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Silent spring rachel carson

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brighton rock essays This study guide is intended for students preparing for exams at GCE Advanced (A2) level and silent, Advanced Supplementary (AS) level. But it is democracy is the suitable for university students and the general reader who is interested in Brighton Rock . Please use the hyperlinks in the table above to spring rachel, navigate this page. Need Hierachy. If you have any comments or suggestions to make about this page, please e-mail me by clicking on rachel carson, this link. Concepts. The purpose of this study guide is to carson, help you find your way around the text, and to introduce subjects which may be set by examiners. It is not a substitute for close study of the novel. Ideas presented here need to be supported by textual reference (either summary of narrative detail or brief direct quotation, as appropriate; do not quote at need hierachy, length: you gain no credit for this in an open book exam, the point of the reference will not be clear, and you are wasting time!). It is assumed by the examiners that literature is silent carson a humane subject; that is, that books set for study explore and interpret values and and Non- Renewable Energy Essay, attitudes in the real world, although they must also be judged in their own right as imaginative works depicting an alternative reality or alternative view of the world. Broadly speaking, students are asked to examine works in terms of their content ( what they are about) and the author's technique ( how they are composed). While examiners hope that students will enjoy studying these things, they recognize that this enjoyment will rarely be simple or immediate in the case of demanding texts.

Students would do well to silent spring carson, develop maturity as readers, to discover the historical and cultural diversity of western literature, with some of its history; to recognize different literary forms, genres and conventions. Personal and independent judgements are encouraged, but should be made against a background of familiarity with established or current attitudes. What Hamlet Take Place. It is impossible to teach this entirely within lesson time; private reading, directed by a teacher or other well-read person, is silent rachel carson essential. Because you cannot read everything, or even very much, try to profit from the experience of others. At one level, this novel is Sources Essay a simple, if elegant, thriller: Ida Arnold, an unlikely heroine, pursues the evil but failed gangster Pinkie Brown; she seeks his punishment, while trying to save from rachel carson, his influence the young woman, Rose, whom Pinkie has married to buy her silence.

In these terms, with vivid but usually straightforward characters and well-drawn locations, and the shocking conclusion (the reader is aware of Rose's imminent discovery of The Various Renewable and Non-, Pinkie's hatred) the rachel carson novel shows why it achieved great popularity, and marketing, why it was successfully adapted for the cinema. Unlike some classic works, it obeys the silent rachel carson convention of popular fiction, that there should be a well-paced and exciting story; suspense is also provided by the reader's concern for marketing, the perhaps doomed Rose. But why is the novel also considered to be serious fiction, or a modern classic? This is spring a little less obvious, but we can find reasons for this opinion, if we look. Like many writers from earlier times, Greene is deeply interested in what could be called metaphysical questions: about the real nature and purpose of this world, about the nature or existence, even, of God; about man's freedom, by his own efforts, to alter his circumstances - or lack of this freedom. In order to address these arguments, Greene depicts characters who are not at all complex, but who hold, profoundly in the case of year does hamlet, Pinkie, radically differing views on silent rachel carson, these matters. Dallow, like Ida, sees only the immgration immediate material world before him, as do the punters who see Brighton's jolly facade and silent carson, gaiety, but not the squalor behind this. Pinkie, though, believes also in a world of unseen but eternal spiritual realities. Need Hierachy. Initially, he believes these to await him after death, and he aspires to silent rachel, better his status in this world; but he comes, gradually, to see what Prewitt, his bent lawyer, articulates for the structure of scientific, him, that this (this world, generally; for Pinkie, Brighton) is hell, nor are we out of silent rachel, it.

Brighton in its two aspects (the Palace Pier or Paradise Piece) becomes a metaphor for heaven and hell, while the novel begs the question: does Pinkie have a morbid and deluded imagination, or is he right in his view of the world? Ida is a likeable heroine, but Greene does not at all endorse her matter-of-fact view of the world. Greene's examination of these questions should also be seen in need hierachy its historical perspective. The major English novelist of the inter-war years, D.H. Lawrence, presented a view of the world in which problems arise from personal, social and especially sexual relations. While ideas about religious belief might occasionally preoccupy the characters in Lawrence's novels the author does not seriously entertain belief in a supernatural God. Late Victorian writers, such as Thomas Hardy and George Eliot, followed by silent spring, G.B. Shaw, have tried to replace religious values with social ethics. In Brighton Rock, Greene shows the summary continuing importance of religious belief.

In Hale's funeral service and silent spring rachel carson, Ida's superstitious dabblings in the spirit world he ridicules the then fashionable compromise between religious faith and so-called rationalism. Pinkie's rebuke to Dallow's I don't believe in what my eyes don't see (They don't see much then; p. 212 ) could reasonably be read as the author's gibe against concepts the blindness, to eternal realities, of the modern materialist outlook. Spring Rachel. These ideas will be discussed more fully later. Pinkie accepts the Roman Catholic teaching about heaven and hell, but in what take a rather perverted way. There may be heaven though he can form no idea of it; but he has a vivid idea of hell: Of course there's Hell. Flames and damnation. (p.

52) Initially, Pinkie believes that hell awaits him after death, and there is no point in troubling about it beforehand: Hell - it's just there. You don't need to spring rachel, think of it - not before you die (p. 91) But his remark to Rose immediately prior to democracy, this (I don't take any stock in religion) is not convincing. It is probably true, however, at this point, that Pinkie believes he can use his position as Kite's successor to gain status and influence, though it is not clear to silent spring rachel, the reader how he can achieve these, as Pinkie lacks imagination; his refusal to spain, meet Colleoni's terms seems foolish. What Pinkie wants immediately is to obliterate his past in Paradise Piece, with the knowledge of his parents' sexual habits, and to silent spring rachel, escape from the room at Frank's, where strategic planning is made impossible by the interruptions of the concepts other gang members and Judy. An idea of controlling the race track, resisting Colleoni and spring rachel, doing what he needs to, in order to silence Rose is concepts Pinkie's vision of worldly success. Spring Rachel Carson. The reader notes, first that the celibate, ascetic Pinkie is unfitted to enjoy the fruits of this success, other than the prestige it might bring; second, that Ida, effortlessly, achieves what is denied Pinkie: he is refused a room at the hotel on his wedding-night, while Ida uses the unlucky Hale's tip to pay her way in Brighton, and her charm to hitch a lift to the races in a luxury sports car. What Pinkie comes to realize about his original view of does hamlet take, things is spring carson that it is mistaken, and that hell is all around us. In trying to and Non- Renewable Sources Essay, silence Rose, he finds himself committing a sin more serious than murder (the corruption of an immortal soul). He also sees how the squalid domestic routines and the sexual relations he has hitherto sought to escape have now trapped him; the only way out is to silent spring carson, arrange Rose's death. Pinkie sees this most vividly when he takes his bride back to Frank's place: Now it was as if he was damned already and there was nothing more to fear ever again.

The ugly bell chattered, the long wire humming in the hall, and the bare globe burnt above the bed - the girl, the washstand, the and Non- Energy sooty window, the spring rachel carson blank shape of a chimney, a voice whispered, I love you, Pinkie. This was hell then; it wasn't anything to form, worry about; it was just his own familiar room. (p. 182) Later, when he visits Prewitt (Part Seven, Ch. 3), this is spring rachel articulated most clearly. Pinkie's fear of settled domesticity is alarmingly embodied in Prewitt's household. Prewitt is successful enough (or has been) to own a house and to employ a servant. But his house is near the railway line, shaken by shunting engines while soot settles continuously on the glass and brass plate. Is The Worst. The party wall is so thin, there is non-stop noise from the neighbour's radio. The wife in the basement and silent carson, the girl with grey underground skin suggest the hell just beneath this world.

Prewitt tells Pinkie that the The Various Renewable Renewable Essay Boy's danger of conviction is to be preferred to his own living death: The worst that can happen to you is you'll hang. But I can rot. Finally, Prewitt tells Pinkie of Mephistopheles' words to Faustus: Why, this is Hell, nor are we out of it repeating the spring rachel phrase soon afterwards. Pinkie would not be familiar with Marlowe's play, but the spain immgration quotation expresses an idea to silent spring rachel, which his own thoughts have been tending. The reader sees that Pinkie is like Faustus: he has tried to make a deal, accepting his own damnation, in return for some advantage in this world. Like Faustus, he finds that the worldly gain is illusory and concepts, unsatisfying. We see further how Pinkie becomes aware more and more of rachel, a loss of control.

When he confronts Hale, he is utterly confident he can kill him with impunity. Early in the novel (p. 7) Greene likens Pinkie to a hunter before the kill. As he is drawn into year take, closer relations with Rose, Pinkie sees how his scope for action is lessened. This becomes explicit when he visits Prewitt: More than ever yet he had the sense that he was being driven further and deeper than he'd ever meant to rachel carson, go: he is now the hunted. This idea is central to the novel's conclusion: although Pinkie is fairly sure of his own damnation, he believes (in theory) that a Catholic can be saved if he repents before death, an idea he thinks of repeatedly in terms of the rhyme about the stirrup and the ground.

When he fears he may be about to die, after the attack on the race-course, he finds that this does not work, that his whole attention is given to trying to stay alive. But Greene is careful not to the structure revolutions summary, exclude the possibility of forgiveness for spring rachel carson, Pinkie. Driving with Rose to the country, to arrange her suicide, Pinkie thinks of himself as pre-destined, unfairly, for damnation, because of the experiences of which his cells were formed. He is stirred by an awful resentment, and year does take place, wonders why he should not have had his chance, like all the rest, seen his glimpse of heaven, if it was only a crack between the Brighton walls. (p. Rachel. 228) But as he looks back on his brief courtship of Rose, Pinkie has his chance. He discovers, to his surprise, that he remembers it without repulsion and the (slight) possibility of affection for Rose occurs to him; somewhere, like a beggar outside a shuttered house, tenderness stirred, but he was bound in a habit of hate. Spain. The image is repeated (p. Spring Carson. 237) as Pinkie feels almost protective of Rose in response to the boasting of the upper-class men in the bar: Tenderness came up to the very window and looked in. Is The Worst. The chance of repentance, twice refused, comes most vividly, the third and final time; as he drives away from the bar, Pinkie is aware of an enormous emotion, likened to something trying to get in; the pressure of gigantic wings against the glass. Dona nobis pacem . If the glass broke, if the beast - whatever it was - got in, God knows what it would do. (p. 239) The colloquial God knows here clearly has a serious literal meaning.

Pinkie is aware of silent, what is happening, this is the crack opening in Brighton's walls, but when it comes, he resists it. Having declined the threefold offer of marketing, mercy, Pinkie cannot escape the divine judgement. His death is presented very much as the action of supernatural punishment: it was as if the flames had literally got him (the burning of the silent carson vitriol anticipating and becoming a metaphor for the hell-fire which Pinkie is about to meet). When he goes over the cliff no sound is heard: it was as if he'd been withdrawn suddenly by a hand out of any existence - past or present, whipped away into zero - nothing. (p. 243) The hand is a conventional anthropomorphism for the action of God, while the reference to time indicates how Pinkie's hell, as Prewitt correctly divines, begins before his death. In the depiction of Pinkie, Greene addresses many of the paradoxes of Roman Catholic doctrine. Pinkie seems to be doomed - both by his environment and by his temperament - to hell, and yet he is held accountable for his actions. His lack of imagination (of others' sufferings) and inability to hamlet take place, value those for whom he has no affection (and he has affection for nobody) explain, but in Greene's eyes neither justify nor excuse, his crimes. He has the possibility of mercy but declines it. Silent Spring Rachel. The reader is satisfied (with Ida) that justice has been done (though we understand it, as Ida does not, in the context of eternal damnation). Ida, like Dallow, believes in what she sees.

She is democracy worst superstitious, being quite ready to rachel carson, believe in a spirit world, but not seeing, as Pinkie does, the vivid reality of hell-fire. She believed in ghosts, but you couldn't call that thin transparent existence life eternal. (p. 36) This is contrasted with Ida's hedonistic ideas about of scientific summary, life, as a series of tangible material pleasures to be enjoyed without self-reproach: She took life with a deadly seriousness. (p. 36) Ida has no belief in heaven or hell: That's just religion. Believe me, it's the world we got to deal with. Carson. (p. 198) Fred has been deprived of life and Rose's life may be in danger; Ida, with her overwhelming sense of right and what year does, wrong, of carson, fair play, casts herself in the rôle of democracy is the worst, avenger. Greene explains Ida's popularity in silent rachel terms of her understanding of ordinary people; her physical presence, her joie de vivre and her sentimentality all make her attractive; she is the structure revolutions generous in every respect, and mixes common sense with commonplace superstition. In this, she is a kind of representative of the people, and of the popular world view.

Many readers will see things as Ida does; most will admire the courage with which she responds to what she sees as her duty to silent spring rachel, Fred. Whether we agree with Ida's belief that it's the need hierachy world we got to deal with is another matter. It is possible to see Pinkie's theology as the spring carson morbid fantasy of a moral imbecile. Renewable And Non-. But the conclusion of the novel appears more to endorse the supernatural than the worldly outlook. The hand which seems to withdraw Pinkie from existence, for example, is not in his mind (we have no insight into the dying man's thought) but in the narrative. Silent Rachel Carson. Just as Ida sets out to save Rose's (mortal) life, so Rose hopes to save Pinkie's (immortal) soul. If this is impossible, she thinks, she would rather be damned with him.

Though familiar with the Catholic doctrine in which she has been brought up, her understanding is very different from Pinkie's. She is quite ready to is the, defer to his authority, even when he pretends not to believe the silent spring rachel carson orthodox teaching on marriage, in The Various and Non- Renewable Energy Essay order to persuade Rose that he and she are to be married properly. Although Rose is conventionally good she has a sense of inhabiting a country where good or evil live together, speaking the same language, coming together like old friends; Pinkie and she live in a common world, from which the non-Catholics are excluded. She sees Ida (in relation to Catholicism) as resembling an Englishwoman abroad, as if in a strange country without a phrase book. Silent. Rose rightly suspects that Pinkie's background is the same as hers; he denies this (p. 91) not least because his home is the thing of which he most wants to be free. Rose fails, at the last, to commit suicide; though she thinks of the voice prompting her to stay alive so she can plead for Pinkie at the throne of grace as speaking like a devil, yet her hand is stayed long enough for her to be overtaken by events. Need Hierachy. When Ida and the policeman arrive, Rose throws away the revolver she is holding. Rose tells the priest (p. 246) that Pinkie was damned and knew it. The priest encourages her to believe it might be otherwise if he (Pinkie) loved her, and tells her to spring, make her child a saint to pray for his father.

The novel's concluding sentence intimates that Rose will soon discover (from Pinkie's recorded message) that he hated her, thus giving the lie to the priest's suggestion. Need Hierachy. In the silent spring carson novel, Brighton is the structure of scientific important as a well-drawn setting for the action; as a metaphorical device for depicting the carson eternal realities of heaven and hell; for its close identification with Pinkie, and for its atmosphere. The reader does not have to spain, know the town through personal experience to follow the novel, though in fact Greene supplies very precise details at points (he identifies the Palace Pier, the West Pier, Old Steyne, Montpellier Road and spring rachel, neighbouring Rottingdean and Peacehaven, as well, of course, as the race track). The town could be any English seaside resort in its layout: a drab hinterland, known only to the locals extends back from the extensive promenades and piers with amusements, sideshows and hamlet, kiosks selling confections and souvenirs. These sources of pleasure and silent spring, entertainment are presented by Greene as essentially vulgar, for the common people. Ida, ever adaptable, is The Various and Non- Energy Sources Essay able to enjoy her day-trip, but Hale, down on his luck yet of more middle-class outlook feels isolated, different from the crowd which seems to exist only as a collective, to which individual differences are surrendered: it is likened, impersonally, to a twisted piece of silent rachel carson, wire, uncoiling endlessly past him. While the spain immgration crowds enjoy the seaside, they do not know the impoverished streets behind it. Though Pinkie seems to know all of Brighton well, there are parts he wishes not to know.

In seeking her parents' permission to marry Rose, Pinkie must return to the poor area from which he originates; he (like the reader) is silent spring rachel carson directly confronted with the need hierachy squalid detail of Nelson Place and Paradise Piece. The promenade and the piers, dedicated to amusement, parting people from small amounts of money saved, patiently, from what they have earned through real work are artificial, a veneer on reality, as it were. For the crowds of holiday-makers or day-trippers on bank-holidays they are a delightful illusion of the spring rachel carson good life: With immense labour and immense patience they extricated from the long day the grain of pleasure: this sun, the of scientific summary music, the rattle of the rachel carson miniature cars, the ghost train diving between the grinning skeletons under the Aquarium promenade, the sticks of Brighton rock, the democracy form paper sailors' caps. (p. 6) Greene indicates here how the crowd almost force themselves into silent spring carson, a sense of enjoyment, as this is the only diversion they can know. But the reality of Brighton is Paradise Piece and the structure revolutions, Nelson Place, with their poverty and squalor; Mr. Prewitt's domestic hell; the room at Frank's place; the life Pinkie sees embodied in the clutter of a garage in which he takes refuge, or the sprawling development he and Rose look at from the bus. In every case, the rachel place is associated with unhappiness, failure of marketing, one's plans and of one's relationships but chiefly with entrapment. Prewitt's quotation of Mephistopheles points the reader to Pinkie's apparent inability to leave Brighton.

We may wonder why he does not simply run away from his troubles: the answer is silent carson that he cannot leave. Unlike the The Various and Non- Renewable Energy Essay much-travelled Dallow, he knows he is doomed to stay there. Silent Spring. He tells Dallow: I'd feel a stranger away from here. I suppose I'm real Brighton (pp. The Various Renewable Sources. 219,220) He says this as if his single heart contained all the cheap amusements, the Pullman cars, the spring unloving weekends in gaudy hotels, and the sadness after coition. Though he has tried to escape Paradise Piece, there is irony in of scientific revolutions summary his criminal actions (the intended means of escape) leading him, as he tries to silence Rose, back to the very slums from which he came. When Pinkie goes out into the country with Cubitt and Dallow he takes his past with him; confronted with Sylvie in the back of a Lancia he is as nauseated as ever by the physical reality of sex. Immediately before this we are told (p. 130): This was his territory, the populous foreshore, a few thousand acres of houses, a narrow peninsula of electrified track running to London, two or three railway stations with their buffets and buns.

It had been Kite's territory, it had been good enough for Kite, and when Kite had died in the waiting-room at St. Pancras, it had been as if a father had died, leaving him an silent spring carson inheritance it was his duty never to leave for strange acres. Though, it seems, Pinkie is occasionally (if briefly) able to leave Brighton, Brighton cannot be taken out of him. Finally, Brighton is appropriate because of the structure of scientific revolutions summary, its atmosphere. Although a fashionable resort in its Regency heyday, the Brighton of the 1930s, which Greene knew was rather down-at-heel and extremely vulgar. The amusements are a series of clichs: ghost-train and silent spring, shooting-gallery; paper hats and sticks of rock. A supposedly festive location often, by the structure of scientific summary, way of contrast, as here, may prove highly effective as the setting for silent spring carson, a story about evil and crime. On the day of the Whitsun bank holiday, though the sun shines there is a chill wind; the literal coldness becoming a metaphor for Hale's fear and need hierachy, sense of carson, isolation and danger. Brighton Rock: why is the title apt?

Brighton is (or was, in Britain, until recent times) very closely associated in the public mind with the sticks of rock sold there, and would have been so even more in the 1930s, when the rock would have been seen as a semi-luxury. Greene chooses it for concepts, his title, both because of its connection with the silent spring rachel carson circumstances of Hale's death, and because of its use, by Ida, as a simile to explain the unchanging nature of the human heart. Spain Immgration. We do not learn at spring, once how Hale died. We know that Pinkie and his gang believe they have killed him, yet are puzzled by the different conclusion of the coroner. Much later (p.

162) Cubitt hints to Ida about the killing: I can't see a piece of Brighton rock without. (without distress, evidently, at recalling his part in the killing; Ida presses him for more information, but he gives none). Summary. The mystery is resolved in the following chapter, where Pinkie sees a kind of diabolical leading of Rose, as she inadvertently retraces his steps on the day of Hale's death. The covered walk which Rose takes (in bad weather) because it is sheltered has been chosen, earlier, by Pinkie for discretion. When she reaches the kiosk where the killing took place, Pinkie asks Rose whether she wants winkles or rock as if something important really depended on the answer. When she replies, I'd like a stick of Brighton rock he believes that only the devil. Spring Carson. could have made her answer like that. We learn that some rock is for sale cheaply because it has been broken (in the kiosk) by some clumsy fools (Pinkie and does take, his gang, with Hale). He knows, before he turns around, that the promenade will be shut out silent, behind the need hierachy rows of Brighton rock (p. 178).

Evidently, this place was chosen for the killing of rachel, Hale because few, if any, holiday-makers would see the men on democracy worst form, the covered walk, and no-one would see the murder. Spring Rachel Carson. (It is not clear whether the shop-assistant would be in the kiosk but unaware of what was happening or out, though her remark suggests that the murder may have occurred when the need hierachy kiosk was unattended; Pinkie evidently knows every detail of the place.) The principal reason for Greene's choice of title, though, is that Brighton rock provides Ida with a topical but simple analogy to human nature. Silent Spring Rachel Carson. In response to what year, Rose's statement that people change, Ida retorts: Oh, no they don't. I've never changed. It's like those sticks of rock: bite it all the way down. That's human nature. (p. 198) In the case of silent spring carson, Pinkie, Ida would appear to be correct. But whether Greene wishes us to endorse this view in every case is debatable; Pinkie, after all, is spain immgration confronted with the possibility of change, but is rachel carson unable to achieve it. This view is essentially pessimistic, suggesting that the only good people are those who are good to need hierachy, begin with.

In the eternal context (in which Ida has no real belief) this would mean that the spring carson capacity of the individual to respond to marketing, God's mercy (and thus damnation and salvation) are determined in advance by God's will. Crudely, whether one is saved or damned, in terms of Ida's simile, depends on what God has written on one's character or soul. Before considering this, it may be worth thinking generally about the idea of viewpoint in fiction. Conventionally, writers use first or third person narration for different effects: the one gives a more partial and subjective view, while the other allows more objective or shifting viewpoint. However, by silent spring carson, regulating the revolutions summary reader's access to the thoughts of the imagined characters or by rachel, making judgements about them, the author may massage the reader's sensibilities and attitudes. Comments may also be provided by way of explanation, to clarify what would otherwise seem puzzling or to elicit sympathy for otherwise repellent characters. In Brighton Rock Greene limits the reader's view to scenes in which Pinkie, Ida and Rose appear, save for the opening, in which we follow Hale, and a brief episode in which Dallow is prominent. We are granted access to and Non- Renewable Energy Sources, the thoughts of these characters, to their feelings about others, with the author's explanatory comment sometimes, seeing the story, as it were, through their eyes.

One way of understanding this better would be to consider those characters to whom we are not given this kind of insight. Good examples would be Colleoni or Kite: both exert a great influence on Pinkie but their own outlook is not important to the novel, so much as the silent spring rachel carson way that Pinkie sees them, and this is how they are presented to the reader; like Pinkie, we judge Colleoni by marketing, how he appears and what he says, while Kite is known only by a series of recollections, some general, some (such as their first meeting ) more vivid and precise. In episodes in which more than one of the principals is present Greene will often present the story through the eyes of one only. Occasionally, as in the set-piece description of the race day (Part four, Ch. 1; p. 99) Greene will adopt a neutral, impersonal view, not at all mediated by the subjective response of a character, but merely detailing what was to be seen and heard. Spring Carson. One result of Greene's subjective limiting of viewpoint to that of spain, Pinkie or of Ida, is to spring rachel carson, reinforce the idea of their mutual incomprehension: neither can make sense of the other's world; neither attempts understanding. Thus, when Ida appeals to and Non-, Rose, she speaks in terms of worldly common sense, and silent spring rachel, cannot see why the younger woman is unmoved.

An episode which shows well how Greene selects a partial viewpoint is the concepts account of Pinkie's visit to the races with Spicer, at which both are attacked by Colleoni's men. We read what Spicer says, but see him through Pinkie's reactions, as when he blows gaseous malted breath towards the bookies. Comments such as It was as easy as shelling peas are clearly not those of the author, but an indication of Pinkie's thoughts. Pinkie squeezes Spicer's arm, but there is no account of Spicer's pain or irritation; when the silent rachel attack occurs, Spicer is seen and heard from concepts, afar, but Pinkie's pain is presented directly; although the surprise is silent spring rachel said to be worse than the pain at first, the account of the attack is graphic: we read the word pain repeatedly, as also references to razors and to revolutions summary, slashing (of knuckles, twice, and of cheeks). Here, the reader is concerned with Pinkie's pain alone; Spicer is out of sight figuratively, as well as literally. Giving access to thoughts, with explanatory comment, Greene enables the reader to achieve imaginative sympathy with characters (Pinkie, Rose, Ida) whose views the author in no sense endorses. This does not, of course, mean that we are led to silent, like them, but that we can understand them: even Ida, though we might like her for a neighbour, is depicted as narrow and worldly, while her tastes are snobbishly depicted as vulgar. This sympathy is most important in democracy is the form the case of Pinkie: if we saw him only as he appears to others, and without comment on the origins of his self-centred misanthropy, the novel would be repellent; as it is, Greene elicits some comprehension of (if not compassion for) how Pinkie has become what he has, by means of the repeated insights into his thoughts. This is not a novel in which rounded characters are depicted in the round: in fact, Greene is preoccupied with a limited range of silent rachel carson, human characteristics.

What we learn of marketing, Pinkie is silent rachel carson what has made him as he is marketing (his revulsion at his parental home and his parents' ugly ritual of sex, his sadism at school and his Catholicism) and his present doomed struggle for advancement in the Brighton underworld. Carson. This could be seen to bring what is important (Pinkie's evil) into of scientific revolutions summary, sharper relief, and to omit everyday detail suggestive of humanity; but the poverty of silent rachel, Pinkie's past and present experience, the absence of year take, happy childhood recollection, might indicate that there is nothing else to say about Pinkie, that simple hostility has driven out complexity of silent spring rachel, character. Where Pinkie eschews experience, Ida is marketing game for anything, especially modest material luxuries. Where Pinkie is alienated by his singularity and hostility to God and man, Ida is the epitome of the insider. She is a stereotype of spring carson, decent humanity at its best, eating, drinking and and Non- Renewable Sources, making merry but consoling the weak and seeking justice she believes Fred has been denied. Her idea of right and wrong is far less profound and potent than Pinkie's sense of Good and Evil, but she is confident she is in the right, and inexorable in spring carson doing what she sees as her duty. There is need hierachy some irony in silent spring the reader's awareness that this mixture of superstition and agnosticism should be the unwitting instrument of divine retribution for Pinkie. Rose is more impoverished of character and experience even than Pinkie, so that he appears to her as glamorous. She, too, seems motivated by a single idea, that of loyalty to Renewable and Non- Renewable Energy Sources, Pinkie, and resists Ida's arguments with sullen perversity.

Her commitment to Pinkie is an silent spring rachel act of faith which she justifies by the will power with which she sustains it; she does not know him really, as appears (p. 195) as she attempts to spain, explain her marriage to her friend, Maisie. The depiction of complex characters, showing development over time, is a legitimate purpose for a novelist, but in Brighton Rock we meet characters who are not complex and who do not undergo much development, in the short time which the principal narrative occupies. Silent Rachel. What Greene is interested in is the states of summary, mind of Pinkie and Ida, and spring rachel carson, the nature of their conflict. In Brighton Rock Greene presents the reader with many motifs and is the worst form, symbols. In order to sort these out, we should note the following types of symbolism. First, there are symbols or metaphors which are understood as such by the characters in the novel: of spring, these, the most obvious is that in the title. The reader is aware that the need hierachy letters run right through a stick of rock, but we may be a little surprised to silent spring rachel, read of marketing concepts, Ida's using this image to explain to Rose why, in her view, human nature is unchanging - the symbolism occurs to Ida as it does to us; second, we may consider things which the characters observe, and spring carson, which suggest the characters' state of the structure of scientific revolutions summary, mind, although for them the symbolism is silent carson never articulated: thus, Pinkie's battered Morris and the sausage roll crumbs on his bed can be contrasted with Colleoni's gold cigarette lighter and limousine, as indicative of the status of the two men; finally, there are the images which are never explained but which recur throughout the novel, and which we may choose to interpret analogically - such as the sea, or music (of various kinds).

As a writer whose work was frequently adapted for the cinema, Greene seems to think very much of what should be seen or heard at any time, but the context of these images suggests that they are at least ambiguous, if not obviously open to analogical interpretation. In your reading of the novel, you should look out for spain, recurring details which Greene introduces to indicate meanings beyond the literal. To take one minor example, we might note the frequency with which Greene draws our attention to glass and windows (Rose outside her old place of employment, Pinkie looking in shop windows, tenderness coming to the window in the roadhouse and looking in, gigantic wings beating on the car's windscreen, references to glass breaking). Many of these can be seen as images of spring carson, separation or isolation. They are also connected with a series of references to seeing or not seeing: Pinkie twice rebukes others for failing to see (first, literally, and later, speaking to Dallow about hell, metaphorically), we (twice) meet a blind band, Prewitt wants to act like Samson and democracy worst, sees his wife as a mole (p. 210), while even the name of Nelson Place suggests partial blindness or wilful failure to see the enemy (as Nelson did at Copenhagen by silent, placing his telescope against need hierachy his blind eye).

Frank's ignorance of Dallow's affair with Judy is ultimately explained by Dallow's disclosure (p. 234), which we may have anticipated: What Frank doesn't see, he doesn't mind. And he can't see much - he's blind (which explains why, although he has a wonderful hand with an iron, he does not notice the damp patch on Pinkie's suit, of which the Boy is spring so conscious, speaking to need hierachy, Colleoni at the Cosmopolitan). This recurrent motif is part of Greene's way of distinguishing the visible everyday world of material pleasures, in which Ida so firmly believes, from the unseen eternity behind or beyond it (see below) just as, to use another parallel, Pinkie knows the rachel ugly real Brighton behind the facade of sea-front, promenade and pier, a Brighton which the day-trippers never see. Prewitt's seeing his wife as a mole in the cellarage is one of several subterranean references, depicting hell as the underworld (note that this word in its loose metaphorical sense [as used in the blurb on the novel's back cover] is avoided by Greene). Apart from the the structure basement in Frank's house, we might note the cellar at Snow's where Rose tends the wounded Pinkie, the long tunnel (p. 177-8) under the parade (down which Hale is led to his death) or the likening of the blind musicians' eyes to those of pit ponies (p. Silent Rachel Carson. 99). These references reinforce the reader's sense that Brighton is, like the world, but in a local and immgration, comprehensible sense: the ravaged and disputed territory between the two eternities (of heaven and silent rachel, hell; p. The Structure Summary. 139). Pinkie eventually is stirred by spring carson, an awful resentment that he has never seen his glimpse of heaven (228) though he is disgusted by the romantic cliché (p.

48) beautiful to hold and heaven itself which confuses heaven with the object of sexual or amorous desire. This theological understanding is is the worst made explicit by rachel, Prewitt, as he quotes Mephistopheles (this is democracy worst Hell, nor are we out of it; p. 210) as by Pinkie's earlier recognition on returning to silent rachel, his room at Frank's with his child bride: This was hell, then; it wasn't anything to worry about: it was just his own familiar room (p. Need Hierachy. 182). As Pinkie and silent, Rose are turned away by the hotel clerk the reader senses a parody of the Holy Family finding no room at what does hamlet, the inn. But the motif of rachel, Eden is one which Greene develops more fully: as the door of the Crown closes behind them, Pinkie and Rose feel as if they [are] shut out from an Eden of ignorance with nothing to look forward to but experience (p. 171).

Ignorance here seems synonymous both with bliss and the structure, innocence. For Rose, especially, marriage is like a different country, which she thinks of as the country of rachel carson, mortal sin. As she looks at Maisie on the other side of democracy worst form, Snow's window (p. 194), she cannot return to the Eden of ignorance. That the carson squalid slum from which Pinkie has fled should be called Paradise Piece is an irony which requires no comment beyond noting that it has not given Pinkie the glimpse of heaven he later wishes he had had! Pinkie knows and fears the sensual element in the violin music he hears as he walks on the Palace Pier - he thinks of the spain catgut vibrating in the heart or grief in the guts and silent, is the nearest thing he knows to sorrow. Sentimental love songs such as that crooned at Sherry's, suggest stale romantic convention, which leads to the double horrors of sexual intimacy and domestication: the lyrics allow Greene to invoke playfully Pinkie's sense of Rose's inadequacy (lovely to look at), his eternal perspective (heaven itself), serious poetry (west wind. nightingale) and even Pinkie's way of life, as he would like it to be (the gangsters gunning). The dispassionate purity of the sung Mass is more acceptable to Pinkie, not least because he has learned by rote the Latin liturgy, while appearing not to notice its appropriateness to his own situation (does he know how the words translate?) as he sings, or thinks of, dona nobis pacem he is trying to find ways to secure peace of mind for himself, while he speaks to year does take place, Spicer of silent carson, peace with Colleoni's mob and need hierachy, of a peace that lasts. Some motifs are obviously visual and cinematic: as we read, repeatedly, of the sausage roll crumbs on the bed or the gold lighter, we can see how these would be shown in close-up in the cinema. We are today quite familiar with the idea of the car as status symbol (indeed, the motif may now be too trite for a self-conscious writer to use it) but the contrast between the gang's Morris, rarely parted from the epithet battered and the scarlet racing model in which Ida cadges a lift, the silent rachel sports car of which the wealthy young man boasts to his friend (p. 237) or the limousines which may or may not be driven by need hierachy, Colleoni, is made explicit by Sylvie, who describes the Morris as no good to us, tries a Ford and finds it occupied, but cries (on finding one) I love a Lancia, pulling up her skirt to show the truth of her remark (p.

134). Images of silent carson, battle and conquest abound throughout the need hierachy novel. Ida thinks in silent spring carson these terms (looking at the heavy traffic of democracy is the worst form, her battlefield, laying her plans, marshalling her cannon fodder, p. 81) while Pinkie tries, but fails, to find time and space to plan his strategy. The world in which we live is seen as a battlefield where eternal powers struggle for the souls of men and women: this world, which never move(s) is seen as the ravaged and disputed territory between two eternities. Pinkie and Rose, from opposing territories, fraternize like troops at Christmas (p. Silent Spring Rachel. 139). At times the images are nautical: Ida's mind, moving slowly but inexorably, is likened to a dredger (p. 72) while later she is compared to marketing concepts, a figurehead of Victory (p. 244), an image which suggests both her triumph and her voluptuous figure (figureheads on sailing ships were conventionally carved in the form of bare-breasted women). Rose's poorly-concealed possessiveness towards Pinkie is likened (p. 138) to rachel carson, the guns on a Q-ship.

The comparison is interesting, as it is meant to give an insight into Pinkie's fear of Rose's attitude. Pinkie can plainly see what she is thinking, and may well have heard of Q-ships, but we feel the comparison is more the author's than one which would occur in this form to Pinkie! Later, as Ida fails to what year does hamlet, persuade Rose to save herself from silent spring, Pinkie (p. 139), Rose's obstinacy appears to Ida in terms of a naval battle: . Marketing Concepts. all the fight there was in silent spring the world lay there - warships cleared for action and bombing fleets took flight between the set eyes and the stubborn mouth. It was like the year hamlet place map of a campaign marked with flags. The recurring motif which most defies clear or simple interpretation is the sea. Given the novel's setting in Brighton and the interest of the day-trippers, frequent reference to it need not invite any kind of symbolic interpretation.

But the way both Ida and Pinkie think of the sea, or, at least, are repeatedly aware of it supports such a reading. For Ida, the carson sea is a metaphor for the exotic, for possibility, for romance: It was the time of near-darkness and of the immgration evening mist from the Channel and of love (p. Silent Rachel Carson. 146). Greene is what place always aware of the Channel, which links Brighton to silent spring, other more romantic places: we read of its continual whisper, of thunder coming down the Channel, of tides which come from Boulogne. Prewitt's wished-for escape is to involve a Channel-crossing. Year Hamlet. For Pinkie, the sea has no romance, but, in spring the lightning, as he shows Rose the effect of vitriol, seems more like part of the hell which lies about him. Later, as he is burned by this same vitriol, the sea claims him (they couldn't even hear a splash, p. 243). It is almost as if the novel's characters embody mediaeval notions of the four elements and the corresponding vital humours: for the phlegmatic, earthy Ida, the sea is a comfortable alternative element, but for the fiery Pinkie it is threatening and hostile: as he disappears into it at the end of the year does hamlet take novel, it is evidently the agent of his destruction.

In effect, the spring rachel sea is a kind of mirror, reflecting the ideas of the beholder. Year Does Hamlet. Details of the characters' physical appearance may be understood metaphorically: Pinkie's thinness and physical immaturity suggest his emotional underdevelopment, for example. But it is spring rachel carson Ida whose physical presence is most clearly indicative of her character. The Various Energy Sources Essay. Greene repeatedly refers to Ida's breasts to spring, suggest her joie de vivre: She liked a good time, her big breasts bore their carnality frankly down the Old Steyne (p. 80). There is an interesting contrast here: the and Non- large-breasted Ida has no children but becomes a maternal figure for any number of men, such as Hale and Cubitt; but it is the immature Rose who terrifies Pinkie with the prospect of real maternity: His thoughts came to pieces in his hand: Saturday nights: and then the birth, the child, habit and hate (p. 224); as he looks at her Pinkie (p. 228) sees a mouth which wanted the sexual embrace, the shape of breasts demanding a child. Spring Rachel Carson. While the worldly Ida sees sex as a means to pleasure (and knows how to avoid conception) Pinkie understands that for The Various Renewable Essay, Rose (a good Catholic) sex is a means to maternity, which also he dreads. Finally, one should note the image of human nature as like a stick of spring, rock: Bite it all the way down, you'll still read Brighton. That's human nature (p.

198). Where Rose suggests that people change, Ida cannot believe in this possibility, but sees the need hierachy world as composed of people, like her, who have never changed. This metaphor is central to our reading of the novel: at the end, Pinkie appears to be aware of a possibility of rachel carson, change but he is bound in a habit of hate and The Various Energy Essay, resists the impulse. He thus appears to be responsible for spring, his own actions - but it is not at all clear whether Greene believes (or expects his readers to believe) that Pinkie has any real prospect of repentance. And this ambiguity is endorsed by the priest who tells Rose (and the reader): You can't conceive. nor can I, or anyone. the appalling strangeness of the the structure of scientific revolutions mercy of God (p. Rachel Carson. 246). In Part One of the novel Greene introduces us to four characters; these are Pinkie (Brown) (aka the Boy), Ida Arnold, Charles Hale (Fred) and Rose. Need Hierachy. Although we will meet other characters, these four are of most importance to the narrative, which is chiefly about silent rachel carson, Ida's attempt to bring Pinkie to justice (for Hale's death) and to save Rose from a dangerous association: we later see that though Ida is thinking of what does hamlet take, physical and moral danger, Rose is in far greater danger in spring carson a spiritual sense. Some questions you might like to consider as you read this first part are as follows: How does Greene present Brighton to the reader? Does it seem, already, to have any close or necessary association with the events narrated? (We know the novel is called Brighton Rock but do not yet know if this has any significance other than what is obvious, i.e. that Brighton, as a famous seaside resort, is associated with sticks of rock in the popular imagination.) What have we learned about the characters of Pinkie and of Ida in this part of the novel?

The novel is narrated in the third person but the narrative viewpoint is not neutral or objective; we see things usually as they appear to Pinkie or Ida, although the first chapter is is the worst narrated very much as events appear to Hale. In what ways does Greene achieve this? A more general idea to consider is the novelist's choice of rachel carson, subject; given that any story could be told, why this one? Behind this question (impossible to answer certainly) lie many other questions: is the novelist merely documenting typical events naturalistically (what you mean when you say realistically) or is he trying to interpret/ make sense of the world by democracy worst form, means of fiction? Is the novel written for a didactic purpose (that is to teach some moral or philosophical view)? On the surface, Brighton Rock looks like a fast-paced crime thriller, and it was a best-selling novel when it first appeared, so why is it considered a modern classic and worthy of silent rachel, close study by people like yourselves? What is the relationship between places in fiction and real places? Brighton, here, like Wuthering Heights, in Bront's novel of the same name is, arguably, as much a state of mind as a real place with streets and houses, even though Greene makes several precise references to The Various Renewable and Non- Energy, the topography (layout) of the real town.

You may be disappointed by Greene's depiction of character in this novel: the two principals are strong but not complex characters; and Greene considers morality and rachel carson, religious belief more closely than psychology. How far ought a novelist, as most of the Victorians do, provide judgements on need hierachy, characters for the benefit of the reader, and how far should he or she present simply actions and speech (and perhaps, but not necessarily, thoughts) and allow the reader to make his or her own judgements? In this part the silent rachel carson focus is on Pinkie. In Chapter 1 he attempts to impress Rose, and subsequently how he threatens a bookie (Brewer) who has paid protection money to form, his rival Colleoni; in Chapter 2, he visits Colleoni, and is subsequently picked up by spring carson, the police and given a warning. What do we learn of Pinkie's situation and outlook here? Consider the concepts contrast between Pinkie's impressing the nave Rose and his meeting with Colleoni, which reveals his own inexperience. Discuss Greene's use of descriptive detail (of Pinkie's room at Frank's and Colleoni's hotel, say) to show differences of status and experience. What do we learn from the silent spring references to Colleoni's lighter? In Chapter 1, Ida figures more prominently in the narrative again: she has come to Brighton, and places a bet on Black Boy; if the horse wins, the payout will cover the year does hamlet expense of her investigation into Hale's death; in Chapter 2, Greene examines the fears of Spicer, while Chapters 3 and 4 follow Pinkie, first with Rose and silent spring rachel, subsequently with Spicer. While he moves to silence both of them (in different ways), he is unaware of Ida's moves, of which the first hint comes in Rose's account of a big woman with a laugh, asking questions. How does Greene depict Ida in worst this part?

Consider her ease in gaining access to the police inspector (who has just spoken to Pinkie), and silent rachel carson, enlisting the help of Phil. Spain. What do we learn from the description on p. 80 of her friends? Comment on silent, Greene's imagery, as he likens Ida to a dredger (p. 72), who carries Phil along in her wake (p. Democracy Is The Form. 76) and in the extended metaphor of battle on p. 81. What do you find interesting about Spicer's tiredness and desire for escape?

What moves does Pinkie make in this part to increase his security? In what ways does Greene indicate (through events or otherwise) their likely success or failure? On p. 80, Ida and Phil see the peepshow A Night of Love; on p. 93, Pinkie and Rose pass this and several other named shows. Examine how Greene presents the contrast between Ida's frankness and sexuality and silent rachel carson, Pinkie's horror of sex. In order to explain the latter, we read of Pinkie's recollections of his parents' intercourse. And Non- Renewable Essay. How does this increase (if it does) our understanding of Pinkie's motivation and character, in relation to sex, and silent spring rachel carson, more generally? Comment on Pinkie's recollection of his impoverished background (p.

90) and his memory of Colleoni's luxury (p. Democracy Is The Worst. 91) as indications of what Pinkie is, in spite of what he aspires to. How is his denial of faith (I don't take any stock in religion; p. 91) contradicted by his recollection of the liturgy* (p. 98) after he telephones Colleoni? How does the last paragraph of Part Three summarize important themes from the preceding section of the novel (Parts Two and Three)? * Liturgy here refers to the words of the Mass (or Communion) which Pinkie learned to sing, as a choirboy: Lamb of God, that takes away the sins of the world. grant us (your) peace.

In this part, we have a detailed account of the day of the races; we see the thwarting of spring rachel, Pinkie's plans as Black Boy wins his race, Colleoni's men do not kill Spicer, but wound him and Pinkie, and the Boy find he is does hamlet place too young to marry Rose, whom Ida visits in the brief second chapter; finally, Pinkie silences Spicer for himself. Ida's ascendancy over Pinkie is shown symbolically as she travels to the races in a sports car, in style, while he chugs behind in the gang's battered Morris. Look out for other occasions where cars are used to suggest Pinkie's poverty and the luxury of others' lives. Consider the device of Spicer's speculating about his retirement and keeping a pub in Nottingham, while the reader is privy to Pinkie's intentions. Spring. It is Pinkie, however, and not Spicer, who is to receive a surprise (shared by the reader?) when Colleoni's mob strikes. Note how the narrative of events, and immgration, Pinkie's conversation and immediate perceptions, is interspersed with observations about death and hell, and recollections of silent rachel carson, Pinkie's past.

What light do these shed on the narrative? As Pinkie takes shelter in a garage, he is what does hamlet fascinated but repelled by its contents. For him, as for silent carson, the reader, they become a metaphor of a certain kind of life. Comment on the symbolic function of this descriptive detail. On page 112, Pinkie thinks of tactics and strategy; this is need hierachy one of a number of images and other details which suggest to the reader the idea that both Pinkie and Ida are at war. See how many others you can find, and try to explain how they qualify our view of the narrative. This part has parallels with earlier chapters of the novel; the rachel carson same blind band which appears at the start of Part Four is need hierachy described at the start of this part; the contrast between Pinkie's room at spring carson, Frank's and Mr. Colleoni's hotel (Part Two) is found in chapters 3 and 4: in the former, Pinkie returns to the squalor of the Catholic slum (to bribe Rose's parents into consenting to his marrying her), while in the latter, Ida, eating an clair in the Pompadour Boudoir, decides to splash some of her winnings on a room at the Cosmopolitan; Spicer's disaffection (Part Four) is followed by Cubitt's loss of faith in Pinkie.

We note how the immgration description of Pinkie's territory (p. 130) is carson followed immediately by an account of marketing concepts, one of silent spring rachel carson, his rare excursions outside the boundaries of form, that territory; this symbolically mirrors his failed attempt to venture into the metaphorical territory of adulthood, seen in terms of drinking and sexual experience, with Sylvie, Spicer's girlfriend. Comment on the contrast between Pinkie's and Ida's situations in this part of the novel. Places, real and metaphorical, can be seen clearly to have enormous importance in this part of the novel (and subsequently). Comment on this, with reference to particular details which you have found to be of silent rachel, interest (Brighton, roads out of it, the The Various Renewable and Non- Renewable Essay sea, for example). Silent Spring Rachel. What indications can you find in this section of Pinkie's increasing sense of inevitability in events, and The Various and Non- Renewable Energy Sources Essay, of his losing control of his own security? Discuss the idea of nemesis here. Spring. Comment on the importance of marriage (as an idea and a reality) in this part.

In the first chapter of this part, we follow Cubitt who means to quit the gang and tries to join Colleoni, but is rejected by Crab (Colleoni's lieutenant), and subsequently consoled by Ida. The second chapter concerns Pinkie's marriage: he and Rose are refused a room at the Cosmopolitan, and what year hamlet, pass time walking near the rachel pier, before returning to Frank's, where the marriage is consummated. If the best marriages are made in heaven, is Pinkie's made in hell? (see p. The Structure Of Scientific Summary. 210). Comment on Pinkie's belief that this marriage is a greater sin than murder (p. 167), and on the repeated references to spring, hell and damnation in need hierachy this part. How does Pinkie's sense of his own damnation change (p. 182)?

What is the sense of This was hell then; it wasn't anything to worry about; it was just his own familiar room? On p. Silent Spring Rachel Carson. 178, Pinkie, led by need hierachy, Rose, returns to the scene of Hale's killing. Comment on Greene's presentation of this coincidence, especially noting Pinkie's understanding of it. This part of the novel has ten chapter divisions, but the important details of the plot concern Pinkie's growing desperation, his idea of a suicide pact (to rid himself of Rose) and Ida's concern to save the younger woman. Pinkie's chance of repentance is silent spring rachel carson vividly depicted, but he rejects it, and dies (symbolically?) by his own hand. The grim sequel to this is Rose's confession, which concludes with her belief that she may have a child, and what hamlet, her mistaken hope that the child will hear a loving message from Pinkie on the gramophone record he has recorded for her. The chapter (3) in which Pinkie visits his lawyer (Prewitt) at home is one in which the idea of silent spring, hell as all around us becomes most explicit; comment on summary, this, with especial regard to Prewitt's comments and Pinkie's more profound understanding of them.

The aptness of the novel's title becomes clear in Ida's words to silent, Rose (p. 198) about sticks of rock: explain the metaphor, and comment on its relevance to the novel generally. Concepts. Pinkie's words to Dallow (who doesn't believe in what his eyes don't see): They don't see much then remind us of the novel's general concern with differing views of the world - those that allow for, and those which exclude - the supernatural or spiritual. Comment on this theme, and its treatment here. Pinkie has three chances of repentance (the first two are expressed as tenderness trying to reach him, but the third is far more striking (p. 239). How do these explain what the priest (p. 246) calls the appalling. strangeness of the mercy of God. In what sense is Pinkie's death perfectly just?

What is meant by rachel carson, the priest's statement that a Catholic is more capable of evil than anyone? How far does the novel in its totality endorse this view? How satisfactory do you find the novel's ending in terms of the plot, situation and general themes of Brighton Rock? Open book style examination tasks. Democracy. For most syllabuses (e.g. AQA, formerly NEAB) alternative questions will be set, on two different parts of the text. You will answer one only of these. The exam paper will indicate where the set passage is to be found in your copy, which you must have with you.

The text may be marked but detailed notes or mini-essays are not to enter the exam room. The examiners will require you, unless they clearly state otherwise, to silent spring rachel carson, discuss what is spain important in the specified passage and spring, relate it to the rest of the novel (show how other parts anticipate or follow from the set passage). Marketing Concepts. You may take some time to identify important ideas, but you should organize these in some way (by category or subject). Silent Rachel Carson. For example, you might write about marketing concepts, how a specified character is presented generally, then discuss motifs, then the viewpoint, then the way this section connects with other parts of the text (this is only an example: there are other plans you may use; if the examiners indicate categories or subjects you must include all of these). Do not write a running commentary and (even worse) do not retell the narrative in the specified section. You may summarize narrative information, but this should not occupy more than a sentence or two (see summary comments above in the section called Beginning to Study the Novel ). The passages set for spring rachel carson, examination could reasonably come from anywhere in the novel. Democracy Is The Form. There are some parts which are of spring, such obvious importance that you can expect to see questions on them, but there are others which could fairly be set. This is not a problem, for two reasons: first, as two passages are set, this gives you a chance of anticipating one; second, whatever passages appear, you should be able to summary, discuss the text in silent rachel carson its entirety, in relating the concepts passage you choose to the whole novel.

It is quite possible that you will have more things to write about than the time allows; so long as you keep writing and organize your work clearly, this is not a problem: do not confuse your essay in the attempt to cram everything in. It is reasonable to balance detailed discussion and brief reference to related material: thus, you might list military metaphors, as above, but explain one or two of them more fully. Be aware of the time, and ensure that you wrap up your discussion before the silent spring carson end of the exam. The best preparation, assuming you have read the complete novel several times, is to select your own passages, and prepare to discuss what is important in them. Be ready to discuss any of the things mentioned in the structure this study guide (theme, motifs, characterization, viewpoint and so on) as these appear in the passage chosen, and spring, how they connect with the rest of the novel. Post-It notes may be inserted and colour-coded to help you with cross-references, while page numbers may be noted in the margin for this purpose also. Of Scientific Revolutions. There is rachel no merit in form long quotation but frequent brief quotation or reference to detail is very much in silent spring rachel carson order. Your teacher should indicate, in the revision period, which passages are particularly important. Some you might wish to consider are Part Two (both chapters) where Pinkie is need hierachy fully presented to the reader, Part Four, Chapter 1 (the Day of the Races), Part Five, Chapters 2 to 4 (Pinkie and Rose; Nelson Place and Ida's enjoying the luxury of the Cosmopolitan; Part Six, Chapter 2 (Pinkie's wedding day) and Part Seven, Chapter 3 (the visit to Prewitt), Chapters 7 to 9 (the novel's climax) and, as an outside bet, the rachel very last chapter (11) which reflects much of what has gone before it.

Note that this is just a starting point, not an exhaustive list. Of Scientific Revolutions Summary. The syllabus you are studying, and choices made by your teachers determine whether you are tested by questions requiring you to work from memory alone, or open book questions which allow you to use your copy of the text. The information which follows is appropriate to the exam papers for which you have been entered. Specimen examination questions for practice. In theory, examiners can test your understanding of any idea in relation to a text. Questions may be very open, leaving you to silent, supply your own agenda or plan (quite hard) or may indicate an outline to does, follow. You may be given a statement (either from the text, or from a critical work) and asked how far you agree with it. Usually, such statements will be reasonably close to some widely-held view, although certain texts (Shakespeare's plays, for silent spring, example) have provoked extremely wide-ranging responses from critics. Always have a plan/structure before you write, and keep to it.

Make your point, produce the evidence, and pass on. Use paragraphing and The Various and Non-, other presentational devices to make your answer clear. What follows are, of spring rachel carson, course, not the spain immgration only essays which might be set for this novel, but a selection which address the principal critical issues in Brighton Rock . How, in Brighton Rock , does Greene present Ida's and Pinkie's contrasting views of the world? How, in the novel, does Greene examine the difference between Right and spring rachel carson, Wrong and Good and Evil? How far would you agree that the novel is not so much about Brighton, as about immgration, heaven and hell? Consider the importance of place in Brighton Rock . How far does the novel endorse the view of Rose's confessor, that a Catholic is more capable of evil than anyone?

Examine Greene's use of contrast as a narrative device in Brighton Rock . I don't believe what my eyes don't see. How far does Brighton Rock support or challenge Dallow's view of the world? Ida's world is clearly marked and comfortable to live in; Pinkie's, because of his Catholic training, is a minefield of terrors and he is pathetic even in his nastiness. Silent Carson. How far do you agree with this judgement? In what ways, if any, is Brighton Rock anything more than merely a well-written popular thriller with a clear plot and an exciting ending? Re-read the section from Part Seven, Chapter 1, beginning at the start of page 194 [Penguin edition] (In the world outside it was Sunday. What. ) to the end of the chapter, on page 200. What is the relationship of silent spring carson, this section to the rest of the spain novel? In answering the question, you should refer in detail to episodes before and silent spring rachel, after this one. Need Hierachy. Look again at Part Seven, Chapter 7, from page 226 (The old Morris was parked near the silent spring carson pier. Summary. ) to the end of this chapter, on page 231.

How does this chapter contribute to the reader's understanding of Pinkie both here and spring rachel carson, elsewhere? In answering the question, you should refer to Chapter 9 of this Part, and to passages from three or more of the earlier Parts of the novel. Please acknowledge my authorship by giving the URL of any pages you use, and/or include the copyright symbol. Need Hierachy. Suggestions for improvement are welcome. Thank you.

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Guidelines for a Literature Survey and an Annotated Bibliography. One of the options as a summative exercise for the MTS degree is to do a survey of literature of silent spring rachel carson about 40 pages in length. Here you will choose a specific topic in the area of theological studies and identify, discuss, evaluate, and relate significant books, articles, and other resources. A survey evaluates what scholars and researchers have written on a topic, organized according to a guiding concept such as your research objective, thesis, or the problem/issue you have identified. You may need to include studies contrary to Energy Sources Essay, your own perspective. The final result should be that your literature review be relevant, appropriate, and useful. An annotated bibliography is an organized list of sources, each of which is followed by a brief note or annotation. These annotations describe the content and focus of the book or article; suggest the source's usefulness to your research; evaluate its method, conclusions, or reliability; and record your assessments of the sources. This guide provides you with guidelines on how to evaluate the resources you are using, whether the result is included in the body of your survey of literature, or as an appendix in the form of an annotated bibliography, or both. Either way the purpose is spring evaluative: i.e. to assess the strengths and concepts weaknesses of a select or comprehensive array of works (in book, article, essay, or electronic format) on a given topic.

This guide provides you with guidelines on what areas to address and questions to ask, the spring rachel carson, answers to which will provide you with the need hierachy, material from which your survey of literature can be composed; and, as a derivative, how to silent spring rachel carson, construct annotations. Key questions are listed, sample annotations (print and electronic) are appended, and guidelines on style provided. The most important part of your literature survey is the Introduction. In it you will set the scene for the rest of your work in the compilation of is the worst form materials. It should be written before you choose literature to include in your survey. Refer back to your Introduction as you choose materials and write evaluations or annotations. The Introduction is best written after you have done some general reading on the topic. The Introduction should define your topic and silent carson should include the following: One sentence summarizing the and Non- Energy Sources Essay, topic Statement of how the topic fits into the larger context of the carson, subject area Definitions of any terms used Statement as to how selective or comprehensive your survey and accompanying bibliography is. Do you want to include everything published on your topic or do you want to impose certain limitations?

If you choose to be selective, you must outline the criteria by which you include materials while excluding others. Limitations may consist of: Years of the structure of scientific summary publication: e.g. deal with literature published between 1960 and silent rachel 2000. Geographical: e.g. research done in North America only Language(s) of democracy is the form materials, e.g. only works in English Aspects of a topic: e.g. historical; particular schools or traditions of scholarship etc Type(s) of silent spring materials, e.g. Need Hierachy! books, articles, essays, theses, online resources. Make a statement in the Introduction as to rachel, what limitations you are placing on democracy worst, the literature you are surveying. What is the scope of the literature review?

What types of publications are you using? See further below under VIII Structure . The objectives in doing a review of literature and its accompanying annotated bibliography include the following: To choose and silent rachel evaluate current literature, print and electronic, relevant to your topic. To synthesize and evaluate it according to the guiding concept you have determined. To demonstrate the quality of your own research. To provide additional information or background material for your reader.

To explore the topic as the democracy is the worst form, basis for further reading or preparation for research. To give your research historical perspective or context. To place your project into the context of established work in the field. The purpose of the review of literature is not merely to know what literature exists, but to provide an informed evaluation of that literature. To achieve both purposes, two methodological skills are required: Information Literacy : the ability to locate relevant literature (books, articles, essays, theses, or electronic resources) using efficient information seeking skills. How good are your information seeking skills? Has your search been wide enough to silent spring rachel, ensure you have found all the relevant material?

Has it been narrow enough to exclude irrelevant material? Is the Energy, number of sources you have used appropriate for the length of your summative exercise? Is there a specific relationship between the literature you have chosen to review and the topic you have chosen? If you need assistance in this area make an carson appointment to talk to a reference librarian (Tom Power or Elsie Del Bianco) at the Graham Library (416-978-2653). Critical Evaluation : the ability to apply evaluative criteria in order to identify those works which are central to your topic. The Structure! The rest of this guide addresses this area.

IV Evaluation of Books/Articles/Essays. A number of key questions need to be asked the answers to silent spring rachel carson, which will provide you with the material upon what year take, which your survey and/or annotations can be constructed. Checkpoints indicate the potential answers to the questions. Why was the book/article written? To: inform? For example: sequence of historical events, results of lengthy study persuade?

For example: to silent spring rachel carson, change or refute an established point of view give an overview? For example: textbooks, encyclopaedias. The purpose is usually presented in the introduction. Who published the book? A university press? (University theses and dissertations are considered published by the university that granted the of scientific revolutions, degree to silent spring, the student who wrote it.) Commercial publisher? Professional Association, Institution, or Research Centre?

What can you tell about the The Various Renewable Energy Sources Essay, book from the publisher? What theological tradition is the publisher in? Catholic, liberal, evangelical, reformed, or broad academic? Some journals have an inherent bias that will impact articles printed in silent spring carson them. Is the journal: liberal or conservative, centrist, feminist in stance? Can you determine what its orientation is? Examine the table of contents and/or headings to determine if the book is spain immgration organized in a logical and understandable manner. Do the contents indicate that the book contains the information you need?

How thoroughly does the material cover the topic? Is there added material such as appendices? Is the material organized, focused, and clearly presented? Is the argument or presentation understandable? Is this original research, a review of previous research, or an silent carson informative piece? Table of marketing concepts contents Index Introduction/Preface Book reviews Reviews of the literature. Some topics require current information, while other subjects, value older material as well as current. If the topic is controversial and/or rapidly changing, it is important to choose recent materials. Older materials may be used for topics explored from a historical perspective. Examine the currency of the spring, book/article; is it: up-to-date, out-of-date, or timeless? Is the author an expert in marketing this field?

Is the author reliable? Where is the author employed? What else has he/she written? Preface of book Biographical sources in library (e.g. P. W. Silent Rachel! Carey J.T.

Lienhard, Biographical dictionary of Christian theologians , 2000). Type of publisher. Sources of Information/Perspective/Bias. Where is the spain, author getting information? What types of research methods are used? What are the author's assumptions? From what perspective or school of thought is the author writing? How does the book/article fit into spring carson the big picture?

In what context is the book/article written? In what time period? Are there outside influences that are reflected in of scientific summary the book/article such as a particular theoretical framework or model (e.g. Silent Rachel Carson! a feminist interpretation, post-liberal, denominational)? Has the author clearly and unambiguously formulated a problem/issue and marketing established its significance? What are the strengths and weaknesses of the way the author has done so? Could the problem have been approached from another perspective? Has the author evaluated the literature relevant to rachel carson, the topic? Does the author include literature taking positions s/he does not agree with? Is the analysis accurate and relevant to the research question?

Are the conclusions validly based upon the evidence and what take place analysis? Is the author objective, or is s/he merely 'proving' what s/he already believes? Have similar materials been published? How do they compare? How important is this publication for the subject? Scholarly works always contain a bibliography of the resources that were consulted. Bibliographical references should be in sufficient quantity and be appropriate for the content. Determine: if a bibliography exists if the bibliography is short or long if the bibliography is selective or comprehensive, if the references are primary sources (e.g. journal articles) or only spring rachel, secondary sources (e.g. encyclopedias) if the references are contemporary to the book or much older, and if the citation style is clear and consistent. A well researched, well-written book/article is not going to be helpful if it does not address the topic at marketing concepts hand. Is the book/article relevant to the current research project?

Ask, is this book/article useful to me? If it is useful, does it: support an argument refute an argument provide wrong information that can be challenged or disagreed with cover the topic comprehensively, partially or is it an overview? How does the spring, author structure his or her argument? Can you 'deconstruct' the flow of the argument to analyze if/where it breaks down? Is this a book/article that contributes to our understanding of the problem under study, and in what ways is it useful for practice?

What are the need hierachy, strengths and limitations? How does this book/article fit into the thesis or question you are developing? For what type of reader is the author writing? Is the level of the book/article appropriate for your needs? Is the book/article intended for a scholarly or general audience? Introduction Level of language used Type of silent spring publication/publisher the material is need hierachy found in. Are charts, graphs, maps, photographs, etc. used to illustrate concepts? Are the illustrations relevant? Are they clear and professional looking?

Do they enhance the text? To evaluate a web page (and determine if you want to use it for your research) look for: Why was the page created? Is the silent spring, page organized and focused? Is it well designed? Is the immgration, text well written? Are the links relevant and appropriate?

Are the spring rachel carson, links evaluated? Is the scope or purpose of the web page clearly stated? Is the document written for an academic audience? Are the sources for any factual information clearly listed? Is a bibliography or list of works cited provided? Can you verify citations from your own academic resources? Is the information free of spelling and grammatical errors? Distinguish between fact and immgration opinion. Since web resources are rarely reviewed, the information provided should not be accepted at face value. Some web pages have an inherent bias that will impact everything that appears on them. What is the theological orientation of the silent carson, author or sponsor?

Is there objective analysis as opposed to need hierachy, mere expression of silent spring rachel opinion? Is the information presented with a minimum of spain immgration bias? Is there use of bibliographical references to other credible sources? The value of a web page is silent closely related to currency and of scientific timeliness. When was it last revised? Are the links still viable? Is the date of creation of the page provided? Are the links in the document current (i.e. have not expired or moved)? Is the web page relevant to spring, the current research project? A well-researched, well-written, page is not going to be helpful if it does not address the topic at hand. Ask, is year does take place this useful to me?

If it is useful, does it: support an argument refute an argument provide wrong information that can be challenged or disagreed with productively What is the relative value of the website compared to the range of information resource (print and non-print) available on the topic? What is the provenance of the website? Does the page have an carson identifiable, respectable author? If not, the page must be used with caution. What is the institutional affiliation of the author? Does this imply a particular theological perspective? Who is responsible for the page? Is the author an expert in this field?

What else has he/she written or produced? How accurate is the is the, provided information? Is the author of the document clearly stated? Are the silent carson, credentials of the author(s) provided (i.e. position, education, occupation)? Is contact information (email address, phone number and mailing address) for the author provided? Do you believe this person is qualified to write on the given topic? (look at credentials, other publications he/she has written) Is there an editorial board or someone who verifies or checks the information?

Often a web page is democracy is the worst form not signed or a specific author is not attributed to the document. If this is the case you should try to determine the credibility of the silent spring carson, host or sponsoring organization of the web document. If you can, answer the following: Is the need hierachy, sponsoring organization reputable? To what type of reader is the web page directed? Is the level appropriate for your needs? Is the carson, page for: general readers, students, specialists or professionals, researchers or scholars? Does the page cover the topic comprehensively, partially or is it an overview? Are the links relevant and appropriate for this site? What do the links offer that is not easily available in spain immgration other sources?

Are the links evaluated in any way? Are annotations included? Are the graphics clear in silent spring rachel intent, relevant and professional looking? Do the graphics add to or enhance the content? Use the Chicago A style for your annotations. Be careful with the order of elements within a citation: punctuation, spacing, indenting (each line except the first within citations, etc).

Use the format outlined in K.L. Turabian, A manual for writers of spain immgration term papers, theses, and dissertations 7th ed. (Chicago, 2007). Annotations can vary in length depending on what you have to say but they should be concise (see examples below, X Examples of Annotations ). Just like print sources, information derived from the web as part of your survey must be acknowledged. Silent Rachel! Although different style manuals may require different citation formats, most will include the following:

Author's last name, first name Title of document Title of The Various Energy complete work (if different from title of silent rachel carson document) Document date (if known and if different from date accessed) Protocol and full address Date of access. The Chicago A style for electronic resources is as follows: using the need hierachy, Chicago Manual of silent spring rachel carson Style to the structure of scientific, include Internet sources produces the following model: author's name (in normal order), document title, date of Internet publication, or other retrieval information (date of access), text division (if applicable). To document a file available for viewing and downloading, provide the carson, following information: author's name (if known); title of document (in quotation marks); title of complete work (if applicable), in italics or underlined; date of publication or last revision (if known; otherwise use n.d.); URL in angle brackets; date of access (in parentheses). Example: Leslie R. Shade, Gender Issues in Computer Networking, 1993, http://www.mit.edu:8001/people/sorokin/women/lrs.html(28 May 1996). Provide the following information: author's name (if known); author's email address (in angle brackets); subject line from posting (in quotation marks); date of publication; for emails: type of communication (personal, distribution list), or for listserv, address of the listserv (in angle brackets); date of access (in parentheses). To document a file that can be retrieved from a list serve or web address, provide the what year hamlet take place, following information after the publication date: address of listserv (in angle brackets); address or URL for silent rachel, list's archive (preceded by via and enclosed ion angle brackets); date of what year access (in parentheses). Example (Email): Danny Robinette, robinetted@ccmail.gate.eduEpiphany Project, 30 April 2000, personal email (29 May 2000). Example (Listserv): Victor Parette, vrparent@mailbox.syr.edu On Expectations of Class Participation, 27 May 2000 (29 May, 2000).

Example (Listserv Archive): Nick Carbone, ncikc@english.umass.eduNN 960126: Follow-up to Don's Comments about Citing URLs, 26 January 1996, acw-l@unicorn.acs.ttu.eduvia http://www.ttu.edu/lists/acw-l(17 February 1996). Bibliography entries differ from footnote/endnote references in the following ways: authors' names are inverted; elements of entries are separated by periods; the first line of each entry is aligned with the left margin, and subsequent lines are indented three or four spaces. Silent Spring Rachel! If your paper is double-spaced, double-space the bibliography as well. Example: Hoemann, George H. Is The Worst Form! Electronic Style-Elements of spring carson Citation. Concepts! Electronic Style Page. 3 November 1995. http://funnelweb.utcc.utk.edu/ hoemann/style.html (29 May 1996). You will already have established a preliminary structure resulting from your introductory considerations (see above I Introduction ). When composing and writing your literature review and annotated bibliographies certain structural considerations are worth noting: Your review should be organized into practical sections that present themes or identify trends. Your review must be a conceptually organized synthesis of the carson, results of your search. It must organize information and relate it to the thesis or research question you are developing synthesize results into a summary of what is and isn't known identify controversy when it appears in the literature develop questions for further research.

IX Examples of what does hamlet Surveys of Literature. Waldman, Nahum M. The recent study of Hebrew: a survey of the literature with selected bibliography . Cincinnati: Eisenbrauns, 1989. Oesterley, W. O. E. A short survey of the literature of rachel rabbinical and mediæval Judaism . London : Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1920. The Structure Of Scientific! Hahn, Herbert Ferdinand. Silent Rachel Carson! The Old Testament in modern research. With a survey of recent literature . Philadelphia: Fortress Press [1970]. Survey of current literature on the Christian mission and Christianity in the non-Western world [microform].No. 1 (1982)- Aberdeen: Scottish Institute of year Missionary Studies, 1982-. Runia, David T. Philo in spring carson early Christian literature : a survey . Need Hierachy! Minneapolis: Fortress Press,1993. The content of the annotations can be varied from summative to carson, evaluative or a mixture of both, however, at this level they will normally be evaluative. Democracy Form! An annotation that is purely a summary is merely a summary of the source.

A descriptive annotation defines the scope of the source, lists the significant topics included, and tells what the source is about. In the evaluative annotation you assess the source's strengths and weaknesses. Silent! You assess why the source is the structure interesting or helpful, or why it is not. In doing this you should list what kind of and how much information is given; in short, evaluate the source's usefulness, critically stating its place in the field in relation the topic you have chosen. Most annotations are a combination of these approaches with one or two sentences summarizing or describing content and one or two sentences providing an evaluation. In terms of writing style used in silent spring rachel the annotations the of scientific summary, key factor is brevity, whether you are writing in phrases, paragraphs, or complete sentences. Carson! Omit anything that is apparent in the title, background materials and references to previous work by the same author. You are recommended to use full sentences in your annotations. Marketing! Although the rachel, length of The Various Energy Sources sentences may vary, avoid long and complex sentences.

Paragraph length is expected, and they should be full and coherent. Sample annotations on silent spring carson, the topic of marketing concepts New Testament theology follow below: Goppelt, L. A Theology of the New Testament . Silent Spring! 2 vols. Spain! Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1981, 1982. The first volume includes a great deal of material on the history of and silent carson methods of the discipline of biblical theology. What Year! Goppelt is especially insightful when he treats salvation history. Not as conservative as Ladd or Guthrie, Goppelt nevertheless is a thoughtful and careful student of Scripture, and his work deserves wide circulation, even if many will find his approach to history unduly cautious and skeptical. Guthrie, D. New Testament Theology . Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1981. More than twice as long as its closest rival (Ladd, above), this major study is distinctive for another reason: it is the spring, only recent NT theology to organize its material in this way.

Guthrie selects a wide variety of themes and topics and examines how each is The Various Renewable and Non- Energy treated in each corpus of the NT, and then concludes with summary syntheses. Kummel, W. G. The Theology of the New Testament according to its Major Witnesses: Jesus-Paul-John . Nashville: Abingdon, 1973. This book hews its own line and interacts very little with secondary literature. Kummel is far more conservative than the two volume standard by silent spring rachel carson Rudolf Bultmann, and very suggestive. The material is The Various Renewable Essay organized as in Ladd. Ladd, G. E. Spring Carson! A Theology of the New Testament . Of Scientific Summary! Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1974. This theology is organized by presenting the major themes of each Biblical author/work. There is no attempt to synthesize the silent spring, material for the NT as a whole, and no comparison of themes from corpus to corpus. Nevertheless, although some coverage is patchy (e.g. on the theology of the cross), some is outstanding, especially Ladd's treatment kingdom and of salvation history. XI Examples of Published Annotated Bibliographies. You may find it useful to consult some published annotated bibliographies of which the following are a sample:

Joseph A. Fitzmyer, An Introductory Bibliography for The Various Essay, the Study of silent spring rachel carson Scripture , 3rd ed. (Rome, 1990). Douglas Moo (ed.), An Annotated Bibliography on the Bible and the Church (Deerfield, Ill., 1986). Mark A Powell, The Bible and Modern Literary Criticism: a Critical Assessment and need hierachy Annotated Bibliography (New York, 1992). Mark Minor, Literary-Critical Approaches to the Bible: an Annotated Bibliography (West Cornwall, CT, 1992). Robert J. Kepple John R. Muether, Reference Works for spring rachel carson, Theological Research: an Annotated Selective Guide for summary, Bibliographical Research (Lanham, MD, 1992).

Henry O. Thompson, The Book of Amos: an Annotated Bibliography (Lanham, MD, 1997). Frank E. Sugeno, Episcopal and Anglican History: 1973-1975, an annotated bibliography. Historical Magazine of the Protestant Episcopal Church 46 (Mar., 1977), 115-148. XII Examples of Online Annotated Bibliographies. T. Power, Nov. Silent Spring! 2012.

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10 Points to remember when answering a RFE (Request for silent spring rachel, Evidence) 10 Points to remember when answering a RFE (Request for need hierachy, Evidence) from USCIS (Immigration Services) A Request for Evidence (RFE) is a common tool used by silent spring carson, the USCIS (Immigration services) to ask for additional proof in order to make a decision on your case. RFEs are often in point form requesting factual information from need hierachy, either the beneficiary or petitioner. While many RFEs are simple, lately many RFEs have become more complicated and rachel, tend to require legal assessment before they can be answered. Our law firm, having filed more than 1000 immigration cases, is quite familiar with responding to RFEs. Based on need hierachy, our experience, we have compiled a 10 Point legal guide to assist you in answering your RFEs. Note that this guide does not cover every single RFE related issue. We highly recommend that you retain a lawyer to help you on your case.

A well prepared case can avoid an RFE. RFEs are usually requested because either the silent rachel petitioner or beneficiary has not provided sufficient proofs or clarification in their original package. Therefore, preparing a completed and detailed package with your application or answer at the outset is crucial to what year does hamlet place, the success of spring rachel carson your case. On the other hand, putting irrelevant and of scientific revolutions, unnecessary information in your application or petition can harm you. Professional help in preparing your case is always recommended. A good lawyer can make a big difference for the final outcome of your case. Having dealt with so many RFEs, we have noticed that many people do not want to silent spring rachel, read the RFEs properly or they simply do not understand the lingo. If you do not understand all the what year does place questions or statements, please consult with a lawyer. Do not panic when you receive the RFE. As mentioned earlier, RFEs are common tools in the USCIS toolbox. You should not panic.

On the other hand, you shouldnt take it lightly. If you do not have the courage or knowledge to deal with them, seek help with a lawyer familiar with immigration law to assist you. Do not miss the spring rachel carson deadline when answering the RFE. Need Hierachy! Answer your RFEs on time. Indeed, many people believe that they can request additional time to answer their RFEs. Unfortunatly, USCIS has not been giving additional time to answer RFEs lately.

Missing the deadline will most likely result in silent rachel carson, a denial. At this point, you may have to file an appeal or a motion to reopen the the structure summary case. Therefore it bears repeating: Do not be late . Do not file the RFE in parts. Many of spring carson our clients tend to think that they can answer part of the RFE and then wait for USCIS to ask for more. Unfortunately, the way USCIS (or Immigration Services) functions, they rarely send another RFE to give you another chance.

The first RFE you receive is normally your only chance to give USCIS the clarification they require. Therefore, it is essential that you answer all the questions as concisely as possible and provide all the evidence requested of you at is the form the same time. Failure to do so will probably result in a denial. Organize your answer in carson, a clear manner. Remember you are not writing an essay.

Stay concise and to hamlet place, the point. Spring! Make sure you document your answer with exhibits. Need Hierachy! Also make sure you have a table of contents. Write your RFE in spring rachel, a way thats easy to navigate. Keep in mind that an actual person will be reading your RFE, thus the immgration more comprehensible your RFE is the better your chances for approval. Use a lawyer to rachel, answer, if possible. Using a lawyer can make a big difference. Often times RFEs have important points of law which need to be addressed by someone with legal knowledge. For example, lately, the Neufeld Memo regarding H-1Bs involves many important points of law that only someone with legal knowledge will be able to adequatly tackle. What Year Hamlet! You should remember that only an carson, attorney can give legal advice. Do not be fooled by unscrupulous consultants not licensed to practice law.

Is it worth losing your immigration case just to need hierachy, save some money? Do not forget that denial of your case can result in a permanent ban. Again, having a good lawyer on your side can make a big difference. Spring Rachel! Remember to put the colored paper at the top of your answer. Most RFEs are sent in what hamlet take place, colored paper (usually blue). It is spring essential that this cover letter goes above all your answers including the cover letter. Failure to do this might delay your case or even possibly lead to a rejected case.

Make sure you are mailing to The Various Renewable and Non- Energy Sources Essay, the right address. The RFE will indicate where you should mail your answer. Make sure you are mailing it to the right address. If you fail to silent spring rachel, comply, the answer will probably be lost and you may get a denial. Be polite when answering. Last but not least, be polite when you write your RFE.

I have seen cases where the person answering will be insulting USCIS because they have either asked for something already submitted or asking for clarification in a non relevant matter. Remember, many cases are decided by marketing concepts, the discretion of the spring adjudicating officer. Answering in a polite and civilized manner can go a long way towards helping your case. The above are just a few points to remember when answering an is the form, RFE. Silent Carson! Unfortunately, there are many other issues to consider in concepts, your answer. We always recommend having legal assistance while filing a case. Remember a well prepared case usually results in a positive outcome. The information contained in this article is silent rachel carson provided for worst, informational purposes only, and should not be construed as legal advice on any subject matter. No recipients of content from this article, clients or otherwise, should act or refrain from acting on the basis of silent carson any content included in what year hamlet take, the site without seeking the spring appropriate legal or other professional advice on and Non- Essay, the particular facts and circumstances at issue from an silent rachel carson, attorney licensed in the recipient#8217;s state. I have engaged Shahs law firm to represent me for employement based permanent residency. So far I am extremely happy with the and Non- professional commitment shown by Shah in dealing with my case.

I had a quick approval of my PERM. Carson! He was very helpful and proficient in worst form, dealing with my I140 RFE. Unlike many other immigration lawyers, I found Shah as a honest, knowledgeable and committed law attorney. Inspite of all the expertise Shah has, he is very affordable. I would highly recommend Shah to anybody seeking any expert help in immigration matters. Important: The testimonials or endorsements on this website do not constitute a guarantee, warranty, or prediction regarding the outcome of your legal matter. Each case is different and success in one case does not warrant or guarantee success in other similar cases or situations. Download our FREE Apps for Updates on your mobile. Rachel Carson! ITunes and Adroid.

Shah Peerally Law show on KLOK 1170 AM Radio. Thursday from what year does hamlet take, 10 am to 11 am (PST) Immigration Delays and Citizenship. info@peerallylaw.com (510)742-5887 37600 Central Court, Suite 202, Newark, CA 94560. Shah Peerally is a Bay Area Immigration Lawyer offering immigration legal services in the San Francisco Bay area. As an Experienced immigration attorney in the Bay Area, his law firm situated in Fremont-Newark focuses on immigration laws with an rachel, emphasis on employment based immigration H1B visa, L1A, L1B visas, PERM Labor Certification. Need Hierachy! His law firm in Newark, California also handles Family based immigration petitions and VAWA self-petitioner petitions. H1B Attorney USA Shah Peerally provides US Visa services to clients in Northern California, Silicon Valley and Southern California including: San Jose, Fremont, San Francisco, San Rafael, San Mateo, Millbrae, San Bruno, South San Francisco, Oakland, Berkeley, Hayward, Pleasanton, Redwood City, Milpitas, Saratoga, Livermore, Richmond, Santa Clara, Palo Alto, Dublin California, Mountain View California, Mt. View California, Silicon Valley, South Bay, Campbell, Los Altos, Los Gatos, Sunnyvale California, Los Angeles California, and San Diego California. Disclaimer: The information in this web site does not constitute legal advice.

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Free Essays on How Women Are Portrayed In The Media. The Exploitation of Women Kali Holler Critical Media Studies The exploitation of women in the media has been a huge part of the advertising industry since it evolved. But, the level to which women being exploited in advertisements and rachel the media in general has reached a. Changing How Women are Portrayed in the Media ABSTRACT Through this paper, the reader will be learning about how different women are portrayed in the media , and The Various Renewable and Non- Renewable Essay what people can do to hopefully change this one day. Silent Spring? Women are constantly being portrayed as having to be perfect in the media . Whether.

Topic: Portrayal of women in Media This research focuses on the representation of women in media which mainly includes television and spain film, entertainment and fiction based media . This research shows how women are being portrayed positively as well as negatively in media . There is no doubt that the. Gender and Media In todays society, media has become a powerful influence on individuals perception of themselves and others. Popular magazines, television programs, movies, and newspapers have the tendency to reinforce gender role stereotypes. Women are sexually exploited in the media . Also, the. Values Portrayed in silent rachel carson, Popular Media Today. Values Portrayed in Popular Media Today Values Portrayed in Popular Media ENG 122 January 23, 2012 Values Portrayed in Popular Media Values portrayed in popular media and the reason is because their is always something going on in the media everyday.

Also, the media plays a major. How Media portrays Femininity Whenever we watch Television or consume any other media we get confronted with female stereotypes. The Structure Summary? Thus the media influences our view of the silent spring world and often even determine our view of the world. One particular example is the definition of femininity and portrayal of women. A Study of the Effects of form, Ideal-Type Media Exposure on Body Dissatisfaction. 1 A Study of the Effects of Ideal-type Media Exposure on Body Dissatisfaction 2 Abstract Exposure to media containing idealized body images increases ones level of silent spring rachel carson, body dissatisfaction and lowers self-esteem. The Various And Non- Renewable Sources? The effects of ideal-type media exposure on body dissatisfaction was examined in. Does the Media Influence Violent Behavior? Does the rachel carson Media Influence Violent Behavior?

The media consist of television, movies, newspapers, radio, internet, and video games just to name a few. The media influence on violent behavior has been a debate for need hierachy, many years and not just violent behavior but all behaviors. There has been research. Real Women , Real Beauty Advertising has many effects on society as a whole. Silent Spring Rachel? As a result of not being in what year hamlet place, as many commercials, at very young ages boys and girls conclude that girls are valued less than boys. The commercials that females are mostly in are ones that portray them as them. everyday without us even realizing it is media bias. We see it in the news. We see it on our favorite sitcoms. We read it everyday in the paper.

Yet, we really don't recognize it when we hear it or see it. Media bias is evident in every aspect of the media , yet the problem is that we don't even recognize. impacts of media on silent spring rachel carson, teenagers. This essay will show how the media affects the level of violence amongst teenagers. It will also look at how the media can cause certain sexual issues to arise among teens. This essay will also address some of the health issues that come up as a result of the media . Firstly. Portrayal of Gender Roles and Sexuality in need hierachy, Media. ? Portrayal of Gender Roles and Sexuality in silent rachel carson, Media Ariel Norbutas Walden University HMNT3001, Section 1, Modern Popular Culture June 13, 2014 Portrayal of Gender Roles and Sexuality in Media The media plays a substantial role in much of societies definition of normalcy.

Secondly, explore how popular culture opens access and allow for creativity. Third I will analyse how popular culture influenced conflict between the social classes. Fourth, consumerism in popular culture and popular culture in the media will be evaluated. Finally I will see how popular culture open. Prejudice and The Various Renewable Renewable Stereotyping in the Media By RS. Prejudice and silent Stereotyping in the Media By RS How proud we must all be to live in spain, an era of spring, unbiased judgment and the structure revolutions true equality amongst all.

In a time so prosperous and friendly as now, its all we can do to not scoff at decades past for all the spring rachel carson bigotry and prejudice existing back in those days of. upon women suffragists. Immgration? The main character, Alice Paul, takes it upon herself to bring together hundreds of women to spring carson fight for their right to vote while president Woodrow Wilson was in office. When meeting with him to discuss this right he simply states that he does not know enough about women suffrage. Women Empowerment When women are the advisor, the Lords of creation don 't take the immgration advice till they have persuaded themselves that it is just what they intended to do; then they act upon it and if it succeeds, they give. Socialization - Gender Messages in rachel carson, the Mass Media. Socialization - Gender Messages in the Mass Media How Images on Television/Movies reinforce societys expectations of gender. The most powerful form of need hierachy, mass media that we enjoy in America is the television. What we see on our T.V.s can have very deep and profound effects on our beliefs, our life-styles. Stereotypes of Women in the Media and Workplace. Diana Martin Professor Lisa Munoz English 101 M/W 9:35-11 April 8, 2013 Stereotypes of Women in the Media and Workplace A stereotype is defined as an assumption that may be adopted by people about a given group of spring rachel carson, individuals or certain ways of of scientific revolutions, doing things, but may or may not show the actual reality.

Mini Essay Number One In Macbeth, women are sometimes portrayed as very masculine and silent spring rachel carson commanding. The witches are seen as very repulsive and man like by the characters in the play, but are also seen as a force that most do not want to need hierachy muddle with. Rachel? Lady Macbeth is also viewed as very powerful. the female body has been associated with sex. Women have always been objectified, discriminated against, or treated poorly simply because they were women . Even in the earliest civilizations it was understood and unfortunately almost accepted, that women were treated as objects. From classic Renaissance. How Has Television Affected the Concept of Community. How has television affect the concept of community? Television made its first appearance in American living rooms 45 to what year hamlet place 50 years ago. It spread so quickly that it became available to virtually all American families.

The effects of television on the common household has influenced American pop culture. athletes, etc. Another portraying of messages of Americans through media is music. For example most popular songs on the radio are about partying, getting money, or any other type of personal gain. Silent Spring Carson? Another example of messages through media would be the internet, people today can interact with millions. ? How Women are Affected and marketing Misrepresented in the Media Is the media responsible for degrading women ? For many people, the answer is yes but of course you have many people that disagree. The representation of women in the media has always been exploitative. It has, throughout the years, reduced women.

Criminal Justice System and silent the Media. When you think of the spain immgration term media , most people associate it with news, whether it is spring rachel carson, radio or television. Media applies to more than just news though. Media can refer to any television or radio broadcast including your favorite television shows and movies. Now I would like for spain, you to think about the Criminal. learn how to think for ourselves, our culture has already exposed us to the system of gender stereotypes. We have been taught what it means to be a boy or girl. This is shown from the colour of the clothes which our parents have picked out for us as infants to silent spring the toys we play with. The media has shaped. The Depiction of Women in need hierachy, the Media.

Misrepresentations of silent, Women in theMedia Everyday, we are bombarded by spain, the medias usage of advertisements, television, billboards, magazines, and the internet. What all of these sources have in common is the use of visual imagery to sell the conceptsof values, worth, popularity, and more prevalently. How Does Hardy Describe Nature and What Possible Interpretations Could These Descriptions Have? nature, and from Boldwood's perspective, Hardy expressed Mr. Silent Rachel Carson? Boldwood's deepest feelings for Bathsheba Everdene. In this essay, I will be discussing how Hardy describes nature and is the worst what possible interpretations could these descriptions have.

At the start of the chapter, Hardy talked about the time of. ?Genevieve Greschler Media Exercise Womans Studies My immediate reaction to the first image was sadness. It appears as if there was some kind of rachel, argument or fight and democracy worst the woman has been hurt. The fist of the man indicates the power that he holds and the threatening way he holds himself. The. delivery of Community Corrections takes place in a highly charged political environment, often played out in the media. ? The delivery of Community Corrections takes place in rachel carson, a highly charged political environment, often played out in the media Introduction Community corrections oversee individuals who are under the custody of the criminal justice system yet are neither in jail or prison (VERA, 2013). Spain? A basic motivation. The Effects Media Has on Peoples Gender Identity. With media becoming an increasingly powerful force in the world, more and more people will begin to try fitting the genetic dispensation of what the spring media portrays as perfect. Need Hierachy? Celebrity bodies are desired both subjectively and objectively and the media , without question, is the number one problem for.

with the media and spring celebrities you have to think about what it is doing to our young people, especially women . Hero sized role models or distasteful bad influences? This has become a big issue in todays society with the ever slimming and enhanced celebrities, models, and what year does place even the silent spring rachel carson media . Many. All three of them had prepared to talk about a movie, a book, or genre and to conduct a portrayal of the characters, actors, directors, or authors and how their roles contributed to year a bigger vision, or representation. Silent Spring Carson? My ratings of need hierachy, these speakers can be put like Goldilocks put it in the story of the Three. IN MEDIA , A HOT BUTTON ISS UE IM NOT BAD. IM JUST DRAWN THAT WAY. TEAM C JUNE 23, 20 14 Sex and Violence early years 0 Sex has always been a big seller 0 Violence was tame and more monitored 0 Early days of media and spring rachel sex was unheard of 0 A lot of sex was taboo in the media and. Striking Media Reaction to 9/11 in an Insecure Nation: The Discussion Between Writers.

? Striking Media Reaction to 9/11 in an Insecure Nation: The Discussion Between Writers Sylvia H. Pham University of Minnesota Author Note Sylvia H. Does Hamlet Place? Pham, University of Minnesota. This essay was written for silent rachel carson, University Writing 1301 taught by Rose Miron. Correspondence. Sociological Analysis of the Media. Sociological Analysis of the Media Part I: Introduction HBOs addictive television series True Blood was created and produced by Allan Ball, and is based on a series of need hierachy, novels called The Southern Vampire Mysteries. True Blood narrates the story of silent spring carson, Sookie Stackhouse, a human-fairy hybrid and telepathic. Century Women Abby hr.2 How do you picture what a twenty first century woman is supposed to be like? Women have long moved on from being a stay at home mom as the norm in almost every household to now having full time jobs and Renewable and Non- Renewable Energy Sources Essay being full time mothers.

Today twenty first century women are still. The Representation of American Pop Culture through Mass Media Audio -Visual in the movie Sleepless in Seattle In this era of globalization; people already accustomed with the use of mass media as means of communication. Spring Rachel Carson? The newspaper that we read, the concepts radio that we listen, the Internet that we. the way a woman may view herself like, How hot can you be, and Do you feel sexy?. GNCs advertisements focus on the physical appearance of women rather than their health which shows that they attempt to silent carson sell sexy as a way to sell their product to everyday women . The first ad might be found in the. ? Media affecting women : True or False? True or False? Whenever you gaze around your community, you are being introduced the thought of perfection and beauty. Most of these advertisements illustrate inaccessible or sexual expectation.

These could. Media studies Media Studies Paper and Speech Topics Essay and need hierachy Persuasive Speaking Ideas for silent rachel, a Media Literacy Class Oct 25, 2008 Naomi Rockler-Gladen Wrte Down Some Topic Ideas - Ilker, Stock Xchange For media studies papers and spain speeches, try using a topic related to politics, sex and violence. Representation of Women in Canadian Parliament. Prior to silent spring 1921, men were the only members of the marketing Canadian parliamentary system. With the silent spring rachel first Canadian women being elected into the Canadian parliament in 1921, women have had the ability to participate and what year does become elected into carson, the House of Commons. Since then, Canadian womens participation in the House. Portrayal of Black Women in Media. The Portrayal of African-American Women in Media The stereotypical misrepresentations of need hierachy, African-American women and men in popular culture have influenced societal views of Blacks for centuries. Silent? The typical stereotypes about democracy is the form Black women range from the smiling, a sexual and often obese Mammy to the promiscuous. ?1Effects of Sex in the Media Where do men and women , boys and girls, learn about sex? What is the impact of those influences?

Throughout childhood, adolescence, and into adulthood people learn about rachel carson sex from many sources, including parents, schools, friends, siblings, and media outlets such as movies. Men, Media, Sex and How They Use Women to form Their Benefit. Men, Media , Sex and How They Use Women to Their Benefit The familiar cliche that men are from Mars and women are from Venus proves to silent spring rachel carson be a good portrayal of the significant difference between the male and of scientific summary female genders. In the case of spring rachel carson, males, this phrase correctly shows that men behave much more. the image of successful women has changed drastically. Women went from being stay at home moms to being in immgration, high power positions in the work place.

They are resented for competing with men in the workplace and that has caused backlash from men. I find it amazing how American women have progressed from spring, one. Do Women Have Rights? In many of the poems we discussed in class, women were depicted as mere possessions of men. They were basically treated as slaves to the men. The women had to endure these troubles, because men were of marketing, a higher stature, therefore could do anything to the women . Spring Rachel? According to the.

The Media's Negative Influence on Women. The media has a negative influence on women . Television, movies, celebrities, and music videos are some of the many ways women are influenced. Spain? By creating an ideal image appealing to women , it is posssible for the media to silent spring carson have power over concepts, women . This is silent spring rachel, a part of concepts, everyday life for silent spring rachel, women . Take Place? The media influences. Off the Beaten Path: Violence, Women, and Art. this event, I visited the art exhibit Off the Beaten Path: violence, women and art, and examined how the art pieces connect with the CAT class. I found that this particular exhibit connected very well to the gender roles and how sex is viewed in carson, our culture, not only in the US, but all over the world. * Women *s* image in the Media * today Images of female are everywhere. Popular film and television actresses are becoming younger, taller and thinner. Some have even been known to faint on the set from lack of food. Womens magazines are full of articles urging that if they can just lose those last twenty. Increasing Eating Disorders Amongst Teenage Girls in Correlation to Women Portrayed in The Various Sources Essay, Music Videos.

Literature Review: Increasing eating disorders amongst teenage girls in correlation to spring carson women portrayed in music videos Young woman face numerous obstacles and confusion about their body image in everyday life. A lot of the structure of scientific summary, teenage females views of their body relates to what is displayed in music videos. For a while now media has had a huge impact on how women are seen. Media is constantly degrading women and sets a negative message about the ways in which women should be treated; women are becoming objectified in the sense they are viewed as objects and not of value as a human. The media , which seems to.

shown that skinny is beautiful. Media has been forcing for centuries to believe that the skinnier girls are happier, more successful, and more popular. From television commercials, shows, and movies, to magazine covers, and silent rachel carson supermodels, statistics show that the media influences womens desires to of scientific revolutions summary be. Margaret Anne OCallaghan Life Magazine Jan-June 1943 History of silent carson, Women in the United States Paper #1 04/29/08 The date 1943 conjures up many images from History. Swastikas, Adolph Hitler.

How Media Affects Women Body Image. How media affects womens body image Mass media is designed to need hierachy reach large audiences through the use of technology. Its purpose is meant to give information we need to function as a society. Mass media is everywhere; there is no escaping from it. Silent Rachel? From the moment you wake until you fall asleep you are. How BET has failed the democracy is the worst African American Community.

?Student name Name of Professor Class Date How BET has failed the African American Community The role of the media is to inform, educate and entertain its viewers; however Black Television Network (BET) only does the entertaining, and the wrong kind of entertaining. It mainly broadcasts hip-hop. ------------------------------------------------- Top of Form Gender Issues in the Media Although the media is a pervasive and profoundly influential socializing force, parents and teachers can make a difference. Young children are especially vulnerable to the teachings of media because they don't have the critical capacity necessary. ?University of Phoenix Material Effects of Mass Media Worksheet Write 250- to 350-word answers to each of the following questions in the matrix: Questions Answers What were the major developments in the evolution of spring carson, mass media during the 20th century? The Radio was the first major form of.

legal institution, where government imposes rules to marketing concepts get into and out of it. Time by time, popular culture have portrayed different picture of marriage, divorce and family. Todays media is more liberal and not limited to spring show so called traditional marriage. In Rick Santorums essay It takes family. real man in The Various Renewable Energy, our society. Men are portrayed in a variety of spring, ways through these advertisements, such as funny, confident, successful, athletic, violent, and angry (Lowenstein Merrill, 1979, p. Worst? 107). Silent Spring Carson? They are generally seen as great leaders and marketing concepts problem-solvers ( Media Awareness Network, 2008).

It is also. Tanya Bui Agitational Communication 165 Professor Von Blum December 2, 2008 Misrepresentations of Women in the Media Everyday, we are bombarded by the medias usage of advertisements, television, billboards, magazines, and the internet. What all of silent, these sources have in year does hamlet take place, common is the use of visual.