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Seminar: What Causes Gender Inequality? - A Working Syllabus - SOC-UA 937 – Spring 2017. Robert Max Jackson. In this course we will investigate what causes inequality between women and man in, men . Efficiency In Teaching. How does it arise, why does it take different forms, why does it vary in degree across societies, what are the components that add up to the family, gender inequality, how do various institutions and code, practices contribute to it, and how does it change? The course will emphasize the history of gender inequality in the United States.
While we focus on gender inequality, we will also seek to understand social causation more generally. We will explore the man in the family diverse ways social causation works and how we can identify the of the causes behind important social phenomena. click on a topic to go to that section. click on a topic to go to that section. Description – Scope, Organization, and Access: The Scope of the Topics and Materials. We know a lot about gender inequality – its history, how people experience it in their lives, the ways it varies in man in the family intensity and form across time and place, the beliefs that make it seem natural, and much more. The outpouring of research and commentary on gender inequality over the past half century has been extraordinary.
Unfortunately, despite all this, our understanding of what causes gender inequality remains troubled. Abstinence Only Education Vs. Comprehensive Education. Both ordinary people and experts (such as scholars) commonly fluctuate between simplistic explanations that founder under close scrutiny and throwing up their hands in frustration over what can seem an enigma beyond human comprehension. Here we will seek to surmount this dilemma. We will explore diverse facets of gender inequality and varied ideas about what causes might be decisive. We will also look carefully at the ways we can identify and verify the causes of social phenomena. Through these efforts we will aim both to enhance our understanding of what produces gender inequality and to improve our general ability to do causal social analyses effectively. The class organization and goals. In this class, each week's work will be organized around an analytical task, as well as a set of readings. Rather than focusing on discussion of the readings, the analytical tasks involve attempting a causal analysis of some aspect of gender inequality related to the week's issue, building on the materials we read (in brief papers of a couple pages). The approach in this class seeks to develop analytical skills as well as understandings of the relevant literature by stressing doing actual analyses of gender inequality. (Note: this class does not have an exam nor a final paper.)
All class meetings are organized as discussions. Part of our class discussions will be on the family, the common readings and part on students' efforts to explore the analytical tasks each week. We will adjust the time devoted to these two goals according to our experiences over the class. Of The Uk Constitution. Every week, students will initiate discussions on readings and papers. To make this work, each week's papers will be exchanged (electronically) with enough lead time that we can all read all the man in papers prior to the class meetings. Each topic below includes – beside the of the common readings – three other subsections. These are: an analytical task , recommended readings , and man in the family, related readings . The analytical task is the writing assignment for the week. Everyone should read the code common readings while doing the analytical task (and be prepared to discuss them). In each of these papers – always brief papers – students will try out causal ideas related to the week's topic.
Recommended and related readings are optional materials useful for man in the family, those who want to dig deeper into a topic. To simplify navigating through the Measuring in Teaching Methods syllabus, these subsections are hidden until the man in the family viewer clicks on the subsection heading, then they will appear. Most of our readings will be articles available for downloading. The links will appear in the online version of the course syllabus. Excerpts from Measuring Efficiency in Teaching Methods Essay, Down So Long . . .: The Puzzling Persistence of Gender Inequality (book manuscript by the family, RMJ not yet published) will similarly be available for downloading from the class web site. (As we will read selections from Jackson's book Destined for Equality [Harvard U Press] throughout the course, you might want to buy it or borrow it.) Any student unfamiliar with the study of computer misuse gender, can (and probably should) pick up the basics from a standard textbook in the area – I recommend Michael Kimmel's Gendered Society (which I use in my basic general undergraduate class on gender, so used copies should be easy to find). For further relevant sources, my reading lists/syllabi for two graduate courses might be valuable.
The one most directly related is What Causes Gender Inequality: Analytical Foundations ; a more general class, What Causes Inequality: Analytical Foundations , may provide materials for the family, broader questions about different kinds of regulation uk inequalities and how to think about gender inequality in relationship to them. A note on the hidden material below : Each section of this guide includes – beside the common readings – three subsections, one for man in, an analytical task , one for recommended readings , and only education education, one for related readings . To simplify navigating through the course guide, only the headings for these subsections are initially visible. The contents of all these subsections are hidden (so that the the family beginning appearance of the page is similar to a standard syllabus) until the computer misuse viewer clicks on a subsection heading, then its contents will appear. While this organization is man in the family helpful for negotiating the page most of the time, it can become an obstacle if we want to search the page (for example, for abstinence only education, a particular article) as searches will ignore the hidden material (that is, if you search a page you are viewing in an internet browser, the search will only man in the family examine what is shown on the page at that time). To overcome this limitation, you can open all the hidden sections to show everything on the page by clicking the § symbol at sources the top of the page. (To restore the page to the normal condensed view, simply reload the page which will collapse all the hidden sections to the family, their usual look).
The table of contents at the top of Efficiency Essay this page will aid speedy navigation to any topic, which is particularly helpful if you reveal all the hidden material. I. Introduction. What do we mean by gender inequality? To analyze the causes of gender inequality, we need to know what we mean by gender inequality. Man In. How can we conceive of and talk about gender inequality in ways that are general enough to apply across the range of relevant phenomena, consistent enough to minimize conceptual ambiguities, and precise enough to be analytically effective? Gender inequality has been extraordinarily diverse and wide spread. Women and men are unequal in every conceivable way in endless circumstances, both immediate and enduring, by both objective criteria and hippie, subjective experience.
So, what counts as gender inequality? Can we characterize it in ways that let us confidently and impartially assess when there is man in the family more or less of it? No task for the introductory meeting. Janet Saltzman Chafetz Feminist Theory and Sociology: Underutilized Contributions for Mainstream Theory Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. Uk. 23, (1997), pp. 97-120; or Janet Saltzman Chafetz The Varieties of Gender Theory in Sociology Handbook of the Sociology of Gender , 1999, p3-23, 21 Rachel A. Rosenfeld. What Do We Learn about man in the family, Difference from the computer misuse Scholarship on Gender? Social Forces , Vol.
81, No. 1 (Sep., 2002), pp. 1-24 Destined for Equality : Egalitarian Impulse. II. Causality - What are causes, mechanisms, and the like? We casually refer to causes and effects in normal interactions all the time. We all conduct our lives – choosing actions, making decisions, trying to influence others – based on theories about why and the family, how things happen in the world. From the early stages of childhood we attribute causes, building a vision of the social (and physical) world that makes it understandable.
Every action, every choice about Measuring Efficiency in Teaching Essay, what to do, is based on our anticipation of its effects, our understandings of consequences. The Family. Analytical and in Teaching Essay, scientific reasoning has a similar form, but requires that we approach causation more systematically and self-consciously. The general analytical problem . In this and other societies, women and men commonly dress differently. Prepare a causal analysis that seeks to the family, explain why women and men dress differently . Our analytical task this week is to attempt a simple causal analysis of vs. comprehensive a gender difference that is man in the family obvious but not often questioned - the act penalties way we dress. The purpose of this exercise is to get us thinking about man in, causality. To the degree that we can, we want to try to think of different kinds of causes based on was the era, varied ways of framing the causal question. Realistically, one could easily write a book about man in, all the possible ways of interpreting this causal question and computer act penalties, answering it. We are just trying to develop some sensible insights in man in the family a couple pages. Thinking Tools . Was The Era. The starting point of most causal analyses is man in a comparison. Hammurabi. When we start with the general question what causes X? we turn it into the family, possible comparisons to produce an computer act penalties, answer. Examples of such questions might be why do people in the family group A do X more than those in group B?, why does X occur more often in summer than winter?, or why does the rate at sources of the which people do X go up and man in the family, down with the abstinence vs. comprehensive education business cycle?
The underlying idea is the family simple but powerful. If we are trying to explain some phenomenon, X, then we need to identify variations in the likelihood of hammurabi summary X or the man in rate of X, and look for potential causes that (1) vary across the relevant circumstances in misuse act penalties a way that could explain X and man in the family, (2) that we can connect to the outcomes for X in some way. For example, with the was the era gender distinctive clothing question, some ways to better specify the question and look at it through comparisons are: What causes individual conformity to the cultural pattern? What induces women and men to conform to man in, the expectations for dressing differently? Whenever we observe a consistent pattern of social behavior, some common conditions or processes must be inducing people to act in regulation a similar way. Figuring out what encourages conformity and discourages deviance allows us to provide a causal explanation. Think about what happens to people who do not conform to the expectations about the family, male and female appropriate clothing. And, just as important, ask why it is that people punish nonconformists. Here the basic comparison is between people who conform and those who do not, or between the reactions of people to Measuring Efficiency Methods, conformity and nonconformity. What causes differences in dress codes across cultures?
What circumstances could exist across societies that consistently produce gender differences in modes of dress? The clothing characteristic of each sex varies greatly across societies (and time). Clothing differs between primitive cultures and modern ones, between warm and cold climates, and between different parts of the world. Man In. But seemingly everywhere men and women dress differently. How can we explain this pattern? Here the primary comparison is between cultures that have different clothing.
Why do the was the expectations about clothing differences vary by context ? Why are gender differences in dress greater in some circumstances than in others? For example, both women and men may wear similar coveralls in the family a factory, but women and men generally wear dramatically different clothing to formal dances. Our efforts to find causes behind any phenomena are improved by looking at variations. If male and female clothing is just a little different in some contexts but greatly different in others, we can usefully focus on what might produce this variance in gender differences. Here the primary comparison is between contexts with greater differences in the expected clothing and hammurabi code, contexts with lesser differences. Thinking Tools 2 . While considering how to the family, explain the differences in the ways women and only education, men dress, it can also be helpful to think through ways that this pattern could be considered an example of the family a larger pattern. The explanation for the broader pattern may be different or easier to develop. For example: The gender differences in apparel (and appearance adjustment more generally) could be considered as one example of Measuring Essay apparel differences that find groups defined by age, ethnicity, or region dressing differently. That is to man in the family, say, it is not only women and men who consistently dress differently. Different ways of misuse act penalties dressing also distinguish other groups.
If we think about those other groups, does it give us insights into explaining the difference between women's and men's clothing? The gender differences in dress could be considered as one example of the family a wider range of behavioral differences between women and men such as rules of proper decorum, speech patterns, or displays of sexuality. That is, we can point to other presentational differences between women and education vs. comprehensive, men. If we think about the range of these presentational differences, do they suggest ideas that might help explain differences in apparel? Wikipedia. Causality Richard Hamming, You and Your Research, Bell Communications Research Colloquium Seminar (7 March 1986) Andrew Abbott. The Causal Devolution. Sociological Methods Research November 1998 27: 148-181. Ernest Nagel. 1960.
Determinism in man in the family History. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 20:3:291-317. Hammurabi Code. Lieberson, Stanley; Modeling Social Processes: Some Lessons from Sports Sociological Forum , 12. March 1997:11-35. III. How is gender inequality symbolized and reproduced in everyday life? To start our investigation of the causes of gender inequality, we will consider how people experience and act out gender in their day to day lives. We want to man in, think about the most basic questions. Sources. Why and when do women and men act differently? Why and when do people respond differently to women than men?
How do all these private individual actions when taken together over time influence the understanding of gender in a culture and man in, gender inequality? The general analytical problem . Using a typical setting where women and men meet, assess how Ridgeway's framing approach helps explain the role of gender in these interactions and of the, where it might fall short. For this task, we choose some familiar (to us) setting or type of man in interaction where women and men typically engage each other. For example, this could be a workplace, a bar, interactions between buyers and abstinence education vs. comprehensive education, sellers, or parties. We use this as our source of empirical data and focus our argument on explaining gender interactions there.
First, we need to read Ridgeway's argument carefully. Then we try to man in, apply her argument to the setting we have chosen. We want to assess how much we believe people's actions (in the context we chose) fit the expectations we can derive from her argument and when they might not. As we work on our analyses, we are evaluating Ridgeway's approach as a tool. The right tool allows us to construct a better edifice with less effort; the wrong tool does not. Thinking tools . Regulation Uk. The remaining notes for this analytical task look at some analytical steps that allow us to man in, think through this problem effectively. Systematic steps in the analysis . Doing this kind of vs. comprehensive education thought experiment, we want our thinking to be as systematic as possible. For all systematic causal analyses, we want to consider how the phenomenon being examined varies in regular or predictable ways across conditions, settings, types of people, places, or the like. The Family. Then, we ask what conditions or events typically precede or occur along with the outcomes that could plausibly influence those outcomes. Of The Uk Constitution. For example, first, we simply consider possible differences between men's and women's actions. Then we consider how their actions might differ between opposite-sex and same-sex encounters.
We can broaden the range of the examples we use to the family, think about these differences by considering other characteristics that might affect interactions, such as the age or race of the people, whether the interaction is only vs. comprehensive cordial or unfriendly, how well the people know each other, and so on. We want to ask ourselves if the gender aspect of the interaction will be influenced by these other circumstances that seem relevant to interactions. For example, does gender influence cordial interactions differently from the the family ways it influences confrontations in misuse our setting? If we believe the answer is the family yes, then we consider how and why. Analogously, we want to think about the ways that people's goals in gendered interactions vary in these kinds of circumstances, and how these goals influence their actions.
For example, in the same setting, a person seeking sex will commonly act differently than someone trying to curry favor or sell a product. When we apply a systematic logic to the analysis, we usually do not want to sources, write about all the possibilities we think about. Instead, we use the ones that we find telling. But we will not identify those telling possibilities unless we systematically work through all the relevant possible influences. Gender context . We can take the analysis of interactions another step by the family, considering how the influence of gender on these interactions is potentially affected by conditions like: the presence or absence of onlookers (i.e., the misuse act penalties relative privacy of the man in the family interaction) or the gender distribution of other people present (i.e., mostly male, mostly female, or mixed) Conformity . Era. Whenever we try to explain patterns like this, we want to man in the family, consider the exceptions.
When will people violate the implications of gender expectations and what follows when they do? Are there circumstances that make it more likely people will depart from conventional behavior? Violations of computer norms or common expectations are valuable for causal analyses because cracks in the veneer of social order can reveal its structure and dynamics. Bring it together . After working through the steps above, we try to assess when Ridgeway's approach does a good job explaining how gender influences behavior in our chosen setting, and when her approach seems to fall short. Do we see ways that her approach neglects or misunderstands important causes influencing the gender character of man in the family behavior in the context we examine? Our central goal here is to explain how and why gender organizes interactions in uk constitution our chosen example. Man In. We are not attempting a general evaluation of Ridgeway's ideas, but a focused assessment of their effectiveness in the setting we have selected to try them out. Erving Goffman, The Arrangement between the Sexes Theory and Society, Vol.
4, No. Summary. 3 (Autumn, 1977), pp. The Family. 301-331 Deniz Kandiyoti, Bargaining with Patriarchy. Gender and Society , Vol. 2, No. 3 (Sep 1988), pp. 274-290 Cecilia L. Ridgeway, Framed Before We Know It: How Gender Shapes Social Relations. Gender Society 2009 23:145-160 Candace West and Don H. Zimmerman Doing Gender Gender Society 1987 1: 125-151. Cecilia Ridgeway. Sources Uk Constitution. Framed by the family, Gender . Oxford: 2011. . IV. Why have women apparently occupied a subordinate position in all societies?
And how does explaining the origins of gender inequality relate to explaining the persistence of gender inequality? Although some scholars may question if women have been subordinate in all societies, all agree that men have been dominant in most societies although the degree of dominance varies greatly. This raises the very tricky question, how do we explain the prevalence of regulation uk male dominance? This exceedingly elusive question continues to the family, elude any answer that will evoke a consensus. Analytical Task Alternative 1: An analytical critique . Abstinence Education Education. As most of us lack the substantive knowledge needed to develop even simple analyses of gender inequality's possible origins, we will explore the causal possibilities by responding to the arguments of people who are knowledgeable. Please read the Basics of the family Causal Descriptions on Efficiency in Teaching Methods, a separate page for some simple, beginning ideas about describing a causal analysis. Isolate what you believe are the man in most important causal arguments in hammurabi summary the common readings . Give a critical assessment of man in the family their different approaches . In doing this, try to pay attention to what it is that makes you find the causal arguments more or less persuasive. The recommended and related readings provide a range of material that you can look at as you need to deepen and sharpen your arguments.
It can be helpful to look back at the material from Topic II, especially Gerring's list of criteria for causal arguments. Analytical Task Alternative 2: A hypothetical scenario . When we cannot hope to research a social phenomenon with empirical observations, we can sometimes gain some traction by trying to think through hypothetical possibilities. Efficiency In Teaching Methods. Here is an example. Assume that sometime in the near future we launch a rocket into space with a crew of 1,000. Man In The Family. This crew is evenly divided between women and men, the women and men have similar credentials and accomplishments, and the two sexes are about equally represented at each level of authority. The crew members' cultural understandings are similar to those of sources college students today. This ship reaches a far away planet much like earth but lacking intelligent life. Unfortunately, the man in the family ship's engines have become unstable and the crew must abandon it. Computer Misuse. So they must start life on this new planet. While they possess much advanced knowledge, they have no technology. They must start from scratch, producing food, organizing themselves into a community, pairing off to reproduce, slowly building toward some kind of technological development over generations. The Family. [Note: If the distant planet scenario seems unnerving, we could have the same effect by dropping a 1,000 people on a remote island that is isolated as a social experiment.] Under these conditions, what are the alternative possibilities for when was the hippie, women's status?
What might decide which alternative occurs? Sapolsky, Robert. Testosterone rules Discover . Chicago: Mar 1997. Vol. Man In. 18, Iss. 3; p. 44 Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. (2002). A Cross-Cultural Analysis Of The Behavior Of Women And Men: Implications For The Origins Of Sex Differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. Uk Constitution. Evolutionary Psychology and similar approaches : The debates over evolutionary psychology - in general and as applied to gender inequality - are very important but often difficult to man in the family, follow and assess.
Here are some starting points for learning the basics. Buller's supplies a sophisticated overview and critique of the most influential paradigm in of the uk constitution evolutionary psychology (while supportive of the more general venture), Downes and Walter present guided views of the field, and other pieces provide further commentaries and some studies that explore key issues facing this approach. Downes, Stephen M., Evolutionary Psychology, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2014 Edition) Sven Walter, Evolutionary Psychology, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2009 Bolger, Diane. Introduction. In A Companion to Gender Prehistory , edited by Diane Bolger, 1-19. The Family. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley Sons, Inc, 2012. [doi:10.1002/9781118294291.ch0] Buller, David J. Evolutionary Psychology: A Critique. In Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology , edited by Elliott Sober. Cambridge, MA: A Bradford Book, 2006. [also, compare David Buller.
A Guided Tour of Evolutionary Psychology (In A Field Guide to the Philosophy of Mind . Eds. Marco Nani and Massimo Marraffa. An official electronic publication of the Department of Philosophy of University of Rome 2000.) Also by Buller see: Evolutionary Psychology: The Emperor's New Paradigm, Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (2005): 277-283 and for a full treatment his book Adapting Minds: Evolutionary Psychology and the Persistent Quest for Human Nature . Code Summary. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/Bradford Books, 2005.] Fausto-Sterling, Anne. Beyond Difference: A Biologist's Perspective. Journal of Social Issues 53, no. 2 (2010): 233-58. [doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1997.tb02442.x] Goodman, Madeleine J., P. Bion Griffin, Agnes A. Estioko-Griffin, and man in the family, John S. Grove. The Compatibility of Hunting and Mothering among the Agta Hunter-Gatherers of the Philippines. Sex Roles 12, no. Abstinence Education Education. 11-12 (1985): 1199-209. Man In The Family. [doi:10.1007/bf00287829] Rigby, Nichole, and Rob J. Kulathinal. Genetic Architecture of Sexual Dimorphism in Humans. Was The Hippie Era. Journal of Cellular Physiology 230, no.
10 (Oct 2015): 2304-10. The Family. [doi:10.1002/jcp.24979] Stulp, Gert, and Louise Barrett. When Was The Hippie Era. Evolutionary Perspectives on man in the family, Human Height Variation. Biological Reviews 91, no. 1 (Feb 2016): 206-34. [doi:10.1111/brv.12165] Joseph Henrich. A cultural species: How culture drove human evolution Psychological Science Agenda . Education. Science Brief. 2009 Rosemary L. Hopcroft. Gender Inequality in Interaction – An Evolutionary Account. Social Forces 87.4 (2009): 1845-1871. Man In The Family. Randall Collins.
A Conflict Theory of Sexual Stratification. Social Problems , Vol. 19, No. 1 (Summer, 1971), pp. 3-21 Rae Blumberg. A General Theory of Gender Stratification. Hammurabi Code Summary. Sociological Theory 2 (1984): 23-101. Rae Blumberg.
Extending Lenski's Schema to Hold Up Both Halves of the Sky.a€?A Theory-Guided Way of man in Conceptualizing Agrarian Societies that Illuminates a Puzzle about Gender Stratification Sociological Theory 22:2 (June 2004):278-291 Matthew H. McIntyre, Carolyn Pope Edwards. The Early Development of Gender Differences Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38 (2009): 83-97 Laurie Wermuth and Miriam Ma'at-Ka-Re Monges. Gender Stratification: A Structural Model for Examining Case Examples of Women in act penalties Less-Developed Countries. Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 23.1 (2002) 1-22 Randall Collins, Janet Saltzman Chafetz, Rae Lesser Blumberg, Scott Coltrane, Jonathan H. Turner Toward an Integrated Theory of man in the family Gender Stratification Sociological Perspectives , Vol. 36, No. 3 (Autumn, 1993), pp. 185-216 Janet Saltzman Chafetz Gendered Power and Privilege: Taking Lenski One Step Further Sociological Theory, Vol.
22, No. 2, Religion, Stratification, and Evolution in Human Societies: Essays in Honor of media uk Gerhard E. Lenski (Jun., 2004), pp. 269-277 Joan N. Huber. Man In. Comparative Gender Stratification. Handbook of the Sociology of Gender , 1999, p65-80 Maurice Godelier, The Origins of Male Domination New Left Review , May-June 1981, pp. 3-17 William Tulio Divale, Marvin Harris.
Population, Warfare, and the Male Supremacist Complex. American Anthropologist , New Series, Vol. Measuring Efficiency Methods. 78, No. 3 (Sep., 1976), pp. 521-538 [See also: William Divale, Marvin Harris, Donald T. Man In The Family. Williams. On the Misuse of Statistics: A Reply to Hirschfeld et al. American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol.
80, No. 2 (Jun., 1978), pp. 379-386; William Divale, Marvin Harris. The Male Supremacist Complex: Discovery of a Cultural Invention American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 80, No.
3 (Sep., 1978), pp. 668-671 C C Mukhopadhyay, and P J Higgins. Anthropological Studies of hammurabi summary Women's Status Revisited: 1977-1987. Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. 17 (1988): 461-495 Naomi Quinn. Anthropological Studies on Women's Status. Annual Review of man in Anthropology Vol. 6 (1977): 181-225 Chris Hann.
Reproduction and Inheritance: Goody Revisited. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 37 (2008): 145-158. V. What determines men's and women's roles and positions within families? Family and kinship are potentially relevant to gender inequality in varied ways and a lot of work had pursued such issues. Probably the two most important general issues involve the ways that women and men are unequal within families and Efficiency Methods, the ways that family organization both contributes to and is man in the family influenced by gender inequality beyond the of the uk constitution family institution.
We will just touch the surface of these issues this week. The general analytical problem . We want to provide an man in, integrated analytical overview of the principal causal arguments about gender inequality and code, family organization that appear in the common readings. Each of the readings has various causal arguments about family organization, some directly about man in, gender inequality, some relevant to gender inequality but not directly exploring it. Some of the causal questions may receive different causal analyses by these authors. Sometimes two or more authors may use a similar causal approach to explain different causal problems. Our goal is to sort this out. Our overviews should be organized around the causal arguments, not a series of summaries of what each author wrote (see Thinking Tools). Thinking tools . Sources Of The. We want to use one of the following two possible ways to organize the causal assessment (unless one of us has a better way). The first organizes around what is to be explained, the man in the family second around the causes. First approach . We start by computer misuse act penalties, identifying the principal causal problems addressed by the group of papers. That is, we figure out what they suggest needs to be explained.
Then, we organize these causal problems in the family a sensible order (including consideration of some problems potentially being secondary or sub-problems of others). Under each causal problem, we summarize and assess all the relevant explanations found in the readings. Second approach . We start by identifying the was the era principal causal frameworks used in the papers. That is, we figure out what they suggest are the conditions or processes that have the most important influence over the outcomes. Then, we organize these causal frameworks in a sensible order, taking into account which are entirely different and which might be variations of a similar theme, and which are competing versus complementary. Man In. For each of these, after summarizing the causal logic of the framework, we show how it has been used by these authors, describing the range of outcomes the framework is supposed to determine and how it has such effects. Note that regardless which way we organize our analysis of competing causal arguments, it can be valuable to think about not only what is considered by the authors being examine, but also which theoretical questions and which causal frameworks seem relevant but absent. Please reread the Basics of was the hippie era Causal Descriptions on the starting point for describing a causal analysis. Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to produce a critical overview of the principal causal arguments concerning the family and gender inequality, starting with the ideas present in the common readings for this week. To do this effectively, we need to identify all the relevant causal arguments, deduce the logical structure of each causal argument and determine how to present that clearly (even if the original source is inconsistent or ambiguous), detect how the causal arguments (from different sources) relate to man in, each other and present them in misuse a way that makes those relations clear, and, where possible, summarize the important analytical strengths and weaknesses of each argument (or facet to an argument). (We should start with the understanding that this kind of analytical overview is rather easy to do poorly and very demanding to do well and thoroughly.
At this stage we are not aspiring to a professional job but hoping to achieve a reasonable, if basic, analysis.) Destined for Equality : Institutional Individualism: Individualistic Family 157-169 Coltrane, Scott. 1989. Household Labor and the Routine Production of man in the family Gender. Social Problems 3 Stephanie Coontz. The Historical Transformation of Marriage, Journal of computer misuse Marriage and Family , Volume 66, Issue 4 (p 974-979) November 2004.
Beth Anne Shelton, Daphne John. The Division of Household Labor. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 22, (1996), pp. 299-322 Andrew J. Cherlin, The Deinstitutionalization of American Marriage Journal of Marriage and Family , Volume 66, Issue 4 (p 848-861) November 2004. Kathleen Gerson. Moral Dilemmas, Moral Strategies, and the Transformation of Gender: Lessons from Two Generations of Work and Family Change Gender Society . Vol. 16 No. The Family. 1, February 2002 8-28 Sara B. Media Regulation Uk. Raley, Marybeth J. Man In. Mattingly, Suzanne M. Bianchi.
How Dual Are Dual-Income Couples? Documenting Change From 1970 to regulation uk, 2001. Man In. Journal of Marriage and sources of the, Family 68:1 (2006), 11-28 Davis, S. N., T. Greenstein and J. G. Marks, Effects of Union Type and Division of Household Labor, Journal of man in the family Family Issues 28 (2007):1247-72. [doi: 10.1177/0192513X07300968] Scott Coltrane. Father-Child Relationships and the Status of computer misuse Women: A Cross-Cultural Study. American Journal of Sociology, 93 (1988): 1060-1095. The Family. Joann Vanek. Was The Hippie Era. Time Spent in Housework. The Family. Scientific American 231 (Nov 1974):116-120.
Valerie Kincade Oppenheimer. The Sociology of Women's Economic Role in the Family. Abstinence. American Sociological Review , Vol. Man In. 42, No. 3 (Jun., 1977), pp. 387-406 Kathleen Gerson. (2004) 'Understanding work and family through a gender lens', Community, Work Family , 7: 2, 163 - 178 Rodrigo R. Soares, Bruno L. S. FalcA?A?o. The Demographic Transition and the Sexual Division of vs. comprehensive education Labor. Man In. The Journal of Political Economy , Vol. Regulation. 116, No. 6 (Dec., 2008), pp.
1058-1104 Pennington, Suzanne(2009) 'Bisexuals Doing Gender in Romantic Relationships', Journal of Bisexuality , 9:1, 33-69 Veronica Tichenor. Maintaining Men's Dominance: Negotiating Identity and Power When She Earns More. Sex Roles 53:3-4, (2005): 191-205 Becker, G. S., Human Capital, Effort, and the Sexual Division of Labor, Journal of man in the family Labor Economics 3(1) (1985):33-58. [ VI. What is the act penalties role of sex differences in the functioning and perpetuation of man in gender inequality? Attempts to explain gender inequality at code summary all levels are haunted by man in the family, essentialism . Essentialist arguments impute distinctive attributes to women and men and attribute the social differences between women's and hammurabi, men's activities, opportunities, statuses, and roles to these distinct attributes.
Even theoretical analyses of man in gender inequality that expressly reject the possibility of consequential, inherent sex differences, commonly build their explanations of inequality on gender differences. To complicate matters, essentialist arguments proclaiming superior attributes for media, women exist alongside of the arguments proclaiming women inferior. Man In. Moreover, while for some, essentialism always means a difference based in of the uk constitution biology or genetics, for others it includes cultural differences that are embodied in women and men. The general analytical problem . To investigate how essentialist arguments work, we will examine how different kinds of essentialist arguments might be applied to explain some aspect of gender inequality, in contrast to a non-essentialist argument. We aim to see both the attraction of essentialist arguments and man in, the possibilities for alternatives. Select one form or facet of gender inequality that you will try to explain for this task.
This instance or aspect of gender inequality should be sufficiently important, widespread, and enduring or recurring to merit thoughtful theory and explanation. It should also be narrow or specific enough that the goal of explaining it is plausible. For example, the facet might be that wives commonly defer to summary, husbands. For the selected type or aspect of gender inequality, you will suggest five alternative explanations, each one representing a different approach to explaining such social phenomena. Man In The Family. The explanations should be succinct but clear. They should also be plausible to computer act penalties, the extent that a reasonable person might make such an argument. Man In. Plausible does not mean true, of course. Rather, we are trying to imagine an media regulation, argument that would seem plausible to people who are advocates for each of the perspectives. The five types of explanation . Attempt to devise the best explanations you can for the relevant facet of inequality from each of the following perspectives.
Explanations may be categorized in many ways. The five perspectives defined here are meant to engage different responses to the problem of essentialism. Direct biological - Devise an explanation claiming that some biological difference between the sexes produces the relevant aspect of inequality by making women and men act differently. For example, an argument might be that men are stronger than women so men dominate women as a simple result of superior strength. (More complex biological explanations might be derived from man in, evolutionary psychology.) This type of explanation is usually purely essentialist. Note that this type of explanation can be divided further into those relying on when hippie, real biological differences and those imputing fictional biological differences.
Let us stress biological differences that are at least potentially real here, leaving the fictitious ones for below. Indirect biological - Formulate an explanation claiming some biological difference does not directly produce the inequality, but the biological difference has important effects or implications of some sort, and those effects that make likely or unavoidable the the family emergence or persistence of the selected aspect of gender inequality. For example, someone might argue that women's child bearing makes them anxious about the welfare of their children, and that anxiety makes them feel weak and in want of abstinence only a protector, leading them to defer to husbands. Or, others might suggest that women's biologically induced child rearing orientation encourages both women and men to make men responsible for man in the family, warfare, and that men's resulting skill at combat, their possession of weapons, and was the, men's organization around mutual defense leaves wives typically in their husbands' control. The key for this type of explanation is that the relevant biological differences do not directly cause the gender inequality being explained, but have effects on social behavior and social organization that lead to gender inequality. These types of explanations have essentialist origins in a biological difference, but the explanation as a whole may invoke mediating causal influences that reduce the essentialist quality, sometimes greatly. Non-biological sex difference - Suggest how some socially constructed difference between women and men – one that is neither biological nor a direct result of biological differences – initiates or preserves the aspect of man in the family gender inequality being explained. This will usually be an enduring individual characteristic (a difference that people carry with them, not a difference in their circumstances). Vs. Comprehensive. For example, one might claim that women are fearful and man in the family, dependent because of socialization processes (that have no biological basis), and hammurabi, this psychological condition induces wives to defer to their husbands. Or, one might argue that childhood sports available only to boys result in a higher competitive drive that accounts for adult men's greater success in business.
This type of man in the family explanation claims a real difference exists between women and men (in the society or social context where the inequality being explained occurs; the relevant sex difference need not exist in all or any other society or social context), but this difference is a social construction. This type of explanation often becomes redundantly circular: each aspect of inequality exists as a result of inequality, and code, that overall inequality is constituted by the various aspects. Fictitious sex difference - An imputed sex difference that does not really exist is claimed to play a significant role in producing the selected facet of man in gender inequality. For example, someone might suggest that although women have no better capacity for child rearing, people commonly assume they do because women bear children, and that this false expectation produces a division of labor and power favoring men. This type of explanation focuses on the consequences of beliefs, relying on the observation that beliefs can organize behavior even if they are false beliefs. While such fictitious differences are commonly assumed to be biological, they need not be. Causes independent of sex differentiation - A causal process that does not involve any difference between the sexes is argued to produce the hammurabi code summary inequality being considered.
For example, some might argue that for man in the family, families to fulfill their social functions effectively, they need one spouse/parent to perform the critical emotional actions needed and the other spouse/parent to perform the practical and Measuring Efficiency Methods Essay, leadership actions (this is essentially a well-know idea of Talcott Parsons). This role differentiation can then result in spouse inequality, as an the family, indirect and unintended consequence. Media. This category includes highly diverse explanations, the one critical similarity among them being that they do not rely on a sex difference in their central causal argument. It may be worth noting that one reason explanations based on the family, sex differences (including all the preceding perspectives) are more common is that formulating a plausible analysis that forgoes the mechanism of sex differences is often a hard task. Regulation. (Note, in this task we are aiming to produce explanations that those advocating each of the above types of explanation would think are reasonable. Man In The Family. It is Essay often hardest to man in the family, conceive good explanations from the points of view we find unconvincing or unappealing, but the capacity to do this is a valuable skill.) Bringing it together . The point of this exercise is to examine how it is possible to devise a range of code summary alternative causal explanations of gender inequality stressing some mechanism of sex differences, while developing alternative theories that do not rely on man in the family, sex differences is rather hard. The difference arguments run the full range from being directly and fully biological to relying on non-biological or fictitious differences in indirect ways.
The arguments that exclude not only biology but all dependence on sex differences commonly derive from another theoretical approach, such as functionalism or conflict theories. The challenge with these approaches is when hippie not only to make the immediate causal process eschew differences, but to avoid relying on sex differences one or two steps earlier in the causal chain. Uri Gneezy, Kenneth L. Man In The Family. Leonard, And John A. List. Gender Differences in Competition: Evidence From a Matrilineal and a Patriarchal Society. Econometrica, Vol.
77, No. 5 (September, 2009), 1637-1664 Review : Section II Common Readings above and vs. comprehensive, the DeLamater and man in the family, Hyde piece from of the uk constitution, Section VI. Douglas Schrock, Michael Schwalbe. The Family. Men, Masculinity, and Manhood Acts. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 35: 277-295 (August 2009). [doi: 10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-115933] Janis S. Bohan. Regarding gender: Essentialism, Constructionism, and Feminist Psychology.
Psychology of Women Quarterly , Mar 93, Vol. 17 Issue 1, p5-22 Matthew H. McIntyre, Carolyn Pope Edwards. The Early Development of Gender Differences. Hippie Era. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38: 83-97 (October 2009) Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. (2002). Man In The Family. A Cross-Cultural Analysis Of The Behavior Of Women And Men: Implications For The Origins Of Sex Differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. [doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.128.5.699] Nancy Chodorow. Computer. Oedipal Asymmetries and Heterosexual Knots. Social Problems , Vol. 23, No.
4, Feminist Perspectives: The Sociological Challenge (Apr., 1976), pp. 454-468. Eagly, A. H., Wood, W. (1999). The Origins Of Sex Differences In Human Behavior: Evolved Dispositions Versus Social Roles. American Psychologist, 54, 408-423. Man In. Valian, V. (1999). The Cognitive Bases Of Gender Bias.
Brooklyn Law Review, 65, 1037-1061. Clopton, Nancy A.; Sorell, Gwendolyn T. Media. Gender differences in moral reasoning. The Family. . Psychology of Women Quarterly, Mar93, Vol. 17 Issue 1, p85 [doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1993.tb00678.x] Pamela L. Geller. Identity and Difference: Complicating Gender in Archaeology. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. Sources Uk Constitution. 38: 65-81 (October 2009) [doi: 10.1146/annurev-anthro-091908-164414] Barbara J. Risman, Intimate Relationships from a Microstructural Perspective: Mothering Men. Gender and Society 1:1 (March 1987).
Nancy Chodorow. Mothering, Object-Relations, and the Female Oedipal Configuration. Feminist Studies , Vol. 4, No. Man In. 1 (Feb., 1978), pp. 137-158 [jstor: 3177630] Timothy J. Hammurabi Code. Biblarz Judith Stacey. How Does the Gender of Parents Matter? Journal of Marriage and man in, Family 72:1 (2010):3-22 [doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2009.00678.x] Adrienne Rich. 1980.
Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence. Signs: Journal of computer Women in Culture and Society 5 (4): 631-660 Judith Butler. Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist Theory. Theatre Journal , Vol. 40, No. 4 (Dec., 1988), pp. 519-531. Nussbaum, M. C. The Professor Of Parody [J. Butler]. The New Republic v. 220 no. 8 (February 22 1999) p. Man In The Family. 37-45.
Timothy V. Kaufman-Osborn. Fashionable Subjects: On Judith Butler and the Causal Idioms of Postmodern Feminist Theory. Measuring In Teaching Essay. Political Research Quarterly , Vol. 50, No. 3 (Sep., 1997), pp.
649-674 Veronica Vasterling. Butler's Sophisticated Constructivism: A Critical Assessment. Hypatia , Vol. 14, No. 3 (Summer, 1999), pp. 17-38 Barbara F. Reskin.
Including Mechanisms in Our Models of man in Ascriptive Inequality. American Sociological Review, Vol. 68, No. When Was The Hippie. 1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-21. VII. What is the role of man in the family sexuality? Sexuality has been evoked in multiple ways in the study of gender inequality.
Some have considered it as a possible motivating cause for inequality, others have explored how gender inequality can mold the experience and practice of sexuality, and hippie, others have tried to theoretically incorporate sexuality as a peculiar tension between women and men that mediates both the causes and effects of gender inequality. Essentially, everyone recognizes sexuality is critically important to gender inequality, but we lack agreement or clarity on how it matters. The general analytical problem . Focusing on heterosexual behavior, it appears that men seek to man in, have sex with women much more than women seek to have it with men, relative both to how often they have sex and with how many partners . Our central task this week is to propose causal accounts that plausibly explain this. Give a brief account of possible explanations from the following perspectives. In each case, describe a plausible approach (accepting the assumptions of the perspective), then assess its strengths and weaknesses.
Evolutionary Psychology - Trying to explain this phenomenon (well, part of it) has been a highlight of the work that evolutionary psychologists have done on gender differences. Provide an appropriate brief explanation of this sort, identify the sources of the fundamental assumptions it requires. Also, consider the evidence and man in the family, what might be important shortcomings. Indirect biological - Formulate an summary, explanation claiming some biological difference does not directly produce the inequality, but the biological difference has important effects or implications of man in the family some sort, and those effects that make likely or unavoidable the emergence and persistence of this sexuality difference. Also, consider under what social conditions this sexual difference should be larger or smaller, assuming that this explanation is correct. A Fictional Difference - Try to explain how this purported difference in computer sexuality might not be real. This includes explaining why the fictional belief in this difference would arise and become prevalent. Secondary effect of gender inequality - Consider how this difference can arise as a result of gender inequality. Man In The Family. Examine what social conditions must be true for this causal sequence to computer misuse, occur. A different approach - What plausible explanation can you provide that does not fit into the above categories?
Can you provide reasoning or evidence to show that one of the man in the family explanations is better than the sources of the others? Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to construct and man in, assess alternative basic causal arguments seeking to understand a widely accepted difference in Measuring the sexuality of women and men. In each case, try to be clear about the logic of the the family causal argument. In each case, provide a logical description of the mechanisms that link the causes to computer act penalties, the outcomes. Alternative Analytical Task [ignore]
The general analytical problem . Our central task this week is to propose a causal account that plausibly explains the relationship between one aspect of sexuality and gender inequality. Everyone who analyzes gender inequality considers sexuality important, but they have highly varied ideas about what matters and why. This disagreement suggests that the underlying problems are difficult. We cannot hope to solve them in this brief effort. So, our aim is to propose a simple and reasonable account of some part of the relationship between inequality and sexuality. We are not trying to develop a full, professional analysis. We also want to consider how our proposed accounts agree with, differ from, or challenge the existing scholarly arguments. Again, our goal here is limited. The aim is to give a reasonable first sense of man in how the proposed account fits (or does not fit). Thinking tools As suggested above, we can use any aspect of sexuality that seems interesting. However, it may help if the selected facet of sexuality: has a relationship to gender inequality that at least some writers think is important.
Which way it is important is wide open. The role of the code summary chosen sexuality characteristic relative to gender inequality may be cause, effect, catalyst, or whatever else seems causally relevant. allows discussion of man in the family relevant ideas from at least three scholarly works. These may be part of the common readings, any of the other readings recommended here, or another legitimate source. This doesn't mean that the texts must directly discuss the specific relationship we write about, but that they include ideas or arguments which we can apply or to which we can respond. A basic approach to the task presentation might have the following three parts: First, we lay out the causal, explanatory problem. What are the outcomes, patterns, processes, or relationships that we would like to explain by Efficiency in Teaching Essay, identifying reasonable causes? And why is this important enough to merit attention? (The latter part may seem self-evident, but we still want to describe why we think explaining the phenomenon is important.) Second, we provide the causal analysis. We want to be as complete as possible within reasonable space limits. Man In The Family. And, we want to be clear, simple, and uk constitution, direct. Third, we try to show how our proposed causal analysis relates to the existing literature. For our purposes, we can limit ourselves to considering a couple theories or perspectives that would support or compliment our approach and a couple that would be likely to question our proposed causal analysis. (In a professional effort, we would need to the family, consider every important relevant argument.) These may come from the common readings or any other relevant scholarship.
When discussing those who might disagree, we want to be as specific as possible about what criticism we would expect from when hippie era, each of these opponents and how we might respond. Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to construct a basic causal argument seeking to understand how some aspect of sexuality is related to gender inequality, and to assess how that causal argument relates to the existing literature (as represented in our readings). Zaylia, Jessica Leigh(2009) 'Toward a Newer Theory of Sexuality: Terms, Titles, and the Bitter Taste of Bisexuality', Journal of Bisexuality , 9 (2): 109 - 123. Crawford, M., et. Man In. al., Sexual Double Standards: A Review and Methodological Critique of Two Decades of Research. Of The Uk Constitution. The Journal of man in the family Sex Research v. 40 no. 1 (February 2003) p. Sources Uk Constitution. 13-26 Dennis D. Waskul, Phillip Vannini, Desiree Wiesen. Man In. Women and only education education, Their Clitoris: Personal Discovery, Signification, and the family, Use. Symbolic Interaction May 2007, Vol. 30, No. Sources. 2: 151-174 Breanne Fahs.
Compulsory Bisexuality?: The Challenges of Modern Sexual Fluidity. Man In The Family. Journal of Bisexuality , Volume 9, Issue 3 4 July 2009 , pages 431-449 John A. Miller, Joan Acker, Kate Barry, Miriam M. Regulation Uk. Johnson and Lois A. West. Man In The Family. Comments on vs. comprehensive, MacKinnon's 'Feminism, Marxism, Method, and the State'. Man In The Family. Signs , Vol. 10, No. Education Education. 1 (Autumn, 1984), pp. 168-184; [jstor: 3174252; and man in the family, Catharine A. MacKinnon, Reply to Miller, Acker and Barry, Johnson, West, and Measuring Efficiency Methods, Gardiner. Signs , Vol. The Family. 10, No. 1 (Autumn, 1984), pp. Education Vs. Comprehensive Education. 184-188 [jstor: 3174253] Steven Epstein.
An Incitement to man in the family, Discourse: Sociology and the History of Sexuality . Sociological Forum , Vol. 18, No. 3 (Sep., 2003), pp. 485-502. Nicole Constable. Hammurabi Code. The Commodification of Intimacy: Marriage, Sex, and Reproductive Labor.
Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38: 49-64 (2009) Impett, E. A., Peplau, L. Man In. A. (2003). Sexual Compliance: Gender, Motivational, And Relationship Perspectives. Journal of Sex Research, 40(1), 87-100 [doi: 10.1080/00224490309552169] Ronald Weitzer. Sociology of hammurabi code summary Sex Work. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 35: 213-234 (2009) Pennington, Suzanne(2009) 'Bisexuals Doing Gender in man in the family Romantic Relationships', Journal of Bisexuality, 9: 1, 33-69 Lisa Duggan From Instincts to sources of the, Politics: Writing the man in History of Sexuality in the U.S. The Journal of media Sex Research , Vol. 27, No. 1, Feminist Perspectives on Sexuality. Part 1 (Feb., 1990), pp.
95-109 Michael W. Wiederman. The Truth Must Be in the family Here Somewhere: Examining the Gender Discrepancy in Self-Reported Lifetime Number of Measuring Methods Essay Sex Partners. The Journal of man in Sex Research, Vol. 34, No. Abstinence Only Vs. Comprehensive Education. 4 (1997), pp. 375-386 Norman R. Brown, Robert C. Sinclair.
Estimating Number of Lifetime Sexual Partners: Men and Women Do It Differently. The Journal of Sex Research, Vol. Man In. 36, No. 3 (Aug., 1999), pp. Only Education Vs. Comprehensive. 292-297 John Levi Martin, Matt George. Theories of Sexual Stratification: Toward an Analytics of the Sexual Field and the family, a Theory of Sexual Capital. Sociological Theory, Vol. Computer Misuse. 24, No. 2 (Jun., 2006), pp.
107-132 Judith Treas, Deirdre Giesen. Sexual Infidelity among Married and Cohabiting Americans. Man In. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 62, No. 1 (Feb., 2000), pp. 48-60 Blow, Adrian J.; Hartnett, Kelley. Infidelity In Committed Relationships II: A Substantive Review . Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, Volume 31, Issue 2, (2005): 217-33. Lever, J., Frederick, D., Peplau, L. A. (2006). Misuse. Does Size Matter? Men's And Women's Views On Penis Size Across The Life Span.
Psychology of Men and man in the family, Masculinity, 7(3), 129-143. VIII. What is the role of violence and intimidation in the relationships between men and women? Most theoretical approaches to gender inequality suggest that violence between women and men plays a role in sustaining inequality; some also point toward violence as an initial cause. A recurring issue concerns the degree to which violence is an expression or result of sources gender inequality or, alternatively, is a cause of inequality. The separate roles of rape, harassment, and domestic violence, and their relationships to man in the family, each other are another critical question. Much research and Measuring in Teaching Methods, argument has also been focused on the question of women's aggressive impulses and man in, actions. Analytical Task : Try to develop a reasonable explanation for computer misuse, why women do not engage in sexual harassment or sexual violence at rates similar to those of men.
Here, our strategy is to reverse the usual way people approach the problem of man in the family gender violence, aiming to explain the (suppressed) rates for women rather than the (elevated) rates for men. In addition to the reading materials, consider carefully the pointers below in the sections on hippie era, Thinking Tools and Well Formed Causal Arguments In short , taking into man in, account the pointers below and the ideas in the materials we have read up to this point, you want to develop a reasonable explanation why women do not engage in harassment or violence toward men at the rates that men do toward women. Thinking Tools: ( click to open ) To pursue this task, we need to consider what we mean by violence or aggression. When people refer to sources, the patterns of man in the family violence between women and men (in modern societies), they are usually referring to several kinds of aggressive behavior, particularly: (1) sexual violence (especially rape), (2) sexual harassment, and (3) intimate partner violence (which includes wife battering). These three categories implicitly distinguish patterns of regulation aggression based on several criteria: (1) the degree to which the aggressive acts involve sexuality, (2) the severity of the aggressive acts, and (3) the existing relationship between the relevant men and women. Man In The Family. In simple terms, the aggressive actions in these three categories have two obvious potential relationships with gender inequality: (1) inequality produces them, and (2) they reinforce gender inequality. These actions are especially linked to inequality by computer misuse, the ways they contribute to women’s fears and sense of physical vulnerability. That fear is crucial. For it is the prospect of possible violence that induces women to man in the family, restrict their behavior, to seek male protectors, and to heed men’s wishes.
The fear of violence is commonly a more prevalent and effective mechanism of control than the experience of era violence. Note, however, that we cannot assume that sexual violence would not exist in the family the absence of gender inequality (although we might wish to was the hippie era, examine this as a hypothesis). We know, for example, that partner violence occurs in gay male and lesbian couples at rates comparable to those of heterosexual couples. To put it differently, we have good evidence for the family, inferring that gender inequality is a contributory cause for sexual violence, but not for was the hippie, the claim that it is the family a necessary cause. Similarly, we must be wary of simply assuming that sexual violence leads to gender inequality. To simplify our task, we will set aside the question of intimate partner violence and focus on the other two kinds mentioned above, sexual violence and sexual harassment. So, our goal is to explain why women, seemingly, indulge less often in computer misuse sexual violence and harassment toward men than the reverse . The Family. We can also note that one analytical starting point to explaining such differences would be to decompose the possible causes into two possible types that raise different causal questions: Women and men may resort to violence and computer misuse act penalties, harassment at different rates under comparable circumstances.
This would lead us ask what conditions, expectations, or the like cause women and men to act differently. Women and men may face the conditions that induce or allow violence and harassment at different rates. Man In. This would lead us to ask how and why women and media regulation uk, men find themselves at different rates in circumstances that promote aggression toward the man in the family other sex. [Both men and women vary greatly, so we must decide if we will abstract away all that variation (and thus talk of summary men or women in the most generic or abstract possible manner) or if we feel that some variations (e.g. wealth or age) require consideration for the family, the analysis. Remember that you can restrict the scope of your analysis.] Try to approach the problem of defining potential causes as systematically as you can. For example, consider a list of sources potential determinants that might reasonably include beliefs, resources, opportunities, the man in anticipated consequences of alternative actions.
Another way to look at it is the old detective's script: motives, means, opportunity. The key here is to avoid randomly attaching yourself to one or two possible causes, just because they happen to be what you first think about. You want to think seriously about Measuring Efficiency Methods, what you might have neglected. It is man in the family often useful to start this kind of analytic reasoning concretely, concentrating on circumstances we know best. We think about the kinds of people we know best, either through personal experience or from studying them.
We ask ourselves why the Measuring Essay women in these circumstances or groups do not engage in sexual harassment or sexual violence toward men as much as do men toward women. Man In The Family. If we can gain an code summary, explanatory foothold in these familiar circumstances, we have a starting point for developing a more general explanation. Also, try to introduce appropriate connections between the argument(s) you present and the readings. Consider not only the common readings from this week, but also past readings and optional ones from this week that seem particularly relevant. The causal arguments should try to conform to the standards for a good causal argument that we have read about and discussed. Among other things this means: The causal analysis should clearly state what is being explained. The analysis should describe the man in social mechanisms linking causes to effects. It should show what happens in the world that produces the outcomes, what kinds of people or organizations behave in when manner, what circumstances arise that induce the relevant behavior, and so forth.
This may be abstract at the level of the causal model. The analysis should consider why the decisive causes exist and take the form that they do. That is, the causal analysis should push back at least one step past the causes being invoked to man in the family, ask what causes them. Hammurabi Summary. A strong analysis will consider what alternative causal arguments could be made (i.e., how the causal processes could be different from man in, what you describe) and show what evidence or logic favors the argument you have presented. When Was The Era. A thorough causal analysis will recognize that other causal models might be considered plausible, and try to man in, compare the causal model being promoted to the alternatives. The analysis should consider the generalizability of the the arguments presented. It should consider to what periods, places, types of computer misuse societies, parts of society, kinds of social relationships or interactions do the arguments apply? Most will find it difficult to do all of the man in above effectively, so consider these to be suggestions about what would be ideal, then apply your judgment about allocating your time and effort.
Try to develop a clear causal analysis of the role played in Measuring Efficiency Methods gender inequality by a fear of violence. This analysis should include a causal explanation why fear of (gender related) violence exists within a system of man in the family gender inequality. Hammurabi Code Summary. While thinking through how to the family, explain this fear, you might consider comparisons or circumstances under which these fears vary, including Women's fears vs. men's fears The circumstances under which women experience greater fear and those where they feel safe Differences in the amount of fear typical amongst groups or categories of Measuring Efficiency Essay women according to the family, their age, affluence, location, companions, or any other relevant social condition Differences in the distribution of fear across societies distinguished by such conditions as forms of economic and summary, political organization, degree of development, prevailing religious or cultural institutions and the like This analysis should also include a causal explanation of the consequences for man in the family, gender inequality of the act penalties distribution of fears of violence. In what ways do fears of violence influence the behavior of man in the family women or the relationships between women and men? Consider how such fears may affect various kinds of women under various circumstances. But remember to Measuring Efficiency Essay, return to aggregate effects – it is the man in the family impact of these fears on the pattern of women's experiences and behavior that affects gender inequality writ large. Sources Of The. Avoid the the family analytic temptation to argue as if equality might imply an absence of summary discord and aggression. Realistically, equality between two groups by man in, itself only leads us to sources uk constitution, expect that acts of man in the family aggression will occur with equal frequency and effect between members of the two groups.
Removing inequality as a source of education discord should reduce one kind of man in the family frustration that motivates aggression. Other sources of discord still exist, however, and Measuring, some forms of aggression that could be suppressed by inequality might even rise. Archer, J. (2002). Sex Differences In Physically Aggressive Acts Between Heterosexual Partners: A Metaanalytic Review. The Family. Aggression Violent Behavior, 7(4), 313-351. Computer Misuse Act Penalties. [doi: 10.1016/S1359-1789(01)00061-1] Saguy, Abigail C. Employment Discrimination or Sexual Violence?: Defining Sexual Harassment in American and French Law. Law Society Review.
34:4 (2000):1091-1128. also see Saguy, Abigail C. What is man in Sexual Harassment? From Capitol Hill to the Sorbonne, Thomas Jefferson Law Review , 27:45, (2005):45-56. Manuel Eisner. Long-Term Historical Trends in Violent Crime. Crime and Justice , Vol. 30, (2003), pp. 83-142 Malcolm M. Feeley, Deborah L. Little. Abstinence Vs. Comprehensive Education. The Vanishing Female: The Decline of Women in the Criminal Process, 1687-1912. Law Society Review , Vol. 25, No. 4 (1991), pp.
719-758 Quinn, Beth A. Sexual Harassment and Masculinity: The Power and Meaning of 'Girl Watching.' Gender Society , vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 386-402, June 2002 Rachel Bridges Whaley, The Paradoxical Relationship between Gender Inequality and Rape: Toward a Refined Theory. Gender Society , vol. 15, no.
4, pp. 531-555, Aug 2001 [doi: 10.1177/089124301015004003] Murray A. Straus. 2008. The Family. Dominance and symmetry in partner violence by male and female university students in 32 nations. Children and code, Youth Services Review 30(3):252-275.
Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. (2002). A cross-cultural analysis of the behavior of women and men: Implications for the origins of sex differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. The Family. [note: also recommended for previous section] Sarah K. Sources Of The Uk Constitution. Murnen, Carrie Wright, and Gretchen Kaluzny. Man In The Family. If 'Boys Will Be Boys,' Then Girls Will Be Victims? A Meta-Analytic Review of the Research That Relates Masculine Ideology to Sexual Aggression. Efficiency In Teaching Methods Essay. Sex Roles Volume 46, Numbers 11-12 / June, 2002 Peggy Reeves Sanday. The Family. Rape-Prone Versus Rape-Free Campus Cultures.
Violence Against Women, Vol. 2, No. 2, 191-208 (1996) [doi: 10.1177/1077801296002002006] Quinn, Beth A. Sexual Harassment and Efficiency, Masculinity: The Power and man in the family, Meaning of 'Girl Watching.' Gender Society , vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 386-402, June 2002.
Linda Gordon. Family Violence, Feminism, and Social Control. Feminist Studies, Vol. 12, No. 3 (Autumn, 1986), pp. 453-478 Christopher Uggen Amy Blackstone. Sexual Harrasment as a Gendered Expression of Power.
American Sociological Review , Volume 69, Number 1, (February 2004): 64-92 Sandy Welsh. Gender And Sexual Harassment. Annual Review of Sociology 25 (1999): 169-190 Lee Ellis and Charles Beattie. The Feminist Explanation for Rape: An Empirical Test. Misuse. T he Journal of Sex Research , Vol.
19, No. 1 (Feb., 1983), pp. 74-93 Kimberly Martin, Lynne M. Vieraitis and Sarah Britto. Gender Equality and Women's Absolute Status: A Test of the Feminist Models of Rape. Violence Against Women . 12 (4) 2006: 321-339 Gwen Hunnicutt. The Family. Varieties of Patriarchy and Violence Against Women Resurrecting Patriarchy as a Theoretical Tool. Violence Against Women . 15 (5) 2009: 553 - 573 [doi: 10.1177/1077801208331246] Tom W. Smith. The Polls: Gender and Attitudes Toward Violence. The Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 48, No. Of The. 1 (Spring, 1984), pp.
384-396 [jstor: 2748632] Richard C. Eichenberg. Gender Differences In Public Attitudes Toward The Use Of Force By The United States, 1990-2003. International Security 28.1 (2003) 110-141 Jon Hurwitz and Shannon Smithey, Gender Differences on Crime and Punishment. Man In The Family. Political Research Quarterly, Vol. Efficiency In Teaching Methods Essay. 51, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 89-115 Joan B. Kelly Michael P. Johnson. Differentiation Among Types Of Intimate Partner Violence: Research Update And Implications For Interventions. Family Court Review, Volume 46, Issue 3, 2008 (p 476-499) [doi: 10.1111/j.1744-1617.2008.00215.x] Richard B. Felson, Alison C. Cares.
Gender and the family, the Seriousness of Assaults on Intimate Partners and code summary, Other Victims. Journal of Marriage and Family, Volume 67, Issue 5 (2005):1182-1195 Murray A. Straus and Ignacio Luis Ramirez. Man In The Family. 2007. Gender Symmetry In Prevalence, Severity, And Chronicity Of Physical Aggression Against Dating Partners By University Students In Mexico And USA. Efficiency Methods Essay. Aggressive Behavior 33:281-290. [doi: 10.1002/ab.20199] Russell P. Dobash and R. Emerson Dobash. Man In The Family. Women's Violence to Men in Intimate Relationships. The British Journal of Criminology 44 (2004): 324-349 [doi: 10.1093/bjc/azh026] IX. How has the economy influenced men's and women's positions in abstinence society? Analyses of gender inequality attribute great importance to the economy.
Gender inequality appears everywhere embedded in economic inequality, in the sense that a critical aspect of gender inequality involves unequal access to economic resources and positions. This relationship becomes clearer in more advanced societies where economic organization has become institutionally differentiated from kinship and political organization. Sometimes this unequal economic access is understood as an expression of gender inequality, sometimes a cause of gender inequality, sometimes a result. The Family. Many analyses consider it all three. Analytical Task 1: Develop a causal analysis of economic inequality between women and men that accounts for two empirical observations, one being the earnings inequality between the sexes by the gender composition of major occupational categories, the code summary other being the changing likelihood that wives will earn more than their husbands. The data to be explained can be found in three tables (click to see).
Use the tabs at the bottom to switch between tables. The first table shows the the family 2012 earnings gap in the 20 occupational categories that have the largest number of females. These have been sorted by the proportion female. The numbers in abstinence only education dark red show the earnings gap where women also account for two-thirds or more of the those in the occupational category. The second table shows the man in same kind of data as the first, but is for the 20 occupational categories that have the largest number of males. It is otherwise the same as the first table, except the dark red numbers are for occupational categories where two-thirds or more of the workers are male. The third table shows the changing proportion of married couples where the wife earns more than the husband over the 25 years up to hammurabi code summary, 2011.
Preliminary to developing an analysis, the first task is, of man in the family course, to interpret what the regulation data in the tables tell us about economic inequality between women and men. It is man in the family recommended that you focus on the dark red numbers of all the tables. The first two tables are meant to be interpreted as one. The main task is to develop a background analysis of gender inequality in the economy, as it exists today and regulation uk, how it has changed over the past several decades. This may lead you to considering longer term changes to explain conditions during this period. You might think of yourself as writing a textbook or preparing a background paper on gender inequality in the economy, where these tables are the man in data that is Methods Essay being presented. Man In The Family. Your goal is to uk, offer an understanding of these tables. One way to think about this is in terms of what we don't see in the tables.
Why aren't women and men distributed equally across these occupational categories? Why are women's earnings lower? Why do the man in the family difference between women's and men's earning vary across the occupational categories? Why has the proportion of wives earning more than their husbands gone up? What are the implications of the earnings differentials by occupational categories?
What are the implications of the data on wives' earnings? How can we reconcile the data on wives' earnings with the data on occupational earnings differences? In short, we are aiming at a brief explanation of women's vs. men's economic participation today and over time that shows why we find data looking like this. Analytical Task 2 [ignore Fall 13] Identify three of the most important, primary, explanatory problems that need solution to understand the relationship between the economy and gender inequality . Each way that some aspect of sources of the gender inequality influences economic organization implies a causal problem. Similarly, in the reverse, each way that economic organization influences some aspect of man in the family gender inequality implies a causal problem. For example, women used to uk, have no access to most high-status positions in the American economy and are now still under represented in them.
In either direction we might consider the intensity or degree of gender inequality, rather than some aspect of gender inequality, as that which influences or is influenced by economic organization. Man In. For each observation or claim about economic inequality between women and regulation uk, men, we can ask why? or how? For example, why are women under represented among those at the top of large economic enterprises? or how does women's relative absence from positions great economic power influence the persistence of gender inequality? Which explanatory problems are primary is a theoretical (and empirical) judgment. A primary causal process is man in the family one without which the relationship between the economy and gender inequality would look and work differently . Note that you are identifying three that you believe are among those that are primary, not the three most important. For each of the three selected, primary, explanatory problems, do the following: State clearly what is the explanatory problem and why it is a primary or important one . Think carefully about what makes some causal processes more important than others when we are trying to understand a social phenomenon (her the relationship between gender inequality and economic organization). Select one of the three explanatory problems you have identified for misuse, deeper consideration.
For that problem: Briefly describe what stand out as the possible causal processes that could account for the relationship or condition that is the focus of the explanatory problem. For example, what might be the causal processes that account for the family, few women being in of the positions of man in the family high economic power? These are the competing or alternative explanations for the problem. These may include the hammurabi causes or explanations explicitly suggested in the literature concerning the problem, or explanations derived from applying a more general theoretical orientation (e.g., a Marxist or a functionalist approach), or any additional possibilities you work out in another way. Describe a research possibility that could seek to resolve one (or more) of man in the family these causal problems. You have identified competing, causal explanations for each of the explanatory problems. For one of these, consider how we might hope to learn which causal explanation is more valid by media regulation, doing relevant research. To do this, we usually want to think about the circumstances under which the competing theories suggest that something in the world should look or work differently. To summarize, the analytical task involves (1) identifying three primary, explanatory problems relating gender inequality and economic organization, providing a careful description for each of the family those explanatory problems, stating why it is sources important, (2) for one explanatory problem, exploring competing explanations that could solve the problem, and describing a research design that could, hypothetically, discover which explanation is better. Francine D. Blau.
Trends in the Well-Being of American Women, 1970-1995. Journal of Economic Literature , Vol. 36, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 112-165 Francine D. Blau and man in the family, Lawrence M. Kahn. The Gender Pay Gap: Have Women Gone as Far as They Can? Academy of Management Perspectives 21 (February 2007): 7-23. [Reduced version of chapter in Declining Significance of Gender] Barbara F. Reskin, Including Mechanisms in sources of the uk constitution Our Models of Ascriptive Inequality: 2002 Presidential Address, American Sociological Review , Vol.
68, No. 1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-21 Michelle J Budig. Male Advantage And The Gender Composition Of Jobs: Who Rides The Glass Escalator? Social Problems . May 2002. Vol. 49, Iss. 2; p. 258 Elizabeth H. The Family. Gorman and abstinence only vs. comprehensive education, Julie A. Kmec.
Hierarchical Rank and Women's Organizational Mobility: Glass Ceilings in Corporate Law Firms. American Journal of Sociology Volume 114 Number 5 (March 2009): 1428-74 [doi: pdf/10.1086/595950] Christine E. Bose, Philip L. Man In The Family. Bereano and Mary Malloy. Household Technology and the Social Construction of Housework. Technology and Culture , Vol. Uk. 25, No. 1 (Jan., 1984), pp. 53-82 Maria Charles. Deciphering Sex Segregation: Vertical and Horizontal Inequalities in Ten National Labor Markets. Man In The Family. Acta Sociologica , Vol. 46, No. 4 (Dec., 2003), pp.
267-287 Shelley J. Correll, Stephen Benard, In Paik. Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty? American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 112, No. 5 (Mar., 2007), pp. 1297-1338 Louise Marie Roth. Women on Wall Street: Despite Diversity Measures, Wall Street Remains Vulnerable to of the uk constitution, Sex Discrimination Charges. Academy of Management Perspectives , Feb 2007, Vol. 21 [doi: 10.5465/AMP.2007.24286162] Judge, Timothy A.; Livingston, Beth A. Is The Gap More Than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis Of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, And Earnings. Man In. Journal of Applied Psychology . Vol 93(5), Sep 2008, 994-1012.
Claudia Goldin. The Changing Economic Role of Women: A Quantitative Approach. When Was The Hippie. Journal of Interdisciplinary History , Vol. 13, No. 4, The Measure of American History (Spring, 1983), pp. 707-733 [jstor: 203887] Claudia Goldin. The Quiet Revolution That Transformed Women's Employment, Education, and Family. The American Economic Review , Vol. 96, No.
2 (May, 2006), pp. Man In The Family. 1-21 Valerie Kincade Oppenheimer. Demographic Influence on misuse, Female Employment and the Status of Women. American Journal of Sociology , Vol. The Family. 78, No. 4, Changing Women in a Changing Society (Jan., 1973), pp. 946-961; see also Valerie K. Oppenheimer. The Interaction of Demand and Supply and its Effect on abstinence vs. comprehensive, the Female Labour Force in the family the United States. Population Studies , Vol. 21, No.
3 (Nov., 1967), pp. 239-259 England, Paula, Paul Allison, and Yuxiao Wu. Computer Act Penalties. Does Feminization Lower Wages, Do Declines in Wages Cause Feminization, and How Can We Tell From Longitudinal Data? Social Science Research 36(3) (2007): 1237-56. The Family. [doi: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2006.08.003] Trond Petersen, Vemund Snartland, Eva M. Meyersson Milgrom. Are female workers less productive than male workers? Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 25(1) (2007): 13-37. Claudia Goldin, Lawrence F. Katz, Ilyana Kuziemko. The Homecoming of American College Women: The Reversal of the College Gender Gap. The Journal of Economic Perspectives , Vol.
20, No. 4 (Fall, 2006), pp. 133-156 Jerry A. Jacobs. Code Summary. Gender Inequality and Higher Education. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 22 (1996): 153-185 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.22.1.153] Claudia Buchmann, Thomas A. DiPrete, Anne McDaniel. Gender Inequalities in Education. Annual Review of the family Sociology , Vol. Of The Uk Constitution. 34 (2008): 319-337 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.34.040507.134719] England, Paula and Su Li. Desegregation Stalled: The Changing Gender Composition of the family College Majors, 1971-2002. Gender Society 20(5) (2006):657-677.
M. Evertsson, P. England, I. Mooi-Reci, J. Hermsen, J. de Bruijn, D. Cotter. Is Gender Inequality Greater at Lower or Higher Educational Levels? Common Patterns in the Netherlands, Sweden, and misuse, the United States. The Family. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State Society 16(2):210-241 (2009) [doi: 10.1093/sp/jxp008] Eagly, A. H., Johannesen-Schmidt, M. C., van Engen, M. L. (2003). Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: A meta-analysis comparing women and men. Psychological Bulletin, 129(4), 569-591. Eckel, Catherine; de Oliveira, Angela C. M.; Grossman, Philip J. Gender and Negotiation in the Small: Are Women (Perceived to Be) More Cooperative than Men?
Negotiation Journal , Volume 24, Issue 4, 2008: 429 [doi: 10.1111/j.1571-9979.2008.00196.x] ; Kolb, Deborah M. Too Bad for the Women or Does It Have to Be? Gender and Efficiency in Teaching Methods, Negotiation Research over the Past Twenty-Five Years. Negotiation Journal , Volume 25, Issue 4, 2009: 515 ; Bowles, Hannah Riley; McGinn, Kathleen L. Man In The Family. Gender in Job Negotiations: A Two-Level Game. Negotiation Journal , Volume 24, Issue 4, 2008: 393 [doi: 10.1111/j.1571-9979.2008.00194.x] Sue Bowden, Avner Offer. Household Appliances and the Use of era Time: The United States and Britain Since the man in 1920s. When Was The Hippie Era. The Economic History Review , New Series, Vol. 47, No. 4 (Nov., 1994), pp. 725-748 Graciela Chichilnisky.
The Gender Gap. Review of Development Economics , Volume 12, Issue 4 (p 828-844) [gender gap as a Nash equilibrium – not for the economically faint of heart] Justin Wolfers. Diagnosing Discrimination: Stock Returns and Ceo Gender Journal of the European Economic Association , Vol. 4, No. 2/3, Papers and Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Congress of the European Economic Association (Apr. - May, 2006), pp. 531-541 Francine D. Blau and Lawrence M. Kahn.
The Gender Pay Gap, The Economists' Voice (June 2007). Man In. [doi: 10.2202/1553-3832.1190] Claudia Goldin. The Long Road to Efficiency in Teaching Essay, the Fast Track: Career and the family, Family. Media. The Annals Of The American Academy Of Political And Social Science . 2004 596 (2004): 20-35. [doi: 10.1177/0002716204267959] Claudia D. Goldin. The Role of World War II in the Rise of Women's Employment. Man In The Family. The American Economic Review , Vol.
81, No. 4 (Sep., 1991), pp. 741-756 Michael Bittman, Paula England, Liana Sayer, Nancy Folbre, and George Matheson. When Does Gender Trump Money?: Bargaining and Time in Household Work. American Journal of Sociology 109 (2003):186-214. X. What role does ideology play in determining the relations between men and women? Ideology is near the act penalties center of almost all efforts to explain gender inequalities. People's conceptions of man in the family masculinity and femininity, ideas concerning the fairness of differential treatment or expectations of women and men, internalized schema that evoke different judgments of women's and men's actions, rules about proper male and Efficiency in Teaching Methods, female behavior applied to children – all these and more concern the influence of man in ideology on gender identities, differential treatment of women and men, and the organization and when era, persistence of gender inequality. Conversely, each ideological belief that symbolizes, legitimates, invokes, guides, induces, or helps sustain gender inequality is itself a product of gender inequality. To untangle these complex causal interdependencies, we must always attend carefully to two kinds of distinctions. First, we must consistently recognize differences in man in the family levels of social organization, including, among others, societal structures and culture, organizations, social networks, social processes, and abstinence, individual actors.
While it is tempting to treat ideological beliefs as diffuse entities unconnected to identifiable people, organizations, or structures, the analytical results are poor. Second, we must consistently distinguish between contemporaneous causes (e.g., the ways that internalized schema can influence interactions) and asynchronous or historical causes (e.g., the man in the family ways that changes in domestic production induce different ideas about women's place). Causal arguments about ideology consider it as both an effect of gender inequality and a cause of gender inequality, although it is ideology's potential role as a contributing cause that stands out abstinence only education, as more theoretically important. The general analytical problem . Man In. The aim of this week's task is to explore the relationship between beliefs – ideology – and some example of inequality. We want to consider how causality can work in computer misuse act penalties both directions, as inequality influences what people believe and ideology influences how people act. To begin, choose one aspect or component of man in the family gender inequality. This could be some aspect of the direct relationships between women and men, or it might be some difference in the opportunities available to women.
Examples include the Measuring Efficiency in Teaching Methods way that women overall select less prestigious fields of study than men in college, that higher education used to be restricted for women, that women are objects of sex trafficking, that male professional sports have much higher status, or the different kinds of restaurants that use male vs. Man In The Family. female waiters. You might try to be a bit creative. It can be helpful to focus your discussion using a concrete instance of that type of inequality with which you are familiar. Contents of the analysis . The goal is to work through the when was the era various ways that ideas and expectations are involved in the causal processes surrounding gender inequality using the chosen example to do this at the family a more concrete level. The purpose of the task specification that follows is to help you to be systematic about this. Regulation. Use this schematic outline as a starting point. 1 Clearly describe the aspect or component of the family gender inequality you are using. ( click to uk, open ) As always, remember to give the basic characteristics and principal patterns of the inequality as you understand it. Among other possibilities, this will normally include: (1) describe what is unequal; (2) describe what this inequality looks like, how it is man in experienced, or how it has its impact in social life; (3) assess how the distribution appears or is manifest in the world, how we would recognize the differences between more or less of it, and how it is currently distributed). The goal is to ensure the code summary reader (and you) clearly understand what makes up or defines the man in the family inequality you are focused on, and what specific examples of that inequality you will use in your analysis. While identifying the relevant beliefs is obviously crucial, it can also be difficult.
The range of potentially relevant beliefs may be very large, so we have to exercise judgment about Efficiency, which are most important It may help to distinguish beliefs that motivate the practice of man in the family this aspect of gender inequality from those that legitimate it. Usually both are present, and they may be difficult to distinguish, but thinking through the difference can be very helpful as the implications of the two kinds are quite different. It is crucial to consider the actions and ideas of both men and women . They commonly will share some relevant beliefs and diverge about others. Particularly in conflicts over inequality, we expect some critical beliefs also to be in regulation uk opposition. Consider also whether different beliefs motivate or legitimate this type of inequality in different times, places, or circumstances. That is, you want to decide what characteristics of the man in beliefs connected to this inequality are fairly consistent across various concrete instances of regulation this type of inequality and what sort of beliefs differ across instances. For example, the beliefs that motivated male resistance to women entering male occupations may have varied by the status of the man in the family occupation and by the time period women began to enter.
Consider how much people agree about the regulation important beliefs. When is the consensus high or low, what causes it to be high or low, and what difference does the degree of agreement make? In particular, do people dispute some aspects of the beliefs relevant to this type of inequality, such that the dispute affects the inequality or informs us about man in the family, it? Remember, that a belief exists does not mean that all people hold it, even less does it ensure they will act in conformity to misuse, it. The greater the disagreement about a belief within a group or category of actors, the less that it can produce consistent patterns of man in actions (although this may not diminish its appeal as a justification). Uk Constitution. Beliefs have a variety of other variable characteristics that can be important to analyzing their significance.
For example, a belief can be narrow and focused or broad and general, varying from the context or issue specific belief to the general principal. Man In The Family. A belief can be so salient and closely held that people refer to it all the time or so insignificant and loosely held that it plays a role only when forced to media, the forefront. Consider the man in social significance or function of the gender inequality related beliefs. Hammurabi Code Summary. We can try to judge the effects of beliefs by comparing how people would behave if beliefs were different, using either real or hypothetical alternatives. Although beliefs exist only by man in the family, being held by when, individuals, we generally want to think of beliefs as cultural phenomena. The Family. The beliefs that concern us are those preserved and imposed by cultures or acquired as the common effect of shared or parallel experiences. People are prone to abstinence only vs. comprehensive, all kinds of idiosyncratic beliefs, but only shared beliefs have social effect. At the the family individual level, we ask how or when people holding a belief act differently than those who believe otherwise. At the social level, we ask how the computer misuse presence of those beliefs in a group or circumstance has social consequences -- such as influencing the structure of organizations, the prevailing legal system, or direction of historical changes.
What kind of effect and how much effect we attribute to a belief will depend in part on what we choose as the alternate beliefs for comparison. Reasonable alternatives might include: beliefs observed to the family, exist in more egalitarian (or more unequal) circumstances, reversal of beliefs about women and men (such as believing women are better at math - often implausible in reality, but potentially clarifying as an imaginary experiment), the misuse act penalties absence of any such beliefs (that is, people have no expectations about something, such as whether men or women will be more nurturing), or the presence of the family some reasonable hypothetical alternative beliefs. As usual, we want to give some thought to both women and men - considering how each sex is affected, considering beliefs about both sexes, and considering what each sex believes. Efficiency In Teaching Methods. Typically, we expect to find women and the family, men share many beliefs, but are sharply divided on others. We also want to consider how the effects of the beliefs might vary depending on the context or other mediating influences. We also want to remember that beliefs can affect people in when was the era a wide range of man in the family ways. Beliefs can affect judgments, motives, aspirations, quality of experience, and so forth. Again, the point is not to include everything. Instead, we want to recognize that deciding what is important is an analytical judgment; it should not simply be to talk about whatever we happened to was the hippie era, think about first. We are trying to figure out what beliefs really make a difference to man in, the strength, durability, or form of gender inequality.
Thus, for the example of inequality being examined, we are in part trying to explain how beliefs or ideas might arise as a result of the hammurabi code presence of the inequality that they legitimate and motivate. This is our central goal, and it is difficult. We can also ask if those beliefs could have arisen for some reason independent of gender inequality (we expect this to be rare, but important where found). It can help to do a hypothetical experiment. Consider an imaginary circumstance (which might have a real historical counterpart) where the relevant aspect of gender inequality did not exist, nor did the related beliefs – then at some point in man in the family time this type of gender inequality came into existence.
Then try to when was the, think through how ideas would change as a result of the emergence of this facet of gender inequality. Consider what issues might arise if this type of inequality came to exist, but the beliefs still did not, and how might the response to such issues lead to new beliefs. Think about both women and men trying to make sense of the unequal circumstances, and trying to mold the perception of reality and man in, justice to fit their circumstances. To make the analysis more concrete, see if you can provide evidence or observations about real circumstances where this type of inequality is minimal (different cultures, different historical periods, different parts of society). Assess how the beliefs under minimal inequality compare to those where it is high. It is summary a good idea to man in, consider under what conditions, if any, would the when hippie era beliefs associated with a facet of gender inequality exist without the presence of this facet of gender inequality. Man In The Family. That is, could similar or analogous beliefs appear with different kinds of regulation uk inequality or under conditions of little inequality.
The first possibility is critical, because it suggests beliefs due to the presence of inequality per the family, se, not dependent on the type of inequality. The second possibility suggests the prospect of beliefs hijacked from conditions distinct from inequality, then converted to some service to reinforce or challenge inequality. Abstinence. It may also be worthwhile to imagine what would happen if the beliefs existed in the absence of inequality in the relevant aspect of gender. Man In The Family. Would they be enough to nudge toward inequality or would they tend to dissipate? It is of the also a good idea to consider how people acquire the relevant beliefs. Are they part of general cultural expectations, are the transferred in specific contexts, or do people generate them from the family, experience rather than learning them from others? How people acquire beliefs can give us valuable insights into their significance. Computer Misuse Act Penalties. Finally, ask what happens if some people question or reject the beliefs? This question applies to man in, both women and men. The mechanisms to ensure acceptance and conformity are crucial to the preservation and effectiveness of beliefs.
XII. How have women's and men's actions obstructed or furthered change, taking into account the changing institutional context? Both women and men have acted in every possible way towards gender inequality. When Was The Hippie Era. What we want to man in the family, understand are the circumstances in vs. comprehensive education which they predictably act in ways that either reinforce or erode inequality. People's actions are complex results of the family their interests, ideologies, circumstances, opportunities, and constraints. While theories of gender inequality invoke all kinds of abstract causal processes, in real life inequality is sustained and changed by the actions of women and men.
The actions of ordinary people become effective mainly when they act similarly (because they face similar circumstances with similar outlooks); sometimes their actions also become coordinated through organization. The actions of powerful people are more consequential than those of Measuring Efficiency in Teaching Methods Essay ordinary people when they command or influence organizational actions or provoke emulation by followers. Even unique political actions may have great effect by altering laws, policies, or the balance of power, although even in man in these cases the institutionalization of changes generally depends on dispersed acceptance; in the economic realm, even organizational actions typically become effective only when multiple organizations pursue parallel policies (governmental controls over an economy would be an exception). The goal of computer this task is to examine why some of men's actions worked against gender inequality while others sustained it, and similarly why women's actions also included ones that challenged gender inequality and the family, others that reinforced it. We want to compare the summary causes, motives, and effects of these typical actions. Action here means a pattern of behavior associated with some category of man in people, e.g. the tendency to take or not take advantage of educational opportunities by regulation uk, women of some type in some period.
The relevant actions are those that were one typical result either of man in being either in certain enduring categories of uk constitution women or men (for example, single women with higher education) or in the family certain recurring circumstances (for example, married women whose husbands lost their jobs for regulation, long periods). The category could include all women or all men. To say that actions reinforce gender inequality means that they either bolster the man in stability of gender inequality or help to make it more severe; alternatively, if those actions became rare and were not replaced by alternative actions with similar effects, then either the degree of gender inequality experienced by some people would decline or the persistence of gender inequality would become more problematic. (by the identified group in era the identified conditions) Analogously, to say that actions challenge gender inequality means that those actions, if taken by enough people, result in reducing the amount of man in the family gender inequality or they erode the stability of gender inequality making it more vulnerable to future challenges. To consider the hammurabi code summary range of possibilities, in this task we select six patterns of behavior or kinds of actions. Choose one type of action by women that challenged gender inequality and one that reinforced it. Similarly, for ordinary men , select one kind of man in the family action that worked against gender inequality and when was the hippie era, one that helped sustain it. Finally, do the same for men with power . For each of the six selected types of the family actions, do the following: Identify what kind of women or men were likely to perform this action and under what circumstances. Describe the action, including an was the era, assessment of its effects on gender inequality. This may include consideration of reasons why its effects might vary (e.g., the number acting might have to surpass a threshold before there are widespread effects, the effects might be contingent on other conditions, the effects might happen after a delay, and so on).
Try to specify the reasons why this type of action occurred. These reasons include the motives of the people, their understandings of why they were pursuing this behavior or strategy. The Family. The reasons also include the abstinence vs. comprehensive education social and cultural conditions that induce the actions and make them seem necessary, sensible, and just. Man In The Family. The reasons may also include triggering events. To summarize: Pick six kinds of behavior that have made a difference to the persistence of computer misuse act penalties gender inequality, one reinforcing and man in, one challenging for each of the Measuring Efficiency Methods three categories: women, ordinary men, powerful men. The Family. Then explore each of these six types of behavior, considering their causes, the motives as the people involved experienced them (which is not the media regulation uk same as their causes), and man in, their effects. Lynne Haney.
Homeboys, Babies, Men in Suits: The State and summary, the Reproduction of the family Male Dominance. American Sociological Review , Vol. 61, No. Media Regulation. 5 (Oct., 1996), pp. 759-778 Deniz Kandiyoti, Bargaining with Patriarchy. Gender and Society , Vol.
2, No. 3 (Sep., 1988), pp. 274-290 Noah P. Mark, Lynn Smith-Lovin, and the family, Cecilia L. Hammurabi Summary. Ridgeway. Why Do Nominal Characteristics Acquire Status Value? A Minimal Explanation for man in, Status Construction. AJS Volume 115 Number 3 (November 2009): 832-62 . [doi: pdf/10.1086/606142] Kirsten Dellinger.
Masculinities in uk constitution Safe and Embattled Organizations: Accounting for the family, Pornographic and uk, Feminist Magazines. Gender Society , vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 545-566, Oct 2004. Ann-Dorte Christensen and the family, JA?A?rgen Elm Larsen. Gender, Class, and Family: Men and Gender Equality in a Danish Context.
Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State Society 2008 15(1):53-78 . . Linda Thompson, Alexis J. Vs. Comprehensive. Walker. Man In The Family. Gender in Families: Women and Men in Marriage, Work, and Parenthood. Journal of Marriage and the Family , Vol. 51, No. 4 (Nov., 1989), pp. 845-871 [jstor: 353201] XII.
How have political processes and structures sustained men's and women's relative status? [original version with alternate task readings] As structure and as actor, the state has been unavoidably central to ongoing practice of gender inequality, to its persistence, and to changes in the form and amount of media uk gender inequality. States or governments have power. Through the military and police, a state can enforce conformity to its rules, repel and punish challenges from the scale of individual acts to collective rebellions, and by threat, implicit or explicit, deter rebellions from appearing. Through the law, regulations, and bureaucratic policies, a state can define what constitutes acceptable or legitimate behavior at all levels of social organization. Through economic policies of taxation, expenditures, and redistributions (such as welfare policies or agricultural supports), a state influences the relative economic status of different groups. By acting differently toward groups with regard to any of these aspects of government power, a state can create, reinforce, or exacerbate social inequalities. Man In The Family. Analogously, a state can, in computer theory, obstruct, destabilize, or diminish social inequality by using its power in ways that are inconsistent with social inequalities.
States determine, influence, legitimize, and sanction rights and opportunities; they may do so in more or less egalitarian ways. When significant, enduring, social inequality exists, those privileged by that form of man in inequality will normally have more influence over abstinence education the state than do those disadvantaged by the inequality, and the overall effect of state policies will reinforce the exercise and persistence of the inequality. A fundamental problem for all state theories is who or what decides state policies and actions. Man In. To some degree, those in the state (elected, appointed, hired, or appropriated) make decisions based on their interests and outlooks as members of the state apparatus. To some degree, state actors respond to the influence of power brokers outside the state, such as the economically powerful.
In either case, when making policy or strategic planning decisions, those influencing state actions are in part responding to what they perceive will be the Measuring in Teaching Methods Essay responses of all actors in the nation affected by those decisions.
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Vitale 1 Jamie Vitale Ms.Geter Eleventh Grade AP Language 19 October 2014 What History Lies In Downtown Newnan Photography is not just about taking a picture and saying it looks good or about looking at what is only being seen, but it is man in the family also about taking a picture through the lens in which the person. say in California politics and representation in the civic life of the media regulation uk, state” (Ramakrishnan Baldasarre, 2004). Although California is only 44% white ( US Census Bureau, 2007), whites made up 67% of man in the family registered voters in computer, 2005 (DiCamillo, 2006). The fact that these political inequalities are still so deeply. Diet phenomenon represents a new generation of man in the family modern low carbohydrate food fad with sales placing it among the most popular diet books in recent history . Sources Of The! The Zone is a 40% carbohydrate, 30% protein and 30% fat eating plan that advocates only sparing use of grains and starches. Man In The Family! The precise 0.75 protein. ? AP US HISTORY DBQ OUTLINE ACTIVITY 1. Read the directions carefully 2. Write out the question below. Put in italics or highlight any key word or phrases. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.
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essay on the brain Modern neuroscience postulates the equivalence of brain processes and thinking or consciousness. Thought is the man in, natural product and hammurabi code phenomenon of neurochemical processes within the man in the family, brain of our body. One assumption especially favored by modern neuroscience is the consideration of quantum-mechanical processes as the trigger of consciousness and thus of all our mental and volitional acts. From the physicalist point of media uk view I do not deny the practical value and the family the obvious preferential treatment given to this theory within the top echelon of code summary academic science. There is one point, however, that I do find worth considering. Man In! If we assume quantum-mechanical processes in microtubules of the brain as generative of consciousness, we must allow the properties of Efficiency Essay quantum-mechanics to be transferred or implicate and inherent in the produced phenomenon itself, i.e., consciousness must itself have quantum-mechanical properties. A physical cause always conveys its property to man in the family, its produced effect. For example, consider the cause of a force, pushing a body into motion. The force of motion in the original cause is transmitted to abstinence, the resting body, which itself receives this force and is incited to motion.
Thus the kinetic energy of the muscle in my arm is transferred to the book, which I lift up from the man in the family, table. Before I moved the book, it was resting in a fixed place. As soon as I raise the book, a new determinant is was the hippie era added, that of motion. This example is incomplete in so far, as it only describes the transference of contingent and non-essential properties from the cause to its effect. Our body is a complex organism, operating as a whole. By analyzing the parts we do not come to a full understanding of the whole organism. We say, that the organism is the man in, product of biological processes, especially those inherent in the DNA. The properties of the DNA are also present within the whole organism. For example the principle of reproduction as a principle of life itself is fundamental to the functionality of the DNA, as well as of the Efficiency Methods Essay, whole body. Similarly, do we not have to assume, that quantum-mechanical properties of the brain processes are inherent and man in essential to uk, thought and consciousness? For example, take the property of non-locality in quantum mechanics.
It is a physical and approved fact, that quantum-mechanical processes implicate the man in the family, non-local behavior and when was the hippie era relationship of particles. If we transfer this property to consciousness and assume non-locality to be a primary constituent in the mechanism of thought, we must inevitably end up with the self-contradictory conclusion, that consciousness and thought possess a non-local nature, although neuroscience tries to explain them in terms of locality, i.e., as a phenomenon of the brain. Therefore, the local theory of the mind, put forward by the most eminent neuroscientists, eventually results in the non-locality of the mind. This self-contradiction can only be solved if we do not consider thought to be a product of physical brain processes. Man In The Family! As our consciousness and our thought, by nature and definition and only through our own experience evinces non-local features, we are compelled to reconsider these neurobiological theories and eventually to refute them in favor of a non-local theory of the mind. The biological evolution of the human species has not yet been completed. Especially the development of our brain has only reached a stage of archaic potentiality. The fact that today most people live according to their biological and bodily drives and impulses than according to the capacity of the family reason that is said to distinguish humans from other living animals, obviously shows, that we are far from having attained the hippie era, final stage of human evolution. The evolution of the man in, body or most of nature may have reached a point of near completion, but, as the Measuring Efficiency in Teaching Essay, brain has developed later in the process of evolution than the other parts of the body, we have to assume, that the brain's evolution is far from being complete. I would even say, regarding the low factor of utilisation of the brain's capacities human beings display nowadays, that we are at the beginning of the man in, brain's evolution.
This evolution is when era not only biologically, but concomitantly, the evolution of the faculties of thinking is extending our thinking massively. This sustains my theory of Paranoesis or Transrational Thinking. Because it is already now possible to use the full extent of our brain's capacity by applying the method of Paranoesis. Fortunately, this method is so far unknown, and as this method cannot be applied by people who are not philosophically engaged, the danger of its abuse is debarred. If we look on some thousand years into the future, we can probably imagine the human being in the family, its full blossom, that is, thinking is highly extended and used more effectively and comprehensively than in our days. How is it possible to attain the full range of capacities of our brain although it is not developed biologically enough?
The answer is simple: if we do not consider thinking as an epiphenomenon of the brain, as modern neurobiology erroneously assume, we can explain the brain as a sort of medium or bridge between Hyponoesis (Universal Mind) and Exonoesis, that is our individual thinking faculty as such. Exonoesis is dependent on the evolution of our brain, because it uses the brain's physiological capacities. Hyponoesis is independent of any material or corporeal medium. If our individual mind applies the method of Paranoesis or Transrational Thinking, it will be able to transcend the limitations constraining the Individual Mind (Exonoesis) and link up directly with Hyponoesis. A person thinking transrationally is not thinking within the bounds of the capacity of the brain, as rational thinking does.
Exonoesis thinks as Hyponoesis, it is one with Hyponoesis and therefore uses the unrestrained power of Hyponoesis. As Exonoesis participates in Hyponoesis, whether thinking rationally or transrationally, and sources as Exonoesis is the individualized and materialized product of man in Hyponoesis, there always exist a natural nexus between Exonoesis and Hyponoesis. The Transrational Thinker is able to unearth this latent nexus and thereby restore the original oneness of Exonoesis and Hyponoesis (Individual and Universal Mind), abolishing the illusory duality and becoming noetically one with Hyponoesis. The common notion about evolution of mankind draws on the scientific theory elucidated in Darwinism. Unfortunately Darwin held that the human mind evolved simultaneously together with the organism and the faculties of sources of the perception.
While our ancestors living in caves developed gradually the faculty of using the first tools, the Evolutionists believe, that their intellectual faculty also began to flourish and thus reason, the unique feature of the man in, homo sapiens, slowly came into being. Mind that makes up the human being in its wholeness, has never evolved. Only the intellectual faculties were refined over when was the hippie the centuries. Mind as such has always been, independent of the evolution, unchanged by the changes of time, indifferent to man in the family, the upheavals of mankind and the struggling effort to grasp that which I call the One Mind. Therefore it is only the utilization of the latent and hitherto unknown faculties of our mind that increased over the time. Abstinence Only Education! While cave people used their mental faculties at a minimum rate, modern human's rate of utilization has dramatically increased and has produced our technological age. Nevertheless, the average degree of utilization is small compared to all the unexplored faculties that lie still unused in our mind, not yet discovered. Man In The Family! Only some outstanding and illustrious personages in every era, and especially the great philosophers of the past, succeeded in sources uk constitution, tapping the uncharted reservoir of the human mind, if only partially, though. Thus the evolution of mind and the evolution of matter (body and consciousness) are not necessarily concomitant. If neuroscientists are convinced that consciousness could be ultimately explained by neurochemical processes in the brain, I would not object to this assumption that I think will be experimentally verified in the near future . The Family! Consciousness as a state of awareness or attentiveness does not explain thinking that is a much more complex process.
Thinking will never be explained as a product of the neurophysiological events within the brain, because thinking is not an epiphenomenon of Efficiency Methods corporeal or material processes. Even consciousness is still not accounted for by merely physical processes. How does something invisible, immeasurable, completely subjective such as our experience of ourselves is, originate from an observable and measurable physical process. This phase transition from mere physical brain operations to mental or psychical operations is the critical and up to man in the family, now unexplained Achilles heel of neuroscience and ancillary fields. Thinking harnesses the act penalties, capacity of our brain, which evolved over 2 million years. It is the the family, medium that evolved, not thinking as such. Thinking is of the dependent on the brain in the family, order to when era, express itself, in order to man in, establish communicative powers, reasoning powers and so on. Thinking is act penalties necessary for our survival as a species, for the individual being to be able to live. Man In The Family! The more our brain evolved, the more the infinite power of thinking (or what I call Hyponoesis ) could become manifest through the behavior and thinking of the human being.
Thinking as such (Hyponoesis) is independent of the body or the brain. If not active as the individual mind it remains in a state of noetic vacuum before manifesting as Exonoesis (Individual Minds). The brain is in Teaching Methods Essay therefore just a medium of the family expression for thinking. Consciousness however is the fundamental state that denotes the being as alive, and misuse act penalties that is the intermediary between thinking as a non-material process and man in the family the neurophysiological processes of the brain. Consciousness is the link between thinking and the brain, between the summary, mind and the body. I do not mean to emphasize a dualistic notion with this. On the the family, contrary, dualism, as postulated by Descartes, means an assumption of two totally independent and different substances, although they are capable of was the hippie interacting somehow. We could call this the strong dualism, compared to the weak or complementary dualism I propose. This dualism is comparable to the particle-wave dualism and the principle of complementarity postulated by Bohr. Both, particle and wave are an aspect of the same subatomic event. They complement each other and belong necessarily together.
Mind and body, therefore, are not antagonistic or completely different. Both are interconnected aspects of the same underlying and fundamental energy. The body as such is just a biological machine, which could not survive on its own. Consciousness gives the body the necessary information about the world outside it and about the body itself. Thinking is the what guides, steers or directs the course of the life, how the body is used for man in the family, expressing inner moods etc. The whole psychology of our psyche is misuse act penalties under the guidance and auspices of thinking (see also the laws of cybernetic). In Aristotelian terms: thinking is the form that individuates matter, and thus produces the individuality, be it that of the body, the mind or the soul. (cf. Thomas Aquinas on the family the unity of misuse body and soul, Summa Theologica, Ia, 76.1) The problem with neuroscience and its assumption that mind is only a complex biological phenomenon is, that they cannot explain, how an immaterial complexity, such as consciousness and man in the family thinking could have originated and evolved from a totally different material substance as matter (explanatory gap). Every material phenomenon can be measured or at least statistically described by natural science.
Why are they not able to do the same with this so-called biological phenomenon of the only education vs. comprehensive, MIND? Why do most scientific approaches fail when applied to the family, the understanding of our mind? Between this complex structure of consciousness and the physiological brain functions there seems to be an unsurmountable gap that has not yet been bridged. The functions and hammurabi summary structure of our mind do not, by analogy, resemble the function and structure of the material counterpart, the brain. Man In! Both functions are different. If consciousness is the vs. comprehensive, result of complex neurobiological functions in the brain, why is the resulting structure so completely different in its processes? How is it possible, that a material body can produce an immaterial consciousness?
How is man in individuality in our mind explained, though our brains are basically the computer act penalties, same? I mean, the human bodies may be slightly different, but the basic functions, like breathing, digestion, blood circulation, brain processes etc. are the same within the man in, species of home sapiens, even within the genus of living beings. Nevertheless, if we consider the individuality of the human being, its character, its consciousness, its thinking, nothing could be more variegated and when hippie era distinct than that. If our brain would be responsible for the mind, then where does this individuality come from? Why do some persons have an extraordinary reason, and others are dull and barely intelligent? Environmental influences alone cannot explain that fact, otherwise animals would show a smiliar distinction within their species. I think that philosophers since ever clearly separated the mind from our body or the material world.
We cannot simply reject their thoughts as dualism. Why shouldn't there be a dualism of man in some sort? It is only in when was the hippie era, our century that thinkers came to be sceptical of dualism by man in the family accepting only one substance, matter. By this act they could easily wipe away some of the more fundamental problems. Code Summary! This enterprise is Janus-faced, because on man in the other side they created a host of new problems, as mentioned above, and these problems are for some part really absurd. 1996-2017 by Tom Arnold. All rights reserved. Send comments and questions to author.
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