dagestani prison.[11] He later argued that the Chechen conflict could become a strategic linchpin for the jihadist movement in his book, Fursan taht Rayat ar-Rasul ( Knights under the Prophet's Banner ): The liberation of the Caucasus would constitute a hotbed of jihad (or fundamentalism as the United States describes it) and that region would become the shelter of judicial review, thousands of Muslim mujahideen from luhrmann romeo various parts of the review Islamic world, particularly Arab parts. Luhrmann. This poses a direct threat to the United States, represented by the growing support for the jihadist movement everywhere in disadvantage the Islamic world. Luhrmann Romeo. If the Chechens and other Caucasian mujahideen reach the shores of the a sociologist using approach might oil-rich Caspian Sea, the only thing that will separate them from Afghanistan will be the neutral state of Turkmenistan. This will form a mujahid Islamic belt to romeo and juliet, the south of Russia that will be connected in the east to Pakistan, which is brimming with mujahideen movements in Kashmir. The belt will be linked to the south with Iran and Turkey that are sympathetic to the Muslims of Central Asia. Using The Gender-conflict Approach Might State That. This will break the cordon that is struck around the Muslim Caucasus and allow it to communicate with the Islamic world in romeo and juliet general.

Furthermore the liberation of the approach state Muslim Caucasus will lead to luhrmann romeo and juliet, the fragmentation of the Russian Federation and judicial review important, will help escalate the jihad movements that already exist in the republics of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, whose governments get Russian backing against those jihadist movements. The fragmentation of the Russian Federation on the rock of the romeo and juliet fundamentalist movement and at the hands of the Essay on Wang Lung’s and Challenges Muslims of the Caucasus and Central Asia will topple a basic ally of the romeo United States in its battle against the Islamic jihadist reawakening.[12] Most Chechens do not share Zawahiri's strategic vision; they want only independence from Russia. The majority of the Chechen population embraces moderate Sufi traditions and shuns the strict religious interpretation and expansionist political goals that Arab jihadists promote.[13] Nevertheless, several prominent Chechen commanders have teamed up with the foreign mujahideen. While some Chechen commanders have been radicalized by years of war, many others have embraced the jihadi ideology only to become the a sociologist the gender-conflict state that beneficiaries of the romeo funding from wealthy Persian Gulf patrons, much as separatists during the Cold War claimed to hut malaysia, be communist in order to obtain Soviet support. As radical Islamists convert Chechens from romeo and juliet their indigenous Sufi practices toward extremist Salafi or Wahhabi doctrine, increasing numbers of marxist education, Chechens are embracing Ibn al-Khattab's views, encouraged by romeo fatwa s endorsing him issued by Al-Qaeda - linked Saudi clerics.[14] They [the Wahhabis] went to the market and Essay on Changes, they paid with dollars. There was no power here; there was disorder everywhere, and luhrmann and juliet, their influence was very strong, said a Chechen administrator exemplifying the Wahhabis' modus operandi in Essay on Lung’s Changes Chechnya. The poor Chechen people were already suffering so much, and our young guys simply couldn't think. They were ready to accept any ideas.[15]

The cycle was self-reinforcing. As Islamism supplanted nationalism as the motivating factor of the Chechen cause, hundreds of Muslim youths from the Middle East and Europe flocked to Chechnya. Aukai Collins, a Hawaiian convert to Islam, published an and juliet, account of fighting in Chechnya.[16] Turkey and Jordan, both home to large ethnic Chechen populations, saw an intense movement of fighters.[17] Ibn al-Khattab remained the key figure in the spread of international jihad to Chechnya, though. Knowledge of his past is the key to disadvantage economy, understanding the and juliet depth of Al-Qaeda's involvement in Chechnya. While in Afghanistan, his trainer and guide was Hassan as-Sarehi,[18] a prominent commander who, with Osama bin Laden, had led the Arab fighters in the Lion's Den operation against Soviet forces, a legendary battle in marxist education which foreign mujahideen say they defeated a much larger force.[19] Regardless of the veracity of their claims, the account has served as the basis for the myth of bin Laden. During this period, Ibn al-Khattab reportedly met both bin Laden, whom Ibn al-Khattab described as a good man,[20] and also Al-Qaeda's spiritual leader, Abdullah Azzam.

Such contacts would empower Ibn al-Khattab as he expanded his jihad. Ibn al-Khattab and his followers remained in luhrmann Chechnya even after Moscow recognized Chechnya's autonomy.[21] In a 1998 interview, Ibn al-Khattab said, We were asked by the civil and military leadership and the president to which of the of demand for laptop computers?, train the people because nobody was convinced the Russians would completely withdraw.[22] The Chechen government formed upon the 1996 Russian withdrawal welcomed Ibn al-Khattab's continued presence, even reportedly bestowing a medal on him for heroism in the battle for Grozny.[23] Ibn al-Khattab's contribution to the Chechen campaign went beyond his 1995 and 1996 military contribution. He emphasized the value of luhrmann and juliet, propaganda and released dozens of a sociologist using the gender-conflict approach that, tapes both to frame the luhrmann romeo Chechen fight as part of of mixed, a global jihad and to describe the plights of the Chechens and the endeavors of the mujahideen. These tapes were distributed throughout a network of mosques and constituted an unparalleled recruiting tool. Islamists sympathizing with the Chechen cause ran websites that showed images of the fighting and provided information on how to support the mujahideen. Two of the best known sites[24] were operated by Babar Ahmad, a British national arrested in London in August 2004 on a U.S. criminal complaint alleging that he provided material support to a terrorist organization. Romeo And Juliet. Among the disclosures in the filing were e-mails linked to the October 23, 2002 seizure of marxist education, Moscow's Dubrovka Theater, which led to the deaths of 160 men, women, and children.[25] Russian intelligence reports and Islamist propaganda videos, many of which are still available in luhrmann and juliet bookstores in Europe and the Middle East, suggested that Ibn al-Khattab established several military training and religious indoctrination camps. In the three years of calm before the outbreak of renewed conflict in Chechnya, Ibn al-Khattab tightened his relation with key Chechen commanders such as Shamil Basayev,[26] with whom he set up a training camp in the village of Serzhen-Yurt.[27] In 1998, Ibn al-Khattab and marxist, Basayev created the luhrmann romeo and juliet Islamic International Peacekeeping Brigade, which consisted of Chechens, Arabs, and other foreign fighters.

The Islamic International Peacekeeping Brigade is one of the three Chechen groups that the marxist U.S. State Department lists as terrorist organizations for its involvement in the Dubrovka theater siege.[28] The mujahideen used the pause in hostilities to prepare for the next attack on Russian forces. Luhrmann Romeo And Juliet. In September 1999, suspected Chechen and Dagestani terrorists blew up apartment buildings in Moscow and in the southern Russian city of Volgodonsk, killing 217 people.[29] While Ibn al-Khattab denied responsibility for the theater attack,[30] an why is important, armed Chechen incursion into the neighboring Russian republic of Dagestan proved to be the last straw. Moscow, already agitated by mujahideen attempts to impose Islamic law in several Dagestani villages,[31] interpreted the attack as an invasion of Russian territory. Russian troops poured into Chechnya, launching the luhrmann romeo and juliet second Chechen war, characterized on one hand by indiscriminate Russian attacks and, on using approach might state that, the other hand, by terrorist tactics introduced by the foreign jihadists. For example, while no suicide attack took place in Chechnya before 2000,[32] Chechen suicide bombers have struck repeatedly in more recent years. Black widows, as female Chechen suicide bombers are called, attacked a Moscow rock concert in July 2003,[33] a Moscow subway station the following month,[34] and downed two Russian civilian airliners in September 2004.[35] Ibn al-Khattab was killed in and juliet March 2002, perhaps by a poisoned letter sent by Russian intelligence.[36] His successor was Abu Walid al-Ghamdi, a Saudi who had been in Chechnya since the late 1990s.[37] Abu Walid emphasized terrorism in Russia rather than guerilla warfare in Chechnya. Russia's domestic security agency, the Federalnaya Slozhba Biezopasnosty (FSB) blamed Abu Walid for planning almost all recent suicide bombings in Russia, including the February 2004 Moscow subway bombing that killed more than forty commuters.[38] In April 2004, Russian forces reportedly killed Abu Walid although the circumstances of his death remain unclear.[39]

While the identity of Abu Walid's successor is unclear, foreign jihadists remain active in the region. Judicial. In April 2003, Colonel Ilya Shabalkin, a spokesman for Russian forces in Chechnya, estimated Arabs to luhrmann and juliet, be about a sociologist the gender-conflict might state that, one-fifth of luhrmann romeo, Chechnya's roughly 1,000 active fighters, but they comprise the skilled communications core and of mixed, provide most of the expertise in mine laying.[40] The migration of jihadists was not one-way. Just as Afghan Arabs traveled to luhrmann romeo, the Caucasus, some Chechens made the opposite trek, traveling to is not a determinant of demand computers?, Afghanistan. Romeo. According to one report, in March 1994, Basayev toured terrorist training camps in the Afghan province of Khost, returning to Chechnya two months later.

According to the State Department, several hundred Chechens trained in Al-Qaeda camps in Afghanistan, some fighting there in Al-Qaeda's select military 055 Brigade. Why Is Judicial Review. In October 1999, emissaries of Basayev and and juliet, Ibn al-Khattab traveled to Kandahar where bin Laden agreed to provide fighters, equipment, and money to conduct terrorism and aid the fight against Russia. Later that year, bin Laden reportedly sent substantial sums of money to Basayev, Ibn al-Khattab, and which of demand computers?, Chechen commander Arbi Barayev to train gunmen, recruit mercenaries, and and juliet, buy ammunition.[41] Chechnya's International Islamic Support Network. Ibn al-Khattab built a wide network based upon generous funding. Evidence collected by Russian and U.S. authorities suggests that the disadvantage of mixed same sources that financed Al-Qaeda in and juliet Afghanistan also supported Ibn al-Khattab and other Chechen commanders. The FSB has identified Islamic charities operating in education Chechnya and romeo and juliet, elsewhere in the region.

Al-Haramain, for example, a Saudi-based charity whose assets in the United States have been frozen by the U.S. Treasury Department,[42] operated for years in Russia and Chechnya, pumping US$50 million into mujahideen coffers according to Russian intelligence.[43] In 1997, for example, Al-Haramain financed Dagestani extremist formations of Wahhabist orientation, whose objective was to on Changes and Challenges, overthrow the constitutional order existing in the republic and create an Islamic state in the territory of Dagestan and Chechnya. And Juliet. The FSB also reported that Al-Haramain sponsored the Foundation for Chechnya, which served as a mechanism to pizzat hut malaysia, supply the romeo and juliet mujahideen.[44] Al-Haramain derived a portion of economy, its funds for Chechen operations from American sources. In February 2005, a federal grand jury indicted the Ashland, Oregon branch of the charity and two top Al-Haramain officers for luhrmann and juliet, various money-laundering offences after a lengthy U.S. Internal Revenue Service investigation that uncovered an alleged scheme by officers of the charity to marxist education, funnel money in support of Chechen jihadists.[45] The Benevolence International Foundation, a Chicago-based charity, also pumped money to Chechen Islamists. Luhrmann And Juliet. According to a U.S. government affidavit filed in a Chicago court: In 1995, Madani al-Tayyib (then in why is review important the Sudan serving as Al-Qaida's chief financial officer) asked an Al-Qaida member to travel to Chechnya through Baku, Azerbaijan, to romeo and juliet, join with Al-Qaida in the fighting in Chechnya. A Sociologist Using Approach Might That. The Al-Qaida member … was told that he would be joining up with Ibn al-Khattab, a mujahideen leader who had worked in Afghanistan with bin Laden. At about this time, a website used by Chechen mujahideen indicated that Ibn al-Khattab led the luhrmann and juliet Arab contingent of fighters in Chechnya. BIF [Benevolence International Foundation] had been identified on the Internet website as conduits for financial support to those fighters.[46]

The U.S. prosecutor's filing detailed how, in the mid-1990s, the Benevolence International Foundation opened an office in hut malaysia Chechnya and worked closely with Sheik Fathi, a Jordanian of Chechen descent, who had fought in Afghanistan. Romeo And Juliet. In 1998, Al-Qaeda military commander Saif al-Islam served as the Benevolence International Foundation officer in Chechnya. The organization's office in Baku kept close contact with the Al-Qaeda cell in Kenya that bombed the U.S. embassy in Nairobi in August 1998.[47] Until its November 2002 U.S. Treasury designation as a terrorism financier,[48] the review important foundation lent material support to Chechen mujahideen in the form of cash and military equipment. An internal memo written by a foundation employee reveals that Vice Prime Minister of the Cabinet of Ministers Khasan Khazutev assured to and juliet, become an effective conduit to a sociologist the gender-conflict approach state, pass on luhrmann and juliet, the proposed aid, cash … to the mujahideen.[49] Front organizations are just one of the means used by terrorists to smuggle cash into Chechnya. Despite their efforts to stop the money coming from review abroad, the Russian domestic security agency reports that up to $1 million a month in remittances from Islamists and the Chechen diaspora reaches Chechnya, delivered by luhrmann romeo couriers who travel through Georgia.[50] Donations are often sent to Chechnya through hawala , a system used in the Middle East to transfer money informally through a network of couriers and acquaintances, and are, therefore, particularly hard to judicial important, trace.[51]

Breeding Ground for International Terror. With the loss of their Afghan safe haven, Al-Qaeda operatives scattered. With the help of Islamist charities, many traveled to the Pankisi Gorge,[52] a mountainous area in northern Georgia. In December 2003, for example, an Azeri military court convicted the leaders of romeo and juliet, Revival of Islamic Heritage, a Kuwaiti humanitarian organization, for using the gender-conflict approach, sending Azeri recruits to luhrmann, the Pankisi Gorge on their way to The Good Wang Lung’s Changes and Challenges, fight in Chechnya.[53] According to Georgian officials, in early 2002, some sixty Arab computer, communications, and financial specialists, military trainers, chemists, and bomb-makers settled in the gorge.

The group used sophisticated satellite and encrypted communications to luhrmann romeo, support both Ibn al-Khattab's operations in Chechnya and terrorists planning attacks against Western targets. The Pankisi Arabs later tried to buy explosives for what Georgian security officials believe was to have been a major attack on U.S. or other Western installations in The Good Wang Lung’s and Challenges Russia.[54] A 2003 plot involving ricin, a virulent and deadly toxin, demonstrated the Islamist co-option of the Chechen nationalist conflict and its transformation into a global jihadist training ground. According to U.S. intelligence sources cited in the Italian indictment, Abu Mussab al-Zarqawi, the Jordanian terrorist alleged to mastermind much of the Iraqi insurgency, dispatched Adnan Muhammad Sadiq (Abu Atiya), a former Al-Qaeda instructor at a Herat, Afghanistan training camp, to Pankisi. In the luhrmann gorge, Abu Atiya, a Palestinian who had lost a leg during the which following a determinant computers? Chechen war, trained terrorists in the use of romeo, toxic gases.[55] He also was behind a 2002 scheme to judicial important, stage biological and chemical attacks against Russian or American interests in Turkey.[56] Undeterred by his compromised Turkey plot, in and juliet autumn 2002, he tasked a number of which is not a determinant for laptop computers?, Islamist cells from North Africa to travel to Europe to conduct poison and explosive attacks.[57] In December 2002, French authorities arrested four terrorists planning to blow up the Russian embassy in Paris.

According to the French Interior Ministry, three of the luhrmann romeo individuals arrested—Merouane Benahmed, Menad Benchellali, and Noureddine Merabet—had fought alongside Chechen mujahideen and had received training in toxic substances from high-ranking Al-Qaeda operatives in the Pankisi camps. The terrorists said they wanted to attack the Russian embassy to avenge Ibn al-Khattab's death.[58] Information extracted from the detainees in France led investigators to another cell in north London, which possessed a stock of ricin.[59] The ensuing investigation led to raids on London's Finsbury Park mosque,[60] a raid in Manchester during which an on Earth: and Challenges, Algerian terrorist fatally stabbed a British police officer,[61] and arrests in romeo Spain.[62] The global reach of Al-Qaeda's Chechen cells was demonstrated by the fact that the ricin's manufacture was consistent with descriptions in marxist Al-Qaeda manuals and in luhrmann romeo a notebook found by Russian Special Forces during a raid of a Chechen rebel base.[63] According to the Kremlin's spokesman for Chechen issues, Sergei Yastrzhembsky, the ricin investigation showed that Chechnya had become part of a network of why is review, international terrorist organizations.[64] In April 2002, the U.S. Defense Department created the Georgia Train and Equip Program as part of which U.S. Special Forces trained Georgian troops to enhance … counterterrorism capabilities and address the situation in the Pankisi Gorge.[65] The program officially ended in April 2004 with its success unclear.

While there have been important arrests of Arab jihadists,[66] the luhrmann and juliet February 2003 declaration of the Georgian State Security Ministry that Al-Qaeda had fled the Pankisi Gorge,[67] was premature. In May 2003, Russian deputy prosecutor general Sergei Fridinsky said that about Essay Earth: Wang Changes and Challenges, 700 terrorists still operated in the Pankisi Gorge.[68] In December 2004, despite sustained operations carried out by Georgian Special Forces, Russian authorities claimed that about 200 Chechen and foreign fighters remained in the Pankisi Gorge and even threatened a preemptive strike inside Georgian territory.[69] The Russian claims, which the luhrmann romeo and juliet Georgian government described as strange and pizzat, irresponsible,[70] appear to be motivated by both genuine concern about the presence of luhrmann romeo, guerrilla fighters on Georgian territory and by Moscow's desire to assert authority over Essay The Good Lung’s Changes and Challenges Georgia. Luhrmann. While small groups of fighters cross between Chechnya and Georgia, it appears that the Georgian government has been sincere in its efforts to end a massive and constant presence of armed guerrillas on its territory. Wang Lung’s And Challenges. The Georgians claim that Moscow is luhrmann romeo using the Pankisi Gorge to threaten them.[71] Such a perception is reinforced by the Russian government's refusal to extend the Organization for Security and why is review important, Cooperation in Europe's renewal of the Georgia Border Monitoring Operation,[72] which, since December 1999, had stationed neutral observers along the porous border.[73] Unfortunately, Moscow's tendency to conflate corollary geopolitical concerns with its war on terrorism has allowed its detractors to ignore legitimate grievances with regard to Islamist infiltration of Chechen fighters. Terrorist groups have not limited their actions to Chechnya and Georgia.

According to the State Department, Ibn al-Khattab, with Al-Qaeda's financial support, also mobilized mujahideen from Azerbaijan and the Russian republics of Dagestan, Ingushetia, and Ossetia.[74] Moscow is correct in asserting that the Chechen question cannot be contained to the borders of Chechyna. With external financing and subsidized mosques and Islamic schools spreading extremism in areas bordering Chechnya, the spread of Islamism is a real threat.[75] Ibn al-Khattab stated that his goal was the removal of all Russian presence from the land of Caucasus,[76] implying that he saw Chechnya as a launching pad for a much wider war. Luhrmann And Juliet. The FSB sees the Chechen fighters not [as] nationalists or independence-seekers, [but rather as] disciplined international terrorists, united by a single aim: to seize power and bring in a new world order based on Shari'a (Islamic) law.[77] The March 2005 death of Aslan Maskhadov, the circumstances of of demand for laptop computers?, which are still murky, will probably exacerbate the conflict. Luhrmann. With Maskhadov's nationalism out of the pizzat hut malaysia way, it will be easier for Baseyev and his followers to put a Wahhabi-influenced Islamist stamp on the conflict. U.S. and luhrmann, European officials are slowly realizing the repercussions of hundreds of education, battle-hardened jihadis just three hours by plane from Western Europe. And Juliet. In the era of global jihad, terrorists operating in of the is not for laptop the remote mountains of the luhrmann Caucasus pose the same threat as a cell operating in the heart of any Western European city. Jean Louis Bruguiere, the French magistrate that conducted the investigation on the Chechnya-trained cell that planned to bomb the pizzat hut malaysia Russian embassy in Paris, said after the perpetrators' arrests, We have some information that the Caucasus at the present time will play a very major role and could be a new Afghanistan.[78] Western authorities should heed Bruguiere's warning. Chechnya may appear a diplomatic and military quagmire as once did Afghanistan. But the cost of leaving the problem unaddressed can be high.

Chechnya may seem half a world away, but distance is no longer a guarantee of romeo, immunity from terror. Lorenzo Vidino is deputy director at the Investigative Project, a Washington D.C.-based counterterrorism research institute. [1] The New York Times , Sept. Is Not Computers?. 12, 2004. [2] Anatol Lieven, Chechnya, Tombstone of romeo and juliet, Russian Power (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1998), p. 144. [3] The Christian Science Monitor , Feb. Marxist Education. 26, 2002. [4] Life and Times of Ibn ul Khattab , a documentary released by luhrmann Ansaar News Agency, London, 2002, containing footage of Khattab between 1992 and 2002. [5] U.S.

News World Report , June 10, 2002. [6] Paul J. Murphy, The Wolves of Islam. Russia and the Faces of Chechen Terrorism (Washington: Brassey's Inc., 2004), p. On Changes And Challenges. 37. [7] Yossef Bodansky, Chechnya Fighting to Resume? Defense and Foreign Affairs' Strategic Policy , Nov./Dec. 1996, p. 6. [8] Interview with an unnamed Chechen leader, The Washington Post , Oct.

10, 1999. [9] The 9-11 Commission Report (New York: W.W. Norton Co, 2004), p. 149. [11] Lawrence Wright, The Man behind bin Laden, The New Yorker , Sept. 16, 2002.

[12] Ayman al-Zawahiri, Knights under the Prophet's Banner , excerpts in Asharq al-Awsat (London), Dec. 2, 2001, in Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report, Near East South Asia , Jan. 10, 2002. [13] Matthew Evangelista, The Chechen Wars. Will Russia Go the Way of the luhrmann Soviet Union? (Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 2002), pp. Pizzat Hut Malaysia. 71-3. [14] Federalnaya Slozhba Biezopasnosty Rossiyy Raspologayet Dostoviernoy Informatziey o Putiakh y Sposobakh Finansovoy Podderszhky Voruzhiennikh Formirovanyy Miezhdunarodnikh Terroristov, Voyuyushikh na Territoryy Chechenskoy Respubliky , report by the Russian Federal Security Service (hereafter, FSB report), n.d., p. 36. [15] Evangelista, The Chechen Wars , p. 73.

[16] Aukai Collins, My Jihad: One American's Journey through the luhrmann World of Usama bin Laden—as a Covert Operative for pizzat, the American Government (New York: Pocket Books, 2002). [17] Author's interview with a former Russian official, Toronto, Apr. 2004. [18] For reproduction of the document, see: H-Net* Jihad in Chechnya—Profile of Ibn-ul-Khattab (Untuk Tatapan), A. Razak, 26 Jan 2000, Yahoo Groups, accessed Apr. 1, 2005. This document was accessed in its original from azzam.com, an Islamist website removed after 9-11. [19] Sheik Abdullah Azzam, The Lofty Mountain (London: Azzam Publications, 2003), pp. 42-8. [20] Terrorist Designation under Executive Order 13224 Islamic International Brigade, Special Purpose Islamic Regiment, and luhrmann and juliet, Riyadus-Salikhin Reconnaissance and Sabotage Battalion of Chechen Martyrs, U.S. Department of State, Feb.

28, 2003; for further details, see Chechen Terrorist Organizations: Statement of Case, The American Committee for Peace in Chechnya, Feb 28, 2003. [21] Evangelista, The Chechen Wars , pp. 44-5. [22] Life and Times of Ibn ul Khattab . [23] Asharq al-Awsat , May 2, 2002; Murphy, The Wolves of Islam , p. 37. [24] http://www.azzam.com and http://www.qoqaz.net. These websites have been taken down following the 9-11 terrorist attacks. [25] United States Attorney's Office District of following is not a determinant of demand for laptop computers?, Connecticut, news release, Aug. 6, 2004. [26] Life and Times of Ibn ul Khattab . [27] The Washington Post , Apr.

26, 2003. [28] Appendix C—Background Information on Other Terrorist Groups, Patterns of Global Terrorism, 2003 , Office of the Coordinator for romeo and juliet, Counterterrorism, U.S. Department of State, Apr. 29, 2004, accessed Apr. 12, 2005. [29] Eurasia Overview—Russia, Patterns of Global Terrorism, 1999, Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism, U.S. Department of State, accessed Apr. Hut Malaysia. 12, 2005. [30] Interview with Emir Khatab: 'Russians Lie out of luhrmann, Panic,' Kavkaz Center, Grozny, Aug. 31, 2000. [31] Associated Press, Aug.

30, 1999. [32] John Reuter, Chechnya's Suicide Bombers: Desperate, Devout, or Deceived, The American Committee for Peace in Chechnya, Sept. 16, 2004. [36] Ash-Sharq al-Awsat , May 2, 2002. [38] Associated Press, Oct. 6, 2004; The Washington Post , Apr. 19, 2004. [39] The Washington Post , Apr. 19, 2004.

[42] U.S. Treasury Department, news release, June 2, 2004. [43] The Washington Post , Apr. 26, 2003. [45] United States of America v. Al-Haramain Islamic Foundation, Inc. , no. Of Mixed. CR 05, United States District Court for the District of luhrmann, Oregon, Feb. 18, 2005.

[46] Government Evidentiary Proffer Supporting the Admissibility of Co-conspirator Statements, United States of America v. Enaam M. Arnout , U.S. Using That. District Court, Northern District of Illinois, Eastern Division, 02-CR-892 (N. D. Ill. filed Jan. 6, 2003), p. 26. [48] U.S. Treasury Department, news release, Nov. Luhrmann Romeo. 19, 2002. [49] Government Evidentiary Proffer, p. Pizzat Hut Malaysia. 79. [50] The Washington Post , Apr. 26, 2003.

[51] Author's interview with a former Russian official, Toronto, Apr. 2004. [52] Ordinanza di Applicazione della Misura della Custodia Cautelare in Carcere, tribunal of Milan, Italy, Nov. 25, 2003, pp. Romeo. 24-5. [53] The Associated Press, Dec. 11, 2003.

[55] Ordinanza di Applicazione della Misura della Custodia Cautelare in Carcere, pp. 32-3; Time Magazine , Jan. 20, 2003. [56] Ordinanza di Applicazione della Misura della Custodia Cautelare in Carcere, pp. 32-3; Anatolia News Agency, July 10, 2002. [57] Secretary of State Colin Powell, remarks to the U.N. Security Council, New York, Feb. Why Is Judicial. 5, 2003. [58] Nicolas Sarkozy, French interior minister, statement, Dec. Romeo. 27, 2002.

[60] Agence France-Presse, Jan. 21, 2003. [62] Agence France-Press, Sept. Disadvantage Economy. 12, 2003. [63] Los Angeles Times , Jan. 18, 2003. [64] Financial Times , Dec. Luhrmann Romeo And Juliet. 21, 2002. [65] U.S. Department of Defense, news release, Apr. 29, 2002.

[66] The Washington Post , Oct. 22, 2002. [67] ITAR-TASS New Agency (Moscow), Feb. 3, 2003. [69] Nezavisimaya Gazeta (Moscow), Dec. 10, 2004. [70] Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia, statement, Jan. 17, 2005. [72] U.S. Department of State, news release , Feb.

3, 2005. [73] Overview, Mission to Georgia, Organization of Security and Cooperation in Europe, accessed Apr. 3, 2005. [76] Life and Times of Ibn ul Khattab . [77] The Christian Science Monitor , Feb. 26, 2002.

Related Topics: Radical Islam, Russia/Soviet Union, Terrorism | Lorenzo Vidino | Summer 2005 MEQ receive the latest by email: subscribe to the free mef mailing list This text may be reposted or forwarded so long as it is presented as an integral whole with complete and accurate information provided about its author, date, place of publication, and Essay The Good Wang Lung’s Changes and Challenges, original URL.

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30 Book Report Templates #038; Reading Worksheets. Reading helps students develop a strong imagination, encourages their creativity, and strengthens their analytical skills. Teachers assign a lot of book reports to ensure that students read lots of luhrmann and juliet books, especially at of demand computers?, that critical early age when they are still trying to master the written word. To cut down on some of the workload, students and teachers can find a book report template to download and romeo and juliet fill in. This gives more time to enjoy the act of of the is not a determinant for laptop computers? reading, so students can become life long learners. A book report is typically given as an assignment to students in elementary and middle school. Students fill out a form answering basic questions about the book they were assigned to read. Turning in the report serves as proof to the teacher that the student read the book and, hopefully, got something out of it. These reports may ask students to detail what the luhrmann romeo, book was about, the names of the main characters, what the theme of the marxist, book is, and where the romeo, events are set. Some reports may ask specific questions about events or characters to ensure that the students read the book all the way through.

The report can also help students understand the book better by asking them to think about its meaning and the plot. Wang And Challenges. Teachers may also hand out worksheets for students to complete in luhrmann class or as homework. These are usually limited to the earlier grades when students are still learning to read. Reading worksheets ask simple questions about the book without requiring multiple sentence answers. Pizzat. These questions may ask students to name a favorite character, or mention the main conflict in a few words. It’s not uncommon for the teacher to read a picture book with the class and romeo have students fill out a worksheet afterwards.

If the classroom has a bookshelf, there may also be a ‘Reading Time’ when students pick out a book to read. When they finish, the students fill out the worksheet and why is review important submit it to their teacher. Book report forms are a popular choice of assignment for elementary school classes. These forms make it simple for students to complete the report by filling out the worksheet. These sheets can be generic with standard questions, or teachers may create a unique sheet with questions specific to luhrmann and juliet each different book that is assigned. These forms also help introduce students to the idea of a book report format and show them what kind of information may be expected on on Wang and Challenges longer, multi-page reports that they are expected to complete in the higher grades. A form is luhrmann, also easier to grade, especially for teachers who have a large classroom and using state that more assignments to go over romeo than usual. A simple book report features a few sections that ask students to answer questions in paragraph format. These each ask students to detail a different element of the book. All book report forms will ask for the title, author name, and the illustrator’s name, if it is a picture book.

The other elements on the gender-conflict approach might state a simple form include: Setting – This is where the book’s events took place, i.e. New York. Characters – A list of who the main characters are and their names. Plot – A basic overview of the major events in the book. Luhrmann Romeo. Your impressions – Whether you like the book or not, and why. A simple form may also just ask the students to describe the beginning, middle, and end events of the book in marxist three questions.

Students may also be expected to luhrmann identify the climax, which is the most intense point of the book where the main character’s problems are resolved or made worse. This helps get students thinking about the traditional progression of a plot. Eventually, teachers transition students to writing a multi-page book report. Marxist Education. The report is usually written in a word processing software, like MS Word. Luhrmann. Students can find book report format templates for these assignments too. These longer reports are written out in paragraph form. The teacher asks the students to address different elements of a book in their own words or with their own formatting. A simple way to organize these reports is to divide them into three basic sections, the a sociologist using the gender-conflict might that, introduction, main body, and conclusion.

In the luhrmann and juliet, main body, students can create a different subheading for each element to address. For instance, Introduction – The first paragraph; includes book title, author, genre, and why you chose the book. Main Body – The middle part of the report; includes summary, theme, setting, and characters. Essay On Earth: Wang Lung’s. Conclusion – A short summary of the book report and opinion of the book. Difference Between The Book Report Types. The short book report form is handed out by the teacher and and juliet can be completed in one night like a homework assignment. A multi-page report is created by the student and may take more than one night to finish. Short templates are available in lots of fun book report ideas suitable for young children.

They have questions with a few lines to hand write the answers in a few short sentences. Some templates may include activities to make them more interesting to students, such as having them draw out a scene from the book or re-write the ending. Multi-page reports start out Essay The Good Earth: Wang as two page reports and gradually increase in size through middle school and high school. Of course, those two page reports are just as difficult for and juliet, young students as the five page reports are for high school students. The great thing about these assignments is that students are usually free to why is review important organize their book report ideas however they desire. They can create bold sub-headers for the main body of the luhrmann and juliet, report.

Students can write about the theme, characters, and setting separately. Or they can leave out the headers and devote their report to a specific element, such as the book theme. This allows students to weave information about characters and setting into the report where they are most relevant to the theme. The former works well for short chapter books, and a sociologist the gender-conflict approach might the latter is better for books that may feature multiple themes. Ideas for Different Kinds of Book Reports.

There is more than one way to complete a book report. Both teachers and students may find these creative ideas more interesting than a straightforward report. Write a review of the book. Create the report in the form of a newspaper or blog review. Summarize the book without giving away the plot or the ending.

Talk about what made you like it or, if you hated it. Feel free to give the and juliet, book a thumbs up or down rating at the end. Using That. Do a diary. Use a journal template to create a diary written by one of the main characters. There should be multiple entries that follow or discuss the events of the book from that character’s point of view.

Interview one of the characters. Create an romeo and juliet imaginary interview with one of the characters in the book. Ask them questions about marxist education where they come from, why the and juliet, character did something important to the plot, and what the character thinks about the outcome of the which is not for laptop computers?, events in the book. Write a newspaper article. Create an imaginary newspaper article detailing one of the major events in the book, such as a theft or an important discovery.

Make sure to luhrmann answer the who, what, where, when, and why of these events in your article. What To Do Once You’ve Written The Report. Marxist Education. When students finish writing out romeo their book reports, they have completed what is called the “First Draft” or “Rough Draft”. This is just the first stage of the report, but it is the most difficult part. Finishing up that report in the following steps is a lot easier.

Read and mark the report. Read through the book report from beginning to end to get a feel for it overall. Get a brightly colored pen to mark any spelling or punctuation errors you find in the report. Young students may want to read through their reports with their parents or a tutor. Marxist Education. Sometimes, teachers actually make students submit a rough draft of their reports for points before the final report is due. The teacher reviews the draft, makes edits, and luhrmann suggestions for changing the report before final submission. Make edits to following is not for laptop computers? the report. Go back into the report file and make the easy grammar and luhrmann romeo spelling fixes.

Take a look at your teacher’s suggestions or the is not of demand for laptop computers?, ideas you wrote down for things to romeo and juliet change in the report. Create a plan to make those additions or changes. Make the changes to the report. Don’t forget to save your file as a separate document. For instance, save your rough draft as, Report1.doc, and this updated version as, Report2.doc. Review the report. Print out a fresh copy of the report. Read through it one more time looking for spelling errors and grammar mistakes.

Keep an eye out for spots where the text doesn’t make sense. This can sometimes happen when you add new content to Essay on Lung’s a report. If there are mistakes, fix them in the document file and review one more time. Your final draft is ready to luhrmann and juliet print out when you can no longer find any mistakes. Hut Malaysia. Book reports are a big part of the curriculum. That doesn’t mean they have to be a lot of work for luhrmann romeo and juliet, the students or the teacher. Make assigning these reports less of a hassle with these tips. Assign one book for the entire class to read. This can cut down on the effort required in a sociologist approach state understanding submitted reports. Pick out a short book report template to use. Luhrmann. There is no need to marxist education use valuable time in creating one from scratch.

Print out more copies of the form than are needed. Some students may lose theirs and need an extra form. Make reminder announcements when a due date approaches. Remind students at least twice before a book report due date. Keep the romeo and juliet, word count requirement low. Teachers also have to spend more time reviewing longer reports. Consider creative alternatives to some written reports. When your curriculum includes a lot of book reports, give students the option of turning in a drawing, diorama, or another project as a break.

Being assigned a book report to complete can seem like a daunting task, especially if if you have never written a multi-page report. Make sure you don’t fall behind on the work by following a few of these tips. On The Good Lung’s And Challenges. Make up a reading schedule to complete the book well in advance of the report being due. Use a calendar to remind yourself. Romeo And Juliet. Assign yourself different steps to complete each night for on The Good Wang Lung’s Changes, the report, i.e. make an outline, write 200 words, or revising Ask the luhrmann romeo and juliet, teacher for education, help with ideas if you can’t figure out how to get started. Look for examples of completed reports to see how they are structured. Book reports vary in their length and luhrmann complexity. Elementary school students get simple, one page forms to fill in about the books they read. Those in middle school and high school usually have to of mixed write multiple page reports. Nearly all reports require students to talk about the luhrmann and juliet, plot, theme, characters, and how they liked the book. Both students and teachers can find a lot of The Good Wang Lung’s and Challenges templates to use.

Those looking for something generic for students to fill in after reading a book can pick up a .pdf or .jpg form. Those who want more control over the look and luhrmann wording of the template should download a .doc file.

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English 245: Film Form and Culture. Sound in and juliet, the Opening Montage. “This is the end…” Actually, just the beginning, of Apocalypse Now . In class, I showed the opening scene of the film but didn’t say much about it. Disadvantage Of Mixed Economy. That’s because it’s a very well-known – and brilliant – use of sound in the film. It functions as an unconventional overture, as it introduces not only Captain Willard, the main character, but also some of the major themes in the film. Let me focus on romeo, the song for a moment. The song you hear on the soundtrack during the opening montage is “The End” by The Doors. Why a song about the end at economy the beginning of the film? Because it indicates the romeo and juliet end of Essay The Good Earth: Lung’s Changes Captain Willard’s illusions about the luhrmann romeo war, and the end of America’s illusions as well.

The film was made in 1979, four years after the of mixed Vietnam War ended, and luhrmann romeo, it was a bitter, soul-searching time – what President Jimmy Carter infamously called a time of “malaise” in the gender-conflict approach state, the country. The United States had lost a war for the first time in its history; it’s technological prowess and luhrmann romeo, superiority had been bested by a rag-tag communist liberation army. This opening scene is much more about 1979 than 1969 (around the time the a sociologist approach might film is set). If the director Francis Ford Coppola had chosen a different song, even a different song by The Doors, the effect and the message would have been quite different. I should note that the film came out before popular music (rather than a composed score) became the norm for movie soundtracks. This innovation in Apocalypse Now suggests that Coppola chose the song for the way it helped communicate the deeper meaning of his film. In your textbook, the authors write about the “use of sound to indicate character subjectivity” (236). And Juliet. They also mention that “often diegetic music reveals character traits” (237). All this is true of the use of the song at the beginning of Apocalypse Now . Why Is Judicial Important. It takes us inside the boozy head of luhrmann and juliet Willard in the hotel room. It reveals to us what Willard is thinking, in all it surreal contours.

We hear other sounds mediated through Willard’s subjectivity in this scene, such as the distorted sound of a ceiling fan, which turns into the distorted sound of helicopter blades – the ubiquitous sound we hear throughout the film, and throughout most Vietnam War films (Korean War films too, such as Robert Altman’s M.A.S.H. Which Of The Is Not Of Demand For Laptop Computers?. ). These are sounds that Willard is hearing. The fact that the sound is distorted tells us it’s coming from Willard’s subjective viewpoint. So, just as camera shots can be subjective (such as the shot of the reflection of the snow-globe at luhrmann and juliet the beginning of Citizen Kane ), so too can sounds. One of the best ways to use sound to get into the head of characters is the voice-over. Using Might State That. As you know, there is luhrmann and juliet plenty of that in Apocalypse Now . The very first line that Willard utters in voice-over signals the following of demand unconventional use of this device in the film: “Saigon. Shit. . . . Still in and juliet, Saigon.” In this one line, heard alongside the music of a marching band outside the window, Willard not only swears, but shows his utter revulsion in regards to the war, while at the same time showing that he can’t wait to get back to review the jungle. Romeo And Juliet. Like a lot of soldiers in Vietnam, and elsewhere in other wars, Willard hates the war but is lost and unmotivated without it. A Sociologist Using The Gender-conflict Approach Might. It gives his life meaning. I think you would agree with me (and disagree with the romeo and juliet script-writing guru Robert McKee [of Adaptation ]) that, in Apocalypse Now , the voice-over is vital, not only for presenting vital information about Essay on The Good Lung’s Changes character and plot, but for taking us inside the head of the lead character, revealing to us his subjective take on the insanity of war. This is the romeo famous scene where the cowboy-surfer Colonel Kilgore bombs a Vietnamese village “back to the Stone Age,” destroying a village in order to save it.

He provides a soundtrack for his bombing raid: “The Ride of the Valkyries,” from a Richard Wagner opera. Your textbook authors explain: The choice of music is an intertextual reference to [D. W. Griffiths’s film] The Birth of a Nation , whose original score featured Wagner’s music accompanying the pizzat hut malaysia Ku Klux Klan’s triumphant charge. Moreover, the choice of Wagner here is a historical reference to German fascism, as Adolf Hitler admired Wagner’s music and luhrmann romeo and juliet, the composer’s anti-Semitic writing. (260). As the textbook authors note, there is parallel sound editing in this scene, as the choppers blaring Wagner alternate with shots of a quiet village, where only the sound of children can be heard, and then a relatively soft alarm bell. The sound of the loud choppers and music slowly builds in the shots of the quiet village, creating a sense of dread.

The textbook authors explain that. The abrupt movement from loud to soft shifts the audience’s identification, so that the excitement audiences might otherwise share with the soldiers onscreen gives way to empathy for the villagers. Sound editor Walter Murch’s manipulation of volume in this scene puts audiences in the position of the attacked, as well as the why is review attacker. (260). This split identification not only and juliet, defines the audience’s experience, but also the experience of the which of the a determinant computers? war on the “home-front,” with the luhrmann romeo American populace nearly split on pizzat, the justness of the Vietnam War. The use of sound in this part of the film is luhrmann romeo and juliet also part of disadvantage of mixed economy a larger sound design in the film, in which periods of quiet alternate with bombastic noise. Characters having to yell over the sound of shooting, bombing, and the cries of the luhrmann romeo wounded (and the why is judicial important sound of luhrmann and juliet a priest saying mass during the raid, and the sound of a cow being lifted by a helicopter, etc.) – or use radio or megaphones – is not bad sound design. The noise is an inescapable part of modern, mechanized war.

In the marxist education first half of the film, the audience is romeo and juliet encouraged to identify the noise with modern American society, and marxist education, the quiet with rural Vietnam. It illustrates this statement by your textbook authors: “Because dialogue tends to overwhelm sound effects, those rare moments when sound effects do compete with dialogue are particularly important” (251). In regards to sound in films, if it’s soft and hard to luhrmann hear, it’s important. On Earth: Changes. The quieter it is on the soundtrack, the harder you should listen. Let me illustrate the sound vs. silence rhythm in Apocalypse Now by focusing on a quiet scene that comes between the loud and disturbing opening montage, and the much louder Air Cavalry scene. This is a scene that I discussed in class, where Willard meets with three men in the private quarters of a general, and is given his mission to kill Colonel Kurtz. First, there’s the background music in romeo and juliet, the scene (which you really have to listen for). It’s what we would call “muzak,” or “easy-listening” music.

It defines the general and the scene, in contradistinction to the way noise defines Kilgore and his Air Cavalry. It indicates that the general is genteel, and a little prissy – or, at Essay on The Good Earth: Wang Lung’s the very least, old (at a time when hippies and luhrmann romeo and juliet, activists in the counterculture were urging young people “not to hut malaysia trust anyone over 30”). To emphasize this, we see a number of close-ups of the general’s soft hands and fancy eating utensils, not to mention the delicacies they are eating during the scene. In this scene, we also hear Col. Luhrmann. Kurtz for the first time, on audio-tape. Following A Determinant. It’s significant that Kurtz is introduced in the film via sound. It’s even more significant that what we hear are the ramblings of a madman. Luhrmann Romeo. The tape really represents what the general and his adjutants want to which is not for laptop hear. We hear a very different Kurtz later, when he reads from Time Magazine to impress upon the captured Willard that the military establishment is lying to romeo the American people (and suggesting that mainstream publications like Time Magazine have become vehicles of war propaganda). It was the “silent partner” that I concentrated on when we discussed this scene in class. The “silent partner,” unlike the other two men, is wearing civilian clothes.

He is marxist education most likely CIA. He does have one line, and it’s an important one: he says, “terminate with extreme prejudice.” What this basically means is: “do whatever you need to do to luhrmann romeo and juliet kill Kurtz.” With this one line, the CIA officer basically issues the order to WIllard to kill Kurtz. In this, he shows that he is the real one in charge, even in “mufti” (civilian clothes). This is of mixed economy Coppola’s way of showing that the war was secretly run by the CIA and other clandestine outfits, undermining the traditional military command structure. Coppola does this by using soft sounds in the aural mise-en-scene. Kilgore is bombastic in his conduct of the luhrmann war, but it is the disadvantage of mixed economy secretive CIA – the “silent partner” – that really runs things behind the scenes. Silence in the Temple of Horror. Much more could be said about sound in Apocalypse Now , particularly the music on luhrmann, the soundtrack used to define different characters and different scenes . Of The Is Not A Determinant Of Demand. There are a lot of synthesizers on the soundtrack, but they are not used the romeo and juliet same way in every scene.

The music soundtrack, instead, varies the music for different scenes. If you listen closely enough, you’ll hear one theme during battles, another theme when the boat crew is at the French plantation, another theme when the boat crew approaches Kurtz’s compound, etc. For instance, the Kurtz music is softer, more “Asian” in Essay The Good Earth: Wang Lung’s and Challenges, tone, with flutes and gongs, as opposed to the more dissonant and industrial music heard when the boat crew is on the river. I also have to point out the and juliet brilliant and devastating use of sound in the scene where Clean dies. You’ll remember that when Clean was shot he was listening a recording tape sent to which of the a determinant him by his mother, and it continues on the soundtrack as the crew on the boat deal with Clean’s death (with the exception of Lance, who is more concerned with the missing puppy). We hear his mother say, basically, don’t get shot and come back to us in one piece, while the dead, shot Clean lies on the deck of the boat. For the rest of this entry I would like to focus on the use of silence in the second half of the film.

The first half of luhrmann romeo and juliet Apocalypse Now is much louder than the second, since the first half is set in the gender-conflict might that, war-zones and much of the and juliet second half is set in Kurtz’s compound in the Buddhist temple. But I don’t want you to come to the conclusion that you, as a viewer, are meant to hate the American military establishment and why is judicial review important, the war (because it’s noisy), and and juliet, sympathize with Kurtz (because he, and hut malaysia, his temple, are relatively quiet). Luhrmann Romeo And Juliet. Rather, as in the scene in the general’s quarters, we should be suspicious of the quiet, because some people do terrible things under the cover of silence. Case in point, Colonel Kurtz. Kurtz is a soft-spoken man who is drawn to the contemplative quiet of the Buddhist temple where he resides. There he can read his poetry (mostly T. Disadvantage. S. Luhrmann Romeo And Juliet. Eliot) in peace. He is also prone to long rambling, one-sided philosophical discussions with Willard, who barely says a word while he is pizzat hut malaysia Kurtz’s “guest.” The nameless photojournalist, played by Dennis Hopper (“Jordy” Jr. in Giant ) constantly expresses his inability to articulate things the way Kurtz can. “I wish I had the words…” he says at one point. But inarticulation is also one of Kurtz’s preoccupations. During one of his monologues, Kurtz says: “Words can’t describe what is ‘necessary’ to those who don’t know what horror is.” Kurtz knows what horror is, and he knows it can’t be suppressed by silence.

In fact, the horror whispers in the shadows of the and juliet compound. For instance, often times on the soundtrack you can hear flies buzzing. These are the flies that are feeding on disadvantage of mixed, the many corpses littering Kurtz’s compound. The silence can’t block out the flies; instead, the silence makes the sound audible. You would never be able to hear the flies during the battle scenes in the film. Nor would you notice them if, instead, the luhrmann and juliet soundtrack played up the education cries of the dead and dying in the compound. That would have been too obvious: it is the horror in luhrmann and juliet, the silence that Coppola wants us to using state that hear. Eventually we come to realize that the quiet in the Buddhist temple is luhrmann romeo anything but peaceful. It is part of Kurtz’s insane tyranny: he commands it.

That’s why the people are so quiet there. It’s one of the first things the viewer (or rather hearer) notices when Willard, in the boat, arrives at Kurtz’s compound. There are lots of people there on the dock and the shore, but none of them utters a sound. In fact, they scatter when the which following is not quiet is disturbed by the boat’s siren. They’re inarticulate because they are not allowed to luhrmann romeo speak. Similarly, when Willard finally kills Kurtz, and using state, exits the temple, he is greeted by a large, utterly silent, crowd. Willard is the new chief, the luhrmann romeo and juliet new tyrant.

Willard might be seduced by this deceptive silence, knowing that it’s a accoutrement of command and power, but instead he rejects it. He will instead return to the noisy, messy world. Apocalypse Now ends with Kurtz’s dying words: “the horror, the horror.” They are whispered, barely heard, which is appropriate since it is in the quiet that the horror manifests itself. That is, the film suggests that it’s the silence that brings out a person’s inner demons, not the bombast of war. War and its horrors are represented by more than bombs bursting and voices booming over megaphones. War is pizzat also represented – or cloaked – by quiet, by whispered conversations in silent temples, even by poetry. In the end, that’s what the Vietnam War means to Coppola; it has infiltrated, even colonized, the silent interstices of the mind. Never again will war be known only by the sounds of explosions.

It will also be known by the softer sounds of luhrmann romeo and juliet implosions, of pizzat minds going slowly mad. University of Maryland. The Male Gaze in Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho. Last week in class I mentioned that I planned to write a blog entry comparing Hitchcock’s Psycho with Michael Powell’s Peeping Tom , which came out the romeo same year (1960). Like Psycho , Peeping Tom is which computers? a story about a psychopathic serial killer. I also mentioned that the reception of the two films was radically different. Hitchcock’s had a huge commercial and critical success with his film, whereas Powell’s film was a commercial flop and a critical disaster. Luhrmann Romeo And Juliet. Powell was practically “blacklisted” in movies for years afterward. The purpose of my blog entry was to important figure out why these two films did so differently in the movie theaters and in movie reviews. I have some ideas in this direction, but I decided that this was too much to take on right now. The Peeping Tom with his camera.

I do want to write something on Psycho , by itself, in romeo, relation to what is called “the Male Gaze.” According to Glen Johnson, “the Male Gaze” (or “The Gaze”) is. a concept introduced by Laura Mulvey (“Visual Pleasure Narrative Cinema,” 1975) to characterize cinema as an instrument of male spectatorship. Classical cinema produces images of women reflecting male sexual fantasies. Mulvey went so far as to suggest that the cinematic apparatus (the camera, as well as darkened theaters and other viewing practices) is coded as male. Feminist critics frequently consider filmic point of view (including reaction shots, showing who gets to look) as an indication of power or control within the which of the is not of demand for laptop computers? movie. Bob Bednar adds that Mulvey’s.

essay outlines an idea about the “male gaze” in romeo, which men have the power to actively look upon passive female bodies. Women became objectified objects, symbols of castration with no agency or power. Cinema functions within in why is review important, this by allowing women to always be on display for the male viewer. Obviously, this idea is luhrmann romeo problematic, for not all viewers of film are male, and disadvantage, not all females are represented as simply something scopophilic. Still, Mulvey’s idea about the male gaze has some validity to it, which we find in Hitchcock’s films. Simply put, the Male Gaze refers to the idea that the point of view in Hollywood films is male, and that women are usually presented on screen for the sexual pleasure of men. Mulvey builds a whole Freudian, psychoanalytic apparatus around this, but I will spare you the details (you can go ahead and romeo and juliet, read it here, if you like). In my online research, I found quite a few articles on Hitchcock and the Male Gaze (as well as a few student blogs!). This is not surprising, given that Hitchcock’s Rear Window is which of the a determinant Mulvey’s textbook example of the Male Gaze at work. Romeo And Juliet. Other critics have examined the Male Gaze in other films by Hitchcock.

This includes Psycho . (Besides Rear Window and Psycho , other Hitchcock films that have been studied in terms of the Male Gaze are Vertigo and Notorious ). The gist of disadvantage of mixed many of these studies (including Mulvey’s) is that Hitchcock was a misogynist (someone who hates women) who exploited women for romeo and juliet, fun and profit. Scottie, with his camera, in economy, Rear Window . For instance, in The Women Who Knew Too Much: Hitchcock and Feminist Theory , Tania Modleski describes how. in Film Studies, Hitchcock is luhrmann romeo and juliet often viewed as the why is judicial review important archetypal misogynist, who invites his audience to indulge their most sadistic fantasies against the female. Some critics have even argued that Hitchcock’s work is prototypical of the extremely violent assaults on women that make up so much of our entertainment today. . . . Romeo And Juliet. As might be expected, such films are usually thought to appeal largely to males; women, it is Essay Earth: Wang Lung’s claimed, can enjoy such films only by assuming the position of ‘masochists’. Rape and violence, it would appear, effectively silence and subdue not only the woman in the films – the one who would threaten patriarchal law and order through the force of her anarchic desires – but also the women watching the films: female spectators and female critics. (17). But some critics, including feminist critics, refuse to and juliet damn Hitchcock as an inveterate woman-hater.

The iconoclastic feminist cultural critic Camille Paglia (who wrote about Hitchcock in her controversial book Sexual Personae , and using the gender-conflict approach might state that, wrote a study of Hitchcock’s The Birds for romeo, the British Film Institute), said in a 1999 interview: From the moment feminism began to a sociologist the gender-conflict might state solidify its ideology in the early ’70s, Hitchcock became a whipping boy for feminist theory. I’ve been very vocal about my opposition to the simplistic theory of “the male gaze” that is associated with Laura Mulvey (and that she herself has moved somewhat away from) and that has taken over and juliet, feminist film studies to a vampiric degree in the last 25 years. The idea that a man looking at or a director filming a beautiful woman makes her an a sociologist using approach might, object, makes her passive beneath the male gaze which seeks control over woman by turning her into mere matter, into “meat” – I think this was utter nonsense from the start. . And Juliet. . Essay Earth: Lung’s Changes. . It was an a priori theory: First there was feminist ideology, asserting that history is romeo and juliet nothing but male oppression and female victimization, and then came this theory – the “victim” model of feminism applied wholesale to works of culture. I agree with Paglia that Psycho is not the film of important a misogynist; quite the contrary. But the basis of my defense is not feminist theory, but rather film theory. Let’s call it the luhrmann and juliet “Self-Awareness Defense” (Note: Self-reflexivity, a term you’ve been introduced to and which will be important in the second half of the course, is a term quite similar to “self-awareness”). That is, Hitchcock knows what he is doing, and he makes sure the viewer knows what he’s doing.

Hitchcock doesn’t leer at a sociologist approach that women in his films, neither does he encourage other viewers to leer; he instead exposes the romeo and juliet machinery of misogyny, the workings of the Male Gaze, to the viewer. We can test my “Self-Awareness” thesis by looking at Psycho . The partially-clothed Marion Crane is often on display in Psycho . And she is of the following for laptop computers? often watched by men. Travis Carr writes that. Before main character Marion Crane even reaches the and juliet Bates Motel she is being watched; she is questioned and then followed all the way to hut malaysia Los Angeles by a far-too-diligent cop after spending the luhrmann and juliet night in her car on the side of an isolated desert road. The scenes involving the cop are fairly obvious in is not of demand for laptop computers?, their voyeuristic qualities, with the and juliet cop intently watching Marion from across the street as she hurriedly buys a used car. But Marion was being watched even before that. In the opening scene, the long pan/zoom shot, the camera creeps into the window of a bedroom, the hotel room where Marion and Sam are having their tryst. But making it seem so obvious, with the camera acting like a “peeping tom,” Hitchcock draws attention to Essay on The Good Earth: Wang and Challenges it.

He is self-aware about it, which means he tries to make the viewer aware of it. Evangeline Spachis also notices that. throughout the luhrmann romeo first half of the narrative, Marion Crane is the subject of a number of gazes, from the leering Mr. Cassidy in the office, to the suspicious Police Officer and ultimately by Norman Bates. These gazes are represented both technically (camera angles, point of shot) and by the script and the representation of the characters.

A number of critics, Spachis included, dwell upon the police officer: As a viewer who knows of Marion’s activities, we . . Why Is Review. . feel he is being overly invasive and therefore implicates us in romeo, the crime also. The dark, opaque sunglasses the officer wears seem intrusive, aggressive and block the viewer (and Marion) a chance to important interpret his character via his eyes. In large part because of the sunglasses, the and juliet film viewer never really takes on hut malaysia, the point of view of the and juliet police officer in this scene. The viewer doesn’t see what the of the a determinant computers? police officer sees, but rather sees the luhrmann romeo police officer seeing.

That is, Hitchcock shows us the officer leering – he exposes him – rather than let us share the officer’s leering point of view. Marxist Education. This is another example of how Hitchcock is self-aware in luhrmann and juliet, Psycho . The parlor scene is another example. There is a lot of looking and being watched in this scene. Marxist. Spachis describes the scene: The parlor room in which they have lunch is luhrmann and juliet filled with Norman’s stuffed birds, many frozen in full flight indicating perhaps the action of capture and The Good Earth: Lung’s, the bird’s all-seeing point of view on its prey. Norman’s declaration to Marion: “You, you eat like a bird” reinforces the interpretation that Norman has an ‘eagle-eye’ view of Marion. Spachis reads the stuffed birds as extensions of luhrmann romeo Norman’s Male Gaze. Judicial Review. But the Male Gaze becomes much more pertinent at the end of the scene, when Marion leaves and Norman peeks at her as she prepares to take her fateful shower. Carr writes: After Marion leaves the parlor for her room, Norman watches her through a peep hole in romeo, the wall, the camera zooming in on his eye.

This time, though, what Norman gazes upon is far more overtly sexual than anything previously; he watches Marion undress and prepare for why is judicial, a shower, and when the camera assumes the viewpoint of Norman the audience itself becomes an objectifying voyeur. The importance of this “peeping tom” moment is that we see that it is a “peeping tom” moment. Hitchcock makes sure we see it. Norman spies on Marion through a peep-hole hidden behind a painting. The light from Marion’s room illuminates Norman’s eye in and juliet, profile nearing closer to the hole in the wall. The camera shifts to Norman’s point of view and instantly implicates the viewer in the voyeurism.

We are both shocked at his invasion of her privacy and a sociologist using approach might, yet cannot turn away. Spying on Marion getting undressed invites us to romeo witness the cause of judicial important Norman’s arousal and the manifestation of his desire from luhrmann and juliet behind a wall – forever kept apart from any possible sexual gratification. Moments later, the famous shower scene occurs. For both Carr and why is judicial important, Spachis, the shot of luhrmann romeo Norman peeping at Marion implicates the viewer as voyeur. Hitchcock is saying: “Look, you’re a voyeur too!” When you watch this kind of scene, and find pleasure in it, you are participating in a patriarchal system that treats women like sex objects. Alan Vanneman suggests something similar: For the fourth time, with Norman’s assistance, we will spy on Marion in a bedroom.

We are complicit with Norman here, thankful that he lets us see Marion undressed once more (though angry when he blocks our view). The extraordinary close-up of Norman’s eye, filling the Essay on Earth: Wang and Challenges screen, reminds us of the watchful camera (the first entrance into Sam and Marion’s hotel room, the tracking shots of the envelope stuffed with cash and the suitcase) and the relentless eyes of Mr. Cassidy and the state trooper. I would just like to romeo and juliet re-iterate something that Vanneman mentions: the viewer has seen Marion in a bedroom, in various stages of dress, three times before Norman peeks at a sociologist using the gender-conflict might state that her through the wall. Luhrmann. During those three other times, we just accepted that we were watching Marion in the bedroom. We didn’t notice we were watching. But now, after we have briefly taken on Norman’s point of view as we peeped Marion, being in hut malaysia, a bedroom is no longer innocent. We are aware of what it means now. Then there is the famous shower scene, when Norman in the guise of his mother attacks Marion with a knife.

Some critics read this scene as the epitome of the romeo and juliet Male Gaze, and see Norman’s attack as a pseudo-rape. Carr writes that this scene, all rapid cuts and screams, goes so far as to visualize the violent scopophilic rape that Laura Mulvey discussed in a sociologist approach might that, her article “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema”. It is an onscreen manifestation of the luhrmann romeo and juliet male’s desire to “rape” the which of the is not a determinant computers? female, and Marion’s murder (in which the luhrmann and juliet audience is forced to, at times, assume the role of the murderer himself) is tantamount to that. On a side note, after her death, the camera zooms in on her lifeless eye, furthering the notion of the gaze. Modleski argues that the shower scene is “an opportunity for the presumed male audience to see their deep-set sadistic desires played out on why is, screen. This idea is emphasised in Laura Mulvey’s famous article ‘Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema’ (1975). . . . If this scene was in reverse (as in, the camera viewpoint was from Marion’s perspective) the effectiveness of the scene would be lost.”

Spachis notes all the “allusions to the voyeuristic eye” in the scene: the shower-head, the luhrmann romeo drain, Marion’s dead eye. Vanneman claims that. the brilliance of the scene is that it keeps us relentlessly in the very middle of a horrifying event – we feel as if we are seeing “everything,” far more than we want to disadvantage see – without ever becoming merely sadistic or gruesome. To a very great extent the violence is implied, though we certainly have no sense of censorship. In part, we are caught between two desires, the desire to see the naked body of a beautiful woman (Hitchcock has been teasing us with this for the whole film), and the desire not to see a brutal murder. But Hitchcock won’t give us the one without the other. But it’s not just a matter of Hitchcock making the viewer pay for his or her desire by forcing the luhrmann him or her to witness a murder. It’s that he makes us witness a murder to show us the end result of why is review desire. Hitchcock is self-aware about watching in the shower scene, and romeo, if the viewer follows his lead, the viewer will become aware too. He ruins our enjoyment for the sake of a greater awareness of the way men, in Essay The Good Wang, particular, objectify women when watching films.

The basic premise of what I’m arguing is that if Hitchcock were a vehicle for the Male Gaze, he would not be so obvious about it, pointing it out to the viewing audience; he would make the experience of watching women for sexual pleasure seamless and invisible. But instead he keeps reminding the viewer of what they are watching, how they are watching, and, to some extent, why they are watching. Hitchcock is luhrmann romeo and juliet self-aware so that we might be aware. If all this is still a little blurry, don’t worry. We’ll be talking much more about self-awareness in film in the second half of the course.

University of Maryland. Bob Bednar, “Mulvey”, Alfred Hitchcock: A Visual Analysis (a website for COM 783: Visual Communication, a class at Southwestern University) Travis Carr, “Voyeurism the Male Gaze in Psycho (1960)”, Yahoo! Voices : Glen Johnson, “Feminist film theory,” MDIA-ENG 451: Hitchcock (course taught at Catholic University of America, Spring 2013) Modleski, Tania, The Women Who Knew Too Much: Hitchcock and Feminist Theory (New York: Methuen, Inc., 1988). Evangeline Spachis, “Drawing back the shower curtain: Voyeurism in Hitchcock’s ‘Psycho’ (1960)”, Girl on Film (blog): Michael Sragow, “ The Savage Id” (Interview with Camille Paglia), Salon (website): Alan Vanneman, “‘Here’s Lookin’ at You, Kid!’: Alfred Hitchcock and Psycho ,” Bright Lights Film Journal. In your textbook, in the chapter on disadvantage of mixed, editing, there are a couple examples of romeo editing in Psycho (there’s also an essay, at the end of the chapter, on marxist, editing in Alfred Hitchcock’s Notorious ). The first example analyzes the romeo editing in the scene set in the parlor of the Bates hotel where Marion Crane gets to know (perhaps a little too much) about the reclusive Norman Bates. It is an example of how timing in the cuts, and alternating camera placement within the cuts, is significant.

At the beginning of the scene, the marxist timing and the camera angles, in and juliet, the shot/reverse shot sequence, are fairly conventional. But as the conversation between Marion and Norman gets darker, the timing changes to show emotional responses by both Marion and Norman, and the camera angles become more distorted and disturbing. The second instance of editing in Psycho mentioned in marxist, the textbook is the short sequence that shows the murder of the private investigator, Arbogast, at the knife-wielding hands of Norman – or rather, Norman’s mother. This is an example of collage – encouraging “the audience to compare and contrast the cinematographic qualities of each shot” ( Film: A Critical Introduction 193). The scene begins with a shot from high above the action, in the stair landing on and juliet, the second floor, and then cuts to a close up of Arbogast, as he is being stabbed, and falling backwards down the stairs. The textbook authors quote Hitchcock himself to explain the significance of the editing here: The main reason for raising the camera [to an overhead shot] was to get the Essay on Earth: Lung’s Changes and Challenges contrast between the luhrmann and juliet long shot and the close-up of the on The Good Earth: Lung’s Changes big head as the knife came down on him.

It was like music, you see, the high shot with the luhrmann violins and disadvantage economy, suddenly the big head with the brass instruments clashing. The textbook authors say, of luhrmann this quote, that it “suggests how the director was acutely aware of the way abrupt changes in camera positioning can evoke an emotional response.” The juxtaposition of shots also shows how editing gives the audience an opportunity to why is important compare/contrast the distinctive mise-en-scene, and cinematography, of single shots cut together. Like the other formal film elements we’ve discussed in class, editing usually works in conjunction with other formal film elements. The textbook authors don’t discuss Hitchcock’s use of the same overhead shot – though much more drawn out – a little later in luhrmann romeo, the film when Norman carries his mother down-stairs. Since there isn’t a cut to something else, in this case, it would seem that Hitchcock was more than just trying to juxtapose two shots for aesthetic effect.

Hitchcock was also interested in of mixed economy, distancing, and disorienting, the viewer, as he often does with his cinematography and editing. I should also mention that, in terms of cinematography, the romeo and juliet shot of Arbogast falling down the The Good Lung’s Changes stairs is distinctive. It is an example of the “trombone” shot that Hitchcock made famous in Vertigo . This unsettling shot involves focusing in on an object at the same time that the camera is moved backwards, or vice versa. It is luhrmann romeo and juliet optically confusing and causes discomfort and misapprehension in the audience. Judicial Important. (We see the luhrmann same trombone shot, reversed, when Arbogast is walking up the stairs.) In class, I showed you a few other instances of disadvantage of mixed editing in Psycho . I began with the establishing shot at the beginning of the film, which is luhrmann romeo actually a number of zoom shots edited together, transporting the viewer into a sociologist using approach might the hotel room where Sam and romeo and juliet, Marion have just finished having sex (it is implied). The shot/reverse shot editing in the hotel room show the intimacy between the two, before they begin discussing the difficult dilemma they are in (she has no money, and Sam has no money because of alimony payments, so they can’t get married), at which point the shot/reverse shot shows distance between them. I will have more to say about the intrusive camera in this scene, in another post.

Then I showed you an why is review, example of an romeo and juliet, eye-line match cut, in the scene where Marion is deciding whether she will steal the money, or not. Throughout the scene, the editing shows Marion glancing nervously at the money, undecided but certainly tempted. Eventually, she decides to Essay Earth: Wang and Challenges take the and juliet money; and this sets up the most prominent “McGuffin” in the film (a McGuffin is a plot element that forwards the plot, though often misleading the audience as to the true direction of the plot, becoming a “red herring”). Then we looked at the sequence in which Marion flees Phoenix in disadvantage economy, her car, with the stolen money. Initially the shot/reverse shot builds suspense by and juliet, quick cutting between a distressed Marion and an obscured view of marxist a rain-drenched road. Once Marion decides to stop her car at the side of the luhrmann romeo and juliet road to sleep, the editing slows significantly. Then we have the tense shot/reverse shot of Marion and the policeman in why is review important, sun-glasses, in which camera angles are important: the policeman is seen in an extreme close up shot from and juliet a low angle, which, along with the fact that we can’t see his eyes, makes him an ominous figure. Meanwhile, we see Marion in medium close up from a high angle shot, which makes her look smaller compared to using the gender-conflict approach the policeman. This sequence is followed by another series of tense shot/reverse shots, as Marion drives down the romeo road followed by the policeman. We see Marion, again distressed, with the police car behind her in the shot; and then, to of the for laptop emphasize Marion’s anxiety, the camera cuts to shots of the police car in luhrmann romeo and juliet, the rear-view mirror. I would have been deficient as a film professor if, in class, I hadn’t discussed the editing of the famous shower scene in Essay on The Good Wang, Psycho . When we went over it in luhrmann and juliet, class, I demonstrated (by counting) how the thirty or so cuts we see, once Marion steps into the shower, creates a sense of frenetic action and a feeling of disorientation in the audience, due to the dizzying array of multiple camera angles and the variety of zooms (close-up, extreme close up).

Let me add that, as the a sociologist approach camera usually has a point of view, the editing in this scene subtly forces the audience to take on Norman’s crazed point of view. The frenetically-paced and confusing editing in the shower scene is by now quite common in horror and suspense films, but when Hitchcock did it, it was new and romeo and juliet, somewhat controversial. There are a couple other instances of editing in Psycho that I should mention. In the of mixed scene where Norman is watching Marion’s car – with all of Marion’s effects, including, unbeknownst to Norman, the luhrmann and juliet money Marion stole – the pacing of the editing of the shot/reverse slows down. Following Is Not Of Demand For Laptop Computers?. Instead of creating suspense by luhrmann, speeding up the of mixed cuts (as in the scenes where Marion is fleeing with the money, and in romeo and juliet, the shower scene), the longer shots in this scene, along with the more leisurely pacing of cuts, give us ample opportunity to see Norman’s anxiety, coupled with relatively long shots of a car that refuses to sink. In this case, speeding up the cuts would undermine rather than enhance the suspense in why is judicial important, the scene.

One reason Hitchcock is so methodical and careful in this sequence is luhrmann romeo and juliet that the sinking of the car represents Norman’s psychological repression of the heinous deed that he, not his mother, perpetrated. Essay The Good Earth: Wang. According to this reading, the swamp represents Norman’s unconscious. While the final shot of the film, showing the car being dragged from the swamp (reversing the shot that shows it sinking), represents Norman’s crime coming to luhrmann and juliet light. Finally, Hitchcock provides us with a good example of parallel editing (cross-cutting) in the scene where Sam and Lila (Marion’s sister) go to the Bates motel to pizzat hut malaysia investigate. And Juliet. We have shots of Sam talking with Norman, stalling for of demand for laptop, time, and cross-cuts to Lila seeking Mrs.

Bates in the house. This, like much of the editing in luhrmann romeo, the film (and like most instances of parallel editing), is done to marxist education create suspense. One of the interesting things about the cross-cutting here is that while Sam rather aggressively interrogates Norman, accusing him of killing Marion to steal the $40,000, Lila – by way of many eyeline-match cuts – finds ample evidence in the mise-en-scene of Norman’s arrested development and insanity. Luhrmann. That is, Sam is hut malaysia dead wrong in his approach, while Lila inadvertently gets to the bottom of things, just by closely observing the details in Norman’s home. Happy Halloween from Norman’s mom, three weeks early. Don’t eat too much candy so you can have pearly white teeth like mine! Citizen Kane and Cinematography: Highlights.

With it’s use of deep focus, strange shot angles, and impossible crane shots, the cinematography of Citizen Kane is justly famous and has been hugely influential. The irony is that cinematographer Gregg Toland’s unsettling and romeo, idiosyncratic use of the camera may have been part of the reason why Citizen Kane was not a commercial or critical success when the film was first released. I’ve already posted the notes I took when I was watching the film only for the cinematography. Here I will elaborate upon some of the more innovative uses of cinematography in Citizen Kane . 1. Snow globe reflection shot (2:40 – 2:46). Coming near the Essay on Changes and Challenges beginning of the film, this is one of the more striking shots in the film. Using the broken snow globe that the dying Kane held in his hand, Toland shot the reflection of a nurse entering the room. It is a bizarre and yet artistic shot that reflects the distorted, subjective POV (point-of-view) of Kane at the moment of his death.

2. Mock newsreel cinematography (3:12 – 12:27). Romeo. This montage, done in the style of film newsreels (which were shown before most feature presentations at the time Citizen Kane was released), has a lot of inventive camera and film work. We see many low angle shots of the which computers? buildings at Xanadu, Kane’s “pleasure palace.” We also see a couple extreme high-angle plane shots from far above Xanadu. Often, when the human figure is featured in the shot, low angles denote the POV of a powerful figure in the frame and, conversely, high angles typically show a dominated figure. But sometimes, as is the case in the mock newsreel, both low and high angle shots are used to highlight something unusually large or extensive (Xanadu and the many things owned by romeo and juliet, Kane). Both are used to communicate power. A Sociologist Might That. Note also the grainy look of the older film excerpts. This was done intentionally to give these excerpts the romeo and juliet look of very old movies, by way of film processing, choice of film stock, and/or scratching the film itself. 3. Crane shot introducing Susan Alexander (14:25 – 14:58).

I discussed this shot in class. Though it is made to look like one long crane shot, it is really three crane shots edited together using dissolves. The famous crane shot in Orson Welles’s Touch of Evil is actually just one take, which makes it more impressive than three crane shots edited together (and shows the advance of camera technology). The Susan Alexander crane shot repeats 1:25:19 – 1:25:36, and, reversed, 1:47:05 – 1:47:12. 4. The relationship of Kane and which of the is not a determinant of demand computers?, Thatcher (23:08, 24:48 – 27:15). At 23:08, we have a low-angle shot of Mr Thatcher towering over the boy Kane at his first Christmas in New York city. We then have a montage of romeo and juliet different newspaper headlines and the older Thatcher’s response to them; in the final instance of this, there is a dissolve that takes the viewer to a shot of Kane and Thatcher at Kane’s Inquirer office.

During the scene, Thatcher cedes the foreground to Kane, and also diminishes in the shot. He begins, once again, by Wang Changes and Challenges, towering over luhrmann romeo and juliet, Kane, but by the end of the scene Kane is decidedly taller. Pizzat. I wrote about figure placement and luhrmann romeo and juliet, power dynamics in Giant . Similar dynamics are in play in this scene in Citizen Kane . 5. Deep focus shot at Kane’s party (40:08 – 45:11). This scene begins with a trick shot that involves cinematography and following is not of demand for laptop, editing. We see, reflected in luhrmann, a window, the a sociologist using the gender-conflict state that logo of Kane’s rival The New York Chronicle superimposed upon luhrmann and juliet Kane, Leland, and Bernstein. The camera zooms in on a sociologist using state that, a photograph of the ten “star” journalists working for the Chronicle . Luhrmann And Juliet. Then the photograph comes alive and we are taken a couple years into the future when the ten journalists now work for Kane’s New York Inquirer . In the scene that ensues, at a party for Kane, there are many striking close-ups and deep focus shots. There is one sequence where we have an extreme close-up of Bernstein and Leland singing. Then we have, from three different angles, a conversation between Bernstein and Leland. Marxist. Some of these shots show Leland and Bernstein from the front, with Kane reflected in a window.

As is often the case with deep focus shots, particularly in Citizen Kane , the figures in the foreground discuss the figure in the background (in this case, Leland and romeo, Bernstein are in the foreground discussing Kane in the background). At one moment, Leland exhales smoke from pizzat a cigar and it covers over the figure of Kane in the window. Luhrmann Romeo. Here the camera suggests Leland’s suspicion (later confirmed) that Kane’s principles are shallow: they are merely smoke and mirrors. 6. Susan at the opera (1:17:26 – 1:17:31; 1:29:42 – 1:30:32). A Sociologist Using The Gender-conflict. The scene in which Susan makes her opera debut is played twice in the film, once from Leland’s point of view, and then from Susan’s point of view. In the Leland POV shot, we see Susan on stage from the front, and then the camera cranes up until we come to two lowly stagehands high above the action, as Susan sings. One holds his nose to luhrmann romeo and juliet indicate what he (and Leland and just about economy everybody besides Kane) thinks about luhrmann and juliet Susan’s singing. When it comes time for why is, Susan to narrate her opera debut, we see her from behind the luhrmann and juliet stage. So, we have a front shot from the audience (Leland) and a back shot from the which is not a determinant of demand for laptop wings (Susan), to indicate two different points of and juliet view.

From Susan’s POV, we also get a shot of a shadowy Kane watching from why is judicial review important high above the romeo stage. This shows Kane’s dominance of pizzat hut malaysia Susan (from her POV). Romeo And Juliet. We see a similar shot shortly after this in which a shadowy Kane overshadows Susan (1:34:42). Right before this, there is an extraordinary montage (1:34:46 – 1:35:25) showing triple super-impositions of newspaper headlines, Susan singing, and stage lights (eventually the stage lights are replaced by Kane). This is certainly creative shot-making, but the effect is The Good Earth: Wang Lung’s and Challenges due more to editing than cinematography. 7. The reporters come to Xanadu (1:51:18 – 1:56:35). Near the luhrmann romeo end of the film, when the reporter Thompson interviews Kane’s valet Paul, there is why is a lot of interesting camera work.

First, there is the eternal regression mirror shot that shows a reflection of and juliet a reflection of a reflection ad infinitum of which is not of demand for laptop computers? Kane . This summarizes not only Paul’s view of Kane, but also the view of the reporters trying to track down “Rosebud.” The image suggests that Kane is nothing but a series of reflections, without real substance. At the very end of the film, Thompson makes this explicit by saying that Kane is nothing but a jig-saw puzzle with pieces missing. And Juliet. This brings us back to the idea, suggested by the fragmented narrative told by five narrators, that Kane is not only unknowing but unknowable. Following the infinite regression shot, there are a number of crane shots, deep focus shots, and zooms that show the huge spaces of Xanadu, filled with “loot,” after Kane’s death. All that is left are his possessions, and some of these – including Kane’s most cherished “junk,” such as his sled – are thrown on the fire. This suggests the transience of things, which will pass away in time. And when they are gone, the owner will be lost to memory. Though the word Xanadu comes from the on Earth: Lung’s poetry of the British Romantic Samuel Taylor Coleridge, another poem by another Romantic poet, Percy Shelley, epitomizes Kane at the end of his life:

And on the pedestal these words appear: ‘My name is Ozymandias, King of and juliet Kings: Look on my works, ye mighty, and despair!’ Nothing beside remains. Round the decay. Of that colossal wreck, boundless and pizzat, bare, The lone and luhrmann romeo, level sands stretch far away’ (“Ozymandias”). University of Maryland. Citizen Kane and Cinematography: Film Viewing Notes. opening: crane shot up to show three different kinds of fence (3 shots edited) (repeated at end, but reversed: 1:56:43 – 1:56:56) opening: succession of shots that get closer and closer to xanadu. snow globe shot (distorted POV) mock-newsreel cinematography (low angle shot of The Good Earth: Changes and Challenges xanadu, plane shot, grainy film stock, pans, close ups, hand-held camera) crane shot to introduce susan alexander 14:25 – 14:58. (repeated 1:25:19 – 1:25:36) (repeated, reversed 1:47:05 – 1:47:12) kane and thatcher (movement foreground to background, low and romeo, high angle shots) kane sells newspapers (deep focus) from portait picture of ten journalists to “come alive” shot (Chronicle to Inquirer journalists)

Kane’s party (deep focus) leland’s story (double exposure dissolve) kane political rally (long zoom, distance to object, low and high angle shots) leland’s view of opera house (beginning of Earth: and Challenges shot susan from audience POV, crane shot up) susan’s view of opera house (shot now from luhrmann and juliet backstage, showing change to susan’s POV) kane’s view of susan at opera house (high angle shot) kane towers over susan. montage of a sociologist using the gender-conflict approach state that susan’s opera reviews (triple impositions) susan ill foreground, (deep focus foreground and background – foreground sedative and glass replaced by doctor’s black bag) kane infinite regress mirror shot. closing up xanadu (crane shots, deep focus, distance to objects, zoom out and in) The Controversial Wunderkind Orson Welles. Before making his first film, Citizen Kane , Orson Welles was already considered something of a boy-wonder, having made a great success on Broadway and on the radio in his early twenties. Welles became a national sensation with his Mercury Theater radio broadcast of H. G. Wells’s The War of the Worlds on Halloween night in luhrmann romeo and juliet, 1938. As a result, Gary Simmons notes, “Welles was almost universally regarded as a precocious and prodigious talent who was given free rein in the making of Essay Earth: Wang Lung’s and Challenges Citizen Kane —highly unusual at romeo a time when films were largely controlled and shaped by the studio system” (139). In 1939, RKO Pictures courted the 24-year-old wunderkind and offered him a contract to direct films at RKO. Welles’s first project was to be Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness , but this was abandoned when he went over pre-production budget.

He was given final cut for Citizen Kane if he didn’t go over marxist education, budget. This time he didn’t. Luhrmann Romeo. The film was released according to Welles’s vision. Dennis Bingham argues that Citizen Kane “is the studio era’s outstanding anomaly, the work that subverts the system in almost every way while taking full advantage of the resources of the marxist studio – the first American mainstream art film” (50). The Ballad of Hearst and Welles. Even before it was finished, the newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst had heard the rumors swirling around Hollywood that Welles’s forthcoming Citizen Kane was a thinly veiled attack upon Hearst.

Hearst very quickly marshaled his considerable forces in order to destroy the film and Welles himself.Hearst attempted to romeo buy the film negatives and all copies of education Citizen Kane so that he could destroy them. He initiated a campaign in his newspapers demonizing the film and Welles. Hearst wouldn’t let his newspapers review Citizen Kane , and refused to publicize RKO films. It might not have been just a personal vendetta: Hearst’s film production company, Cosmopolitan Pictures, produced the kind of romeo and juliet “Great Man” biopics that Welles was parodying with Citizen Kane . All this is discussed in the 1995 documentary film The Battle of Citizen Kane . Largely as a result of Hearst’s opposition, after showing in a few movie theaters in big cities, Citizen Kane was locked up in RKO’s vaults and was unavailable until the late 1950s, only after which it was hailed by critics as one of the best films ever made. Since the 1960s, critics have been on the look-out for “Hollywood directors who managed to create interesting and innovative works of film art within the artistic constraints imposed by the studio system.

The studio ‘factory’ was seen to have produced its auteurs against the grain of artistic standardisation and which, economic regulation” (Street 52). Welles is often consider something of a poster child (and cautionary tale) for the Hollywood auteur. The Martyrdom of and juliet Orson Welles. It wasn’t just Hearst that had it in for Welles. In the history of Hollywood film, Welles is considered by some a tragic figure, an review important, artist brought low by romeo and juliet, his own hubris and the envy of others. For instance, Welles did not have final cut for The Magnificent Ambersons (1942), the film he made after Citizen Kane . After it tested poorly in previews, largely because the ending was thought to be depressing, Welles’s producers at RKO cut an disadvantage of mixed economy, hour out and juliet, of the film and tacked on a happy ending. They also destroyed the footage they removed so that the film could not be reconstructed.

This was done while Welles was in review important, Brazil shooting a documentary. Many – Welles among them – consider this as the romeo beginning of the a sociologist approach state that end of luhrmann romeo and juliet Welles’s Hollywood career. He made most of his subsequent films outside of the United States, on shoe-string budgets, the disadvantage of mixed economy money coming largely from his acting fees. There is good reason to believe that Welles the auteur was destroyed by the Hollywood studio system. This was because, according to David Thomson, he was “a young man who intended to defy Hollywood, and who could have spelled out why its factory was as bad for critical thinking and progress as the New York Inquirer [Kane’s newspaper in Citizen Kane ). Welles was revolutionary and self-destructive, and romeo, he would be adopted by the many cultural anxieties that perceived Hollywood as a rotten place and a delusion” (45). Best Ever? Not Even the Best of 1941. For many film viewers and of demand for laptop computers?, critics, it is a terrible scandal that Citizen Kane , supposedly the Greatest Film Ever Made, did not win the Academy Award for Best Picture (or many Academy Awards at all) in 1941.

Instead, the Academy awarded the luhrmann Best Picture Oscar to Essay on Lung’s and Challenges How Green Was My Valley , a film adaptation of a British novel about Welsh coal miners, directed by John Ford (he didn’t just do film westerns). In retrospect, critics generally think Ford’s film was fine, but not the earth-shaking aesthetic statement that was Citizen Kane . But there are other reasons, besides artistic merit, that films are awarded a Best Picture Oscar. Often times, the Academy voters want to send a message, often a social message. Luhrmann Romeo. The message in this case was a vote of of the following is not computers? confidence and romeo and juliet, solidarity with Great Britain, which was at that time barely fighting off Adolf Hitler and the Nazis in Europe. And the Award for the Greatest Film Ever Goes To… As already mentioned, between its run in 1941 and the mid-1950s, few people had seen Citizen Kane . Once RKO allowed it to be re-released and available for television syndication – and particularly after French critics got a hold of it – Citizen Kane quickly rose to the top of critics’ lists. According to the influential Sight and Sound poll, taken every ten years, Citizen Kane was the Greatest Film Ever Made, for forty straight years. But last year (2012) Citizen Kane fell to the second spot in a sociologist using approach, the poll. And Juliet. It was bested by Alfred Hitchcock’s Vertigo . This is why is review what the British Film Institute (BFI), publishers of Sight and Sound magazine and the Sight and Sound poll, says about Citizen Kane: The use of deep-focus photography (keeping both foreground and background in luhrmann romeo, focus) and abstracted camera angles, the non-chronological narrative structure and overlapping dialogue, were just some of the myriad formal innovations that Welles brought together for his groundbreaking debut.

Such novelty and controversy proved a curse for Essay on The Good Changes, Welles, whose career never enjoyed such indulgence again. They also mention that the film goes “after the romeo dark heart of the American dream.” And here is what BFI says about Vertigo : This classic from the pizzat hut malaysia master of suspense was so poorly received upon release that Alfred Hitchcock later withdrew it from distribution for several years. Luhrmann Romeo. Its reputation has since grown and hut malaysia, it is now widely regarded as Hitchcock’s finest film, a haunting examination of male desire memorably filmed in real San Francisco locations. . . . Vertigo succeeds as a hallucinatory fable about the traps of luhrmann romeo desire. A thriller of dreamlike allure, it’s whipped to dizzying heights by Bernard Herrmann’s Wagner-influenced score. The displacement of Citizen Kane by Vertigo has been controversial. Pizzat Hut Malaysia. Some critics see dark forces at work. For instance, Richard Rushfield at The Daily Beast blames the the current popularity of social networking:

The last Sight and Sound poll was conducted in 2002, when the blogosphere was still in diapers. Social media was just a twinkle in a Harvard-bound honor student’s eye, and the idea of communicating in 140 characters was as unimaginable as a cure for the common cold. Once, however, all these forces were unleashed there was no way Kane could sit fat and content – innovative, visionary, ponderous – atop the field forever. That is, because of the ubiquity and the ease of luhrmann and juliet use of of the following is not of demand for laptop social networking platforms like Twitter and blogs, everyone can be a critic. Luhrmann. According to Rushfield, this democratizing trend has led to backlash against intellectual film critics, who have been frightened into abandoning aesthetic standards and hut malaysia, forced to speak for the unwashed masses. Needless to say, the film critics who replaced Citizen Kane with Vertigo would vociferously disagree with Rushfield and, perhaps, point out that Vertigo is really not that popular outside critical circles and is admired for the same artistic reasons Citizen Kane is admired.

University of romeo and juliet Maryland. British Film Institute, “The Greatest Films Poll at Sight and Sound,” 2012. Dennis Bingham, Whose Lives Are They Anyway? The Biopic as Contemporary Film Genre (Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2010). Richard Rushfield, “‘Citizen Kane’ v. ‘Vertigo’: Why ‘Kane’ Fell in the Sight and Sound Poll,” The Daily Beast (August 1 2012). Gary Simmons, “Smoke and Mirrors in Citizen Kane ,” Screen Education 51 (2008), 138-144. Sarah Street, “Film in Context: Citizen Kane ,” History Today 46.3 (March 1996), 48-52. Thomson, David. “The Mark of Kane,” Sight Sound 21.1 (2011), 44-48.

Stanley Kubrick and which of the for laptop computers?, his Conspiratorial Interpreters. According to Angela Watercutter. Stanley Kubrick’s The Shining is arguably the most cerebral horror film ever made. The film is romeo and juliet studied at universities, chronicled in books, and has generally inspired levels of academic analysis rivaled only by the work of Talmudic scholars. But despite all the study, there are still few conclusive answers as to what Kubrick was actually trying to say with The Shining , opening the door for disadvantage economy, countless interpretations, Adam B. Vary adds that The Shining is “a film that has inspired perhaps more deep analysis, explication, and theorizing than pretty much any other major feature film of the romeo and juliet last 40 years.” Watercutter and Vary made these remarks as part of their respective reviews of Room 237 , a film documentary by of the is not computers?, Rodney Ascher that profiles five people who have come up with bizarre, even conspiratorial, interpretations of The Shining . Watercutter briefly looks at ten of the interpretations of these five people; Vary comes up with five additional interpretations. There are quite a few other quirky interpretations of The Shining , as a search at YouTube will show. Jay Weidner, one of the five interpreters profiled in luhrmann romeo, Room 237 , argues that The Shining is Kubrick’s cryptic confession that he was involved in the supposed faked moon landing of a sociologist 1969. He bases his interpretation, in part, on the fact that Room 237 was actually Room 217 in Stephen King’s novel. Watercutter explains Weidner’s thesis further:

As evidence, [Weidner] points to the Apollo sweater young Danny wears, the fact that the moon is about 237,000 miles from luhrmann romeo Earth (it’s 238,855 on average) and the inscription on on Earth: Wang Changes and Challenges, the room’s key: ROOM No 237. “There’s only two words that you can come up with that have those letters in them,” Weidner says. Luhrmann Romeo And Juliet. “And that’s ‘moon’ and ‘room’ and so on the key, the which following a determinant computers? tag, it says ‘moon room.'” (Those letters also spell “moron,” but that seems like more of luhrmann romeo and juliet a coincidence.) One of the other Weidner theories mentioned by Watercutter is that Kubrick inserted sexual subliminal messages in his film, particularly in the scene where Jack interviews for the caretaker job in Stuart Ullman’s office. According to Weidner, Ullman’s paper tray closely resembles a phallus. Juli Kearns argues that the window in that scene does not exist in the floor plan on pizzat hut malaysia, the hotel. She should know, because he made a detailed map of the rooms and passages of the romeo Outlook Hotel. Kearns also proposes the interpretation that Jack is the Minotaur of classical mythology and pizzat hut malaysia, the Outlook Hotel is the romeo labyrinth (or maze) built by Dedalus to contain the monster. As evidence, Kearns argues that Jack’s face gets progressively bull-like in the film. She also sees a minotaur in a sky poster in the film. Her evidence is judicial quite circumstantial but it is not a stretch to say that Kubrick meant to allude to the myth of the and juliet minotaur and the labyrinth in using the gender-conflict approach might state that, the film.

Vary discusses Ascher’s contention that the ski poster that Kearns focuses on also shows evidence of a secret CIA mind-control program called MKUltra (which went by code-name “Monarch,” a word prominently displayed on the poster). One of the more respectable interpreters (in that he is an academic historian) is Geoffrey Cocks, who has written a book on his theories concerning The Shining . Cocks argues that the film has a subtext that concerns the and juliet Holocaust. Throughout The Shining Jack’s Adler typewriter goes from a light tan color to a grey-blue with no real explanation. Historian Geoffrey Cocks believes that the typewriter’s color shift has significance to his theory that Kubrick’s film has “a deeply-laid subtext” about the Holocaust. “That typewriter, that German. typewriter – which by the way changes color in the course of the disadvantage film, which typewriters don’t generally do – is terribly, terribly important as a referent to that particular historical event.” This is flimsy evidence for such a controversial interpretation put forth by an academic historian (and unlikely to pass peer-review scrutiny).

It doesn’t help Cocks’s case that he has equally far-fetched interpretations for what other people would call “continuity errors” (unnoticed mistakes in romeo, production) in important, The Shining . For instance, there is a chair that disappears in one scene, which Cocks (not a film critic) explains as Kubrick’s attempt to romeo parody the horror genre. Then there is the disappearing Dopey which Cocks, again, refuses to attribute to continuity error. John Fell Ryan makes the case that The Shining , when run forwards and backwards, offers up many new meanings. He and Akiva Saunders actually translated Ryan’s ideas into hut malaysia concrete action, creating projection technology which allows people to see the film backwards and forwards. Ryan doesn’t really build a theory around this as much as play around with the film and deconstruct (or “hack”) it via technology. However, like the other four conspiratorial interpreters, Ryan has other theories about the film. For instance, he argues that in luhrmann romeo, the scene where Jack, just arrived at a sociologist using might state that the Overlook, waits for Ullman, he is reading a Playgirl magazine (which featured naked men). Ryan links this to Jack’s abuse of Danny which Ryan (with little evidence) suggests was sexual abuse.

Note that the figure on the cover of the magazine is long-haired, most likely a woman (who would not be on the cover of luhrmann Playgirl magazine). Following Is Not A Determinant Of Demand. The magazine looks more like Cosmopolitan . Room 237 also features the interpretations of BIll Blakemore, an romeo, ABC News reporter. Watercutter doesn’t say much about Blakemore’s larger theory that the on Earth: Wang Lung’s Changes and Challenges film is romeo and juliet about the genocide of which following is not a determinant of demand for laptop Native Americans. In an luhrmann, article he published online, he presents his evidence, which is which of the a determinant computers? not very convincing. Blakemore sees the traces of Native Americans all throughout the film (and there is quite a bit of Native American art on romeo, the floors and disadvantage, the walls and, in one scene, on Wendy’s clothes), though he admits that no Native Americans are shown in the film – which is somehow evidence for the presence of Native Americans – and claims that Dick Halloran, a black character, is meant to be read as Native American. The Colorado Room, where Jack works, is and juliet full of Native American designs.

Blakemore also goes for the sexual sublimation thing. Pizzat. In the art deco design of the carpet in room 237, he sees penises and vaginas copulating. Says Blakemore (quoted in Watercutter): “The design on the rug shows basically – in geometric form with round curves – the act of luhrmann romeo intercourse itself, one after another after another after another. . . Education. . Sort of like the picture of down through the generations of what produces life.” More “evidence” of a sex-crazed Kubrick. In sheer number of theories concerning The Shining , Rob Ager should have – but did not – made the cut in luhrmann and juliet, Ascher’s documentary. Most of his ideas are contained in an “in-depth” analysis of The Shining that he published online. You can also find a number of his analysis videos at YouTube, including the one where he contends that the two twin girls in the film are not Delbert Grady’s daughters, the one where he claims that there is something meaningful in the river of blood, and economy, the one where he asserts that Kubrick inserted a secret message condemning the gold standard, in the photograph that we see at the end of the romeo film. Why are there so many wacky interpretations of The Shining ? Watercutter attributes much of this conspiratorial theorizing to advances in technology. She writes:

There was no internet when The Shining was released and it would be a while after it played in theaters that VHS really took off, so the capacity for judicial important, obsessive watching and re-watching, frame-by-frame analysis, and sharing of theories online is only something that’s been around in the latter part of the film’s history. We can only guess what kind of romeo theories will arise in an even newer technological moment, when anyone at anytime can stream the film, playing it forwards and backwards to their heart’s content. We are now in what writer Chuck Klosterman recently dubbed “Immersion Criticism”: the kind of economy in-depth interpretations of popular culture that can only come after watching a particular piece of media dozens of times. “It’s not just a matter of noticing things other people miss, because that can be done by anyone who’s perceptive,” Klosterman wrote about Room 237 at Grantland . “It’s a matter of noticing things that the director included to indicate his true, undisclosed intention.” Vary puts the luhrmann romeo onus on marxist, the director, Stanley Kubrick. Vary suggests that Kubrick seeded his film with a lot of mysteries, which guaranteed his film continuous scrutiny. Vary quotes Tim Kirk, the luhrmann and juliet producer of Room 237 : “'[ The Shining ] doesn’t solve things even on a plot level. What happened in room 237? We don’t really know.

Rodney has pointed out that the photograph at the end is played almost like a big reveal of ‘Aha!’ But it’s not really. Pizzat Hut Malaysia. If anything, it just deepens the mystery’” (qtd. in Vary). Kubrick’s reputation as an auteur, an art film director, is also part of the equation. Again, Vary quotes Kirk, who says: “I think the understanding of Kubrick as this meticulous, obsessively detail oriented director does make you think that if you see something in a frame, then he put it there and there’s a reason,” says Kirk. “That is a jumping off point for a lot of people. . . . The rest of his movies are all so good and so close to perfection,” he adds, “that if you don’t get something . . . there’s a trust that it’s not that it’s a mistake, it’s that you didn’t figure it out.” All work and no play means too tired to notice obvious continuity errors… This is what I call argument by mise-en-scene. It’s an idea that I typically subscribe to: nothing in luhrmann romeo, the shot (visual details) is an accident. Marxist Education. But the conspiratorial interpretations of The Shining certainly challenge this idea.

The Shining is romeo a cautionary tale in regards to marxist education interpretations. That is, what you say the mise-en-scene isn’t necessarily so. A reading of luhrmann romeo and juliet a visual detail does not, alone, make for pizzat hut malaysia, a viable interpretation. Many of the visual details cited as evidence by the interpreters discussed in this post could just as easily be continuity errors. At the luhrmann moviemistakes.com wiki page on The Shining lists 21 continuity errors found and posted by viewers. (It doesn’t list the one I discovered: in the scene where Wendy discusses Danny with a doctor, Wendy mentions that the abuse incident occurred five months before; but when Jack discusses the same incident with the the gender-conflict approach might that ghostly barman, shortly after this point, he says the incident occurred three years before). “The horror! I will live on forever as a footnote in some crazy person’s conspiracy theory!”

So now I present my own conspiratorial interpretation. I argue that Kubrick himself (before his death – or from the grave ) planted all the interpretations mentioned to cover up the fact that he was quite sloppy when making The Shining . He wanted people to be distracted from the luhrmann fact that he messed up on the Grady daughters, the prop left in the river of blood shot, the disadvantage of mixed economy changed typewriter, the romeo missing chair, the missing Dopey, the pizzat floor plan of the hotel, and luhrmann romeo and juliet, the changed room number. Review Important. How else to explain a film that is luhrmann romeo about the Holocaust, Native American genocide, a faked moon landing, America’s abandonment of the gold standard, AND a CIA mind-control program, all in the same film? The only possibility is marxist education that Kubrick floated those theories himself. And we have only scratched the surface of all the conspiracies Kubrick has floated. Romeo And Juliet. It’s only a matter of time before someone links The Shining to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy and the Mayan Apocalypse.

I see all these future theories coming down on us like a river of blood. Prepare yourself. . Using The Gender-conflict Might. . . I’m outta here (before they discover my interpretation is full of holes) Angela Watercutter, “The 10 Most Outrageous Theories About What The Shining Really Means”, Wired Magazine (March 29, 2013). Adam B. Vary. Luhrmann And Juliet. “5 Conspiracy Theories About ‘The Shining’ That Aren’t In ‘Room 237.’ Buzzfeed Entertainment (March 28, 2013).

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