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Business/Business Plan term paper 2647. Business Plan: Progressive Consulting. What follows is sex a complete business plan for a hypothetical company. Please. copy or save to your disk and use as an example in developing your own. business plan. Essay And Dealing With Conflict? If you would like to read a series of articles jump to Web. Marketing . For additional business aids click on The Practical Tools of. 1. 0 Executive Summary. Progressive Consulting will be formed as a consulting company specializing in. marketing of sex, high technology products in international markets.

Its founders. are former marketers of consulting services, personal computers, and market. research, all in international markets. They are founding Progressive. Intelligence? Consulting to formalize the sadist sex consulting services they offer. Progressive Consulting offers high-tech manufacturers a reliable, high. quality alternative to inhouse resources for business development, market. development, and channel development on an international scale. A true. alternative to in house resources offers a very high level of practical. Intelligence? experience, know how, contacts, and confidentiality. Clients must know that. working with Progrssive Consulting is a more professional, less risky way to. develop new areas even than working completely in sadist sex house with their own. people. Progressive Consulting must also be able to maintain financial.

balance, charging a high value for its services, and delivering an even. higher value to vs digital its clients. Initial focus will be development in sadist sex the. 1845? European and sadist Latin American markets, or for European clients in the United. 1. 3 Keys to Success. Harborco Negotiation? -Excellence in fulfilling the promise completely confidential, reliable, trustworthy expertise and sex information. -Developing visibility to generate new business leads. -Leveraging from a single pool of expertise into multiple revenue generation. opportunities: retainer consulting, project consulting, market research, and. market research published reports. Failures? 2. 0 Company Summary.

Progressive Consulting is a new company providing high-level expertise in. international high-tech business development, channel development, distribution strategies, and sadist marketing of high tech products. It will focus. initially on providing two kinds of international triangles: -Providing United States clients with development for European and Latin. -Providing European clients with development for the United States and Latin. As it grows it will take on vs digital people and consulting work in related markets, such as the rest of sex, Latin America, and the Far East, and similar markets. As. Define Supererogatory? it grows it will look for additional leverage by taking brokerage positions. and representation positions to create percentage holdings in product. 2. 1 Company Ownership. Progressive Consulting will be created as a California C corporation based. in sadist Los Angeles County, owned by its principal investors and principal. operators. As of intelligence, this writing it has not been chartered yet and is still. considering alternatives of sex, legal formation. 2. 2 Startup Summary. Total start up expense (including legal costs, logo design, stationery and. related expenses) come to $73,000.

Start up assets required include $3,000 in. short term assets (office furniture, etc.) and $1,000,000 in define initial cash to. handle the first few months of consulting operations as sales and accounts. receivable play through the cash flow. The details are included in the table. Stationery etc. $3,000 Brochures $5,000. Expensed equipment $3,000. Total Start-up Expense $18,350. Start-up Assets Needed. Cash requirements $25,000. Start-up inventory $0. Other Short-term Assets $7,000. Total Short-term Assets $32,000.

Long-term Assets WORD DOCUMENT HAS NO NUMBER HERE. Capital Assets $0. Total Assets $32,000. Total Startup Requirements: $50,350. Left to finance: $0. Start-up Funding Plan. Investor 1 $20,000. Sex? Investor 2 $20,000. Total investment $50,000. Unpaid expenses $5,000. Short-term loans $0.

Interest-free short-term loans $0. Subtotal Short-term Borrowing $5,000. Long-term Borrowing $0. Total Borrowing $5,000. Supererogatory? Loss at start-up ($23,000) Total Equity $27,000. Total Debt and Equity $32,000. 2. 3 Company Services. Progressive offers expertise in sadist channel distribution, channel development, and market development, sold and packaged in various ways that allow clients. to choose their preferred relationship: these include retainer consulting. relationships, project based consulting, relationship and alliance. brokering, sales representation and market representation, project-based. market research, published market research, and information forum events. 2. 4 Company locations and facilities.

The initial office will be established in A quality office space in the Los. Angeles County Dearborn Valley area of of the Essay, California, the heart of the sex U.S. high tech industry. Progressive offers the expertise a high-technology company needs to vs digital develop. new product distribution and sadist new market segments in harborco new markets. This can be. taken as high-level retainer consulting, market research reports, or project- 3. 1 Service Description. 1. Retainer consulting: we represent a client company as an extension of its. business development and market development functions. This begins with. complete understanding of the client company's situation, objectives, and. constraints.

We then represent the client company quietly and confidentially, sifting through new market developments and sex new opportunities as is. appropriate to harborco the client, representing the sadist sex client in initial talks with. Define? possible allies, vendors, and channels. 2. Project consulting: Proposed and billed on a per-project and per-milestone. Sadist Sex? basis, project consulting offers a client company a way to harness our. specific qualities and use our expertise to solve specific problems, develop. and/or implement plans, develop specific information. 3. Market research: group studies available to selected clients at $5,000 per. unit. A group study is packaged and published, a complete study of a specific. market, channel, or topic. Examples might be studies of developing consumer. channels in Japan or Mexico, or implications of changing margins in software. 3. 2 Competitive Comparison. The competition comes in several forms:

1. The most significant competition is no consulting at all, companies. choosing to do business development and channel development and market. research in-house. Their own managers do this on their own, as part of their. Failures? regular business functions. Our key advantage in competition with in-house. development is that managers are already overloaded with responsibilities, they don't have time for additional responsibilities in new market. Sex? development or new channel development. Also, Progressive can approach. alliances, vendors,and channels on a confidential basis, gathering. information and making initial contacts in ways that the corporate managers. 2. The high-level prestige management consulting: High-Tec, San Diego. Consulting Group, etc. These are essentially generalists who take their name-

brand management consulting into specialty areas. Their other very important. weakness is the management structure that has the partners selling new jobs, and inexperienced associates delivering the work. We compete against them as. experts in our specific fields, and with the guarantee that our clients will. have the top-level people doing the actual work. 3. The third general kind of competitor is the international market research. company: International Electronic Data Corporation (IEDC), Dataquest, Stanford Research Institute, etc. These companies are formidable competitors. for published market research and define supererogatory market forums, but cannot provide the kind. of sadist sex, high-level consulting that Triangle will provide. 4. The fourth kind of competition is the market-specific smaller house. For. example: Nomura Research in Japan, Select S.A. de C.V. in Mexico (now. affiliated with IEDC). 5. Annexation Of Texas 1845? Sales representation, brokering, and deal catalysts are an ad-hoc business. form that will be defined in detail by the specific nature of each.

3. 3 Sales Literature. The business will begin with a general corporate brochure establishing the. Sadist? positioning. This brochure will be developed as part of the start-up. Literature and mailings for the initial market forums will be very important, with the need to establish a high-quality look and feel for. . [truncated. because this plan is provided for purposes of illustration only] -The key fulfillment and delivery will be provided by harborco, the principals of the. business. Sadist? The real core value is professional expertise, provided by analog, a. combination of experience, hard work. and education (in that order). -We will turn to qualified professionals for sex free-lance back-up in market. research and presentation and report development, which are areas that we. Vs Digital? can afford to contract out without risking the core values provided to sadist sex the. Progressive Consulting will maintain latest Windows and Macintosh. -1. Complete Email facilities in Internet, Compuserve, America Online, and. Applelink, for working with clients directly through email delivery of drafts. -2. Complete presentation facilities for preparation and delivery of.

multimedia presentations on Macintosh or Windows machines, in Accuracy of the Film "Inherit Essay formats. including on-disk presentation, live presentation, or video presentation. -3. Complete desktop publishing facilities for delivery of regular retainer. reports, project output reports, marketing materials, market research. 3. 6 Future Services. In the future Progressive will broaden the coverage by expanding into. coverage of additional markets (e.g. all of Latin America, Far East, Western. Europe) and sadist additional product areas (e.g. telecommunications and technology. integration). We are also studying the Essay Building With Conflict possibility of newsletter or. electronic newsletter services, or perhaps special on-topic reports. 4. 0 Market Analysis Summary.

Progressive will be focusing on high-technology manufacturers of computer. hardware and software, services, networking, who want to sell into markets. in the United States, Europe, and Latin America. These are mostly larger. companies, and occasionally medium-sized companies. Our most important group of potential customers are executives in larger. corporations. These are marketing managers, general managers, sales managers, sometimes charged with international focus and sometimes charged with market. or even specific channel focus. They do not want to waste their time or risk. their money looking for bargain information or questionnable expertise. As. they go into markets looking at sex, new opportunities, they are very sensitive. to risking their company's name and reputation. Professional experience. [truncated because this plan is provided for purposes of illustration only]

4. Intelligence? 1 Market Segmentation. -Large manufacturer corporations: our most important market segment is the. large manufacturer of high-technology products, such as Apple, Hewlett- Packard, IBM, Microsoft, Siemens, or Olivetti. These companies will be. calling on Progressive for development functions that are better spun off. than managed in-house, and for market research, and for market forums. -Medium sized growth companies: particularly in software, multimedia, and. some related high growth fields, Triangle will be able to offer an attractive. development alternative to the company that is management constrained and. unable to address opportunities in new markets and new market segments. Sadist Sex? 4. 2 Industry Analysis. The consulting industry is Accuracy Essay pulverized and disorganized, thousands of. smaller consulting organizations and individual consultants for every one of. the few dozen well-known companies. Sadist Sex? Consulting is a disorganized industry, with participants ranging from major. international name brand consultants to tens of thousands of individuals. One. of Progressive's challenges will be establishing itself as a real consulting company, positioned as a relatively risk free corporate purchase. 4. 2. 1 Industry Participants. The consulting industry is pulverized and disorganized, thousands of. smaller consulting organizations and individual consultants for every one of. the intelligence few dozen well-known companies. At the highest level are the few well established major names in management. consulting.

Most of these are organized as partnerships established in major. Sadist Sex? markets around the world, linked together by interconnecting directors and. sharing the name and corporate wisdom. Some evolved from accounting companies. (e.g. Arthur Anderson, Touche Ross) and some from harborco, management consulting. (McKinsey, Bain). These companies charge very high rates for consulting, and. Sex? maintain relatively high overhead structures and fulfillment structures based. on failures partners selling and sadist sex junior associates fulfilling.

At the harborco negotiation intermediate. level are some function specific or market specific consultants, such as the. market research firms (IEDC, Dataquest) or channel development firms. (ChannelCorp, Channel Strategies, ChannelMark). Some kinds of consulting is little more than contract expertise provided by. somebody looking for a job and offering consulting services as a stop-gap. Sex? measure while looking. 4. 2. 2 Distribution Patterns. Consulting is define sold and purchased mainly on a word-of-mouth basis, with. relationships and previous experience being by sadist, far the most important factor. The major name-brand houses have locations in major cities and major markets, and executive-level managers or partners develop new business through. industry associations, business associations, and define supererogatory chambers of commerce and. industry, etc., even in some cases social associations such as country clubs. The medium-level houses are generally area-specific or function specific, and. are not easily able to leverage their business through distribution. 4. 2. Sadist? 3 Competition and Buying Patterns. Define Supererogatory? The key element in purchase decisions made at the Progressive client level is. trust in the professional reputation and reliability of the consulting firm. 4. 2. 4 Main Competitors. -The high-level prestige management consulting: Strengths: international locations managed by owner-partners with a high. level of presentation and understanding of general business.

Enviable. reputations which make purchase of consulting an easy decision for a manager, despite the very high prices. Sadist? Weaknesses: General business knowledge doesn't. substitute for the specific market, channel, and harborco negotiation distribution expertise of. Triangle, focusing on high-technology markets and sadist sex products only. Also, fees. are extremely expensive, and annexation of texas work is sex generally done by very junior-level. Supererogatory? consultants, even though sold by sex, high-level partners. -The international market research company: Strengths: International offices, specific market knowledge, permanent staff. developing market research information on permanent basis, good relationships. with potential client companies. Weaknesses: market numbers are not marketing, not channel development or. market development. Although these companies compete for some of the business. Triangle is after, they cannot really offer the same level of business. understanding at a high level. -Market specific or function-specific experts.

Strengths: expertise in market or functional areas. Triangle should not try. to compete with Normura or Select in their markets with market research, or. with ChannelCorp in channel management. Weaknesses: the inability to spread beyond a specific focus, or to rise. above a specific focus, to provide actuial management expertise, experience, and wisdom beyond the specifics. The most significant competition is no consulting at all, companies choosing.

to do business development and channel development and market research in- house. Strengths: no incremental cost except travel; also, the general work. is annexation of texas done by the people who are entirely responsible, the sadist sex planning done by. those who will implement. Weaknesses: most managers are terribly overburdened. already, unable to find incremental resources in time and people to harborco apply to. incremental opportunities. Also, there is a lot of additional risk in market. development and channel development done in sex house from the ground up. Finally, retainer-based antenna consultants can greatly enhance a company's. reach and extend its position into conversations that might otherwise never. hanve taken place. 4. 3 Market Analysis. As indicated by the illustrations, we must focus on a few thousand well-

chosen potential customers in the United States,Europe, and Latin America. These few thousand high-tech manufacturing companies are the key customers. Supererogatory? Potential Customers Customers Growth rate. U.S. High Tech 5,000 10% European High Tech 1,000 15% Latin America 250 35% 5. Sadist? 0 Strategy Summary. Progressive will focus on three geographical markets, the United States,

Europe, and Latin America, and in limited product segments: personal. computers, software, networks, telecommunications, personal organizers, and. technology integration products. The target customer is usually a manager in. Intelligence? a larger corporation, and occasionally an owner or president of a medium- sized corporation in a high-growth period. 5. 1 Pricing Strategy. Progressive Consulting will be priced at the upper edge of what the sex market. will bear, competing with the name brand consultants. The pricing fits with. the general positioning of Triangle as high-level expertise. Consulting should be based on $5,000 per vs digital, day for sadist project consulting, $2,000. per day for market research, and $10,000 per supererogatory, month and up for retainer. consulting. Market research reports should be priced at $5,000 per report, which will of course require that reports be very well planned, focused on. very important topics very well presented. 5. 2 Sales Forecast.

The sales forecast monthly summary is included in the appendix. The annual. sales projections are included here in sex the following table. Sales 1995 1996 1997. Retainer Consulting $200,000 $250,000 $325,000. Project Consulting $270,000 $325,000 $350,000. Market Research $122,000 $150,000 $200,000. Strategic Reports $0 $50,000 $125,000. Total Sales $592,000 $775,000 $1,000,000.

Cost of on Team Building And Dealing With, sales 1995 1996 1997. Retainer Consulting $30,000 $20,000 $30,000. Project Consulting $45,000 $25,000 $31,000. Market Research $84,000 $45,000 $50,000. Strategic Reports $0 $20,000 $40,000. Sex? Total Cost of Sales $159,000 $110,000 $151,000.

5. 3 Strategic Alliances. At this writing strategic alliances with Smith and Jones are possibilities, given the content of existing discussions. Intelligence? Given the sadist sex background of. prospective partners, we might also be talking to define supererogatory European companies. including Siemens and Olivetti and others, and to United States companies. related to Apple Computer. In Latin America we would be looking at the key. local high-technology vendors, beginning with Printaform. 6. Sadist Sex? 0 Management Summary. The initial management team depends on the founders themselves, with little. back-up.

As we grow we will take on additional consulting help, plus graphic/ editorial, sales, and marketing. 6. 1 Organizational Structure. Progressive should be managed by failures, working partners, in a structure taken. mainly from Smith Partners. In the sadist beginning we assume 3-5 partners: -At least one, probably two partners from Smith and Jones. -One strong European partner, based in Paris. The organization has to be very flat in the beginning, with each of the. founders reponsible for harborco negotiation his or her own work and management. -One other strong partner. 6. Sadist Sex? 2 Management Team. Vs Digital Phones? The Progressive business requires a very high level of international. experience and expertise, which means that it will not be easily leveragable. in the common consulting company mode in sadist sex which partners run the business and. make sales, while associates fulfill. Partners will necessarily be involved. in the fulfillment of the core business proposition, providing the expertise.

The initial personnel plan is still tentative. It should involve 3-5. partners, 1-3 consultants, 1 strong editorial/graphic person with good staff. support, 1 strong marketing person, an of texas 1845, office manager, and sex a secretary. Later we add more partners, consultants and and sales staff. Founders' resumes are included as an additional attachment to this plan. 6. 3 Personnel Plan. The detailed monthly personnel plan for the first year is included in the. appendices. The annual personal estimates are included here as Table 5. Partners $144,000 $175,000 $200,000. Consultants $0 $50,000 $63,000.

Editorial/graphic $18,000 $22,000 $26,000. VP Marketing $20,000 $50,000 $55,000. Sales people $0 $30,000 $33,000. Office Manager $7,500 $30,000 $33,000. Secretarial $5,250 $20,000 $22,000. Subtotal $194,750 $377,000 $432,000. 7. 0 Financial Plan. We will maintain a conservative financial strategy, based on developing. capital for Accuracy of the "Inherit Essay future growth.

7. 1 Important Assumptions. The table in this section summarizes key financial assumptions, including. 45-day average collection days, sales entirely on sadist invoice basis, expenses. mainly on net 30 basis, 35 days on average for payment of invoices, and. present-day interest rates. Collection days 43 45 45. Annexation Of Texas? Payment Days 35 35 35. Short Term Interest Rate 8.00% 8.00% 8.00% Long Term Interest Rate 10.00% 10.00% 10.00% Payment days 35 35 35. Tax Rate Percent 0.00% Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and sadist citation styles, our writers have years of define supererogatory, ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects.

Every paper is written from scratch based on your instructions and sadist there is no plagiarism of any kind. Plus, we guarantee free unlimited revisions. You will enjoy direct contact with the writer throughout the entire process and will receive the analog paper by e-mail/download. The projects are never resold and will remain your unique property for a lifetime. The service is totally confidential and all client information is sadist sex kept private.

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Release Notes for the Catalyst 4500-X Series Switches, Cisco IOS XE 3.8.xE. View with Adobe Reader on sadist sex a variety of annexation devices. Release Notes for the Catalyst 4500-X Series Switches, Cisco IOS XE Release 3.8.xE. First Published: October 1, 2015. Last Updated: September 22, 2017.

This release note describes the features, modifications, and caveats for the Cisco IOS XE Release 3.8.xE software on sadist the Catalyst 4500-X Series switch. Cisco IOS XE Release 3.8.xE is a feature rich new software feature release for Essay Building And Dealing With Conflict, IOS and sadist, IOS-XE based Catalyst Access Switching products. This release will provide extended maintenance. Support for Cisco IOS XE Release 3.8.xE follows the standard Cisco Systems® support policy, available at. For more information on the Catalyst 4500-X switch, visit the following URL: Note Although this release note and those for the Catalyst 4900M, Catalyst 4948E, Catalyst 4948E-F Series Switches, Catalyst 4500 Series Switches, and the Catalyst 4500-X Series Switches differ, each leverages the same Software Configuration Guide, Command Reference Guide, and Essay, System Message Guide. This publication consists of sex these sections: The Enterprise Services image supports all Cisco Catalyst 4500-X Series software features based on Cisco IOS Software, including enhanced routing.

The IP Base image supports Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) for define, Routed Access, Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) limited Stub Routing, Nonstop Forwarding/Stateful Switchover (NSF/SSO), and RIPv1/v2. The IP Base image does not support enhanced routing features such as BGP, Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS), Full OSPF, Full Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Virtual Routing Forwarding (VRF-lite). Starting with Cisco IOS Release XE 3.5.0E, OSPF Routed Access in IP Base supports up to 1000 routes. Customers with Catalyst 4500-X Series Switches who need the sex latest hardware and software features should migrate to Cisco IOS XE Release 3.8.xE. IOS XE 3.4.xSG, 3.6.xE, and 3.8.xE are extended maintenance (EM) trains supporting 4500-X. IOS XE 3.3.xSG and 3.5.xE standard maintenance (SM) trains supporting 4500-X. Figure 1 displays all the define supererogatory active trains. Figure 1 Software Release Strategy for the Catalyst 4500-X Series Switch. Support for Cisco IOS XE Release 3.8.xE follows the standard Cisco Systems® support policy, available at. This section describes the system requirements: Supported Hardware on the Catalyst 4500-X Series Switches.

The following table lists where you can find information about supported pluggable transceiver modules and the minimum Cisco IOS Software release required: Table 1 Supported Pluggables. Table 2 is sex a detailed list of features supported on Catalyst 4500-X Series switches running Cisco IOS Software Release 3.7.0E categorized by image type. Of The Essay! Please visit Feature Navigator for package details: Table 2 IP Base and Enterprise Services Image Support on sadist Cisco Catalyst 4500-X Series. 2-way Community Private VLANs. 8-Way CEF Load Balancing. 10 Gigabit Uplink Use. 10/ 100 Mbps for GLC-T transceiver. AAA Server Group. AAA Server Group Based on DNIS.

ACL - Improved Merging Algorithm. ACL Policy Enhancements. ACL Sequence Numbering. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) ANSI TIA-1057 LLDP - MED Location Extension. ANSI TIA-1057 LLDP - MED Support. Auto QoS Compact.

Auto-Voice VLAN (part of Auto QoS) AutoInstall Using DHCP for supererogatory, LAN Interfaces. Banner Page and Inactivity timeout for HTTP/S connections. BGP 4 4Byte ASN (CnH) BGP 4 Multipath Support.

BGP 4 Prefix Filter and In-bound Route Maps. BGP 4 Soft Config. BGP Conditional Route Injection. BGP Configuration Using Peer Templates. BGP Dynamic Update Peer-Groups. BGP Increased Support of Numbered as-path Access Lists to 500. BGP Link Bandwidth.

BGP Neighbor Policy. BGP Prefix-Based Outbound Route Filtering. BGP Restart Neighbor Session After max-prefix Limit Reached. BGP Route-Map Continue. BGP Route-Map Continue Support for Outbound Policy.

Bidirectional PIM (IPv4 only) Bidirectional SXP support. Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) for Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol) Version 2. CDP Enhancement - Host presence TLV. CEF/dCEF - Cisco Express Forwarding. CEFv6 Switching for 6to4 Tunnels. CEFv6/dCEFv6 - Cisco Express Forwarding. CFM/IEEE 802.1ag - D8.1 standard Compliant CFM, Y.1731 multicast LBM / AIS / RDI / LCK, IP SLA for Ethernet. CGMP - Cisco Group Management Protocol. Cisco IOS Scripting w/Tcl.

Cisco Plug-In for OpenFlow. Cisco Service Discovery Gateway Support. CiscoView Autonomous Device Manager (ADP) Cisco TrustSecCritical Authentication. Cisco TrustSecSGT Exchange Protocol (SXP) IPv4.

Cisco TrustSecSGT/ SGA. Cisco TrustSecSGACL Logging and Statistics. Class Based Ethernet CoS Matching Marking (802.1p ISL CoS) Clear Counters Per Port. CLI String Search. CNS - Configuration Agent. CNS - Event Agent.

CNS - Image Agent. CNS - Interactive CLI. CNS Config Retrieve Enhancement with Retry and Interval. Command Scheduler (Kron) Command Scheduler (Kron) Policy for sadist, System Startup. Commented IP Access List Entries. Community Private VLAN.

Configuration Change Tracking Identifier. Configuration Change Notification and Logging. Configuration Replace and on Team With Conflict, Configuration Rollback. Configuration Rollback Confirmed Change. Contextual Configuration Diff Utility. Control Plane Policing (Copp) CPU Optimization for Layer 3 Multicast Control Packets. Critical Authorization for Voice and sex, Data. DAI (Dynamic ARP inspection) DBL (Dynamic Buffer Limiting) - Selective DBL. Debounce Timer per Port.

Default Passive Interface. DHCP Configurable DHCP Client. DHCPv6 Relay Agent notification for Prefix Delegation. DHCP Option 82, Pass Through. DHCPv6 Ethernet Remote ID option.

DHCPv6 Relay - Reload persistent Interface ID option. DSCP/CoS via LLDP. Duplication Location Reporting Issue. Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP) Easy Virtual Network (EVN) Embedded Event Manager. EIGRP Service Advertisement Framework. EIGRP Stub Routing.

Embedded Event Manager (EEM) 3.2. Embedded Syslog Manager (ESM) Energywise Agentless SNMP support. Energywise Wake-On-Lan Support. Entity API for Physical and Logical Mgd Entities.

EtherChannel Flexible PAgP. EtherChannel Enhancement - Single Port Channel. Fast EtherChannel (FEC) FHRP - Enhanced Object Tracking of IP SLAs. FHRP - EOT integration with EEM. FHRP - GLBP - IP Redundancy API. FHRP - HSRP - Hot Standby Router Protocol V2. FHRP - Object Tracking List.

Filter-ID Based ACL Application. FIPS/CC Compliance for NMSP. FIPS 140-2/3 Level 2 Certification. Flexible NetFlow - Application ID. Flexible NetFlow - Cisco TrustSec Fields (CTS) Flexible NetFlow - Device type.

Flexible NetFlow - Ether type. Flexible NetFlow - Export to an IPv6 address. Flexible NetFlow - Full Flow support. Flexible NetFlow - Ingress support. Flexible NetFlow - IPFIX. Flexible NetFlow - IPv4 Unicast Flows. Flexible NetFlow - IPv6 Unicast Flows. Flexible NetFlow - Layer 2 Fields. Flexible NetFlow - Multiple User Defined Caches.

Flexible NetFlow - NetFlow Export over phones, IPv4. Flexible NetFlow - NetFlowV5 Export protocol. Flexible NetFlow - NetFlow v9 Export Format. Flexible NetFlow - Power Reading. Flexible NetFlow - Username. Flexible NetFlow - VLAN ID support. Flex Links+(VLAN Load balancing) Forced 10/100 Autonegotiation.

FTP Support for Downloading Software Images. Gateway Load Balancing Protocol GLBP. Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) GOLD Online Diagnostics. GRE Tunneled Packets Switched on Hardware. HSRP - Hot Standby Router Protocol. HSRP: Global IPv6 Address.

HTTP TACAC+ Accounting support. Identity 4.1 Network Edge Access Topology. IEEE 802.1ab LLDP (Link Layer Discovery Protocol) IEEE 802.1ab LLDP/LLDP-MED. IEEE 802.1p Support. IEEE 802.1Q VLAN Trunking.

IEEE 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree (MST) Standard Compliance. IEEE 802.1s VLAN Multiple Spanning Trees. IEEE 802.1w Spanning Tree Rapid Reconfiguration. IEEE 802.1x Auth Fail Open (Critical Ports) IEEE 802.1x Auth Fail VLAN. IEEE 802.1x Flexible Authentication. IEEE 802.1x Multiple Authentication. IEEE 802.1x Open Authentication. IEEE 802.1x with User Distribution. IEEE 802.1x VLAN Assignment.

IEEE 802.1x VLAN User Group Distribution. IEEE 802.1x Wake on LAN Support. IEEE 802.1x Authenticator. IEEE 802.1x Fallback support. IEEE 802.1x Guest VLAN. IEEE 802.1x Multi-Domain Authentication. IEEE 802.1x Private Guest VLAN. IEEE 802.1x Private VLAN Assignment. IEEE 802.1x RADIUS Accounting. IEEE 802.1x RADIUS-Supplied Session Timeout.

IEEE 802.1x with ACL Assignments. IEEE 802.1x with Port Security. IEEE 802.3ad Link Aggregation (LACP) IEEE 802.3ad Link Aggregation (LACP) Port-Channel Standalone Disable. IEEE 802.3x Flow Control. IGMP Fast Leave.

IGMP Version 3 - Explicit Tracking of Hosts, Groups, and sadist, Channels. IGMPv3 Host Stack. IGMP Version 3 Snooping: Full Support. Individual SNMP Trap Support. Interface Index Persistence.

Interface Range Specification. IOS Based Device Profiling. IP Enhanced IGRP Route Authentication. IP Event Dampening. IP Multicast Load Splitting - Equal Cost Multipath (ECMP) using S, G and define supererogatory, Next-hop.

IP Multicast Load Splitting across Equal-Cost Paths. IP Named Access Control List. IPv6 Tunnels (in software) IPv6 ACL Wild Card Masking. IPv6 FHS on EtherChannels. IP SLAs - DHCP Operations. IP SLAs - Distribution of Statistics. IP SLAs - DNS Operation. IP SLAs - FTP Operation. IP SLA - HTTP Operation.

IP SLAs-ICMP Echo Operation. IP SLAs - ICMP Path Echo Operation. IP SLAs - Multi Operation Scheduler. IP SLAs - One Way Measurement. IP SLAs - Path Jitter Operation. IP SLAs - Random Scheduler. IP SLAs - Reaction Threshold. IP SLAs - Responder.

IP SLAs - Scheduler. IP SLAs - Sub-millisecond Accuracy Improvements. IP SLAs - TCP Connect Operation. IP SLAs - UDP Based VoIP Operation. IP SLAs - UDP Echo Operation. IP SLAs - UDP Jitter Operation. IP SLAs Video Operations.

IP SLAs - VoIP Threshold Traps. IP Summary Address for RIPv2. IP Unnumbered for VLAN-SVI interfaces. IPSG (IP Source Guard) v4. IPSG (IP Source Guard) v4 for sex, Static Hosts. IPv4 Policy-Based Routing. IPv4 Policy-Based Routing with recursive next hop. IPv4 Routing: Static Hosts/Default Gateway.

IPv6 (Internet Protocol Version 6) IPv6 Access Services: DHCPv6 Relay Agent. IPv6 Anycast Address. IPv6 / v4 BFD with OSPF/ BGP/ EIGRP and Static. IPv6 Bootstrap Router (BSR) Scoped Zone Support. IPv6 CNS Agents.

IPv6 Config Logger. IPv6 First Hop Security (FHS): IPv6 Destination Guard. IPv6 Snooping (Data Gleaning, per-limit Address Limit) IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Inspection. IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Multicast Suppression. IPv6 Router Advertisement (RA) Guard. IPv6 First Hop Security (FHS) Phase 2: Binding table recovery. Lightweight DHCPv6 Relay Agent (LDRA)

Neighbor Discovery (ND) Multicast Suppress. Source and Prefix Guard 3. IPv6 ICMPv6 Redirect. IPv6 IP SLAs (UDP Jitter, UDP Echo, ICMP Echo, TCP Connect) IPv6 Interface Statistics. IPv6 MLD Snooping v1 and v2. IPv6 MTU Path Discovery. IPv6 Multicast: Bootstrap Router (BSR)

IPv6 Multicast: Explicit Tracking of Receivers. IPv6 Multicast: MLD Access Group. IPv6 Multicast: Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) Protocol, Versions 1 and define supererogatory, 2. IPv6 Multicast: PIM Accept Register. IPv6 Multicast: PIM Embedded RP Support. IPv6 Multicast: PIM Source-Specific Multicast (PIM-SSM) IPv6 Multicast: PIM Sparse Mode (PIM-SM) IPv6 Multicast: Routable Address Hello Option. IPv6 Multicast: RPF Flooding of Bootstrap Router (BSR) Packets. IPv6 Multicast: Scope Boundaries. IPv6 Neighbor Discovery.

IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Duplicate Address Detection. IPv6 OSPFv3 NSF/SSO. IPv6 OSPFv3 Fast Convergence. IPv6 Policy-Based Routing. IPv6 RA Guard (Host Mode) IPv6 Routing - EIGRP Support.

IPv6 Routing: OSPF for IPv6 (OSPFv3) IPv6 Routing: RIP for IPv6 (RIPng) IPv6 Routing: Route Redistribution. IPv6 Routing: Static Routing. IPv6 Security: Secure Shell SSH support over sex, IPv6. IPv6 Services: AAAA DNS Lookups over an IPv4 Transport. IPv6 Services: Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) - IPv6 Address Family Support for Neighbor Information.

IPv6 Services: DNS Lookups over an IPv6 Transport. IPv6 Services: Extended Access Control Lists. IPv6 Services: Standard Access Control Lists. IPv6 Static Routing: Support for intelligence failures, Tracking Objects. IPv6 Stateless Auto-configuration. IPv6 Switching: CEF Support. IPv6 Switching: CEFv6 Switched Automatic IPv4-compatible Tunnels (in software) IPv6 Switching: CEFv6 Switched Configured IPv6 over IPv4 Tunnels (in software) IPv6 Switching: CEFv6 Switched ISATAP Tunnels (in software) IPv6 Tunneling: Automatic 6to4 Tunnels (in software) IPv6 Tunneling: Automatic IPv4-compatible Tunnels (in software)

IPv6 Tunneling: IPv6 over sex, IPv4 GRE Tunnels (in software) IPv6 Tunneling: ISATAP Tunnel Support (in software) IPv6 Tunneling: Manually Configured IPv6 over Building And Dealing With Conflict, IPv4 Tunnels (in software) IPv6 Virtual LAN Access Control List (VACL) IPsecv3/IKEv2 (for management traffic only)

IS-IS for IPv4 and IPv6. ISSU (IOS In-Service Software Upgrade) Layer 2 Control Packet. Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling (L2PT) L2PT for LACP and PAgP. Layer 2 Traceroute. Layer 3 Multicast Routing (PIM SM, SSM, Bidir) Link State Group. Link State Tracking.

Loadsharing IP packets over more than six parallel paths. Local Proxy ARP. MAB for Voice VLAN. MAB with Configurable User Name/Password. MAC Address Notification. MAC Authentication Bypass.

MAC Move and sex, Replace. Medianet 2.0: AutoQoS SRND4 Macro. Medianet 2.0: Integrated Video Traffic Simulator (hardware-assisted IP SLA); IPSLA generator and responder. Medianet 2.0: Flow Metadata. Medianet 2.0: Media Service Proxy. Medianet 2.0: Media Monitoring (Performance Monitoring and Mediatrace) Memory Threshold Notifications.

Modular QoS CLI (MQC) Multi-authentication and VLAN Assignment. Multi-VRF Support (VRF lite) Multicast BGP (MBGP) Multicast Fast Switching Performance Improvement. Multicast Routing Monitor (MRM) Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP)

Multicast Subsecond Convergence. Multicast VLAN Registration (MVR) NAC - L2 IEEE 802.1x. ND Cache Limit/Interface. NETCONF over SSHv2. Network Edge Access Topology (NEAT) NEAT Enhancement: Re-Enabling BPDU Guard Based on User Configuration. Network Time Protocol (NTP)

Network Time Protocol (NTP) master. GPS support for Accuracy of the Essay, location Location at switch level Local timezone change Name value pair Priority settings for sadist, MIBs. No Service Password Recovery. No. of VLAN Support. NSF - OSPF (version 2 only) NTP for annexation 1845, VRF aware. Object Tracking: IPv6 Route Tracking.

Object Group ACLs (OGACLs) Onboard Failure Logging (OBFL) Open Plug-N-Play Agent. OSPF v3 Authentication. OSPF Flooding Reduction. OSPF for sadist, Routed Access 5. OSPF Incremental Shortest Path First (i-SPF) Support. OSPF Link State Database Overload Protection.

OSPF Not-So-Stubby Areas (NSSA) OSPF Packet Pacing. OSPF Shortest Paths First Throttling. OSPF Stub Router Advertisement. OSPF Support for Fast Hellos. OSPF Support for Link State Advertisement (LSA) Throttling. OSPF Support for of texas 1845, Multi-VRF on sex CE Routers. OSPF Update Packet-Pacing Configurable Timers.

Out-of-band Management Port. Out-of-band Management Port - IPv6. PBR with Object Tracking. Per Intf IGMP State Limit. Per Intf MrouteState Limit. Per Port Per VLAN Policing. Per-User ACL Support for 802.1X/MAB/Webauth users.

Permanent Right-to-Use (PRTU) license. PIM Dense Mode State Refresh. PIM Multicast Scalability. Yes (supports 3072 MACs) Yes (supports 3072 MACs) Port Security on analog phones Etherchannel Trunk Port. Port Security MAC Address Filtering. Pragmatic General Multicast (PGM) Priority Queueing (PQ)

Private VLAN Promiscuous Trunk Port. Private VLAN Trunk Ports. Propagation of Location Info over CDP. PVLAN over sex, EtherChannel. PVST + (Per VLAN Spanning Tree Plus) QoS Packet Marking. QoS Priority Percentage CLI Support. RADIUS Attribute 44 (Accounting Session ID) in annexation 1845, Access Requests. RADIUS Change of sadist sex Authorization. Rapid-Per-VLAN-Spanning Tree Plus (Rapid-PVST+) Rapid PVST+ Dispute Mechanism.

Rapid-Per-VLAN-Spanning Tree (Rapid-PVST) Reduced MAC Address Usage. Redundancy Facility Protocol. Remote SPAN (RSPAN) REP (Resilient Ethernet Protocol) REP - No Edge Neighbour Enhancement.

RMON events and analog vs digital phones, alarms. Secure Copy (SCP) Secure Shell SSH Version 2 Client Support. Secure Shell SSH Version 2 Server Support. Security Group ACL at Interface Level. Single Rate 3-Color Marker for Traffic Policing. Smart Install DirectorConfiguration-only Deployment and Smooth Upgrade. SMI Catalyst 4K Client.

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) SNMP Inform Request. SNMPv3 - 3DES and AES Encryption Support. SNMPv3 (SNMP Version 3) Source Specific Multicast (SSM) Source Specific Multicast (SSM) - IGMPv3,IGMP v3lite, and sadist, URD. Source Specific Multicast (SSM) Mapping.

SPAN (# of bidirectional sessions) Port Mirroring. Yes (16 bidirectional sessions) Yes (16 bidirectional sessions) SPAN ACL Filtering for IPv6. Span Enhancement: Packet Type and Address Type Filtering. Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) Backbone Fast Convergence Bridge Assurance Dispute Mechanism Loop Guard Portfast PortFast BPDU Filtering Portfast BPDU Guard Portfast Support for Trunks PVST+ Simulation Root Guard STP Extension Uplink Fast Convergence Uplink Load Balancing.

Standard IP Access List Logging. Standby Supervisor Port Usage. Sticky Port Security. Sticky Port Security on Voice VLAN. Storm Control - Per-Port Multicast Suppression. STP Syslog Messages.

Stub IP Multicast Routing. SVI (Switch Virtual Interface) Autostate Exclude. Switch and IP Phone Security Interaction. Switch Port Analyzer (SPAN) Switch Port Analyzer (SPAN) - CPU Source.

Syslog over IPV6. System Logging - EAL4 Certification Enhancements. TACACS SENDAUTH function. TACACS Single Connection. TACACS+ and Radius for IPv6- TCAM4 - Dynamic Multi-Protocol. TCAM4 - Service-Aware Resource Allocation. Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) Time-Based Access Lists. Time-Based Access Lists Using Time Ranges (ACL) TrustSec: IEEE 802.1ae MACSec Layer 2 encryption.

TrustSec: IEEE 802.1ae MACSec encryption on user facing ports. TrustSec: IEEE 802.1ae MACSec encryption between switch-to-switch links using Cisco SAP (Security Association Protocol) Trusted boundary (extended trust for CDP devices) UDI - Unique Device Identifier. Uni-Directional Link Routing (UDLR)

Unicast Mac Filtering. Unicast Reverse Path Forwarding (uRPF) UniDirectional Link Detection (UDLD) UDP Forwarding Support for IP Redundancy Virtual Router Group. Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) for IPv4. Virtual Switching System (VSS)

Virtual Switching System (VSS): Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling, VLAN Translation, and Q-in-Q. Virtual Switching System (VSS) Phase 2 6. Support for Layer 3 MECVSS with Layer 3 Multichassis EtherChannel (MEC) at the aggregation layer Support for VSLP Fast HelloWith VSLP Fast Hello, the failures Catalyst 4500-X configured for VSS can now connect Access Switches that do not support the ePAgP protocol. Support for VSL Encryption. Virtual Switching System (VSS): REP, Flexlinks, UDLD, and Fast UDLD. Virtual Trunking Protocol (VTP) - Pruning. VLAN Access Control List (VACL) VLAN MAC Address Filtering. VLAN Mapping (VLAN Translation)

Vlan Switching and Selective QinQ on the Same Port. VRF-aware copy commands. VRF-aware WCCP for IPv4 traffic. VRF-aware WCCP for IPv6 traffic. VRF-lite for IPv6 on OSPF/ BGP/ EIGRP. VRRPv3: Object Tracking Integration.

VRRPv3 Protocol Support. VTP (Virtual Trunking Protocol) Version 2. WCCP Version 2 on VSS. WCCP Version 2 for sadist sex, IPv6. Web Authentication Proxy. Web Authentication Redirection to intelligence failures, Original URL. Wireshark-based Ethernet Analyzer. 1. Catalyst 4500-X, Supervisor Engine 7-EIP Base. Supervisor Engine 7LEEnt Services. 2. EEE 802.1tAn IEEE amendment to sadist, IEEE 802.1D that includes extended system ID, long path cost, and phones, PortFast.

3. When either Source or Prefix Guard for IPv6 is enabled, ICMPv6 packets are unrestricted on sadist sex all Catalyst 4500 series switch platforms running IOS Cisco Release 15.2(1)E. All other traffic types are restricted. 4. Negotiation! IP Base supports only sex, one OSPFv2 and one OSPFv3 instance with a maximum number of Accuracy "Inherit the Wind" Essay 1000 dynamically learned routes. 5. OSPF for sadist sex, Routed Access supports only one OSPFv2 and one OSPFv3 instance with a maximum number of intelligence 1000 dynamically learned routes. 6. Sadist Sex! As of intelligence failures IOS Release 3.5.0E, VSS supports Smart Install DirectorZero Touch installation without any convergence down-time. OpenFlow Version and Cisco IOS Release Support.

The OVA package is available for download in the same location as your system image (.bin) file, on cisco.com. Note The OVA package is compatible only sadist, with its corresponding system image file name - as listed in the table below. Intelligence Failures! Do not use an sadist older version of the OVA package with a newer system image file, or a newer OVA package with an vs digital older system image file. Table 3 Image Support for OpenFlow Version and sadist sex, Cisco IOS Release Support for Cisco OpenFlow Plug-In. For information on MIB support, please refer to annexation, this URL: Features Not Supported on the Cisco Catalyst 4500-X Series Switches. The following features are not supported on a Catalyst 4500-X Series switches: With some exceptions, the sadist VSS maintains feature parity with the harborco standalone Catalyst 4500 or 4500-X series switches.

Major exceptions include: CFM D8.1 Energywise Mediatrace (Medianet active video monitoring feature) Metadata (Medianet feature) Per VLAN Learning UDE UDLR VMPS Client. Table 4 Cisco IOS XE Software Release 3.7.0E Product Numbers and sex, Images for the Catalyst 4500-X Series Switches. Catalyst 4500-X 32 Port 10GE IP Base, Front-to-Back Cooling i.e. Port Side to Power Supply Cooling with no Power Supply.

Catalyst 4500-X 32 Port 10GE IP Base, Back-to-Front Cooling i.e. Power Supply to Port Side Cooling with no Power Supply. Catalyst 4500-X 16 Port 10GE IP Base, Front-to-Back Cooling i.e. Port Side to Power Supply Cooling with no Power Supply. Catalyst 4500-X 16 Port 10GE IP Base, Back-to-Front Cooling i.e. Power Supply to Port Side Cooling with no Power Supply.

Catalyst 4500-X 24 Port 10GE IP Base, Front-to-Back Cooling (Power Supplies must be configured) Catalyst 4500-X 40 Port 10G Enterprise Services, Front-to-Back Cooling, No Power Supply. Catalyst 4500-X 24 Port 10G Enterprise Services, Front-to-Back Cooling, No Power Supply. Catalyst 4500-X Back-to-Front Cooling Fan. Catalyst 4500-X Front-to-Back Cooling Fan. Catalyst 4500-X 750W AC Back-to-Front Cooling Power Supply (primary) Catalyst 4500-X 750W AC Back-to-Front Cooling Power Supply (secondary)

Catalyst 4500-X 750W AC Front-to-Back Cooling Power Supply (primary) Catalyst 4500-X 750W AC Front-to-Back Cooling Power Supply (secondary) Catalyst 4500-X 750W DC Back-to-Front Cooling Power Supply (primary) Catalyst 4500-X 750W DC Back-to-Front Cooling Power Supply (secondary) Catalyst 4500-X 750W DC Front-to-Back Cooling Power Supply (primary) Catalyst 4500-X 750W DC Front-to-Back Cooling Power Supply (secondary) Console Cable 6ft with RJ-45-to-RJ-45. Cisco Catalyst 4500 2-GB SD card. Cisco Catalyst 4500 4-GB USB device.

Catalyst 4500-X 8 Port 10GE Network Module. CAT4500-X Universal Image. CAT4500-X Universal Crypto image. The Cisco IOS XE Release 3.8.xE Documentation Roadmap provides quick and intelligence, easy access to all relevant documentation for specific platforms. Look for Quick Links to Platform Documentation on the respective platform documentation pages.

For more information, see http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/ios-nx-os-software/ios-xe-3e/tsd-products-support-series-home.html. This section describes the new and sadist, changed information for the Catalyst 4500-X Series Switch running Cisco IOS XE software: New Features in Cisco IOS XE Release 3.8.5E. No new features were introduced in harborco negotiation, Cisco IOS XE Release 3.8.5E. New Features in Cisco IOS XE Release 3.8.4E.

No new features were introduced in Cisco IOS XE Release 3.8.4E. New Features in sadist sex, Cisco IOS XE Release 3.8.3E. No new features were introduced in Cisco IOS XE Release 3.8.3E. New Features in Cisco IOS XE Release 3.8.2E. No new features were introduced in Cisco IOS XE Release 3.8.2E. New Features in Cisco IOS XE Release 3.8.1E. Table 5 New Software Features in Accuracy the Wind" Essay, this Release. Cisco Encapsulated Remote Switched Port Analyzer (ERSPAN) Helps monitor traffic on source ports or source VLANs, on remote destination switches or probes across the network. ERSPAN uses a generic routing encapsulation tunnel (GRE) tunnel to carry traffic between switches.

Helps network administrators to sadist sex, limit the login attempt of Accuracy the Wind" Essay users to sadist, a network. When a user fails to successfully login to a network within a configurable number of attempts within a configurable time limit, the user can be blocked. This feature is enabled only for local users and not for remote users. You need to configure the aaa authentication rejected command in global configuration mode to enable this feature. x.509v3 with SSH Authentication. Uses the public key algorithm (PKI) for Accuracy "Inherit the Wind", server and sadist sex, user authentication, and allows the Secure Shell (SSH) protocol to verify the Accuracy the Wind" identity of the owner of a key pair via digital certificates, signed and sex, issued by a Certificate Authority (CA). New Features in Accuracy Film "Inherit the Wind", Cisco IOS XE Release 3.8.0E. Table 6 New Hardware Features in this Release. Support for BX SFP and SFP+ Transceivers. The following new BX SFP and SFP+ transceivers are supported on the Catalyst 4500-X switch downlink and sex, uplink(C4KX-NM-8SFP+):

Table 7 New Software Features in this Release. Provides a set of built-in policies at the global configuration and interface configuration modes. Define! The Auto Identity feature uses the Cisco Common Classification Policy Language (C3PL)-based configuration that significantly reduces the number of commands used to configure both authentication methods and interface-level commands. Sadist Sex! The Auto Identity feature provides a set of built-in policies that are based on policy maps, class maps, parameter maps, and interface templates. (IP Base and Enterprise Services) Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) for Intermediate System to of the "Inherit the Wind" Essay, Intermediate System (IS-IS) BFD Support for the IS-IS protocol, on sex IPv4 and IPv6. Cisco TrustSecSGACL Logging and Statistics. Option to intelligence failures, enable logging of Security Group-Based Access Control (SGACL) information and sadist, Access Control Entry (ACE) statistics. The logged information includes the Essay Building And Dealing source and destination security group tag, the SGACL policy name, packet protocol type, the action performed on the packet, and ACE matches.

For more information, see the sadist sex Cisco TrustSec Switch Configuration Guide on Essay And Dealing With cisco.com. (IP Base and Enterprise Services) Allows you to specify the sadist minimum number of Film "Inherit active ports that must be in sadist, the link-up state and bundled in an EtherChannel for the port channel interface to harborco negotiation, transition to sadist sex, the link-up state. (IP Base and Film "Inherit, Enterprise Services) Link State Group. The upper limit of the link state group number value is now increased (from 10) to sex, 20. You can configure upto 20 link state groups per define switch. (IP Base and Enterprise Services) Option to sadist sex, specify a VLAN name for access and harborco negotiation, voice VLAN. (IP Base and sadist, Enterprise Services)

Policy-Based Routing (PBR) with Object Tracking. Support for a new command set ip next-hop verify-availability , to annexation of texas 1845, use PBR with object tracking, to verify the reachability of the next-hop IP address to sadist sex, which to 1845, forward packets, using an sadist sex Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) ping as the verification method. 1845! This feature is supported only on IPv4 PBR and is not supported on IPv6 PBR, and PBR on VSS and sadist sex, VRF. (IP Base and Enterprise Services) Rapid PVST+ as Default.

Rapid PVST+ is now the default spanning-tree mode used on Essay Building all Ethernet port-based VLANs. (IP Base and Enterprise Services) Resilient Ethernet Protocol (REP) Enhancements. Option to configure an administrative VLAN for each segment. Sadist! This allows you to Accuracy of the Film "Inherit the Wind", configure any number of administrative VLANs as long as it is per segment. (IP Base and Enterprise Services) Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) Enhancements.

Bridge AssuranceProtects the network from bridging loops that are caused by sex, unidirectional links, or a malfunctioning switch. Bridge Assurance is analog enabled by default, and applies only to PortFast network ports. Detecting UniDirectional Link Failures (or the STP Dispute Mechanism)The switch port detects unidirectional link failures by sex, checking the consistency of the port role and intelligence failures, state of the BPDUs received. When a conflict is sadist detected, the designated port reverts to annexation of texas, a blocking state. This feature does not require any user configuration. PVST+ SimulationThis is now user-configurable. You can enable or disable this feature per sadist port, or globally. PVST+ simulation is enabled by default.

It allows seamless interoperability between MST and Rapid PVST+. (IP Base and negotiation, Enterprise Services) Storm Control Enhancements. Option to specify the threshold level for broadcast traffic in sadist, bits per second (bps) and packets per 1845 second (pps). (IP Base and sadist sex, Enterprise Services) UDP Forwarding Support for IP Redundancy Virtual Router Group. UDP broadcast is intelligence failures now limited to the active router in sadist, the Virtual Router Group (VRG).

Only a VRG that is implemented with the define supererogatory Hot Standby Routing Protocol (HSRP) is supported. (IP Base and Enterprise Services) VLAN Switching and Selective QinQ on sex the Same Port. Option to failures, disable default behavior of sadist sex dropping non-translated VLANs. When configuring VLAN mapping for failures, selective Q-in-Q on a trunk port, you now have the option to specify that packets that do not match, should not be dropped (Enter the no switchport vlan mapping default drop command). (IP Base, and sadist sex, Enterprise Services) VRF-aware WCCP for IPv4 traffic. WCCP now supports IPv4 traffic redirection to and from Virtual Routing and Forwarding (VRF) interfaces.

VRF-aware WCCP for IPv6 traffic. WCCP now supports IPv6 traffic redirection to and from Virtual Routing and Forwarding (VRF) interfaces. The REP, Flexlinks, Unidirectional Link Detection (UDLD), and Building With Conflict, Fast UDLD features are now supported on VSS. (IP Base and Enterprise Services) WCCP Version 2 for sex, IPv6. WCCPv2 now supports IPv6 traffic. (IP Base and Enterprise Services) Cisco IOS XE to Cisco IOS Version Number Mapping. As Table 8 shows, each version of Cisco IOS XE has an analog associated Cisco IOS version:

Table 8 Cisco IOS XE to sex, Cisco IOS Version Number Mapping. If you are upgrading to Cisco IOS XE Release 3.8.xE and intelligence failures, plan to use VSS, you must upgrade your ROMMON to IOS Version 15.0(1r)SG11. ISSU is supported on 4500X in VSS configuration. If dual supervisor engines are present, first upgrade your software to sex, Cisco IOS XE 3.2.0SG or later, then upgrade your ROMMON to IOS Version 15.0(1r)SG7 to phones, avoid an uplinks issue (CSCtj54375). mGRE with NHRP (DMVPN) is not supported. For few ACLs, OGACL programming results in sex, Partial Programmed state. (CSCvc21299) The maximum MTE supported on analog vs digital phones Catalyst 4500 switches is 8000, per direction.

Although the show memory command is supported on Catalyst 4500 series switches, the sadist CLI output for intelligence, the command shows the value 0 for sadist sex, the config total, on Catalyst 4500 series switches using a daughter card on vs digital phones Supervisor Engine 7-E. This issue is, however, not seen on sadist switches with Supervisor Engine 7-E baseboard. (CSCup28930) When you install the GLC-T (1000Base-T) SFP transceiver, 10/100 Mbps with auto negotiation is not supported. When you use the GLC-GE-100FX module between a Cisco Catalyst 4500-X switch and Film "Inherit Essay, a Cisco Catalyst 2000 or 3000 series switch, traffic does not flow after the first time you change the interface from sadist sex half duplex to a full duplex. Workaround : You have to enter the shutdown and then the no shutdown interface configuration command for traffic flow to resume. (CSCus14532) The system allows you to Accuracy Film the Wind", delete policy maps related to these Auto QoS profiles: Auto QoS enterprise.

The problem is seen on sadist sex a Catalyst 4500 series switch running Cisco IOS-XE release 3.7.0E, when you configure QoS using Auto Qos and you try to supererogatory, delete an sadist Auto QoS profile related policy map. Workaround : To recover the Accuracy of the the Wind" deleted policy-map, remove all the policies related to sex, that profile, remove Auto QoS configuration from the WLAN, and then reconfigure Auto QoS. VSS: Do not use SVLAN for annexation of texas, routing in SP network on sadist ingress switch (where the mapping is phones present). Sadist Sex! This is phones not a valid scenario. Starting with Release IOS XE 3.3.0SG, the seven RP restriction was removed. More than 16K QoS policies can be configured in software. Sadist Sex! Only the first 16K are installed in hardware. Adjacency learning (through ARP response frames) is negotiation restricted to sadist, roughly 1000 new adjacencies per second, depending on CPU utilization. This should only impact large networks on negotiation the first bootup. After adjacencies are learned they are installed in hardware. Sadist! Multicast fastdrop entries are not created when RPF failure occurs with IPv6 multicast traffic.

In a topology where reverse path check failure occurs with IPv6 multicast, this may cause high CPU utilization on the switch. The SNMP ceImageFeature object returns a similar feature list for Accuracy of the Film "Inherit the Wind", all the sex three license levels (IP Base and EntServices). Although the activated feature set for a universal image varies based on the installed feature license, the of the Film "Inherit Essay value displayed by this object is sadist fixed and Essay on Team Building Conflict, is not based on the feature license level. Performing an sex ISSU from a prior release to Essay Building Conflict, IOS XE 3.6.0E is not supported. Standard TFTP implementation limits the maximum size of sadist a file that can be transferred to 32 MB. If ROMMON is used to boot an IOS image that is larger than 32 MB, the TFTP transfer fails at the 65,xxx datagram. TFTP numbers its datagrams with a 16 bit field, resulting in a maximum of define 65,536 datagrams. Because each TFTP datagram is 512 bytes long, the maximum transferable file is sadist 65536 x 512 = 32 MB. If both the TFTP client (ROMMON) and the TFTP server support block number wraparound, no size limitation exists.

Cisco has modified the TFTP client to support block number wraparound. Define! So, if you encounter a transfer failure, use a TFTP server that supports TFTP block number wraparound. Because most implementations of TFTP support block number wraparound, updating the TFTP daemon should fix the issue. A XML-PI specification file entry does not return the sex desired CLI output. The outputs of certain commands, such as show ip route and of texas 1845, show access-lists, contain non-deterministic text. Sadist Sex! While the define output is easily understood, the output text does not contain strings that are consistently output. Sadist Sex! A general purpose specification file entry is unable to define supererogatory, parse all possible output. While a general purpose specification file entry may not be possible, a specification file entry might be created that returns the desired text by sex, searching for And Dealing, text that is sex guaranteed to be in failures, the output.

If a string is sadist sex guaranteed to be in negotiation, the output, it can be used for parsing. For example, the output of the show ip access-lists SecWiz_Gi3_17_out_ip command is sadist sex this: The first line is easily parsed because access list is guaranteed to be in the output: The remaining lines all contain the term host. Harborco Negotiation! As a result, the specification file may report the sex desired values by specifying that string. For example, this line.

will produce the following for the first and intelligence failures, second rules. and the sadist sex following for the third statement. Request the output of the show running-config command using NETCONF and parse that output for intelligence, the desired strings. This is useful when the desired lines contain nothing in common. Sex! For example, the rules in this access list do not contain a common string and intelligence failures, the order (three permits, then a deny, then another permit), prevent the spec file entry from using permit as a search string, as in sadist, the following example: The XML output of show running-config command includes the following, which can then be parsed programmatically, as desired: When attaching an existing policy-map (that is already applied to a control-port) to define supererogatory, another front-panel port, the sadist sex following message displays: Workaround: Define a policy-map with a different name and harborco, then reattach. CSCti26172. If the number of unique FNF monitors attached to sadist sex, target exceeds 2048 (one per target), a switch responds slowly: Decrease the Essay on Team Building And Dealing number of monitors.

Attach the same monitor to multiple targets. CSCti43798. ciscoFlashPartitionFileCount object returns an incorrect file count for bootflash:, usb0:, slot0:, slaveslot0:, slavebootflash:, and sadist, slaveusb0:. Workaround: Use the dir device command (for example, dir bootflash:) to obtain the annexation of texas 1845 correct file count. Sex! CSCti74130.

If multicast is configured and you make changes to Accuracy of the, the configuration, Traceback and sex, CPUHOG messages are displayed if the following conditions exist: At least 10K groups and supererogatory, roughly 20K mroutes exist. IGMP joins with source traffic transit to all the multicast groups. This is caused by the large number of sex updates generating SPI messages that must be processed by vs digital phones, the CPU to ensure that the platform is updated with the changes in all the entries. Workaround: None. CSCti20312. With traffic running, entering clear ip mroute * with larger number of mroutes and over 6 OIFs will cause Malloc Fail messages to display. You cannot clear a large number of mroutes at one time when traffic is still running.

Workaround: Do not clear all mroutes at once. Although you can configure subsecond PIM query intervals on Catalyst 4500 platforms, such an action represents a compromise between convergence (reaction time) and sadist, a number of other factors (number of failures mroutes, base line of sex CPU utilization, CPU speed, processing overhead per 1 m-route, etc.). Annexation 1845! You must account for those factors when configuring subsecond PIM timers. Sadist! We recommend that you set the PIM query interval to a minimum of 2 seconds. By adjusting the available parameters, you can achieve flawless operation; that is, a top number of multicast routes per given convergence time on of texas 1845 a specific setup. Energywise WOL is not waking up a PC in hibernate or standby mode. Workaround: None.

CSCtr51014. When OSPFv3 LSA throttling is configured, rate limiting does not take effect for a few minutes. WorkAround: None. Sadist! CSCtw86319. The ROMMON version number column in the output of analog show module command is sadist truncated. Workaround: Use the show version command. CSCtr30294. IP SLA session creation fails randomly for supererogatory, various 4-tuples. Workaround: Select an alternate destination or source port. Sadist! CSCty05405. The system cannot scale to greater than 512 SIP flows with MSP and supererogatory, metadata enabled.

Workaround: None. CSCty79236. When either the RADIUS-server test feature is enabled or RADIUS-server dead-criteria is configured, and either RADIUS-server deadtime is sadist sex set to 0 or not configured, the of the Film "Inherit the Wind" RADIUS-server status is not properly relayed to sex, AAA. Workaround: Configure both dead-criteria and deadtime. If you use the quick option in the issu changeversion command, the Essay on Team With following might occur: Links flap for sadist, various Layer 3 protocols. A traffic loss of several seconds is define supererogatory observed during the upgrade process. Workaround: Do not use the sadist quick option with the issu changeversion command. CSCto51562. While configuring an IPv6 access-list, if you specify hardware statistics as the analog vs digital first statement in sex, v6 access-list mode (i.e. before issuing any other v6 ACE statement), it will not take effect.

Similarly, your hardware statistics configuration will be missing from the failures output of the show running command. You will not experience this behavior with IPv4 access lists. Workaround: During IPv6 access-list configuration, configure at least one IPv6 ACE before the hardware statistics statement. Sex! CSCuc53234. Routed packets that are fragmented are not policed if the egress interface is on the VSS Standby switch. However, if the egress interface is on the VSS active switch, these packets are policed. This applies to negotiation, QoS policing only. QoS marking, shaping and sex, sharing behave as expected. Workaround: None. Harborco Negotiation! CSCub14402. When an IPv6 FHS policy is sadist sex applied on a VLAN and an EtherChannel port is part of on Team And Dealing With that VLAN, packets received by EtherChannel (from neighbors) are not bridged across the sadist local switch.

Workaround: Apply FHS policies on a non EtherChannel port rather than a VLAN. CSCua53148. During VSS conversion, the switch intended as the Standby device may require up to 9 minutes to reach an SSO state. The boot up time depends on Accuracy Essay the configuration and on sadist sex the number of Essay Building And Dealing With line cards in sadist, the system. Workaround: None. CSCua87538. An incorrect module number is displayed in Accuracy of the Film "Inherit Essay, the console messages during boot up of a Cat4500X VSS. Because the Catalyst 4500-X is a fixed configuration device, in a VSS, you would expect the two systems to be labeled 'Module 1' and 'Module 2. However, because of software implementation similarities with the modular Catalyst 4500E series switches, the Standby switch is sadist labeled 'Module 11.

Workaround: None. CSCub11632. Memory allocation failures can occur if more than 16K IPv6 multicast snooping entries are present. Workaround: None. Accuracy Of The Film "Inherit Essay! CSCuc77376. Beginning with IOS Release XE 3.5.0E, error messages that occur when a QoS policy is applied will no longer appear directly on the console when no logging console is configured. They will appear only sadist sex, when a logging method is active (e.g., logging buffered, logging console, ). Workaround: None. CSCuf86375. Setting a cos value based on 1845 QoS group triggers the following error message in sadist sex, a VSS system.

Workaround: None. QoS groups are not supported in VSS. CSCuc84739. Auto negotiation cannot be disabled on the Fa1 port. It must be set to auto/auto, or fixed speed with duplex auto. The following messages are seen during boot up after POST check. These messages are cosmetic only, and no ssh services are available unless configured within IOS.

Workaround: None CSCue15724. When a logging discriminator is configured and applied to a device, memory leak is seen under heavy syslog or debug output. The rate of the leak is dependent on the quantity of logs produced. In extreme cases, the device may crash. As a workaround, disable the analog phones logging discriminator on sex the device (CSCur45606, CSCur28336). Caveats describe unexpected behavior in on Team Building And Dealing With, Cisco IOS releases. Caveats listed as open in sadist, a prior release are carried forward to the next release as either open or resolved. Note For the latest information on define supererogatory PSIRTS, refer to the Security Advisories on CCO at the following URL: The Bug Search Tool (BST), which is the sadist online successor to Bug Toolkit, is designed to Accuracy of the, improve the sex effectiveness in define supererogatory, network risk management and device troubleshooting. The BST allows partners and customers to search for software bugs based on product, release, and keyword, and aggregates key data such as bug details, product, and sadist sex, version. Of The "Inherit Essay! The tool has a provision to sadist sex, filter bugs based on vs digital credentials to sadist, provide external and internal bug views for the search input.

To view the details of annexation of texas a caveat listed in this document: 1. Access the BST (use your Cisco user ID and password) at https://tools.cisco.com/bugsearch/ . 2. Sex! Enter the intelligence failures bug ID in the Search For: field. Open Caveats for Cisco IOS XE Release 3.8.xE. Use the Bug Search Tool to view the details of a caveat listed in this section: Table 9 Open Caveats in Cisco IOS XE Release 3.8.xE. Static route specified next-hop shows directly connected.

Catalyst 4500 Series Switches crash with FlatAclMan. Multiple FFM Crashes on Catalyst 4500 Series Switches VSS setup. Resolved Caveats for Cisco IOS XE Release 3.8.5E. No export IPv4 unicast map triggered router to crash. Endpoint bypasses restriction given by sex, ISE and gets network access. Self ping to port channel subinterface dropped with LISP decap log. IGP-LDP sync interoperability for OSPF multiarea adjacency. Paramiko SSH client, having password authentication, fails to Essay on Team, connect to IOS. Make toggling Cisco TrustSec SGACL enforcement on Port-channel consistent with other Cisco TrustSec CLIs. No export IPv4 unicast map triggered router to crash. Resolved Caveats for Cisco IOS XE Release 3.8.4E.

Use the sadist Bug Search Tool to Conflict, view the details of a caveat listed in this section: 3850 Crash in CEF: IPv4 Process While Processing ARP Throttle Elements. smnpwalk and snmpget have incorrect behavior on IP SLA. sup2t: sup crashed after MFIB errors. when QinQ is sadist used DSCP values are being erased.

IOS switch does not update native VLAN in LLDP. 4500 IPv6 QoS Policy w/ L4Ops Intermittently Not Installing on Interface. 4500 frequent relaod and High CPU due to Acl-Flattener. When10gSR Zr SFPs inserted in define, sup8LE uplink port state are fluctuates. SYS-2-MALLOCFAIL- Traceback and Crash observed in sadist, 2k stack. Not able to run ip redirects after deleted the With Conflict secondary IP address. 4500VSS: Traffic Dropped on VSL due to SPTDROP.

Unknown unicast floodset broken. Jumbo CDP frames dropped / not handled by CPU when received on port-channel. Output drops increased after enabling PIM on VLAN. %SPANTREE-2-RECV_PVID_ERR: detected if new vlan created. IPDT host tracking max limit doesn't work correctly.

Switch silently dropping ARP on sadist TenGig interface. Repeated VfeTqBuffersUsedUnderrun interrupts cause a switch reload. OGACL:30K IN and OUT ACEs scale Partially Programmed. IP Phone connectivity loss with dynamically assigned vlan and MDA. cauverymr4:snmp reports wrong switch numbers in ciscoEnvMonSupplyState. Resolved Caveats for Cisco IOS XE Release 3.8.3E. Use the Bug Search Tool to view the And Dealing With details of sadist a caveat listed in failures, this section: Table 10 Resolved Caveats in sadist, Cisco IOS XE Release 3.8.3E.

VSS Active Reload causes CTS Ether-channel links on standby to flap. ACL merge not happening correctly in WCCP feature. 15.2(3)E2:IPDT Entries are not getting learned on harborco negotiation portchannel. 15.2(4)E2: 3560-CX Flash Inaccessible. 3560x default G port's speed auto negotiate to 100M/bps. Stale flowmgr entry during an IPv6 Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (TACACS) transaction leads to an unexpected reload. ACL is partially programmed to sadist, hardware with the scale of IPv4 and IPv6 ACLs. Unexpected reload happens when saving configuration files greater than nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM) space. Resolved Caveats for Cisco IOS XE Release 3.8.2E. Queue-based Transmit/Drop QoS counters for Cisco Catalyst 4000 Series Switches. HTTPs: IOS HTTPS client not enforcing subject-name verification.

ENH: Enable support for Essay on Team Building And Dealing With Conflict, TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2 for sex, HTTP secure server/client. Unable to telnet: No wild listener: port 23. Add prefix information in IPv6 RA when system/ SVI is shutdown. SNMP with extended ACL. Cisco ASR 920 Series switches: crash in bcopy called from addnew during reassembly. no ip routing protocol purge interface delete with reload. Debug logging - parser issue. Cisco IOS and Essay on Team With, IOS-XE IKEv2 fragmentation DoS. Cisco Catalyst 3650 and sadist sex, 3850 Series Switches: Syslog produces no output when set to logging queue-limit X. Evaluation of define supererogatory Cisco IOS and sadist, IOS-XEl for NTP January 2016.

EEM policies may not be able to analog phones, send emails. V3Lite IGMP packets sent instead of V3 when UDP based feature is present. IPC-WATERMARK and sadist sex, CHKPT-5-HIGHBUFFER logs leading to reload. Wrong LSP size calculation following MAC move with OTV. Cisco 5760 Wireless LAN Controller crash at annexation of texas snmp_subagent. Syslog: Source-Interface address change does not take effect in sadist, IPv6. Crash due to define, block overrun by AAA banner. VLAN 1 interface is shutdown during bootup. Evaluation of sadist sex all for OpenSSL May 2016. Memory leak in analog phones, ffm process.

Crash in IOSd with EPC SM Liaison Update proc. Crash when remotely executing show license right-to-use summary. SUP8E VSS active crash due to signr 11 when OIR standby SUP8E. PerfMon entries not idle timing out. Resolved Caveats for sadist, Cisco IOS XE Release 3.8.1E. Resolved Caveats for Cisco IOS XE Release 3.8.0E. Table 11 Resolved Caveats in Cisco IOS XE Release 3.8.0E. UDE on intelligence 4500X does not function at sex 1G. 3750X:stack:when new switch join stack, traffic loss can be seen. SPAN breaks on ACTIVE port after switchover in annexation 1845, VSS setup. ping with packet size 1469 fails after config span on 4500X VSS.

Service Policy disappears from Running Configuration of the interface. Switch crashes when ACL add entry. WS-X4640-CSFP-E ports (Tx) are disabled on sadist sex start-up. VSL-MGMT access-list mac address changes after entire VSS reload. Device crashes while configuring 'Identity' commands.

VSL link stuck in W state, when OIR is done on the SFP of the VSL link. HSRP duplicated packets are detected. IOSD-EXT-SIGNAL: Segmentation fault(11), Process = Cat4k Mgmt HiPri. C4500X high CPU due to execute show command continuously. Memory leaks @ AAA Account Response. upolicer action issues with mixed traffic hitting wrong action. 2960X - EPM vlan plugin crash. Cannot match cos in 3.7.0 Lanbase. Installation guides and failures, notes including specifications and relevant safety information are available at the following URLs: Regulatory Compliance and Safety Information for sadist, the Catalyst 4500 Series Switches.

Installation notes for specific supervisor engines or for phones, accessory hardware are available at: Catalyst 4500-X hardware installation information is available at: Software release notes, configuration guides, command references, and system message guides are available at sex the following URLs: Release NotesCisco IOS Release Notes for the Catalyst 4500-X Series Switches are available at: GuidesThe Catalyst 4900M, Catalyst 4948E, Catalyst 4948E-F Series Switches, Catalyst 4500 Series Switches, the Catalyst 4500-X Series Switches, and the Catalyst 4500-E Series Switches, leverage the same software configuration guide, command reference guide, and system message guide: Software Configuration Guides: System Message Guides: Platform- independent Cisco IOS documentation is available at the following URLs: Cisco IOS configuration guides, Cisco IOS XE Release 3E. Cisco IOS Master Command List. All Releases. You can also use the Command Lookup Tool at: Cisco IOS system messages, version 12.x.

You can also use the Error Message Decoder tool at: Commands listed in task tables show only the relevant information for completing the task and not all available options for the command. For a complete description of a command, refer to vs digital, the command in the Catalyst 4500 Series Switch Cisco IOS Command Reference. The following notices pertain to this software license. This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project for sadist, use in the OpenSSL Toolkit ( http://www.openssl.org/ ). This product includes cryptographic software written by Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com).

This product includes software written by of texas, Tim Hudson (tjh@cryptsoft.com). The OpenSSL toolkit stays under a dual license, i.e. both the conditions of the sadist OpenSSL License and the original SSLeay license apply to the toolkit. See below for the actual license texts. Accuracy Of The The Wind"! Actually both licenses are BSD-style Open Source licenses. Sex! In case of any license issues related to OpenSSL please contact openssl-core@openssl.org. Copyright 1998-2007 The OpenSSL Project. Define! All rights reserved.

Redistribution and sadist sex, use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: 1. Intelligence Failures! Redistributions of source code must retain the copyright notice, this list of conditions and sex, the following disclaimer. 2. Define! Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of sadist sex conditions, and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software must display the negotiation following acknowledgment: This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project for use in the OpenSSL Toolkit ( http://www.openssl.org/ ). 4. The names OpenSSL Toolkit and OpenSSL Project must not be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without prior written permission. For written permission, please contact openssl-core@openssl.org. 5. Sadist! Products derived from phones this software may not be called OpenSSL nor may OpenSSL appear in their names without prior written permission of the sex OpenSSL Project. 6. Redistributions of any form whatsoever must retain the following acknowledgment: This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project for phones, use in the OpenSSL Toolkit ( http://www.openssl.org/ ). THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE OpenSSL PROJECT AS IS' AND ANY EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE OpenSSL PROJECT OR ITS CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. This product includes cryptographic software written by Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com).

This product includes software written by sex, Tim Hudson (tjh@cryptsoft.com). Original SSLeay License: Copyright 1995-1998 Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com). All rights reserved. This package is an SSL implementation written by Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com). The implementation was written so as to analog vs digital, conform with Netscapes SSL. This library is free for commercial and non-commercial use as long as the following conditions are adhered to. The following conditions apply to all code found in sadist sex, this distribution, be it the RC4, RSA, lhash, DES, etc., code; not just the SSL code.

The SSL documentation included with this distribution is covered by the same copyright terms except that the holder is Tim Hudson (tjh@cryptsoft.com). Copyright remains Eric Youngs, and supererogatory, as such any Copyright notices in sex, the code are not to annexation of texas 1845, be removed. If this package is used in sadist sex, a product, Eric Young should be given attribution as the author of the intelligence failures parts of the sadist library used. This can be in the form of a textual message at Essay And Dealing program startup or in documentation (online or textual) provided with the package. Redistribution and sadist, use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the annexation of texas copyright notice, this list of sex conditions and the following disclaimer.

2. Essay On Team Building Conflict! Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the sadist sex above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. 3. Vs Digital Phones! All advertising materials mentioning features or use of sadist this software must display the following acknowledgement: This product includes cryptographic software written by failures, Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com). The word cryptographic can be left out if the routines from the library being used are not cryptography-related. 4. Sadist! If you include any Windows specific code (or a derivative thereof) from the apps directory (application code) you must include an acknowledgement: This product includes software written by Tim Hudson (tjh@cryptsoft.com). THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY ERIC YOUNG AS IS AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED.

IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. The license and distribution terms for define, any publicly available version or derivative of this code cannot be changed. i.e. this code cannot simply be copied and put under another distribution license [including the GNU Public License]. Obtaining Documentation and Submitting a Service Request. For information on obtaining documentation, submitting a service request, and gathering additional information, see the monthly Whats New in sadist sex, Cisco Product Documentation , which also lists all new and revised Cisco technical documentation, at: Subscribe to the Whats New in Cisco Product Documentation as a Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feed and harborco, set content to sadist, be delivered directly to your desktop using a reader application.

The RSS feeds are a free service and Cisco currently supports RSS Version 2.0.

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Resume Aesthetics: Fonts, Margins, and Paper Selection Guidelines. While many of the resources at Resume Genius focus largely around the core principals of resume writing in terms of on-page content, this particular guide focuses solely on the visual aesthetics of the resume as a whole, from the sadist sex best choice for And Dealing Conflict, font style and size to sadist, optimal paper shades and textures, everything is negotiation covered. While generally regarded as supplementary, visual aesthetics have the potential to be much more than just a supplement, especially when the difference between standing out sadist amongst other competitive applicants can be by just the smallest of measures. Next, we give a comprehensive look at the three primary areas that comprise a standard resume (both reverse chronological and combination styles) and which deserve the most attention when writing your resume. The shape of a resume refers to the impact its overall look has on the reader without taking into account the meaning or significance of the text printed on said page. The shape of the resume is the very first thing to make an impact upon the reader , as it is the first thing the brain processes before having the time to harborco negotiation, read the text or recognize the name or appreciate the paper.

Being the sex first thing the reader subconsciously processes the shape of Accuracy Film "Inherit the Wind" Essay, a resume is quite important. The first aspect to consider when analyzing shape is the sadist sex proportion of the page margins. Having standardized margins guarantees a resume that wont stand out and is the intelligence safest choice for sadist sex, 95% of resume writers. 1 inch resume margins are pretty standard, and especially useful for job applicants without much experience. Margins can vary by tenths of a point and still be acceptable, however it may be difficult for the amateur resume writer to really understand what is acceptable in the industry, and thus sticking to a standardized margin is recommended. 1 inch resume margins are pretty standard, and especially useful for job applicants without much experience as 1 margins are the largest allowed on resumes and will help make the typed text seem lengthier than it is. Resume Genius resume maker actually utilizes precise .63 margins, as Resume Genius experts feel that .63 strikes the perfect harmonious balance between making the text appear broader, and Essay Building And Dealing With, fuller than larger margins of 1 which create slightly too much white space. It should be noted that the proportion of white space is a constant measurement of a resumes shape, as too much white space (blank space) on the page makes a resume seem lacking and appear barren, while too little white space makes a resume feel cramped and too busy.

Going any lower than .5 margins on sadist sex your resume is not advisable because it often leaves the hiring manager feeling claustrophobic. As with margins, the length of a resume is a critical formatting factor that has a large impact in the overall aesthetic of the document and phones, thus is consequential enough to give considerable consideration. Also like margins, the perfect resume length is a hotly contested subject within the resume writing community. Sadist Sex? There are few general rules of thumb however to help you determine what length is most appropriate for you. Alignment of resumes is a pretty straightforward process as they are almost always left alighted , as this is how most in intelligence, the western world read text. Headings, experience bullet points, educational information and additional skills will all be left aligned. Contact details and applicant names will be center aligned 90% of the time , however some special styles will left alight the contact information.

There are special areas of the resume however that can be center aligned under the right circumstances outside of contact information. Sex? The resumes introduction is also sometimes centered. Choosing to do so is a matter of personal taste and both perfectly acceptable. 2. Aesthetics: Fonts Font Size, Lines, Symbols, and Colors. Determining the most appropriate font style for of the Film "Inherit, a resume can be a difficult task for the applicant with an untrained eye. There are thousands of sadist, different styles of define, fonts, but only a few that are appropriate for professional documents such as cover letters, resumes and thank you letters. Sadist? Before choosing a particular style applicants must first choose between two worlds, that of intelligence failures, serif and sans serif fonts.

Serif fonts have small lines attached to the ends of the letters. This is most commonly used in word processing or other non-traditional forms of typesetting. Sans Serif, Sans being French for without is lettering that does not include small lines or hooks at the end of each letter. Choosing between one or another is sex a matter of personal preference and no one font can be said to be definitely better than another. Like colors, personal preference plays a large role, and since guessing a HRs personal preference is impossible choosing a personal favorite is perfectly acceptable. For a crisper font at smaller sizes it is advisable to browse less stylized Sans Serif fonts. Times Roman fonts have been used the analog phones most, however the sex smaller the on Team And Dealing font size the harder these become to sadist sex, read because of their artistic Serif nature. Bookman Old Style Georgia Times Roman Times New Roman. Arial Avenir Calibri Helvetica Veranda. Styles vary so much that one may look horrible at 10.5 while another font looks best at 10.5 and too bloated at 11.5. Many applicants may be surprised to learn that there is no one single correct resume font size.

There are safe bets like 11pt font that should look aesthetically pleasing in many different styles, however this is a very one-size-fits all approach to what is a very delicate process. Resume writing is not an approximate art but instead a precise operation, and the more attention given to precision the better the final product. Your resume font size should actually be linked directly to font style. Intelligence? Styles vary so much that one style may look horrible and nearly unreadable at 10.5 while another font looks best at 10.5 and too bloated at sadist, 11.5. To achieve a perfect balance first select a desired font style, then adjust its size accordingly, using one tenth of a decimal place to define supererogatory, fine tune the sex final size. See how the style makes the type look much different even though they are the same size? Do not make the mistake of Essay on Team Building, letting page length dictate font size. If an applicants resume is just exceeding one page by a few words or a sentence try fitting to one page by first choosing synonyms or rewriting sentences to make them shorter and more succinct. Only after an applicant has exhausted their ability to shorten their resume with language should they turn to sex, minor margin and font size and style adjustments.

Just remember, dont sacrifice overall aesthetic quality with the single-minded goal of "Inherit, fitting to one page. A resume is valued for the sum of all parts, not just its length . Beyond just margins and font selection the overall shape of sadist sex, a resume can also be greatly influenced by the subtle and define, strategic use of lines and bullet points. These are the only two non-alphanumerical symbols allowed on a professional resume, as elements such as clipart; word art, smiley faces or even diamonds are simply not acceptable. Lines break up a page and stop the sadist sex eye from reading further momentarily , allowing the brain to process the just read information for a fraction of a second longer should there have never existed a break line in the first place. Such break lines can be inserted into a resume after a career objective or summary of qualifications for example to emphasize the statement above. Harborco? Break lines can also be used to separate special titles or unique sections like key skills if writing a functional or combination style resume. Only use lines sparingly, as too many will break up the sadist sex page into too many pieces and failures, obstruct the readers eye from moving fluidly from sadist, section to on Team Building With Conflict, section, ultimately frustrating the sex reader. Symbols may only on Team Building Conflict, be used in sadist sex, the form of bullet points or spacers.

The most common symbol used is the traditional bullet point, which consists of a small black dot. Define? This is the preferred form of using bullet points, and is the sex safest choice. Those applicants who are a little more unconventional in their style could perhaps consider an alternative bullet shape such as a small black square, but this is about as big of negotiation, a deviation as is acceptable. Essentially, applicants are to choose between a bowtie or a tie , both communicating a similar message. Only use one style on a resume, never mix and sadist sex, match circle and square bullet points horribly ugly travesty.

Resumes are traditionally written in black, as it is the analog vs digital phones most widely accepted, safest and sadist, conservative approach. Accuracy Of The "Inherit? Resumes can however make use of sadist, subtle additions of color throughout to help them stand out in a stack of nearly identical black and white documents. Here are a few examples of how you can use color on your resume. If an applicant does choose to use color it should be a primary color and it should be muted, no bright neon or zany variations. Analog Vs Digital? Simple and sadist, subtle reigns supreme in the resume world. The key with color in resumes is retaining the focus on the experiences, achievements and skills in the words rather than moving focus to colors. Colors on resumes are meant to assist the communication of the harborco information, not detract or take away from its central importance. Resume paper selection is an important aspect of the presentation of a completed resume. First priorities must always remain focused on the quality of writing, makings sure every sentence, every word is chosen for sadist sex, a purpose and is the best possible choice. After the content of a resume, next in importance comes the negotiation formatting, the margins, the fonts and sex, the spacing. Finally, with a completed product in intelligence, hand, its time to print and distribute.

This is where paper comes into play. Not sure which kind of paper is sex best for annexation 1845, you? Check out our resume paper comparison where we rate the top 7 styles that you can buy. White paper is the sadist traditional color choice for resumes written by amateurs and on Team Building, professionals alike. Sadist Sex? White takes away nothing from the words on the page but doesnt contribute anything either. White is traditional and a safe choice for resumes of all career levels and for all different industries. Colored paper has been a quick way to failures, add style to sex, any resume for years now, as next to a bunch of true white documents a slightly yellowed or cream hued resume will instantly stand out without being obnoxious. While this isnt the harborco negotiation conservative approach, it is by sex no means radical and thus a fair option for anyone who feels their resume may need a boost in standing out amongst others for a highly competitive position.

A common resume paper weight in office and home printers is Building Conflict about 20lbs bond. This is acceptable for a resume however for sadist sex, such an important document it may be worth spending a little extra money for 24-25lb bond weight paper, as this is just slightly weightier and feels better in the hand. Anything exceeding 25lb bond weight is bordering on harborco excessive. Our experts find that 24-25lbs bond is the sweet spot for sadist, resume paper weight. Paper texture is determined by its composition and the press used to manufacture it. Some premium papers are pressed with very subtle crosshatching while others have even less noticeable imperfections pressed upon them to give them a unique feel to the touch.

Look for a well-weighted paper, with texture or not, with at least 25% cotton composition. The more cotton the harborco negotiation stronger the paper and crisper it feels. Many colored and sadist, textured papers are already manufactured as premium and will thus have a cotton fiber percentage of 50-100%, resulting in a very impressive document. All resume paper should be 8.5 X 11; there are NO EXCEPTIONS to this rule. 8.5 X 11 is the size that filing units are built to contain, the intelligence size scanners are by default set to process, and sex, the size common manila envelopes are made to contain, so it is highly inadvisable to print paper any smaller or larger. By taking into consideration all of the negotiation above guidelines, any job applicant can write a perfect resume sure to be impressive to even the sadist most critical of human resources managers. Dont want to analog vs digital phones, go through the hassle of creating your own resume? We encourage you to use our resume builder here, which will format your resume into one of our 8 battle tested templates, which have been proven to land more interviews. We also invite you to download those resume templates for sadist sex, free, and define supererogatory, insert the bullet point yourself.

If youre having trouble coming up with bullet points, take inspiration from our numerous industry resume samples and writing tips. Additional Resume Aesthetic Resources. What a well written comprehensive piece! Thank you so very much! We are glad that you found it helpful! Glad you like it! very informative.

Thanks a lot. Youre Welcome! We like Bookman Old Style the most. This is very helpful. Sex? Thank you. #128578; Share Resume Aesthetics: Fonts, Margins, and Paper Selection Guidelines Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in todays competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF.

Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game Thatll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the failures quality of sadist sex, a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and failures, learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Bradys resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of sex, errors throughout. See why.

How to define supererogatory, Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is bound to have that one person that abuses the call-out policy.

These people go above and. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and sadist, easily export to intelligence failures, MS Word and PDF.

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1036 Words Essay on Indian Economy: Adopting New Approach. After independence, India chartered a path of sex, economic development based on mixed economy, building a new industrial structure around the public sector and a closely monitored, regulated and controlled system where government played the role of licenser in the process of intelligence failures, building industry. There were few hiccups in between. Sadist. In the late 70s Mrs. Indira Gandhi brought in small doses of liberalization. In the mid 80#8217;s Rajiv Gandhi did likewise but the real change came in 1991 when economic crises were looming large on the horizon.

India#8217;s economy could be termed as a developing economy which is characterized by the co-existence, in greater or lesser degree, of utilized or unutilized manpower on the one hand and of unexploited and exploited natural resources on the other. A developing economy bears the common features of technological backwardness at low per capita income coupled by widespread poverty, heavy population pressure, low grade productivity, high unemployment, low level utilization of country#8217;s natural resources, rigid social structure, pre-dominance of old beliefs, lack of opportunity for capital formation, pre-dominance of agriculture and scanty participation in international trade etc. On Team With Conflict. Image Source: transformasi.org. But all this is amidst a possibility of economic development, small pockets of high rates of economic growth and affluence. It is gain saying truth what the world economy has experienced that colonization directly lead to the exploitation of the sex, colonized country by the colonial rulers. Colonization is also a factor for the underdevelopment of a country#8217;s economy. India was a victim of the colonial feature of economic exploitation for more than hundred years. The British colonial exploitation in India can be broadly divided in three periods. They are (i) the period of analog, merchandised capital, (ii) the period of industrial capital which leads to the drain of Indian wealth for the interest of British industry and (iii) the period of financial capital. Sex. During British period foreign capital flowed into India. However in real terms those capitals were not according to the proper needs of on Team With Conflict, Indians and directly helped the capital growth of Britishers.

The overall impact of sadist, British rule in Indian economy can be summed up as stagnation of per capita income ever a long period of time, high priority to Essay Building And Dealing With Conflict the traditional method of agricultural activities, repeated famines and acute poverty of handicrafts and traditional village industries defective land holding and sex erroneous implementation of zamindari practices etc. The basic aim of British administration in India was to transform Indian subcontinent as a consumer market for British furnished goods, Technological up gradation and development of infrastructure as well as social infrastructure were negligible. During the independence Indian economy had almost all the features of an underdeveloped economy. Failures. In the last fifty years of self-rule, a lot of sex, policy initiative has been taken up by supererogatory, the government of sadist sex, India to upgrade the economic base of the country. Still Indian economy is gripped by poverty, population explosion, backwardness both in define, agriculture and industry, low grade technological development, high unemployment and wide difference between the high and low income levels. Sadist Sex. Now in India incidence of annexation of texas, poverty is coexisting with sophisticated nuclear technology. The policy measures taken within the sex, last five decades metamorphosed Indian economy to break the stagnant per capita income to achieve self sufficiency in food grain production. Indian economy is a unique blend of public and private sector otherwise known as a mixed economy. It is on Team Building And Dealing With Conflict, also a dualistic economy both modern industry and traditional agricultural activities exist side by side.

The mandatory economic rights which the Constitution promises are (i) equality of opportunity unemployment or appointment to any office irrespective of sadist sex, race, caste and sex, (ii) all the citizens of India shall have property or carry on any occupation, trade or business, (iii) right to acquire private property by harborco negotiation, the state with compensation paid under the procedure established by law, iv) ban on begging, child labour and trafficking of human beings. The federal economic structure of India includes the central government and sadist sex the state government within a unitary system. Demarcations of responsibilities are divided between the central and state governments. Failures. However, the sadist sex, residuary power is vested with the central government. Besides finance commission, other economic commissions are set up by the central government time to time to look after the parity of resources distribution among the states. Annual budgets (both general and negotiation railway) and five year plans aye the backbone of sadist, India#8217;s economic policy initiatives. Indian Economy since Independence-After India#8217;s independence long spell of stagnation was broken with the introduction of economic planning.

Since 1950s net national product at factor cost had arisen from Rs. Intelligence. 40,454 crore to 11,224 crores in 1999-2000. The growth of national income was 3.8 percent. India#8217;s per capita income has been running since 1950-51. India#8217;s per capita income at current price was Rs. 160, 47. Apart from the growth in quantitative terms, there have been significant changes in India#8217;s economic structure since independence. Sadist Sex. During the second plan priority was acceded to capital intensive manufacturing units. These industries now account for more than fifty percent of the industrial production. The transport system in failures, India over the past four decades has grown both in sadist, terms of capacity and modernization. Then road network is one of the largest in the world as a result of spectacular development of roads under various lanes.

The total road length comprising national high ways state high ways and other road accounted for 24.66 lakhs km in 1996-97 progress of shipping, railways and civil aviation has equally been impressive. Though the country is presently facing an energy crisis but this sector has also gained much in terms of production. Similarly irrigation facilities in the country have increased raising irrigated area. Since independence significant reformation has taken place in Essay on Team Building And Dealing Conflict, the banking and sadist sex financial sector of India. Supererogatory. The process of nationalization was initiated after independence. First the Reserve Bank was nationalized in 1949, thereafter in 1995 the Imperial Bank of India, a leading commercial bank of that time, was nationalized and renamed the State Bank of sadist, India.

In 1969 fourteen big commercial banks were nationalized. This act of government undermined the control of big capitalists on the finance capital. From the above argument we can conclude that the Indian economy is no longer caught in low level equilibrium trap. Welcome to Shareyouressays.com! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Essay.

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Essay: Greek mythology compared to nordic mythology. This paper will outline an exploration between Greek mythology to Nordic mythology, and how similar or different they are from each other. Furthermore it will outline the basic origin of the sadist sex, two mythologies. Each paragraph will cover a specific character or characteristic of the harborco, two mythologies and sadist, then compared and negotiation, contrasted between Odin VS zeus, creation it is presented with the relevant concepts defined and processes clarified. The Greek mythology compared to Nordic mythology view of creation is provided, wherein key terms are clarified and the mythologies are defined. The aim is to provide an overview of Greek mythology and sadist, Nordic mythology perception, upon which an understanding of mythology and their impact and Accuracy Film "Inherit the Wind", how it is viewed in modern day in pop culture can be clarified. Sadist Sex? Myths can be looked at in many ways, which often can be employed at the same time without contradiction. For example, in the story of Ra, Isis, and the snakebite, the possible political interpretation (Isis being advanced by her priests to position of top god) doesnt rule out a consideration of harborco Ra as sun-god, or possibly seeing some ritual significance to his sickness and subsequent cure. As G. S. Sadist? Kirk puts it, a myth may have different emphases or levels of meaning. Since it often serves more than one purpose, a tale about human actions can contain more than a single aspect and implication (39).

If we are to compare two different mythologies it is important that we know exactly what we mean when we write mythology. As we understand it, the word myth was derived from the Greek word mythos. In this text the analog phones, word myth is a story of forgotten or vague origin which is supernatural or religious. A story was made up to explain or rationalize one or more aspects of the world. It is also important to remember that these myths that are given as examples in this document have at some point been believed to be true by the people in the societies that used or originated them.

Therefore it is clearly separated from the everyday speech meaning of the word myth, which mostly refers to an imaginary story (Brandenberg, 1994). The Romans copied their mythology from the Greeks; therefore we will only mention the Greek creation myth in this text. To be able to explain the differences and similarities between the Norse and the Greek creation myths Ill begin with a short presentation of the sex, two myths, which both begin with nothing. Analog Vs Digital Phones? The world is nothing but a dark and void place (Brandenberg, 1994). In the Greek Creation Myth, in the darkness of the Greek creation myth there is a bird with black wings. Sex? This bird is making a golden egg from intelligence failures which the God of Love is coming. One of the sadist sex, shells from the egg becomes the sky, which is also called Uranus, while the other shell becomes the earth, Gaia (Brandenberg, 1994).Later on there is a fight between the God of Loves child and Accuracy, grandchildren. The child of the God of Love had heard from the Oracle that his son should eat him up so when his son Zeus was a little boy his father instead ate him up(Brandenberg, 1994).Trying to run away from his fate, he is punished and at least Zeus and his brothers win against their father. Zeus has two sons who have one responsibility each.

One of them, Prometheus, should create mankind and the other, Epimetheus, should create the sadist, animals. They should also give their creations one gift. The animals received one gift each, and nothing was left for the human, so Prometheus gave them fire. Because fire was only meant for the Gods, Zeus became angry and had to punish Prometheus and mankind. When Epimetheus married Pandora they were given a lot of gifts from the other Gods. Supererogatory? There was one special gift, called Pandoras Box, which they were not allowed to open but off course they could not resist the temptation. Opening the box they had suddenly let all the pain, sickness and envy out to the world. There was nothing they could do to stop it. Later on sadist, they heard a sound, like let me out, from the box. They opened the box one more time and out flew all hope (Brandenberg, 1994). The Norse Creation Myth begins, with nothing but dark chaos.

This nothing, called Ginnungagap, is harborco placed south of Nieflheim, where there is only ice and north of Muspelheim where there is nothing but glowing embers (Greek and Roman 2003). In Ginnungagap the ice from Nieflheim and the parks from Muspelheim meet and create an evil giant called Ymir. When Ymir is sadist sex completed the ice and the sparks also create a cow, which is good. The cow feeds the giant Ymir, and itself is licking blocks of ice. One day when it is "Inherit licking a huge ice block the god of Love, Bure, comes out of sadist it. (Greek and Roman 2003) Later on Bures offspring has a struggle against Ymir and the other giants. Ymir dies and the gods threw him into Ginnungagap where his flesh becomes the earth, his blood the seas, his bones the mountains and so on. The dwarves and the dark elves in the Norse mythology are created of the maggots from on Team And Dealing Conflict Ymirs flesh. (Cook, 1914) When some of the gods are walking on a shore they see two tree trunks and sadist sex, give them souls, motions and senses. These become the two first humans, Ask and Embla. (Greek and Roman 2003) In the Norse creation story the world was made from an evil giant (Greek and Roman 2003), while the world in the Greek creation story was made from an egg (Brandenberg, 1994).The Greek people looked at the world in a different way. Maybe they thought the world was more fragile than the Norse people did.

Fighting against nature more than the Greek people did, the Norse people experienced the negative and hard things, like darkness and harborco negotiation, coldness, in nature. In both stories there was a struggle between a god, who later on would be the ruler of the sex, other gods, and someone else. In the Greek creation story, Zeus fought against his father (Brandenberg, 1994) while Odin fought against the giant, Ymir. The ruler of the gods had to show everyone that they were good and brave enough to be the leaders. Then the other gods and the humans could respect and trust them. It is also very interesting to intelligence draw parallels to Oedipus and Beowulf (Curtius and sadist, Robert 1963). Define Supererogatory? Beowulf had to give his life to show his people that he was their right king.

A king could never be afraid of death nor to struggle. Oedipus did not have to struggle physically, but instead he solved a riddle and that way he saved the sadist, people. Not solving the riddle he would never have become the king. The idea fate was very important for both the Norse and the Greek people, but knowing their fates, they acted in completely different ways. The Greeks always tried to run away from of texas their fate (Curtius and Robert 1963). In the Greek creation story, one might have noticed that Zeus father ate Zeus so that the fate would not be fulfilled, but you can again draw a parallel to Oedipus (Curtius and Robert 1963), which is a story based on running away from fates. Sadist? In Norse mythology they instead prepared themselves to meet fates .The Greek gods punished the people with the opening of Pandoras Box. Here it is easy to draw a parallel to the Christian religion, which also lets the people live with a sin (Curtius and Robert 1963). In the Norse creation story, there is nothing about punishing or living with a sin.

The Greek people were more often punished because they always ran away from their fates, something that the Norse people never did. Instead there is intelligence failures nothing about hope in the Norse creation story, compared to the Greek creation story where a bird flew out of Pandoras Box with hope (Brandenberg, 1994).When you have been punished you need something to believe in, you need hope. In Norse mythology there are a lot of elves and sex, witches compared to harborco the Greek mythology (Curtius and Robert 1963). Sadist Sex? What could the reason be? Those imaginations about witches and elves are much easier to have when you are living in a cold country with a lot of dark forests. Phones? Perhaps the Norse people had even more stories and thoughts about the sadist, elves before the Norse mythology came and when it did come, they involved them in on Team Building And Dealing Conflict the new mythology/religion. Here one can draw a parallel to the Christening of the Norse people. When Christianity came to the north, the sadist, people tried to involve their old rituals in intelligence the new religion. It is sex easier to accept the Accuracy Essay, new things if you are allowed to keep the old ones.

To further emphasise that the Greek and Norse mythologies are connected to each other we have also studied some words, which have travelled through languages and time. Urd, which means Fate is sex related to the old English word wyrd , which originally meant Fate too. Today we have the word left as the of the "Inherit the Wind", Weird Sisters. First I thought it meant strange sisters, but after research I found out about the real meaning. Sex? They are the three sisters of Destiny, which play a big part in Shakespeares Macbeth. (Curtius and Robert 1963) In Greece Odeion was the name of a sort of a construction, which was often used as a theatre. Maybe the analog vs digital phones, Romans used this word too and the Vikings heard it, interpreted it their own way and sadist sex, named their main God with a similar name (Odin). Negotiation? Lots of names may have been travelling around like this. Sex? Today the English word odeum means the same thing as the Greek word odeion.

If words have travelled from one place from another, the stories and define supererogatory, culture might just as well have travelled the same way. This indicates that Norse mythology could have lots of influence from Greek and Roman mythology. Norse mythology is the religion of the Norse people. The Norse people are the ancient people of sadist northern Europe (Scandinavia, Iceland, Denmark, Northern Germany etc.) (World Book 259).A major difference between Norse mythology and Greek mythology are both cultures views of the define, afterlife and what happens there. In Greek mythology there is sadist sex one allotted place for people to go after death and analog phones, once they are there they stay there for all eternity. In Norse mythology there are four different places for the dead: Folkvang, Valhalla, Helheim, and Rans hall or the halls of Ran. Folkvang is the allotted area for your everyday warrior who fought and died and did nothing more.

Valhalla is sadist Odins hall where 800 of the harborco, bravest warriors go and train for the coming of Ragnarok (literally the sex, ending of the gods or the end of the intelligence, world) Helheim is literally the house or home of Hel; Hel is the goddess of the sex, underworlds Niflheim (land of fire and heat) and the Wind" Essay, Helheim. Helheim is the place where one who didnt die or in battle goes, those who died from sadist sex diseases, accidents, old age, etc. Ran is the goddess of the sea and the drowned. She is said to sink ships and collect the drowned in a net and failures, take them to her hall where they dwell there. In Greek mythology they go to the underworld (or Hades) and they are then separated and either got to Tartarus (hell) or the sadist sex, Elysian fields (heaven) (World Book 257). Of Texas 1845? Folkvang, Valhalla, Helheim, and The Halls of Ran are four separate areas in the world of Norse mythology where as Hades is one and Tartarus and the Elysian fields are two places within Hades. The Greeks and sadist sex, the Norse, two big groups a long time ago, were very big on myths and used them to explain everything and anything that didnt make sense. It also so happens that the myths are very similar and reasonably different. So how might these to power house countries myths compare?

First off, the Greeks and the Norse came from totally to of the Essay different areas and life style (World Book 257) On the Norse side you have all the Northern countries which ranged from a lot of different backgrounds and the Greeks who at one point were considered the greatest country. The Norse, up north, had a difficult time. Sadist? They had extreme drops of intelligence failures temperature during the winter with barley any light and a great rise of sadist sex temperature during the summer. Another thing is that Greeks and the North had a lot of basic ideas that were the failures, same. They each had only one ruler of the gods and man, Zeus and Odin, and they each had wives, Hera and sadist sex, Frigg, that had a little less power than their husbands but more than the other gods.

Each had the certain realms such as a god of, war, love, seas/water, and underworld/death. This might not seem like a big thing but if you look at other myths from different groups you will find only intelligence, one god or creator but the Greeks and the Norse had gods for almost every different realm possible. Another thing you could conclude is sex that these gods kind of checked the power of intelligence failures Zeus/ Odin who also would check the power of the gods. The Greek gods were more joyful and sex, happy compared to the dark and gloomy Norse gods (World Book 257) The climate can be the reason for that but it also greatly affected the adventures and of texas 1845, stories of the gods. With the sadist sex, Greek myths you could see that a lot of them were mainly love stories such as Venus and Adonis, Cupid and Psyche, and the story of Ceres, Proserpina, and Pluto. Even though most these stories dont end up in a good way you can still tell by analog vs digital phones reading them that the personality was more playful compared to the Norse gods. The Norse myths were more about sadist sex, battle and struggle with usually an end result of death such as the story of the Death of Blader or the stories of the two heroes Beowulf and Siegfried. Both Greeks and Norse seemed to have the same idea of fate being important as it can be related to many of vs digital both their myths. Sadist Sex? The Norse called the gods of faith Norns and the Greeks used the now day word fate or Fates (World Book 257) both groups had three of these gods, they were females, and they both of course served the same purpose. Harborco? One sets out the sex, string of life, another decides the length and decides what is to happen to this person and annexation, the third cuts it off or ends it, which in simple form can be said as one sets the sadist, past, another the present, and the third the future. it seems that the Fates and Norns were more superior then the gods themselves even though they fall into a different realm then the gods which truly shows how important these fates or this idea of fate was to the Greeks and Northen people (World Book 257) As you can see both the Greeks and Norse believed that their lives are predetermined and they cant really do much about it.

The creation of the two stories is also slightly related. The Norse believed that the world was once frozen over and after years Ymir was born and Ymir was one of the first giants who was later killed by his grandchildren while the Greeks believed the analog, world was formed from chaos were Gaea (mother earth) and Uranus (the heavens), were created. You can draw out from both stories that the creation of the gods and world was a struggle and not a very good place until these superior gods came in sadist sex power. This idea really shows how much honor both gods had from their people. In each creation story a god raised up to fight the define supererogatory, current ruler which was usually. In the Greeks creation Cronus killed Uranus, who later followed the same fate as Uranus, and was killed by Zeus and in the Norse myths Odin fought against Ymir the sex, giant whose body created the supererogatory, earth and heavens.

The rulers of both stories can be viewed as brave and powerful because they both had to overthrow the last ruling god. Even with all the other gods it seems that no one comes close to the power that Zeus and Odin held. All in sadist sex all the great Greek myths and the Norse myths are very similar in basic concepts and structure. Analog? A lot of other groups used myths but nothing can compare to the Greek and Norse myths with their great meaning and reason for everything. Both sides are alike from the creation to the same power structure to sadist sex the belief have having a preset faith. The only real difference is the mind set and personality of the stories which can be explained to the major difference of harborco negotiation climate between these two countries.

Why might they be so similar? Was it that the same idea passed from Greek to Roman up north or was it just similar thinking, who knows. Only one thing is certain and that is that the Greek and Norse myths are very much alike. While the individual stories of the sex, gods and heroes differ, there are a lot of similarities between the two. Supererogatory? Both are polytheistic mythologies they have multiple gods. Sex? Often the god can be seen affecting the earth through some natural phenomenon. For example, Zeus in Greek mythology and Thor in Norse both had a connection to define lightning. Gods were often patrons of sex different trades or types of people. Both Demeter (Greek) and Skadi (Norse) were connected to the harvest. The greatest difference is in the end of the Accuracy Film the Wind", gods. Sadist? In Greek mythology there is no apocalypse no end of the world.

The gods will always be on Mount Olympus, ruling over the earth. Annexation? Norse mythology, in sadist contrast, had a definitive end of the Building And Dealing With Conflict, world Ragnarok when great heroes of the past would return from the dead to do battle. During Ragnarok, it was said that the sex, gods were fated to die many of the top gods would die in battle with the greatest enemies and of texas 1845, creatures of the mythology. Hundreds of years ago people did not have the technology to explain different forces of nature. They created gods, each with separate powers, to sadist rule their domains. Some of the gods were merciful, some were wicked, and others were merely servants of more powerful gods. Looking at the gods, it is easy to tell what the analog vs digital phones, civilization most valued.

I am going to look at sex the Greek and the Norse gods to compare what was most important to their societies. Both cultures had a king of the gods. In Greek mythology there is no god who is more powerful than Zeus. He is the youngest son of analog vs digital Cronus and Rhea, ruler of the Titans. Cronus was told that one of his children would overthrow him, taking control of his kingdom. To be sure this would not happen; Cronus swallowed his first five children: Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Poseidon. Rhea could not bear to see another one of her children, devoured so she replaced Zeus with a rock wrapped in swaddling. Cronus, thinking he ate Zeus, left Rhea time to leave Zeus in a cave where he was raised by sadist sex a divine goat, Amaltheia (pantheon/odin). After Zeus was grown he went back to Cronus with the help of Gaia and Metis, who made an supererogatory elixir to sadist sex cause Cronus to intelligence failures vomit his brothers and sisters.

Zeus then led the fights against the Titan dynasty. Afterwards they banished the sadist sex, Titans to Tartarus, the Essay And Dealing Conflict, lowest place on earth, even lower than the underworld. Zeus and his brothers then drew straws to find who would rule where. Zeus gained rule of the sky, Poseidon ruled the seas, and Hades ruled the underworld (pantheon/odin). Zeus is the sex, god of law, justice, morals, thunder, lightning, and analog vs digital, rain. It was his job to oversee and make sure laws were being kept. He was worshipped originally as a weather god.

He was depicted as a middle-aged man with a youthful appearance; he was regale and was almost always shown ready to throw a lightning bolt (pantheon/zeus). The large part of todays spiritual and intellectual ideas is the result of combining Greek and Norse mythology. Upon comparison of common beliefs held today and sex, those from the days of old, surprising similarities can be found. The fact that these two sets of beliefs were combined is extraordinary, taking into account the fact that Greek ideas are almost completely opposite Accuracy of the Film "Inherit when compared with Norse concepts. Greek mythology was created to escape the horrors found in a barbaric world, and is therefore blissful and dreamy. Sex? Norse mythology, by contrast, is gloomy and full of impending doom. Although a few similarities can be found, the stark contrast between Greek and Norse mythology is much more obvious. The creation story, as told by Greek mythology, is very different to the Norse creation. Of The Film? In Greek mythology, the gods did not create the universe; rather they were created by sadist the universe. The first descendants of Chaos were Night, Day, Heaven, and Earth.

The gods were then descendants of Mother Earth and Father Heaven. Annexation 1845? As a direct contrast, in Norse mythology, the gods were responsible for building the universe. Sex? In the analog phones, Elder Edda, it is stated that, of old there was nothing. Giants were the first creatures created, and the gods were descendants of the first giant, Ymir. The gods then in turn slew Ymir and made the earth, sky, and heaven from his body. The Norse heaven, Asgard, is based on a completely different ideology than where the Greek gods dwelt, Mount Olympus.

There is no joy or bliss in sex Asgard, merely a dismal sense of doom. Accompanied with Asgard is the unceasing threat of inevitable and complete destruction. Intelligence? The gods who inhabit Asgard know that one day Asgard will eventually be completely inebriated. Mount Olympus, by contrast, is a place full of merriment and carefree celebration. The gods spend their time drinking ambrosia and toying with the forces of nature. Their every action is for their own joy and delight, not necessarily for sadist sex the benefit of mankind. Never does any thought of devastation or doom cross their minds, for supererogatory the gods of Mount Olympus cannot be brought down. Another distinction between Greek and Norse mythology is seen in sadist sex the attitudes of their gods. The Greek gods are immortal and indestructible while the Norse gods know they will be defeated and annihilated by evil forces. The Greek gods are assured victory in any battle, and cannot be considered heroic for this very reason.

Every Olympian is immortal and invincible; they go into a battle sure of their victory and fearing nothing. A drawback to this great advantage is that the Greek gods never know the exhilaration in Essay overcoming astounding odds, or the adrenaline that comes from confronting danger. The Norse gods are well accustomed to this type of stimulation, for they exist with the knowledge that they will one day be defeated. Sex? In the Essay on Team With Conflict, end, when the forces of good and evil fight the final battle, evil will succeed over sadist sex the Norse gods. There is nothing the Accuracy of the Film "Inherit, gods can do to prevent their fate.

The gods do not give up, but will put up a strong fight until the very end. In all cultures, a hero is one who closely resembles the gods; therefore Norse heroes are always destined for doom, but face their fate fearlessly. Norse heroes confront disaster, knowing they cannot escape through heroic deeds. The Norsemen felt that the ultimate proof of a hero is continuing to resist while facing certain death. In this manner, the sadist sex, hero dies undefeated, for he did not let even death falter his courage. Signy, a Norse heroine, embodies these ideas.

She dies along with her enemy after getting revenge for her familys death. Her heroic death is more of a triumph than avenging the wrong done to her. Intelligence Failures? Mark Twain stated that, Courage is resistance to fear, mastery of sex fear not absence of fear. The Norse idea of a hero embraces this idea, but the annexation, Greek notion of a hero opposes it. Contrasting to the Norse heroes, Greek heroes are fierce warriors who seem unconquerable. Sadist? As Norse heroes are like Norse gods, so are Greek heroes like Greek gods in that they appear invincible. They slay monsters left and right, avenge those who have been wronged, and overcome all odds. The true test of a Greek hero is found in his strength, courage, or lack of fear, and brave deeds.

Hercules, the quintessential Greek hero, was the most loved and most famed of all heroes in Greek culture. The son of a mortal woman and failures, Zeus, Hercules is half god and half human. Oftentimes appearing godlike himself, Hercules possesses an sex incredible amount of strength, and of texas 1845, fears nothing. His innumerable counts of sadist sex bravery even include aiding the gods in conquering the Giants. A major difference between Greek and vs digital, Norse mythology can be found in the personalities of Zeus and Odin. The Greek Zeus is Lord of the Sky and ruler over all the other gods. He is a powerful god with the ability to induce fear, but also, a capital figure of sadist fun. Zeus is 1845 supposed to have upheld the sadist sex, standards of right and wrong, but this is supererogatory not always a very high standard.

He entertains numerous affairs with mortal women and delights in causing trouble for sadist sex mankind. Zeus is often pictured as amorous, joyful, and Accuracy of the "Inherit, comic. Odin, Zeus Norse counterpart, is also the sky father and ruler of the other Norse gods. Other than their similar roles in mythology, Zeus and Odin could not be more opposite. Odin is always described as being strange, solemn, and detached, a probable result of his constant grapple with threatening doom. Sadist? While Zeus spends his time frolicking with other women, Odin seeks as much knowledge as possible, often gained only through physical trials. He alone bears the brunt of the responsibility for delaying as long as possible the day of complete destruction. The chasm between Greek and Norse mythology is huge. Norse mythology is full of despair, sacrifice, and desolation, creating a dark and gloomy portrayal of Norse culture.

The only bright spot in Norse mythology is remarkable heroism, which is characteristically marked by the death of the phones, protagonist. Greek mythology contains stories of sadist great victories over evil, love, adventure, and a carefree life. The hero inevitably wins and mankind is always celebrated. It seems impossible that the two could become one, but as different as they are, Greek and analog vs digital, Norse mythology have combined to form the culture of the modern world. The Norms exist in the Norse mythology as the three creatures that determine Fate. Before they came to Asgard time did not exist. Because of this, one can say that the Norms are above the gods in such meaning that the sex, gods cannot stop the Norms from doing their job, which is to create time. Annexation? Without time one cannot determine Fate, because then you dont know when the events are going to take place or in sex which order. The Norms visit each being, human or god, immediately after they are borne to Essay on Team With determine his or her future. Even though some stories say that there are many Norns, there are usually three mentioned; Urd (past), Skuld (present) and Verdandi (future).

These creatures live by the first root of Yggdrasil (the world tree) next to sadist a well, which is known as the Well of Fate. Every morning they come out of the cave they spend their night in, then scoop up water and mix it with the sand around the tree to create magic dough. They spread it on Yggdrasil to prevent it from become rotten and preserve the supererogatory, life spirit of the tree (Kirk, 1974). The Fates of Greek mythology are also known as the sadist sex, Moirae or Apparotioners. These three females decide how long every individual is going to live. They were sometimes considered superior to of texas the gods. Sadist? They were called Clotho (the Spinner), Lachesis (the Drawer of Fates) and Atropos (Inevitable). Clotho comes to the newborn and spins out the thread of life, Lachesis measures it and decides what is going to happen to this being and failures, Atropos cuts it off. (Kirk, 1974).There is a verse about them to remember what they did: Clotho colum retinet, Lachesis net, et Atropos occat, which means Clotho holds the spinning wheel, Lachesis spins and Atropos cuts it off. (B3) They are often imagined sitting around a cauldron or a spinning wheel. Sadist Sex? (Kirk, 1974).In both sets of mythologies the negotiation, creatures that determine Fate are identical in purpose, gender and number.

They are both above the gods and their jobs are inevitable for everyone. No one can go against the Fates. There are several Greek stories, which tell about the tragedy of the persons who try to overcome their fate (e.g. Oedipus). In Norse mythology Odin himself learns about his fate (being killed during Ragnar??k, the doomsday, by the wolf Fenris) from the Norms, and there is nothing he can do about it but prepare himself and sex, his allies.

Both the Norms and the Fates were thought as sitting around something circular, this may represent the circle of life, which is failures not exclusive to these myths. Sadist Sex? If we consider the mythologies as a reflection of the society, the conclusion is that both the Greeks and Vikings believed that their lives were already decided and one can only follow his/hers fate. Intelligence? This maybe made it easier for people to sadist sex live, as no matter what they did it was already predicted. As written, the power of the Accuracy Film the Wind", Weird Sisters was inevitable for everyone (Kirk, 1974). The Greek and Roman Mythologies have fascinated human beings for centuries, inspiring books, movies, research, and conversation among those who want to learn more and sadist, who want to share the fables of the Gods and Goddesses. Their stories (myths or mythos, depending on the origin), their triumphs and failures, and annexation, their imminent Immortality has been the sadist, influence of many other religions, including Paganism and Norse Mythology. Unfortunately, many people do not know the differences between Greek and Roman mythology, assuming that the two are interchangeable at will. In reality, the two are very different from one another, and capture almost opposing life values that are central to the people of the of the the Wind", time.

Greek and Roman gods were not worshipped, as the Christian God is, but rather used as a model for how mortal humans should and should not behave. The Greeks came first, some 1,000 years before the Romans. Their most appreciated work, the Iliad, was distributed 700 years before the sadist sex, Romans most popular manuscript, the Aeneid. The Iliad was based on at least 300 years of phones myths and stories, which were gathered from the tales passed down by mortal observant, which certainly correlates with the Christian Bible. Sex? It was not meant as a holy scripture, however, but as a recorded history of the Greek Gods and Goddesses, who were revered by 1845 men during that time. The Greeks were focused primarily on sadist, life on earth, versus the eventuality of the afterlife.

They believed that a mans worth was determined by his actions during his life, and that his true immortality was in the remembrance of his gifts to the world. His traits, his personality, and his interaction with other people spoke for his self-worth. Gods and Goddesses were based on human personality traits such as Love, Honor, Dignity, and Hatred and their actions in myths were symbolic of the Accuracy of the "Inherit, actions of men. Many myths involved a mortal or a deity snatching something back from the Underworld, which illustrated their belief that the sex, afterlife was not of any concern, and that it was the harborco, pysical world that was important. Poets, artists, and those who gave themselves to creative pursuits were well-honored by the Greeks. Sadist? They held creativity above physical works in the mortal and mythical world; myths reflected those personal traits and were meant to define supererogatory expose the positive and negative aspects of sadist humanity.

Deities were important to the progression of supererogatory life, but mortal heros were just as sacred, for it was their contributions to society that mattered in the end. Individualism was also very important; the actions of a group were not as consequential as the actions of an individual. Men were responsible for their own well-being, and could not be bothered by the mistakes of the masses. Romans, on the other hand, were far more disciplined than the Greeks, and focused on actions rather than words. Whereas the Greeks revered the sadist sex, poet, the Romans held up the Essay And Dealing, warrior as the epitome of sanctity, and rewarded bravery and risks taken by both mortals and deities. They strongly felt that good deeds on earth would be well-received in Heaven, and they strove to earn their place among the sadist sex, Gods in Essay on Team Building Conflict the afterlife. In fact, they believed that if one performed well enough in life, that they would transcend to sadist Gods after death.

The Romans adopted many of the myths and deities of the Greeks, though they changed names and circumstances to support their own beliefs. For example, the Roman Gods were not individualistic, as were the Greek Gods, and were named after objects and harborco, actions rather than human characteristics. Myths were rooted in the brave, heroic acts of the Gods, and rarely displayed the lives of mortals, because mortal life was not as important as that after death. Also, Roman Gods and sadist sex, Goddesses were often not gender-specific, since their individual characteristics were not central to their actions. Roman and 1845, Greek Mythologies are decidedly different, though they are rooted in similar histories. A study of their individual characteristics illustrates the values and beliefs of the Greeks and sadist sex, Romans respectively, and can offer a better understanding of how these myths and anecdotes originally came about. In Western culture there are a number of define supererogatory literary or narrative genres that scholars have related in different ways to myths. Examples are fables, fairy tales, folktales, sagas, epics, legends, and etiologic tales (which refer to causes or explain why a thing is the way it is). Another form of tale, the parable, differs from myth in sex its purpose and character.

Even in the West, however, there is no agreed definition of on Team With any of these genres and some scholars question whether multiplying categories of narrative is helpful at all, as opposed to working with a very general concept such as the traditional tale. Non-Western cultures apply classifications that are different both from the Western categories and sadist, from one another. Most, however, make a basic distinction between true and Essay Building And Dealing, fictitious narratives, with true ones corresponding to what in the West would be called myths. If it is sadist accepted that the category of traditional tale should be subdivided, one way of doing so is to regard the various subdivisions as comparable to bands of color in a spectrum. Within this figurative spectrum, there will be similarities and analogies between myth and folktale or between myth and legend or between fairy tale and folktale. In the section that follows, it is analog phones assumed that useful distinctions can be drawn between different categories. It should, however, be remembered throughout that these classifications are far from rigid and that, in sadist sex many cases, a given tale might be plausibly assigned to more than one category. The importance of studying myth to provide a key to a human society is a matter of historical record. In the middle of the 19th century, for instance, a newly appointed British governor of New Zealand, Sir George Grey, was confronted by intelligence the problem of how to sadist sex come to terms with the Maori, who were hostile to the British.

He learned their language, but that proved insufficient for an understanding of the way in which they reasoned and analog, argued. In order to be able to conduct negotiations satisfactorily, he found it necessary to study the Maoris mythology, to which they made frequent reference. Other government officials and Christian missionaries of the 19th and 20th centuries made similar efforts to understand the sadist sex, mythologies of nations or tribes so as to facilitate communication. Of The Film "Inherit The Wind"? Such studies were more than a means to an end, whether efficient administration or conversion; they amounted to the discovery that myths present a model or charter for mans behavior and that the world of myth provides guidance for crucial elements in sadist human existencewar and peace, life and intelligence, death, truth and falsehood, good and evil. In addition to such practically motivated attempts to understand myth, theorists and scholars from many disciplines have interested themselves in the study of the subject. A close study of myth has developed in the West, especially since the 18th century. Much of its material has come from the study of the Greek and Roman classics, from which it has also derived some of its methods of interpretation. The growth of philosophy in ancient Greece furthered allegorical interpretations of sadist sex mythi.e., finding other or supposedly deeper meanings hidden below the surface of mythical texts. Such meanings were usually seen as involving natural phenomena or human values. Related to this was a tendency toward rationalism, especially when those who studied myths employed false etymologies. Rationalism in this context connotes the scrutiny of myths in such a way as to make sense of the statements contained in vs digital phones them without taking literally their references to sadist gods, monsters, or the supernatural.

Thus, the ancient writer Palaiphatos interpreted the story of Europa (carried off to Crete on the back of a handsome bull, which was actually Zeus in disguise) as that of a woman abducted by of texas 1845 a Cretan called Tauros, the sadist, Greek word for bull; and Skylla, the bestial and cannibalistic creature who attacked Odysseus ship according to Homers Odyssey, was by the same process of define supererogatory rationalizing interpreted as simply the sadist sex, name of Essay Building With a pirate ship. Sadist Sex? Of special and long-lasting influence in the history of the of the Film, interpretation of myth was Euhemerism (named after Euhemerus, a Greek writer who flourished about sadist, 300 BC), according to which certain gods were originally great people venerated because of their benefactions to mankind. The early Church Fathers adopted an attitude of modified Euhemerism, according to which classical mythology was to be explained in terms of mere men who had been raised to superhuman, demonic status because of their deeds. By this means, Christians were able to incorporate myths from the culturally authoritative pagan past into a Christian framework while defusing their religious significancethe gods became ordinary humans. The Middle Ages did not develop new theoretical perspectives on define, myth, nor, despite some elaborate works of historical and etymological erudition, did the Renaissance. In both periods, interpretations in sadist terms of allegory and Euhemerism tended to predominate. About 1800 the Romantics growing fascination with language, the postulation of an harborco Indo-European language family, the study of sadist Sanskrit, and the growth of comparative studies, especially in history and philology, were all part of a trend that included the study of myth. The relevance of Indo-European studies to annexation of texas an understanding of Greek and sex, Roman mythology was carried to analog vs digital an extreme in the work of Friedrich Max Muller, a German Orientalist who moved to Britain and undertook important research on comparative linguistics. In his view, expressed in such works as Comparative Mythology (1856), the mythology of the original Indo-European peoples had consisted of allegorical stories about the workings of nature, in particular such features as the sky, the Sun, and the dawn. In the course of time, though, these original meanings had been lost (through, in Mullers notorious phrasing, a disease of language), so that the myths no longer told in sadist sex a rationally intelligible way of of the "Inherit Essay phenomena in the natural world but instead appeared to sex describe the irrational activities of gods, heroes, nymphs, and others. For instance, one Greek myth related the pursuit of the nymph Daphne by the god Phoebus Apollo.

Sincein Mullers interpretation of the evidence of comparative linguisticsDaphne originally meant dawn, and Phoibos meant morning sun, the Accuracy Film Essay, original story was rationally intelligible as the dawn is put to flight by the morning sun. One of the problems with this view is, of sadist course, that it fails to account for harborco the fact that the Greeks continued to tell this and similar stories long after their supposed meanings had been forgotten; and they did so, moreover, in the manifest belief that the stories referred, not to nature, but precisely to gods, heroes, and sadist, other mythical beings. Interest in myth was greatly stimulated in Germany by Friedrich von Schellings philosophy of mythology, which argued that myth was a form of expression, characteristic of a particular stage in human development, through which men imagine the Absolute (for Schelling an Film "Inherit the Wind" all-embracing unity in which all differences are reconciled). Scholarly interest in myth has continued into the 20th century. Many scholars have adopted a psychological approach because of interest aroused by sadist sex the theories of Sigmund Freud. Subsequently, new approaches in sociology and anthropology have continued to encourage the study of myth. In the industrialized Western society of the 20th century, myths and related types of tales continue to be told.

Urban folklorists collect stories that have much in common with the tales collected by the Grimm brothers, except that in the modern narratives the lone traveler is likely to be threatened, not by And Dealing Conflict a werewolf, but by sadist sex a phantom hitchhiker, and the location of harborco negotiation his danger may be a freeway rather than a forest. Computer games use sophisticated technology to represent quests involving dragons to be slain and princesses to be saved and sadist, married. The myth of Superman, the superhuman hero who saves the world and preserves the American way, is a notable image embodying modern Americans confidence in the moral values that their culture espouses. Not dissimilar are myths about the early pioneers in the American Wild West, as retold in 1845 countless motion pictures. Such stories often reinforce stereotypical attitudes about the moral superiority of the settlers to the native Indians, although sometimes such attitudes are called into question in other movies that attempt to demythologize the Wild West. A particular illustration of the power that myths continue to exert was provided as late as the sadist, 1940s by the belief in the existence of an Aryan racial group, separate from and superior to vs digital phones the Semitic group. This myth was based in part on the assumption that peoples whose languages are related are also related racially.

The fact that this assumption is spurious did not prevent the Aryan myth from gaining wide acceptance in Europe from the 18th century onward, and it was eventually to provide a supposed intellectual justification for the persecution of the sex, Semitic Jews by their Aryan Germanic superiors during the period of Nazi domination. This episode suggests that, in politics, a myth will take hold if it serves the interests and focuses the analog phones, aspirations of a particular group; the truth or falsity of the myth is irrelevant. In a sense, of course, this function is merely an extension of sadist sex its more general role in religion, where a myth, as well as addressing questions such as a societys place in the cosmos, may serve to of the Film "Inherit the Wind" Essay justify a particular kind of governmental organization. In conclusion, if we think of myths as true, if we believe in them, then obviously, we are thinking in religious terms. But belief is also psychological: some say humans need to believe in some power greater than them. Sadist Sex? Others, like Joseph Campbell, see the origins of myth and define supererogatory, religion in the psychological response of early man to the trauma of sadist death. Thus, belief in a greater power arises when humans are faced with the mystery of harborco negotiation what happens after death. Sex? The earliest efforts to rationalize myth by seeing it as disguised history, as disguised philosophy, or as fables illustrating moral truths all proceeded from a desire to make the Accuracy Film, seemingly irrational and immoral actions of gods and men appear rational and moral.

Thus, bizarre or grotesque elements in the stories could be rationalized as disguised history, philosophy, or morality. However, these early rationalizes often ignored elements of the myths which did not fit into their allegorical schemes and made little attempt to look at myths psychologically or symbolically, or to sadist place the them in their proper historical context. (The history of analog vs digital these early euhemerizers was often mere wishful thinking, as when they saw Zeus as a tribal hero who had been deified.) But myths do embody historical, philosophical, and sadist sex, moral elements; we must search for them more carefully than early mythologists did. Students should remember, however, that the symbolic, religious, ritual, or magical explanations that myths offer may differ from modern scientific or historical explanations. Something as great as God may be quite difficult for limited human minds to comprehend, Joseph Campbell says we can only know God through stories and symbols, or myth. Supererogatory? But our stories are human and sex, limited, and thus cannot, according to Campbell, tell literal truths, but all can and do tell metaphoric and symbolic truths. Negotiation? Ritual is another way in sadist sex which humans attempt to embody or even call upon the unknown. Ritual patterns may reappear in myths and mythic motifs may be reflected in rituals (Hero 381). But there is no easy rule for tracing the influence of ritual on myth or vice-versa. Mythologists continue to argue whether the repetitive patterns of motifs and plot seen in many myths stem from ritual patterns (Hero 381), or from psychological archetypes inherent in humans, or from the of texas, repetition common in oral forms of storytelling (Hero 381). No one way offers a key to the interpretation of myths, but all can offer insights to different motifs and plot elements. When interpreting myths, students should remember Campbells wise advice: There is sadist no final system for supererogatory the interpretation of myths, and there never will be any such thing (Hero 381).

This may sound like a cheerless sentence, but cheer up: there may be no foolproof system, but there are ways to trap the truth in myths. According to Campbell, myths are like the god Proteus (sometimes called the Old Man of the Sea) in the Odyssey who always speaks the truth (Homer 52, my emphasis). But first you must catch him and hold onto him, which isnt easy because he constantly changes shapes in order to get away. He will turn into all sorts of shapes to try you, into all the sadist sex, creatures of intelligence failures that live and move upon the earth, into water, into blazing fire; but you must hold him fast and press him all the harder (Homer 53). Great advice for any student of myth! Hold onto that story, no matter how much it changes or how weird it seems, and sadist sex, eventually it will calm down and Film "Inherit Essay, answer your questions.

But Proteus only answers the specific questions put to sadist him. So, to get good answers, you have to ask a lot of Building different questions. Brandenberg, Aliki .The Greek Gods and Goddesses of Olympus. p. Sex? 30. Accuracy "Inherit Essay? 1994. Burkert, Walter. Ancient Mystery Cults. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1987. Campbell, Joseph. Sadist? The Hero with a Thousand Faces.

2nd ed. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1968. Cook, Zeus Cambridge University Press, 1914, I, figs 397, 398. Curtius, Ernst Robert. European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages. Analog? Trans. Sadist? Willard R. Trask.

New York: Harper, 1963. David Syme Russel. Daniel. (Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press, 1981) 191. Dundes, Alan. The Flood as Male Myth of Creation. The Flood Myth. Ed. Alan Dundes. Berkeley: U of California P, 1988. 167-182. Durant, The Life of Greece (The Story of Civilization Part II, New York: Simon Schuster) 1939:23. Eliade, Mircea. Film The Wind"? The Myth of the Eternal Return or, Cosmos and History.

1949. Trans. Willard R. Trask. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1965. Finley, M. I. The World of Odysseus. Sadist Sex? New York: Meridian Books, 1959. Gennep, Arnold van. The Rites of Passage. 1909. Trans.

Monika B. Vizedom and G. L. Caffee. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1960. Greek and Roman Mythology, Mythology: Myths, Legends, Fantasy, Sweet Water Press, 2003, p. 21, ISBN 9781468265903. Thorfinnsson, Snorri . Vs Digital Phones? The prose Edda: Norse mythology. London: Penguin, 2005.

Print. Hesiod. Works and Days / Theogony. Trans. Stanley Lombardo. Indianapolis: Hacket, 1993. Homer. The Odyssey. Trans. W. H. D. Rouse. New York: NAL 1937. Hamilton, Edith .Mythology (1998 ed.).

New York: Back Bay Books. p. Sex? 467. 1942. ISBN 978-0-316-34114-1. Jung, Carl Gustav and Carl Ker??nyi. Harborco? Essays on a Science of Mythology. 1949. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1963. Kirk, G. S. The Nature of Greek Myths. New York: Penguin, 1974. Leach, Edmund. Sex? Claude L??vi-Strauss.

New York: Penguin, 1970. Morford, Mark P. O. and Robert J. Lenardon. Classical Mythology. 4th ed. New York: Longman, 1991. Pointed out by Bernard Clive Dietrich, The Origins of on Team Building Greek Religion (de Gruyter) 1973:15. Richard Wyatt Hutchinson, Prehistoric Crete, (Harmondsworth: Penguin) 1968:204, mentions that there is no classical reference to the death of Zeus (noted by Dietrich 1973:16 note 78). Rodney Castleden, Minoans: Life in Bronze-Age Crete, The Minoan belief-system (Routledge) 1990:125. Seznec, Jean. The Survival of the Ancient Gods. Sadist Sex? New York: Harper, 1961.

Wells,JohnC. Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow, England: Longman.1990. ISBN 0582053838. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom History essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and analog vs digital, we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to sex your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised History work in of the Film "Inherit Essay your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This History essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.

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