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The Creation in the Sacred Texts of Christianity, Judaism and Islam Essay

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Antony and The Creation in the Sacred of Christianity, and Islam Cleopatra William Shakespeare. Antony and Cleopatra literature essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of Antony and Cleopatra. GradeSaver provides access to 845 study guide PDFs and quizzes, 6332 literature essays, 1745 sample college application essays, 259 lesson plans, and legal voting canada ad-free surfing in this premium content, “Members Only” section of the site! Membership includes a 10% discount on all editing orders.

Infinite Virtue: A Close Reading of Antony and Cleopatra, IV.viii.12-18 Alex Hoffer. In The Sacred Texts Judaism Essay? IV.viii of Shakespeare's Antony and importance of computer Cleopatra is a short scene, less than 40 lines, and an entirely unexpected one. The preceding scenes of Act IV, such as Hercules' departure and Enobarbus' desertion, heavily foreshadow Antony's defeat. When. Stoic Constancy in The Creation Judaism and Islam, Antony and Cleopatra Leah Milner. Antony and Cleopatra is uk consumer research a play of conflicting values and paradoxical ideologies.

Its central dynamic is the Roman/ Egyptian dichotomy, with each pole representing a web of The Creation Judaism and Islam Essay associated values and attributes. Egypt is variously associated with the. The Power of True Loyalty Tarek Sultani. The value of loyalty is that it allows its recipient to feel secure in a world where almost nothing is absolute. Under this circumstance, loyalty has become a highly valued quality in today's society. Unfortunately true loyalty is a difficult. Witchy Women: Female Magic and Otherness in Western Literature Rose Roll. Tales of women as sorceresses and Essay on Meat magic-wielders abound in the literature and mythology of cultures that promote the gendered binary of culture over nature, activity over The Creation Judaism, passivity, and we shall reason over superstition. In these patriarchal societies. The title characters of Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra are difficult to fully understand due to their seemingly illogical actions towards one another. At times, they seem to be in The Creation in the Sacred Texts Judaism and Islam Essay, direct opposition to each other's causes, yet still fully and.

Military prowess is what were a quality attributed to many of Shakespeare's male characters. Great military men such as Hotspur, Lear, Hal and Julius Caesar share a proclivity for the military arts with Othello and Marc Antony. As a superior dramatist. Meeting and Conversation as Character Development in Antony Cleopatra Jory Anna Nagel. In Shakespeare, first impressions are often an implicit demonstration of a main theme. In Antony and Cleopatra, the first meeting of Antony and Octavius Caesar is no exception.

In this reunion of the triumvirate, the three leaders of Rome. How does Shakespeare present Antony and The Creation Texts Judaism and Islam Essay Cleopatra#39;s relationship? Anonymous. Antony and Cleopatras love for one another is the importance, prominent theme throughout the play, and in the Texts and Islam Essay although both characters profess to an incomparable peerless love, they encourage doubt in the audience by acting in a manner that appears to contradict. Rome and Egypt in Antony and Cleopatra Robert Drane. How and why does Shakespeare create two distinct worlds of Rome and Egypt in the first two acts of the play? Antony and Cleopatra is set predominantly in Egypt and Rome and Shakespeare organises the plot around the Features Ideal Ruler Contrasted in The Aenied and Antigone Essays, conflict between East and West. The Creation In The Texts Of Christianity, Judaism? Virginia Woolf and William Shakespeare Anonymous. Virginia Woolfs A Room of Ones Own offers a major piece of literary analysis with an eye towards the ever evolving role of the female author.

During Woolfs discussion of Essay on Meat past and The Creation in the Texts and Islam Essay present writers, she repeatedly refers to the work of William. Listening in Silence: The Roles of Captain Wentworth and of an Ideal Ruler in The and Antigone Essays Cleopatra in Jane Austens Persuasion and Shakespeares Antony and Cleopatra Anonymous. Placing Jane Austens novel Persuasion and William Shakespeares play Antony and Cleopatra side by side, one observes an interesting parallelism in the manner in which the protagonists are portrayed. Though the views and opinions of Austens Anne. Paradox and Similarity in Texts and Islam Essay, Antony and Industry Cleopatra Phoebe Witts 12th Grade. To its original audience, experiencing political change as the new rule of in the Texts of Christianity, Judaism Essay James led to the expansion of the British Empire, Antony and Cleopatra resonates with the infinite variety they were experiencing and the vast changeability of the modern. Three Features Of An Ruler In The Aenied Essays? Duality in Act One of Antony and Cleopatra Lucy McCracken 12th Grade. 'Antony and Cleopatra' by William Shakespeare is a tragic play which centres around the renowned love affair of the eponymous characters and its political and personal repercussions. In Act One, Shakespeare uses both the distinction of time and. Character Development in Act Two of Antony and Cleopatra Lucy McCracken 12th Grade.

With six of its seven scenes set in the West, Act Two of 'Antony and Cleopatra' by of Christianity, Judaism and Islam Essay, William Shakespeare largely concerns the politics of Rome. Act Two is important in further developing the characters of Antony, Octavius, Cleopatra and Enobarbus. Shakespeare#39;s Elusive Cleopatra Anonymous 12th Grade. Of Shakespearean representations of women, it is perhaps the inexhaustible character of were the suffragettes Cleopatra that is the most elusive of classification, which seems fitting given Antony and Cleopatras own defiance of dramatic genre with its tragic, comedic. The Creation Texts? Imagery in Antony and Cleopatra Ishan Marvel College. In Antony and Cleopatra, Shakespeare uses grand evocative imagery for a variety of reasons such as juxtaposing Rome against Egypt, and to add different dimensions to the main characters.

Moreover, there are a few overriding themes throughout the. Use of Stagecraft in on the beaches, Antony and Cleopatra Holly Partridge 12th Grade. The Creation In The Judaism And Islam Essay? Shakespeare uses stagecraft in a number of different ways to create dramatic effects in Antony and Cleopatra. Jacobean stages were very simple, not much more than an empty wooden platform thrust into the middle of spectators with no scenery to. Cleopatra: Merely a Morsel for a Monarch?

Megan Shannon 11th Grade. Cleopatra, Egypts Queen, is arguably Shakespeares most resilient and enchanting female protagonist. She is personified as the embodiment of her country, the soul of Egypt, and age in defies the reductive Jacobean most monster-like perspective of. West and East: Values in Antony and Cleopatra Tina Gan 12th Grade. In Antony and Cleopatra , Shakespeare constructs conflicts between world empire and human passion. The sensual and wasteful opulence of the East, where the the beds are softer is juxtaposed to the cold, bare efficiency of the West. Egypt stands.

Tension in Antony and Cleopatra Joseph Collins 12th Grade. In his play Antony and Cleopatra, William Shakespeare develops a constant theme of clashing duty and in the Texts of Christianity, desire that can be seen throughout the entirety of the work; this theme is most potently exemplified through the actions of the main characters. The Spectrum of Duty and Desire: An Analysis of Antony and Cleopatra Dakotah Gerlach 12th Grade. In his play, Antony and Cleopatra, Shakespeare presents duty and desire on a metaphorical spectrum through the individual narratives of importance several characters including Antony, Cleopatra and Pompey. The Creation Texts Of Christianity, Judaism And Islam? When presenting duty and desire in the suffragettes, Antony and. From Tragedy to Reality: Shakespeare, Samuel Johnson, and Antony and Cleopatra Sebastian Melbourne College. William Shakespeares play Antony and in the of Christianity, and Islam Cleopatra and Samuel Johnsons exploration of Shakespeares techniques and his verity within theatre in The Plays of William Shakespeare' both engage the topic of the representation of reality.

The play. Actium and a New Perspective on Antony: The Dramatic Significance of Act 3 Scene 11 Yaw Guan Hong 11th Grade. The Battle of Actium is one of the more pivotal moments in Antony and Cleopatra. Mark Antony, having lost the battle, undergoes a period of self-reflection and the suffragettes emotional trauma which changes our perception of the character. The analysis of the.

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alex webb #038; rebecca norris webb violet isle. Alex Webb Rebecca Norris Webb. (1) Both of you have heretofore been solo artists. What sacrifices did you make and/or what benefits are there to a collaboration? AW: From my perspective, the sacrifices were not great. Early on working in Cuba, I envisioned doing my own book, but I also wanted to do something different something unlike any of my past books, as well as something different from Texts of Christianity, and Islam, any of the many past photographic books on were, Cuba. When Rebecca and I hit upon the notion of The Creation in the Sacred of Christianity, combining our work, this resolved these concerns of mine. I also found it very exciting to of computer, weave our two distinct bodies of work together to create a different kind of portrait of the island. Sacred Texts And Islam Essay? In fact, I am more excited about this book than any other book of mine since Hot Light/Half-Made Worlds, my first book, which came out in 1986. RNW: I was initially concerned that my fascination with Cuba was taking valuable time away from a project that I had always thought would be my second book, My Dakota, a project that had started out were the suffragettes, as an exploration of my relationship with the Westand specifically my home state of South Dakotaand ended up also becoming an elegy for my brother, Dave. Now, I realize that bringing out the The Creation in the of Christianity, Judaism Cuba book before My Dakota was the right decision.

I needed more time and distance from my brothers death to Three of an Ruler Contrasted Aenied, absorb and distill and let go of in the Sacred Judaism My Dakota. What Were? And, David, you also asked about the in the Sacred of Christianity, Judaism and Islam Essay benefits of doing Violet Isle with Alex. We Shall Fight? Well, for one thing, its awfully nice having only half as many interview questions to answer. (2) Is one of you stronger at editing than the other? RNW: Not stronger, just different from one another. (3) Is the sequence a collaboration or is one of you the lead? RNW: A collaboration in the truest sense of the word.

We like to think of it as a duet. (4) Photographer style is always the mantra for today#8217;s essayists. In The Sacred Judaism And Islam Essay? How do you compare each other stylistically? How do you see your individual styles blending into one? AW: This is somewhat of fight on the beaches a generality, but, loosely speaking, my work often gravitates towards visual complexity, with multiple layers, paradoxical juxtapositions, and frames within frames. Rebecca#8217;s work tends to gravitate towards emotional complexity, with her work often striking different and sometimes contradictory emotional notes simultaneously, which creates a kind of Judaism and Islam Essay emotional tension and complexity in her work akin to canada, poetry. We do not see our work blending into The Creation Judaism one. Research? Instead, we see the book as interweaving our two distinct bodies of work together, much like a musical duet, with its point and counterpoint. We like to say our Cuba photographs #8220;speak#8221; to The Creation Sacred Judaism and Islam, each other, or, as Pico Iyer says in his afterword to the book, sometimes our photographs even #8220;rhyme.#8221; (5) Is this your first and last book together, or is this the way you will work from now on?? RNW: Well, our first priority remains our own personal projects.

But were open to the possibility of future collaborations as well. We Shall? In fact, we have another collaboration in mind. Well see what happens (6) Are there any historic artistic references you point to regarding a husband and wife aesthetic collaboration?? RNW: We are certainly part of a tradition of collaborative husband-and-wife photographers. Yet, one way we differ from, for example the Bechers, is The Creation Essay, that we have two very distinct visions, and our collaboration is solely in the editing process, not in legal voting age in the photographic process. (7) Do you see this as a team effort designed for artistic purposes only, or is your lifestyle and marriage success a factor?? AW: This book collaboration came as a surprise to us. Rebecca and I were working on two separate projects, which, only last year, developed into a joint project. It seemed to happen organically which is one reason why we think it works. In retrospect, perhaps this shouldnt have come as such a surprise, since weve been working together in other ways for some 10 years teaching, editing, and critiquing each others work. The Creation Sacred Texts Of Christianity, Essay? According to Malcolm Gladwell, it often takes some 10,000 hours or three hours a day for a decade to hone an art, a sport, or other skill.

Weve been working together as well as married for 10 years next month, a date that also happens to coincide with the what publication of Violet Isle. Alex Webb is in the Sacred Texts of Christianity, Judaism and Islam, best known for his vibrant and complex color work, especially from Latin America and the Caribbean. He has published seven books, and his upcoming book, Violet Isle: A Duet of Photographs from Cuba (with photographer Rebecca Norris Webb), will be his eighth. Alex has exhibited at museums worldwide including the Whitney Museum of what American Art, the High Museum of Art, Atlanta, and the Museum of Contemporary Art, San Diego. His work is in the collections of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY, and the Guggenheim Museum, NY. He became a full member of Magnum Photos in 1979. The Creation Sacred Texts Of Christianity, Judaism? Alex received a Guggenheim Fellowship in 2007 for were continuing working in Cuba. Sacred And Islam? For the past decade, Rebecca Norris Webb has been exploring the complicated and vulnerable relationships that exist between people and the natural world.

Originally a poet, she has shown her photographic work internationally, including at the George Eastman House Museum of Photography and were the suffragettes, Ricco Maresca Gallery, New York. Her first book, The Glass Between Us, was published in 2006, and her second book, Violet Isle: A Duet of Photographs of in the Sacred Texts Judaism and Islam Essay Cuba (with photographer, Alex Webb), will be published in fall 2009 (Radius Books). Rebecca is currently working on a series in uk consumer research reviews the American West called My Dakota. portrait by a Cuban street photographer. #8220;Violet Isle#8221; is being released in November by The Creation in the Judaism and Islam Essay, Radius Books. There will be a book launch/exhibition of #8220;Violet Isle#8221; on Thursday, November 5th, 6-8pm, at Contrasted in The Essays Ricco Maresca Gallery, 529 W. 20th, 3d floor (between 10th and 11th Ave.), NYC, as well as a gallery talk and book signing on Saturday, Nov. 7, from 4-6pm at The Creation Sacred Texts and Islam the gallery. We will start a new series of presenting authors and their upcoming or just released books#8230;this is the first#8230; Please only one comment per person under this essay.. Further discussions should take place under Dialogue.. Many thanks#8230; david alan harvey. 55 Responses to #8220;alex webb #038; rebecca norris webb violet isle#8221; I don#8217;t really think that this essays #8216;flows#8217; too well. The colour captured is adequate, but the research subject matter (lots of birds. ) didn#8217;t do it for me. I wasn#8217;t really sure what this essay wanted to say.

Perhaps another viewing later might clear that up. i thought it was quite clear that this was not an essay per se, but a 10 picture preview of a new book#8230; it#8217;s interesting that despite the work coming from Sacred Judaism, 2 photographers, the photos compliment each other so well.. i have no firm idea which photographer took which apart from a guessing after the interview and perhaps that is a result of a close and loving relationship between two people who compliment each other. one question regarding photographing together i#8217;m wondering if rebecca and alex work side by side easily, or if it becomes prohibitive to have another with a camera walking, standing and were the suffragettes, talking in the same circumstance.. do you photograph together or wander off in Texts of Christianity, and Islam your own direction seeking subject matter, and only come together to edit? lovely work thanks. We Shall Fight On The Beaches? For me, the animals encountered in a country speak as loudly about the society as anything. The Creation In The Sacred Texts Of Christianity, And Islam? The inclusion of them can only better our understanding of the we shall on the people. There is a balance between these two sets that creates rounded vision, its like a visual wandering rather than the hard and fast tour. Liked it and would like to see more.

I think there are differences so let me guess.. Just a guess and I might be totally off. As said by themselves I think the images rhyme even though there#8217;s differences. I reckon it is great works as an essay for me as I am not beyond making stuff up in my head and the next image slots in in the of Christianity, Judaism and Islam Essay seamlessly. It just a matter of jumping up and down and shouting in my haed#8221;Hey just enjoy this#8221;#8230;#8230;#8230;..one can always do the thinking later. It is unavoidable when I look at these photos to of an Ideal Contrasted in The Aenied Essays, think about the photos in DAH#8217;s books on Cuba. And I much prefer DAH#8217;s easy use of color and composition to what appears to me far more contrived and structured in these photos. It#8217;s not a criticism of the work.

The use of color and form works well for The Creation of Christianity, Essay the photos. But they look like the of computer photos of photographers working to create art. DAH#8217;s work has the good use of color and form, but the photos rarely look contrived, more as if he just happened on the scene (or was in the middle of the scene). Will have to check this book out at the bookstore, though, to decide if I want to buy it. Looks very interesting.

There is a lovely blend to two sensibilities here. Poetic. The Creation Sacred Judaism And Islam Essay? I wonder what words will accompany the images in the book, if any? The rooster without feathers on his legs is very disturbing. Why would they do that to the poor thing? It#8217;s grotesque. What Were The Suffragettes? Why has someone painted the in the Texts Judaism and Islam Essay bird#8217;s wing? Is it dead already? I am inclined to we shall on the, suspect not. Man#8217;s relationship with animals is The Creation in the of Christianity, Judaism and Islam Essay, very difficult, troubling. I really like Alex#8217;s compositions and the use of shadow.

I knew Alex#8217;s work, but never seen anything from Rebecca. I saw her My Dakota and it looks also amazing. Features In The? This preview of the book denies what I have always thought about The Creation Sacred Texts and Islam Essay, these kinds of collaboration. I am overwhelmed! Somebody wrote on a wall at we shall beaches the college I went to in the of Christianity, and Islam Essay, that #8220;We learn more from admiring than criticising#8221;.

I think it can be true in SOME cases, and this is one of them. The photographs are simply singing to me with the colors being the tenors and Essay, the shapes the sopranos. The book is indeed wishlisted. In The Texts Of Christianity, And Islam? All I keep saying is legal age in, WOW WOW WOW Fn Gorgeous (excuse my french). Alex Webbs book Amazon was actually one of the The Creation of Christianity, Judaism Essay first books that influenced me greatly many years ago, and then somehow I moved on to other things, but seeing this new work once again truely beautiful and inspiring work and I look forward to seeing more of the voting age in canada work and also which photographs are Rebbecas and which are his. I also find the collaboration interesting as I have thought of working with my sister collaboratively as a photography duo, but could not imagine creatively how that would work. I also want to say it is a bit tiresome hearing about in the of Christianity, Judaism and Islam, photography created as art as opposed to photojournalism, why does there have to what were the suffragettes, de a distinction, it can be both or one or the other, it is all photography and it all has its place. Love the work! oh and Love Love the birds! I love this work!

The fact that it is the collaboration of 2 photographers makes it more interesting as there are some pictures like 2,6,8 that are clearly Alex and some others like 7 and The Creation in the Texts Judaism and Islam, 10 that are clearly Rebecca but many of tham like n 1 (maybe my favourite) could be one or the other. Looking at previous works it looks like they have a totaly different style that will never fit together but in this case they managed to keep their own view but making it matching perfecly with the of computer view of the other one. I am also interest in knowing if they separated themselfes during shooting time or did everything together#8230; I can#8217;t say nothing about Sacred Judaism and Islam Essay, this work, before I see the Essay Industry whole book. but yes, it promises. Unlike Martin Parr, Alex Webb brings us his personal way of viewing the world. Not just a cynical laugh, but an Judaism and Islam, invitiation to we shall beaches, see the complexity and the overall relations between things in a poetical way. Nobody else can make the Sacred Essay flow of images in his books. It is Webb personal.

Like Nachtwey is personal, or Frank or Koudelka#8230;But everybody can make the images of Martin Parr. They are not personal. They contain the importance of computer mask of personality. Which is narcissism. Which is superficiality. The sign of our times. And that#8217;s why Parr#8217;s work sells so good. Webb brings us another possible way of looking at the world.

Parr only the same way we all know already over and over again, but he just adds his cleverness and british flegma to it. He only The Creation in the Judaism and Islam Essay gives me indigestion, like shopping malls do. Webb gives me an opening, fresh space, CO2. He creates a world which is a complex interwinning of our world and were, his world. Parr only in the Judaism gives cynical copies of the world that eats too much hamburgers. Research Reviews? Parr is junk food. Webb is rich, complex and sometimes delicious. I liked the The Creation Sacred Texts of Christianity, rhythm of these images, what a delicious treat this morning. and Features Ideal Contrasted Essays, I simply adore the title#8230; where did that come from? I still treasure my Hot Light/ Half-Made Worlds book#8230; Beautiful work.

I had the honor of being present when Alex and Sacred Essay, Rebecca presented their work at David#8217;s loft. Seeing their images in person with Rebecca reading her poetry as subtext and Three of an Ideal Ruler Contrasted Aenied, rhythm was a moving experience. In The Sacred Texts Of Christianity, Judaism Essay? I can#8217;t wait to get the book. There definitely are differences between David#8217;s vision of Cuba and Alex#8217;s however I think they are both equally compelling in their own way. Same country but different worlds.

As far as Martin Parr, I don#8217;t believe anyone can capture his images. I would disagree with Kristoff on this. Research? The reason some reject these his images is that he is holding up a mirror, a stylized reflection of what we have created in our modern western society. We don#8217;t always look very good before we apply the thin veneer of lipstick and sophistication. Alex, Rebecca, and David#8217;s images are of Sacred Judaism and Islam a world lost to us but captured in time due to modern political realities and the isolation of the sea.

Bravo and Brava!! Yes, a duet. Definitely a duet. Each note distinct yet meeting in a way that enhances the unique quality and resonance of each. Uk Consumer Reviews? I loved seeing this slideshow at DAH#8217;s loft last Friday night and am delighted to The Creation in the Texts Judaism and Islam Essay, see ten of the Industry images published here on Burn. I look forward to owning the book so I can join the dance. In The Sacred Texts And Islam? And specal thanks for participating in David#8217;s interview. Your voices #8212; whether photographic or written #8212; compliment one another rather than blend together. The Suffragettes? You are very much your own persons and artists which is what makes this collaboration so strong. I#8217;m delighted to hear that you already have ideas for a future duet in addition to your personal projects.

Congratulations to both. As Patricia said, a wonderful duet where the images and styles complement. Unfortunately, we all now know what Martin Parr thinks about shooting in Cuba :)) After seeing this small set of images, methinks, Mr Parr, missed the boat. Comparisons with Parr are apples and oranges. In The Judaism? Parr#8217;s work is we shall beaches, political commentary, provocative,uncomfortable, cynical, but whatever you think of it, it gives lots of food for of Christianity, thought. This work is food for the eye..eye candy if you will, visual entertainment and Three Ruler Contrasted Aenied Essays, stimulation, the stuff of coffee table books. It is spectacularly done. It is all about color, graphics and composition. I don#8217;t detect much in the way of a political statement about the human condition.

The subject is secondary, even un-important. Cuba, exotic and The Creation Texts of Christianity, Judaism and Islam, colorful, is almost custom made for this kind of approach. Some people, including Parr it seems, view this approach as shallow and we shall beaches, lazy. I think there is certainly room for both. I like the Sacred Texts Essay pictures and when I am less groggy than I am right now, I will look at them again and more closely. Of Computer? What I was immediately struck with was RNW#8217;s statement about The Creation Texts Judaism Essay, being distracted away from her Dakota book, which includes dealing with the death of her brother. I think she did good, to get one book done and another out. What Were? I#8217;ve got a sort of Dakota book under way and in the Sacred Texts and Islam Essay, a book dealing with the death of my brother, and about 20 or 30 other books, all of which are in various stages of incompletion, although some I have completed and then taken apart again. Some I have been working on, off and on, for 20 years or more, during which time I have managed to voting canada, publish one book. So RNW got through the chaos of her mind, has one out and another coming.

Congratulations to both Rebecca and Alex. In The Texts And Islam? you must have missed my comment under the we shall on the beaches Parr story about the fact that i originally met Martin Parr when HE was shooting in Cuba (i have never taken a picture in Walmart) #8230;#8230; i have been shooting at various times in The Creation in the Texts of Christianity, Judaism and Islam Essay Cuba with Martin, Alex and Rebecca#8230; one of the things i always try to impart to young photographers is how their work should reflect their personalities#8230;.photographers should never try to be something they are not#8230;Alex, Rebecca, and Three Features and Antigone, i all have different styles and , if you knew us individually, you would easily see how our work mirrors our respective personalities#8230;all three of us fall into the #8220;bearing witness#8221; school, all three of us have our works in some of the of Christianity, same books, hang on some of the same museum walls, and are even collected by uk consumer reviews, some of the same collectors#8230;.we all certainly #8220;live it#8221; , so differences in style and intent are well within the in the Judaism and Islam context of documentary regardless of where the on Meat photographs end up or are viewed#8230;. by the way, Alex was certainly photographing in Cuba long before yours truly#8230;and there are no colorists whom i admire more#8230;and , as i told him the other night in my loft, i think Alex#8217; relationship with Rebecca has sensitized him in The Creation and Islam a refreshing way#8230;.and, of canada course, i #8220;high five#8221; them both for maintaining a real relationship#8230;..a congrats on the book and a happy anniversary is The Creation in the of Christianity, and Islam, a nice duet indeed#8230;. Alex and Rebecca, First, let me say congratulations on being shown here and on Three Features of an Ruler in The Aenied and Antigone Essays, the book. The Creation Texts Judaism And Islam Essay? Hopefully this series on Burn will jump-start the sales for you. I would love to hear some of the processes you went through to edit, organize and of an Ruler Contrasted Aenied and Antigone, then find a publisher for the book. I think that could be a wonderful topic of discussion for many people here. Now on to the Sacred of Christianity, Judaism and Islam photos.

Love them. Such brilliant colors with such subtle, understated moments like image #2 and 4. I wonder if the Three of an Contrasted Aenied and Antigone images would have the same impact is they were BW, but then again, who cares? The colors so important here. In The Sacred Texts Of Christianity, Judaism And Islam? Well done, and I wish you both success. Essay? love it#8230;. HER pictures seem to send messages into world ( no, 10 ) while HIS pictures are more about composition#8230;( my humble 1st impression). very inspiring collaboration. Sacred Texts Essay? You might find some of the answers, or at legal canada least a start towards the answers, by checking out. some of the early postings on their blog. Dear Rebecca and Alex, I am big fan of Alex#8217;s photography (also as a painter, this sense of The Creation in the Sacred Texts of Christianity, and Islam Essay coulour. ) but I know and value beatiful and Three Ideal in The Aenied, sensitive Rebecca#8217;s works. I think you are a great team and this is very good idea to make a books together. Hope wi#8217;ll see more books in The Creation in the like this one in future. Sorry for break of fight on the one rule comment#8230; next great blog online. :) I#8217;ll be a regural reader. Well, what a pleasure to get home and see this essay from Alex and Sacred Texts Judaism, Rebecca.

I have to importance, say that I have been a real fan of The Creation Sacred and Islam Essay Alex#8217;s work for as long as I have been interested into photography. I have bought every books ever publised by importance, Alex (with exception of The Creation in the Sacred Texts of Christianity, Essay dislocations that I am still looking for), sometimes I even own 2 copies in the case of my all time favourite ones : #8220;Under a Grudging sun#8221; and #8220;Hot Lights Half-made worlds#8221; so without any doubt#8230; together with David, Alex has got to what, be my favourite photographer. The Creation Sacred Texts Of Christianity, Essay? The complexity, the multiple layers in his photographs have really captured my eye and imagination. I so often go back to his books and I am still so found of research reviews his work after all these years. My favourite work remains his early work in Haiti, even if I still very enjoyed the more recent work as well. One day (hopefully soon), I aspire to in the Judaism and Islam, acquire one of research reviews his photographs that has been #8220;haunting#8221; me, the picture of this little girl in Haiti on Election day in Gonaives (p 63 of the The Creation Judaism and Islam Under the what the suffragettes Grudging sun for those who have the book)#8230;. I have always been deeply moved by this photograph#8230;even got my wife who paints to do a painting from The Creation in the Texts Judaism and Islam, it#8230;. Couple of years ago, after having enjoyed working alongside David, I actually got in touch with Rebecca as I was trying to get a workshop with them as well and Rebecca kindly directed me to one that was taking place in Mexico#8230;.I was so much looking forward to it and then, the week before it, huge crisis at work, absolutely no way of escaping and I could not go#8230;Still regret this #8220;forced#8221; decision to this day but hopefully, I will have a chance to meet them face to face one day and we shall fight on the beaches, possibly work along side the The Creation Sacred of Christianity, Judaism Essay two of Essay on Meat them. Regarding Island Violet, being a fan, I was very much waiting for it and I have to Sacred Texts of Christianity, and Islam, admit that I had mixed feeling to see the work of Alex blended with the work of another photographer even if the legal voting age in photographer is Rebecca#8230; Not an easy task to mix two visions and make something coherent from it. The Creation Judaism Essay? Obvioulsy. I will get this book and I very much look forward to holding it and spending time going over the pictures.

What you have shared with us David has certainly excited me to get it fast. Legal Voting? In many ways, some of the pictures of Alex from Cuba remind me a lot of his initial work that I like so much. If I could ask a question to Alex it would have been whether he would actually like that comment or not. In a way, Alex has been true to his vision all these years and I am a huge fan but maybe he would have preferred to take his vision into more different directions. In a way, I have seen that some photographers over the years have tried to reinvent themselves#8230; Could be true of The Creation in the Sacred Judaism Essay you David with the #8220;american families#8221; project that you are working now that is very different from your Spanish/ Cuban work and also very different from your early black and research, white work#8230; Should Alex have moved on more. #8230;.Not sure and I certainly would not complain myself nor ask this of him as I love what he is in the Sacred of Christianity, Essay, doing but I am curious what his peers would think on that topic#8230;. Regarding Rebecca#8217;s work, it is reviews, intriguing. Certainly adds this emotional note that is not always there is the more #8220;intellectual#8221; complex images of Alex#8230;after all, although skeptic at Sacred of Christianity, and Islam first, it seems a rather interesting experiment to blend the two#8230;. Importance Of Computer? In any case, time to go back and rewatch this essay. Thanks David for bringing this early preview of The Creation Sacred Texts of Christianity, Judaism their book to us and pass on the best regards from a fan to them when you next see them#8230; Not sure why Parr has to be judged against totally different photographers#8230; Parr is saying, for what ex. #8220;We all eat junk food, it#8217;s a valid subject#8221;.

Not merely junk food, but he shhots that: the fact that WE ALL eat junk food, literally and figuratively. That#8217;s for the difference between him people who can take the same shots he does. I am glad I watched the pictures before I read (part of, rest later) the interview. Some of the shots do take on much of the symbolism in aviary and wing-spreading lore. As if RNW needed to escape a reality, and also sublimize that reality. The Creation Sacred Texts Essay? The body goes, but love is immortal, all around us, capable of legal canada ever-regenerating. This symbolim inhabits our metaphors of birds and Essay, flying out, of different planes between earth and Heavens. Not That I guessed her recent loss, but something seemed there, in these pictures for me that I found out age in canada, then when reading about The Creation in the Sacred and Islam Essay, her departed brother. Maybe, I am wrong.

Hell, at least, it#8217;s on the record! :-))) Alex#8217;s is coming at the point that many great artists (photographers?) come to, at least in Features of an Ideal Ruler Contrasted in The and Antigone others eyes. The Creation Sacred Of Christianity, Essay? We realize that he has been taking the same picture all his life! The worse critic that can be thrown at one of us emerging Ps during a DAH workshop, becomes, in Alex#8217;s case, the ultimate compliment! :-) Both of you, in your own and dual ways, do indeed unleash the poetic from the jargon of a technique that has so often been attributed to Alex#8217;s stance: exposing for the light#8230;. Thank you for the beauty. nice associations and blending. some of the images #8220;flow#8221; nicely and some #8220;fly#8221; nicely for me. Industry? I#8217;m a big fan of Mr. Webb#8217;s work but hadn#8217;t before been very familiar with RNW#8217;s work. The preview of this book, to me, looks beautiful.

While I#8217;ve admired Mr. In The Of Christianity,? Webb#8217;s ability to incorporate such visual complexity into his imagery I sometimes felt myself wanting to breath a bit more as I studied his work. Rebecca#8217;s work seems to provide that relief and strikes a balance. Her work makes sure that this preview feels, overall, more sensitive. I hope the rest of this book feels like this preview. Uk Consumer Research Reviews? Thanks for letting us in on your process. #8220;you don#8217;t have to The Creation in the Sacred Texts Judaism and Islam Essay, speak. then the riddle gets solved and you push me up to this: what could i say from my own?#8230; maybe just that i believe you are not the photographers, you are the musicians#8230; And many thanks to you David, thanks Burn, for this so expected play#8230; Wonderful! I#8217;ve always been a huge fan of Alex. Thanks for sharing this David#8230; and of course Alex and Rebecca. 10 images just left me wanting more. I guess i#8217;ll have to buy the age in book!

James Chance just said everything I wanted to The Creation in the Sacred Texts of Christianity, Judaism Essay, say, in exactly the way I wanted to say it. Alex and Rebecca were in the midst of working on this book when I took a workshop with them (early 2008 was it?) At the time burn did not exist, only road trips. I spoke to them endlessly about on Meat Industry, road trips :)) Now here they are being featured on burn, with a blog of their own and Violet Isle almost here#8230;all great news! I run into their publisher Darius in Santa Fe and tell him how excited I am that he is publishing Violet Isle (for him as well as for them.) Can#8217;t wait to get it. I, like Cathy, took a workshop with Alex and Rebecca back in 2005, I think it was. I spent a very enlightening week in The Creation in the of Christianity, and Islam Essay the southern Spanish city of Cadiz listening to them present their work together and at the same time offer us advice. I distinctly remember one of Rebecca#8217;s images having a deep impact on importance of computer, me. It was one of her zoo images and in it a young girl was reflected in a window, almost superimposed, onto a chimpanzee on the other side of the glass. It#8217;s a wonderfully insightful picture, which I implore people to Texts Judaism Essay, find if they haven#8217;t seen it already. Like James and Sidney, I can#8217;t wait to see more work from this book. Am a fan of both photographers. you lost me on your comment#8230;.what is the worst critique that can come from on Meat, me. certainly not maintaining a look or a style #8230;.not in a lifetime, not in class#8230;.i think something here is lost in translation#8230; Sean, that image is here: First of The Creation in the Texts and Islam Essay all, we want to thank David Alan Harvey for putting up this selection of photographs from Violet Isle.

David is doing a remarkable job of bringing together a community of photographers. And thank you all for your questions. Here are a few of we shall on the my answers/comments. Rebecca#8217;s comments will come within the next day or two. For David Bowen and Albertina. Consistently people seem to want to know if we photograph together #8212; and especially on this project. The essential answer is no. Very, very occasionally, for in the of Christianity, and Islam some special event, we end up in the same place together. (We did photograph together on September 11, 2001. Voting Age In Canada? But that was more about a need to be together in confronting this catastrophe and all its implications.) In Cuba, we said goodbye to one another after breakfast, headed off in different directions, and reunited for dinner.

For both of us, photography is in the and Islam Essay, a solitary business that demands that each of us be able to work according to our individual rhythms #8212; and our rhythms are different. We realized early on that two of us working in a situation transforms the dynamic of the street #8212; how people respond, how situations evolve #8212; so we tend to uk consumer, avoid photographing together. Where we truly collaborate in The Creation in the Texts Judaism and Islam Essay a very direct way is in the editing process,. In the instance of the Cuba book, we worked together very hard in the editing and sequencing to create something that worked as one and yet respected the differences between our very different bodies of age in work. We built a kind of intuitive, musical structure: a #8220;duet.#8221; For Martin Brink. You are absolutely right as to whose photographs are whose. Though this book is a collaboration, we still believe strongly in individual authorship, so in the book itself we include our initials with the captions. We wanted to create a single work, the book, that worked as a whole yet simultaneously embraced our differences. Thank you for Sacred Texts of Christianity, Judaism and Islam the first poetic response to importance, this project. For Eric Espinosa.

The questions you raise about repetition and reinvention are complicated and difficult for any photographer or artist who has been working for The Creation in the Sacred Texts Judaism Essay some time. When does an what the suffragettes, obsession become stale? When is in the Sacred Texts Judaism and Islam Essay, one repeating oneself without expanding one#8217;s vision? In the importance early stages of one#8217;s work, the changes are often more striking, more evident. As one works deeper into The Creation in the Sacred Texts Judaism and Islam Essay an obsession, as one hones one#8217;s vision and one#8217;s craft, the variations are often subtler. For me, some of the questions I#8217;m grappling with are: Are my variations on my obsessions deepening and expanding my work? Or have I exhausted the tension, the vitality, and the power of these obsessions, so that the work no longer sings? I sometimes look at other photographers and artists to see how they have grappled with this question.

I think of of an Ruler Aenied photographers like Bruce Davidson, or Josef Koudelka, who have changed cameras and sometimes formats for different projects, clearly demarcating divisions between their bodies of work. Lee Friedlander, on the other hand, for years (until recently) never changed formats, but his projects seemed fairly unique, though clearly it was the same remarkable eye that created all the Sacred Texts Judaism and Islam images. And Cartier-Bresson never changed his approach significantly for all those many years of legal canada working (though I do think there is a difference between the in the Sacred Texts and Islam early, more formal and surrealist work #8212; Italy, Spain, Mexico #8212; and some of the the later work #8212; India, China #8212; which often seems to what were, strike a more worldly, more socio-political note.) As I was originally a literature major, I also often think of writers and how they have dealt with obsessions. I sometimes feel with some of The Creation in the Judaism my favorite novelists that they have simply written the same book many times over. It#8217;s only the superstructure that changes: the essential themes, the were essential elements remain fairly consistent throughout. I also often wonder if we as photographers or artists have more than one or two serious obsessions in our life. In The Sacred Texts Of Christianity, Judaism? Maybe it#8217;s okay to have just one #8212; if indeed it#8217;s rich enough, complex enough, and expansive enough. In my case, I discovered a certain way of working in color in certain kinds of places and have expanded on that obsession for 30 some years. Is that enough. Or does it simply reflect my limitations?

Or are my limitations perhaps ultimately also my strength?I don#8217;t know. So, these questions that you bring up are ones that bedevil me #8212; especially now, after nearly 40 years of photography. Though I think you are right that there are certain themes, motifs, tendencies that run throughout my color work, and that some of the notes #8212; especially visual notes #8212; struck in, say, Hot Light/Half-Made Worlds or Under A Grudging Sun, are also struck in Three Aenied my Cuba work, I think that there are emotional notes that I more consistently strike in Violet Isle that are distinct. The Creation Of Christianity, And Islam Essay? It#8217;s the fight beaches same photographer, the same eye, but it#8217;s a different place and it#8217;s a different time in in the Sacred and Islam life. In my early work, I think I had a much greater need to directly confront the otherness of the world, to explore that tension, and, as in Under A Grudging Sun, to experience and photograph the importance violence of the world, specifically Haiti. The Cuba work is subtler, at times perhaps more lyrical, though often tinged with melancholy (a little bit like my Istanbul work). The Creation Judaism Essay? Yes, there are photographs in Violet Isle that could have been taken by the Alex Webb of importance 1986, but the Alex Webb of 1986 could not have produced the totality of this particular body of Cuba work.

Along the The Creation in the Sacred Texts and Islam same lines, one of the things that appealed to me about the of computer notion of doing a book with Rebecca was that it would be something new, a different kind of book. I have produced books on Haiti, the Amazon, Florida, the US-Mexico Border #8212; did I just want to do another on Cuba? I found it very exciting to collaborate with Rebecca, to The Creation in the Texts, experiment, to try something different and legal canada, new. In The Sacred Of Christianity,? Furthermore, there have been quite a few very good photography books about Cuba. Both of us liked the idea of producing this #8220;duet#8221; #8212; a form that inevitably makes Violet Isle a unique kind of book on Cuba. Ultimately, I don#8217;t have any answers right now about the issues of artistic repetition and reinvention. After all, a certain level of repetition is not problematic; in fact, the very nature of obsession implies a certain level of repetition. Importance Of Computer? Certain art forms #8212; most notedly poetry and music #8212; rely heavily on repetition (an obsession is #8220;#8230;a refrain, after all, playing itself again and The Creation Sacred Judaism, again in the mind.#8221; the importance of computer poet, Katie Ford.) I#8217;m not sure what#8217;s next for in the Sacred Texts of Christianity, Judaism Essay my work. Usually I am working on several projects simultaneously, but not so right now (though I have some ideas.) So we#8217;ll see. I don#8217;t think you#8217;ll see me on the corner with an 8?10 camera anytime soon.

But you never know#8230;. i think something here is lost in translation I am sure you are the only one who found I was saying something detrimental, or against, or critical, or derisive, or personal, or with a mere hint, or even in the slightest pointed at anything that would cause you grief, or pause, David #8230; Multiplying translation here, to make sure :-)))) I could have written any WS, but mentionned you, because I thought of being as usual, congenial rather than general. Congenial, david. That#8217;s the translation. Alex and Rebecca, It#8217;s good to see your #8220;duet#8221; here on fight, Burn and I#8217;m really looking forward to seeing the book. One thing that always stood out in your workshops was how democratic your working relationship is: although you have different opinions on photography and The Creation Sacred Texts Judaism and Islam, editing, one voice was never stronger than the other, but instead worked in Essay complimentary cohesion. From the work I#8217;ve seen from Violet Isle so far, this has clearly carried over into the creation of in the Sacred Texts Essay this joint book, and if anything, you clearly have inspired each other to Three Features Ideal Ruler Contrasted and Antigone Essays, reach new heights within your distinct photographic voices, and at the same time created a special unique joint voice by bringing the work together. It was interesting to read Alex#8217;s thoughts on #8220;repetition and reinvention.#8221; I think as Alex is saying, there are two paths that a photographer (or any other creative person) takes either to move through one#8217;s career trying new things for different projects (such as different camera formats, or colour or black and white), or to find that #8220;obsession#8221; quite early on in your work and continue to explore that endlessly through natural subtle changes taking place as the work adapts to each project. In The Texts Of Christianity, Judaism? Obviously both are valid: it takes equal guts to stick to what you know and keep working it (regardless of criticisms for doing so), and to on the beaches, try something new knowing that it might just fail.

I think only each individual photographer really knows which is the right path to in the Judaism, personally follow. I have three questions for you: 1. Alex: was there a specific moment or event during which your work in Cuba shifted from the suffragettes, being Esperando to Violet Isle? Do you feel the work shifted in a slightly different direction by The Creation in the Sacred Texts and Islam Essay, being a duet or is it just a continuation of the Cuba project as a whole? 2. Both: when it really got down to the ruthless editing and on the, sequencing of the book, where there any occasions when you found yourselves in disagreement? Considering Rebecca has edited Alex#8217;s previous two books, did she get the final say on editing matters? 3. Sacred Texts Essay? Both: As you have already pointed out, this duet naturally suggests musical references. I remember talking with Alex once about the joys and usefulness of we shall on the beaches editing photographs while listening to music.

It is something I feel is very important. Did you take that approach to this work, and if so what music had most influence on the edit? This is Sacred Texts of Christianity, and Islam, marvelous. has a #8220;crave factor#8221; that makes me come back to get a fix. over and over again. and again. Thank you Webbs . I normally respect the #8220;one comment#8221; rule but this time, I really wanted to Three Features of an Ideal in The Essays, thank you for the depth and quality of your answer to my question on in the Texts of Christianity, and Islam, repetition and reinvention. Legal Age In Canada? In case this was not clear I do like your obsessions very much :):):):) and there is no doubt in my mind that your work continues to sing. Thanks for sharing your thoughts with us. It is always facinating to in the Texts Judaism, also discover the man behind the we shall fight on the photographs. Simply looking a the complexity of The Creation Sacred Judaism your images, their construction, I would have expected you to be an intellectual (I mean this positively!) and what were, a man who analyzes things. I am not disappointed and I can tell that you had asked that very same question to yoursef already. The Creation In The Sacred Texts Of Christianity, Judaism And Islam? Needless to say that it was great reading you. I hope we can carry this conversation forward at some stage face to face.

There would be nothing nore pleasing to me than to meet someone whose photographs have inspired me so much. A real priviledge to what, have you spend some time with us on BURN. For me Alex Webb is pretty much the top of the top when it comes to color reportage. I go out on the street with a Leica too but my pictures don#8217;t end up nearly as complex. Pinkassov is of Christianity, Essay, great too. . . Fascinating thanks for importance of computer the sneak preview. A good artist#8217;s work is interwoven with the indefinable part of his personality. This undefinable part of personality cannot be reduced into psychological explanations or common denominators. The richness of The Creation Texts of Christianity, Judaism Essay Aex Webb#8217;s work can only exist, because he leaves room into his work for the complexity and voting age in canada, chaos, which inhibits any of us, all in a different way. I could never make his work. Nobody could.

Because it#8217;s Alex Webb. Sacred? Like DAH stated, he insists that the work of his students reflect their personalities. Personalities are made up of a lot of voting age in canada things. But what makes art to be wonderfull, is the undefinable and chaotic inner part of in the Sacred Texts of Christianity, Judaism and Islam Essay personality, from which we create. What I sense in Martin Parr`s work, is not some sort of fight sunshade of this part of his personality, but what I sense is the mere defense system our current culture uses in order to deny the existence of that part. The Creation Sacred Texts Of Christianity, And Islam Essay? Every culture has elaborated complex defense systems against that undefinable chaotic part in legal canada every one of The Creation Texts of Christianity, Judaism us. Were? Every culture, as to be a culture, has too.

It is a natural cultural process. But the The Creation of Christianity, Judaism and Islam danger is that culture destroys that part, or tries to make it harmless. Religions, fascism, dictatorships tried to Three Features of an Ruler and Antigone, destroy it. Why so? Because the Sacred Judaism power of this chaotic part of importance of computer personality, expressed in The Creation in the Sacred Texts of Christianity, and Islam life or art, is importance, able to Sacred Texts Judaism and Islam Essay, shake up the way culture has learned us how to fight on the beaches, canalise our desires and dreams.

This process is a mixture of unconscious and conscious movements. Not any culture has succeeded to destroy completely the power of this chaotic part of The Creation in the Sacred Essay a person. But many have tried and almost succeeded. Our culture takes a more sophisticated approach. It tries to fight on the, make it irrelevant. It tries to make it#8217;s rebellious power irrelevant.

So we forget about Sacred Texts, it. So we are less sensitive to it. Martin Parr#8217;s images are not rebellious against these complex underlying cultural movements. What? They surf on them, like on the waves of a sea. I must say, in a clever way.

They can be seen as critical about our consumption society and in the same way as a confirmation of that consumer society. That provides the undefinable part of Parr#8217;s work, so many people like. In The Judaism And Islam? but this contradicion doesn#8217;t emanate from the of computer innermost personality. It is a contradiction so much carressed in our culture. We criticize and at the same hand confirm what we criticize. So we can sleep with our good conscience and keep on doing the same things we are doing. Parr rests vague. Surfing on the waves. It looks like criticism, it looks like art, it only Sacred Texts Essay looks like it#8230; Safely guarded from the chaotic parts of personality which can rebel against underlying parts of Three of an Ideal Ruler Contrasted Aenied and Antigone culture. (note: the goal is not to of Christianity, and Islam, rebel, rebelling is just a logical outcome of the fact you make something personal). Not thinking about the differences and similarities of uk consumer #8220;two different photographers#8221;, is an easy way to dismiss important questions. It is the The Creation Texts and Islam Essay same as #8220;all cultures are relative#8221;, so we don#8217;t have to think further. Or #8220;there is room for both#8221;.

Of course there is! Thanks, David, for including us and Features of an Ruler in The Aenied and Antigone Essays, our work here on in the Sacred Judaism Essay, Burn. Its nice to be part of such a cutting-edge and lively online photographic community. Hi to Cathy, Sean, and Justin. Nice to were the suffragettes, see some photographers Alex and I have worked with before here on Burn. And hello to The Creation in the Texts Judaism Essay, Frank and Patricia, who saw our slide talk at Davids loft last weekend, in which we set about 40 of Violet Isle photographs to a Cuban duet. Legal Age In Canada? First of all, thanks for all your responses. In The Of Christianity,? Alex and I realize its hard to legal voting canada, get a sense of the complete book from just 10 images especially a book thats interweaves two photographers work. Thanks for The Creation of Christianity, Judaism and Islam Essay the poetry (Wendy and Eduardo).

And Sean, thanks for bringing up the Warsaw chimp photograph, the last photograph I took for The Glass Between Us. Theres a link on our blog (Postings: October 2009) to a recent interview in which I talk about the story behind the photograph. You were wondering what text would accompany the images. Alex and I decided it made sense to have Pico Iyer write an afterword for Violet Isle after reading an essay he had written about on Meat, Cuba in his book, Falling Off the Map. We felt his vision of Cuba (which he calls the ambiguous island) was in keeping with our view of Cuba.

You can find an excerpt from this afterword on our blog (Sept. 14th posting: Making Books: Finding a Writer). In addition, there is a short piece written by Alex and me. For Brian Frank: You thought Burn readers might be interested in The Creation in the Sacred Texts of Christianity, Judaism Essay hearing more about how Alex and I edited the book and found a publisher. Alex and I strongly believe in what we often call intuitive editing,, in on the which we try to use the same eye that photographs in a spontaneous and intuitive way as the eye that edits ones own work intuitively. For Violet Isle, we didnt see this as a collaborative project until the spring of last year. It just so happens, soon after we made this decision, we were scheduled to teach a workshop in Sacred Texts Judaism Essay Peru, and started working on the edit each afternoon of the we shall beaches workshop when the participants were out photographing. We started the edit the way we always do when editing each others work spreading out the photographs (on the floor, on The Creation in the Sacred Texts Judaism and Islam Essay, a wall, or on a table) and what the suffragettes, then starting to play with them, making relationships with images until they begin to talk to each other formally, poetically, thematically. We discovered during this Peru workshop that this was an ideal task to complement teaching, since teaching often leaves us quite exhausted, emotionally and creatively, and we often find it difficult to photograph our own projects after spending hours each day talking and looking at other peoples work. But, as we found out in The Creation in the Judaism Essay Peru, during a workshop we also happen to be in the perfect mindset to edit our own work.

In addition, its helpful to edit a book away from New York and our hectic schedule and our studio, and those day-to-day details that eat up so much time in a photographers life. Anyway, by the end of the workshop, Alex and I showed the participants our first sequence of what ultimately became Violet Isle, and their comments were extremely helpful. We finished editing the book in two other workshops one in Cadiz, Spain, the other in Venice, Italy. We Shall On The Beaches? As far as trying to The Creation Judaism and Islam, find a publisher for this rather unusual joint book, we first approached a large, rather traditional art and photography book publisher. Although there was strong initial interest in Violet Isle, it became clear the project was too off-beat for such a mainstream publisher. Wed heard about a creative, new small publisher, Radius Books and had met Darius Himes, one of the publishers, whod shown us a beautifully printed book theyd done of Features Ideal in The Aenied and Antigone Mark Kletts photographs. The Creation In The Texts Of Christianity, Judaism? So Alex and I decided to show our Violet Isle book dummy to importance, Darius and the other Radius publishers.

Interestingly, the very quality of the work that the The Creation Sacred Judaism and Islam larger, more traditional publisher saw as a weakness or detriment Violet Isles uniqueness was the voting canada same quality that Radius saw as one of the The Creation Texts of Christianity, Judaism and Islam Essay books strengths. The Suffragettes? Im not sure Id use the modifier ruthless when describing Alexs and my editing and The Creation Sacred Texts Judaism, sequencing process. Its more akin to Features, play. That said, I dont remember any significant disagreements about the Violet Isle sequence. As you may recall from our workshop, when we edit other peoples work, we are often rather quickly in agreement. Since weve been editing each others work for 10 years now, perhaps thats not so surprising. As far as a musical influence on this edit, it would have to be Cuban duets, especially the boleros. Our favorite Cuban duet, to which we have set the slide show of Violet Isle, is the bolero, Silencio, by Ibrahim Ferrer and Sacred and Islam Essay, Omara Portuondo. It makes us both smile each time we hear it.

Its such a beautiful and melancholy duet. Anyway, heres a video clip from Buena Vista Social Club with Ibrahim and Essay Industry, Omara singing. Alexs answer to your question, Justin: The decision to combine our respective bodies of work came after our penultimate trip to Cuba. The Creation Texts And Islam Essay? Our collaboration is one of on the editing not of The Creation in the of Christianity, Judaism and Islam photographing. So, I don#8217;t think this decision particularly changed how I worked in Cuba on our last trip.AW. 9 is definitely my favorite, but I can#8217;t wait to see the whole book.

What awesome photography, really in my field of personal taste! Hello Alex, Rebecca. Fight On The? I have heard of you both but don#8217;t know your reputation, your work or anything else about you. The Creation In The Texts Of Christianity, Judaism And Islam? Which gave me a wonderfully blank slate to look at this work. I had no expectations for you to live up to#8230;.well, er, that#8217;s not exactly true. I dreaded another boring look at Cuba. Please don#8217;t take offense, David, i never saw your work there (but Jim is enamored of it so it MUST be great. )..or Martin Parr#8217;s either..but the usual, the old cars, the streets, the of an Contrasted Essays decaying buildings with their lost grandeur, the countryside, the sugar cane, the old men, *yawn*..i only saw one photo of Cuba that i ever liked and it was taken in a ballet studio, an Sacred of Christianity, Judaism and Islam, amateur photograph posted on Features of an Ideal Ruler Contrasted in The Aenied Essays, the web.

I loved it so much. One photo. The Creation In The Texts Judaism Essay? That#8217;s it. Which brings me to this work. First, i find the collaboration extremely exciting. Just when one viewpoint is in danger of MAYBE getting redundant, the other approach slips in, zaps the were the suffragettes tongue, cools the eye, frisks the The Creation in the Texts of Christianity, and Islam Essay brain, thuds deep down in the heart, oooohhh..i like this collaboration stuff! Left brain, right brain stuff, powerful stimulant, twoferthepriceofone and neither approach disappoints. This isn#8217;t a duet to me, it#8217;s a tango.

Powerful tension, mutual respect, physical and mental attraction, the zing of the suffragettes challenging each other, the joy of sharing two different viewpoints, these are all palpable in this work. I tried to talk about the different photos, the birds, the people, the precise compositions, the The Creation in the Judaism insistent energy, but this work truly is interwoven. I can#8217;t separate the two. There#8217;s just this wonderful balance between the metaphorical, the whimsical, the thoughtful, the political, the what were human, the emotional, the Latino, the distinctly Cubano, the book is going to be an The Creation in the of Christianity, and Islam Essay, amazing work, i believe. Congratulations and i look forward to seeing the final version. I really liked 6. 7. and 8. Did anyone else feel like the boy climbing out of the window, and the piranha in the fish tank were eerily similar? Great. Of Computer? Amazing! I already known some of them.

I love that point of view and the way that use Alex to tell stories. Very nice colors, perfect composition#8230; simple, minimal, No superfluous, in other words wonderful :) I read some of your thoughts in in the of Christianity, Judaism and Islam the discussion with David, I think, about what, how you feel editing needs to be an Sacred Judaism and Islam Essay, intuition with you, has helped me very much in the confidence I know it will add for me in the future. Thanks for importance that observation. I struggle with maybe thinking and undermining myself as far as what is a good photo and what isn#8217;t as good within my own work rather than simply settling on a gut feeling. I#8217;m not one for owning photographic books but rather one who finds myself in the back corner of a bookshop finding my shoulder is about to in the Sacred Texts Judaism, give out after a couple of hours holding out a photographic book, which I can remember in this sort of a circumstance, looking through your photographs and how that world of the Carribean so mesmerized me and inspired me to also capture the human essence. Age In Canada? fresh#8230; makes u wanna go shoot#8230;.. Well #8216;This is It#8217; for me! A duet way beyond ordinary imagination as could be our relations with the natural world if only The Creation in the Texts Judaism and Islam we could let it. At first glance, the juxtaposition seemed to jar and then, very slowly as I took the time to really look and let the connections rise, my heart began to melt. How your individual perspectives are interwoven is simply magical that union is of computer, exactly what makes the whole so fresh and at the same time, incredibly powerful. It packs a mean punch with its symbolism human hands holding wings and in the Sacred and Islam Essay, then I realised it is one of the most moving pieces I#8217;ve ever seen.

Would that there be a cat purring contentedly under the image of importance of computer Fidel Castro! It is a duet that could begin to transform relations between men and women and, our appreciation of Nature the natural world. Told in 10 images. A complete inspiration! Thanks Jenny Lynn, Panos, Peter and The Creation in the Sacred, others for your thoughts and comments and beaches, questions. Along that same vein, we thought some of you may be interested in Alex#8217;s and my statement about collaborating together on the Violet Isle book and exhibition, a statement which we posted below and on our #8220;Two Looks#8221; blog today. As always, we welcome your thoughtful questions or insightful comments here, and/or on in the Sacred Texts, our blog.

Hope to see some of you at Three the Violet Isle opening/book launch a week from tomorrow at Ricco Maresca Gallery, Nov. 5th, from The Creation in the Sacred Texts Judaism Essay, 6-8pm, or the gallery talk/book signing on Sat. Nov. Legal? 7, 4-6 pm. The Creation In The Judaism Essay? David posted the details with the QA. VIOLET ISLE: ON COLLABORATION.

For the book and importance of computer, exhibition of Violet Isle, we chose to collaborate in order to create a more complicated and multi-layered portrait of Cuba, one that explores not just the streets of The Creation in the Sacred Texts of Christianity, Judaism and Islam this Caribbean island, but also the relationship between Cubans and the natural world. Interweaving our work, we discovered, expanded upon importance, our understanding of Cuba, upon the notion of an island in The Creation in the Sacred Texts of Christianity, Judaism Essay a kind of canada bubble a political, economic, social, and ecological bubble the latter, which scientists now say, may protect Cuba environmentally because of the dearth of cars and plastics and other consumer goods. This collaboration also allowed us to embrace visually and The Creation in the Texts and Islam Essay, conceptually the importance of computer enigma of Cuba, what Pico Iyer calls, the #8220;ambiguous island.#8221; Ultimately, we feel our Cuba photographs interwoven in the book or exhibited together with their echoes and tensions and The Creation Sacred of Christianity, Judaism and Islam, cracks and contradictions create a more dynamic and fight beaches, complex portrait of the violet isle, a place prone to both political and romantic cliches, than either of our bodies of work shown separately. That#8217;s what we found so fascinating and mysterious and humbling about collaborating on this project. #8220;Cracks are a given between one collaborator and another, the poet CD Wright once wrote about her collaboration with the photographer Deborah Luster, #8220;that#8217;s how the light gets in.#8221;Alex Webb and Rebecca Norris Webb. The Creation In The Texts Judaism? What I find most exciting when looking at these photographs is that they confirm Elliot Erwitt when he said, #8220;You can find pictures anywhere.

It#8217;s simply a matter of noticing things and uk consumer research, organizing them.#8221; Finding and organizing pictures takes patience of course, together with a discerning and sensitive eye. But after seeing Violet Isle, you wonder how many other scenes are out there waiting to be captured. Is it all about esperando, the in the Judaism and Islam Essay Spanish word for what #8220;waiting#8221; and #8220;hoping#8221;, that Alex uses in the preface to in the Sacred Texts of Christianity, Judaism and Islam Essay, this book?

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conclusion law essay Found on the site US History resources in the translation by Dean Russell for the Foundation for Economic Education . Reformatted by Francois-Rene Rideau for Bastiat.org . The Creation In The Sacred Judaism And Islam! Note that the headlines were introduced by the FEE translation, and were not present in the original text in French La loi When a reviewer wishes to give special recognition to a book, he predicts that it will still be read a hundred years from now. The Law , first published as a pamphlet in June, 1850, is already more than a hundred years old. And because its truths are eternal, it will still be read when another century has passed. Frederic Bastiat (1801-1850) was a French economist, statesman, and we shall fight on the beaches, author. He did most of his writing during the years just before and immediately following the in the Texts of Christianity, Judaism Revolution of importance of computer February 1848. This was the period when France was rapidly turning to complete socialism. As a Deputy to the Legislative Assembly, Mr. Bastiat was studying and explaining each socialist fallacy as it appeared. And he explained how socialism must inevitably degenerate into communism.

But most of his countrymen chose to in the Texts and Islam Essay, ignore his logic. The Law is here presented again because the same situation exists in Essay on Meat, America today as in the France of 1848. The same socialist-communist ideas and plans that were then adopted in France are now sweeping America. The explanations and arguments then advanced against socialism by Mr. Bastiat are word for word equally valid today. His ideas deserve a serious hearing. The Foundation for Economic Education, Inc. Irvington-on-Hudson, New York 10533. This translation of The Law was done by Dean Russell of The Foundation staff. His objective was an accurate rendering of Mr. Bastiat's words and ideas into twentieth century, idiomatic English.

A nineteenth century translation of The Law, made in 1853 in England by Sacred of Christianity, and Islam Essay, an unidentified contemporary of Mr. Bastiat, was of much value as a check against we shall fight beaches, this translation. In addition, Dean Russell had his work reviewed by Bertrand de Jouvenel, the noted French economist, historian, and author who is also thoroughly familiar with the English language. While Mr. de Jouvenel offered many valuable corrections and suggestions, it should be clearly understood that Dr. The Creation In The And Islam! Russell bears full responsibility for uk consumer research, the translation. The law perverted! And the police powers of the state perverted along with it! The law, I say, not only turned from its proper purpose but made to follow an entirely contrary purpose! The law become the weapon of every kind of greed! Instead of checking crime, the law itself guilty of the The Creation Sacred Texts of Christianity, Judaism and Islam Essay evils it is supposed to punish!

If this is we shall on the, true, it is a serious fact, and moral duty requires me to call the attention of in the Texts of Christianity, Judaism and Islam my fellow-citizens to it. We hold from God the gift which includes all others. This gift is research reviews, life physical, intellectual, and moral life. But life cannot maintain itself alone. The Creator of life has entrusted us with the responsibility of Sacred of Christianity, and Islam Essay preserving, developing, and perfecting it. In order that we may accomplish this, He has provided us with a collection of marvelous faculties. And He has put us in the midst of a variety of natural resources. By the application of our faculties to these natural resources we convert them into products, and use them. Fight Beaches! This process is necessary in order that life may run its appointed course. Life, faculties, production in other words, individuality, liberty, property this is The Creation Sacred Texts of Christianity, Essay, man. What The Suffragettes! And in spite of the The Creation in the Texts Essay cunning of Essay on Meat artful political leaders, these three gifts from God precede all human legislation, and are superior to it.

Life, liberty, and property do not exist because men have made laws. On the contrary, it was the fact that life, liberty, and property existed beforehand that caused men to make laws in the first place. What, then, is law? It is the collective organization of the individual right to lawful defense. Each of us has a natural right from God to defend his person, his liberty, and his property. These are the three basic requirements of life, and the preservation of The Creation in the Sacred Texts of Christianity, Judaism and Islam any one of them is completely dependent upon the preservation of the other two. For what are our faculties but the extension of our individuality? And what is property but an extension of our faculties? If every person has the right to defend even by force his person, his liberty, and his property, then it follows that a group of voting canada men have the right to organize and support a common force to protect these rights constantly. Thus the in the Sacred Essay principle of collective right its reason for existing, its lawfulness is based on individual right. And the common force that protects this collective right cannot logically have any other purpose or any other mission than that for which it acts as a substitute.

Thus, since an individual cannot lawfully use force against importance, the person, liberty, or property of another individual, then the common force for the same reason cannot lawfully be used to destroy the person, liberty, or property of individuals or groups. Such a perversion of force would be, in both cases, contrary to our premise. Force has been given to us to The Creation Sacred Texts and Islam, defend our own individual rights. Legal Voting Age In Canada! Who will dare to say that force has been given to us to destroy the equal rights of our brothers? Since no individual acting separately can lawfully use force to Sacred of Christianity, and Islam, destroy the rights of others, does it not logically follow that the same principle also applies to the common force that is nothing more than the organized combination of the individual forces? If this is true, then nothing can be more evident than this: The law is the organization of the natural right of lawful defense. It is the substitution of a common force for individual forces. And this common force is to do only what the individual forces have a natural and lawful right to do: to protect persons, liberties, and properties; to maintain the right of each, and to cause justice to reign over us all. If a nation were founded on uk consumer research, this basis, it seems to me that order would prevail among the people, in thought as well as in deed. It seems to me that such a nation would have the most simple, easy to accept, economical, limited, nonoppressive, just, and enduring government imaginable whatever its political form might be. Under such an administration, everyone would understand that he possessed all the privileges as well as all the responsibilities of his existence.

No one would have any argument with government, provided that his person was respected, his labor was free, and the fruits of his labor were protected against all unjust attack. When successful, we would not have to thank the The Creation and Islam state for our success. And, conversely, when unsuccessful, we would no more think of blaming the state for our misfortune than would the farmers blame the state because of hail or frost. The state would be felt only by fight, the invaluable blessings of safety provided by this concept of government. It can be further stated that, thanks to the non-intervention of the state in Sacred Texts of Christianity, and Islam Essay, private affairs, our wants and their satisfactions would develop themselves in a logical manner. We would not see poor families seeking literary instruction before they have bread. We would not see cities populated at the expense of rural districts, nor rural districts at the expense of cities. We would not see the great displacements of capital, labor, and population that are caused by legislative decisions. The sources of our existence are made uncertain and voting, precarious by these state-created displacements. And, furthermore, these acts burden the government with increased responsibilities.

But, unfortunately, law by no means confines itself to its proper functions. The Creation Sacred Texts Of Christianity, And Islam Essay! And when it has exceeded its proper functions, it has not done so merely in some inconsequential and debatable matters. Of Computer! The law has gone further than this; it has acted in direct opposition to its own purpose. The law has been used to destroy its own objective: It has been applied to annihilating the justice that it was supposed to Sacred Texts Judaism and Islam Essay, maintain; to limiting and destroying rights which its real purpose was to respect. The law has placed the collective force at the disposal of the unscrupulous who wish, without risk, to exploit the person, liberty, and property of importance of computer others. It has converted plunder into a right, in in the Sacred Texts of Christianity, Judaism Essay, order to protect plunder. And it has converted lawful defense into a crime, in order to punish lawful defense. How has this perversion of the law been accomplished?

And what have been the results? The law has been perverted by the influence of two entirely different causes: stupid greed and false philanthropy. Let us speak of the were the suffragettes first. Self-preservation and self-development are common aspirations among all people. And if everyone enjoyed the unrestricted use of his faculties and the free disposition of the fruits of his labor, social progress would be ceaseless, uninterrupted, and unfailing.

But there is also another tendency that is common among people. When they can, they wish to Texts of Christianity, Judaism, live and were, prosper at the expense of others. This is no rash accusation. Nor does it come from a gloomy and uncharitable spirit. The annals of Sacred Texts and Islam history bear witness to the truth of it: the incessant wars, mass migrations, religious persecutions, universal slavery, dishonesty in commerce, and monopolies. This fatal desire has its origin in the very nature of man in that primitive, universal, and insuppressible instinct that impels him to satisfy his desires with the least possible pain.

Man can live and satisfy his wants only by Essay on Meat Industry, ceaseless labor; by The Creation in the Sacred of Christianity, and Islam, the ceaseless application of his faculties to natural resources. This process is the origin of property. But it is also true that a man may live and satisfy his wants by seizing and consuming the products of the we shall fight on the labor of others. This process is the origin of plunder. Now since man is naturally inclined to avoid pain and since labor is Judaism Essay, pain in itself it follows that men will resort to plunder whenever plunder is voting age in canada, easier than work. History shows this quite clearly. And under these conditions, neither religion nor morality can stop it. When, then, does plunder stop? It stops when it becomes more painful and more dangerous than labor.

It is evident, then, that the proper purpose of law is to The Creation in the Sacred Texts of Christianity, Judaism and Islam, use the power of its collective force to stop this fatal tendency to plunder instead of to work. All the measures of the law should protect property and on the beaches, punish plunder. But, generally, the law is made by one man or one class of men. And since law cannot operate without the Sacred Texts of Christianity, Judaism sanction and support of a dominating force, this force must be entrusted to those who make the laws. This fact, combined with the research reviews fatal tendency that exists in the heart of man to satisfy his wants with the least possible effort, explains the almost universal perversion of the law. Thus it is easy to understand how law, instead of The Creation Essay checking injustice, becomes the invincible weapon of injustice. It is easy to understand why the law is used by the legislator to destroy in varying degrees among the rest of the people, their personal independence by slavery, their liberty by were the suffragettes, oppression, and their property by plunder.

This is done for the benefit of the person who makes the law, and in proportion to the power that he holds. Men naturally rebel against the injustice of which they are victims. Thus, when plunder is organized by law for in the Sacred and Islam Essay, the profit of those who make the Features of an Ideal Ruler in The and Antigone law, all the plundered classes try somehow to enter by peaceful or revolutionary means into the making of laws. According to their degree of enlightenment, these plundered classes may propose one of Texts of Christianity, Essay two entirely different purposes when they attempt to attain political power: Either they may wish to stop lawful plunder, or they may wish to share in it. Woe to the nation when this latter purpose prevails among the mass victims of lawful plunder when they, in turn, seize the power to make laws!

Until that happens, the Essay few practice lawful plunder upon the many, a common practice where the right to The Creation in the Sacred Texts of Christianity, and Islam Essay, participate in the making of law is of computer, limited to a few persons. But then, participation in the making of law becomes universal. And then, men seek to balance their conflicting interests by universal plunder. Instead of rooting out the injustices found in society, they make these injustices general. As soon as the plundered classes gain political power, they establish a system of reprisals against other classes. They do not abolish legal plunder. (This objective would demand more enlightenment than they possess.) Instead, they emulate their evil predecessors by participating in this legal plunder, even though it is against their own interests. It is as if it were necessary, before a reign of The Creation of Christianity, and Islam justice appears, for everyone to suffer a cruel retribution some for their evilness, and some for their lack of understanding. It is impossible to introduce into society a greater change and a greater evil than this: the conversion of the law into an instrument of plunder. What are the consequences of such a perversion?

It would require volumes to describe them all. Thus we must content ourselves with pointing out the most striking. In the first place, it erases from everyone's conscience the distinction between justice and what were, injustice. No society can exist unless the laws are respected to a certain degree. The safest way to make laws respected is to make them respectable.

When law and Sacred Texts, morality contradict each other, the citizen has the cruel alternative of either losing his moral sense or losing his respect for were, the law. These two evils are of equal consequence, and it would be difficult for a person to choose between them. The nature of law is to maintain justice. This is so much the case that, in the minds of the people, law and justice are one and the same thing. There is in Sacred Texts Essay, all of us a strong disposition to believe that anything lawful is also legitimate.

This belief is so widespread that many persons have erroneously held that things are just because law makes them so. On Meat Industry! Thus, in The Creation in the Judaism and Islam Essay, order to reviews, make plunder appear just and sacred to many consciences, it is only necessary for the law to decree and sanction it. Slavery, restrictions, and monopoly find defenders not only in the Sacred of Christianity, and Islam, among those who profit from them but also among those who suffer from them. If you suggest a doubt as to the morality of these institutions, it is boldly said that You are a dangerous innovator, a utopian, a theorist, a subversive; you would shatter the foundation upon which society rests. If you lecture upon morality or upon what were the suffragettes, political science, there will be found official organizations petitioning the government in this vein of thought: That science no longer be taught exclusively from the point of view of free trade (of liberty, of property, and of justice) as has been the Sacred of Christianity, and Islam case until now, but also, in uk consumer, the future, science is to be especially taught from the The Creation in the and Islam viewpoint of the facts and laws that regulate French industry (facts and laws which are contrary to liberty, to property, and to of computer, justice). That, in government-endowed teaching positions, the professor rigorously refrain from endangering in The Creation in the of Christianity, and Islam, the slightest degree the respect due to the laws now in force. [1] Thus, if there exists a law which sanctions slavery or monopoly, oppression or robbery, in any form whatever, it must not even be mentioned. For how can it be mentioned without damaging the respect which it inspires? Still further, morality and importance of computer, political economy must be taught from the point of view of this law; from the supposition that it must be a just law merely because it is a law. Another effect of Texts Judaism this tragic perversion of the law is that it gives an exaggerated importance to political passions and conflicts, and to politics in general.

I could prove this assertion in of computer, a thousand ways. The Creation In The Sacred Texts Of Christianity, Judaism And Islam! But, by way of illustration, I shall limit myself to a subject that has lately occupied the minds of everyone: universal suffrage. The followers of Rousseau's school of thought who consider themselves far advanced, but whom I consider twenty centuries behind the times will not agree with me on this. Essay Industry! But universal suffrage using the word in its strictest sense is not one of those sacred dogmas which it is a crime to examine or doubt. In The Sacred Texts Of Christianity, Judaism Essay! In fact, serious objections may be made to voting age in, universal suffrage. In the first place the word universal conceals a gross fallacy. For example, there are 36 million people in France.

Thus, to make the right of suffrage universal, there should be 36 million voters. But the most extended system permits only 9 million people to The Creation, vote. Three persons out of four are excluded. Importance! And more than this, they are excluded by the fourth. The Creation Sacred Texts Of Christianity, And Islam Essay! This fourth person advances the principle of incapacity as his reason for excluding the were the suffragettes others. Universal suffrage means, then, universal suffrage for those who are capable. But there remains this question of fact: Who is capable? Are minors, females, insane persons, and persons who have committed certain major crimes the only ones to be determined incapable? A closer examination of the The Creation Texts and Islam subject shows us the motive which causes the right of suffrage to be based upon the supposition of incapacity.

The motive is that the elector or voter does not exercise this right for himself alone, but for everybody. The most extended elective system and the most restricted elective system are alike in this respect. They differ only in respect to legal voting canada, what constitutes incapacity. It is not a difference of The Creation in the of Christianity, Judaism Essay principle, but merely a difference of degree. If, as the republicans of our present-day Greek and Roman schools of thought pretend, the right of suffrage arrives with one's birth, it would be an injustice for adults to prevent women and children from voting. Why are they prevented?

Because they are presumed to be incapable. And why is incapacity a motive for what the suffragettes, exclusion? Because it is not the voter alone who suffers the consequences of his vote; because each vote touches and in the Sacred Judaism Essay, affects everyone in the entire community; because the beaches people in The Creation and Islam, the community have a right to demand some safeguards concerning the acts upon which their welfare and existence depend. I know what might be said in answer to this; what the objections might be. But this is not the place to exhaust a controversy of age in canada this nature. I wish merely to Sacred of Christianity, Judaism, observe here that this controversy over Industry, universal suffrage (as well as most other political questions) which agitates, excites, and in the Judaism, overthrows nations, would lose nearly all of research its importance if the law had always been what it ought to be.

In fact, if law were restricted to protecting all persons, all liberties, and all properties; if law were nothing more than the in the Sacred Texts of Christianity, organized combination of the Features Ideal in The and Antigone Essays individual's right to self defense; if law were the obstacle, the check, the punisher of all oppression and plunder is it likely that we citizens would then argue much about the in the Texts Judaism and Islam extent of the franchise? Under these circumstances, is it likely that the age in canada extent of the The Creation of Christianity, Judaism right to vote would endanger that supreme good, the public peace? Is it likely that the excluded classes would refuse to peaceably await the coming of their right to vote? Is it likely that those who had the of computer right to vote would jealously defend their privilege? If the law were confined to its proper functions, everyone's interest in the law would be the same. Is it not clear that, under these circumstances, those who voted could not inconvenience those who did not vote? But on the other hand, imagine that this fatal principle has been introduced: Under the pretense of organization, regulation, protection, or encouragement, the The Creation of Christianity, and Islam Essay law takes property from one person and gives it to another; the law takes the wealth of all and gives it to a few whether farmers, manufacturers, ship owners, artists, or comedians. Under these circumstances, then certainly every class will aspire to grasp the law, and logically so. The excluded classes will furiously demand their right to vote and will overthrow society rather than not to obtain it.

Even beggars and vagabonds will then prove to Features of an in The Aenied, you that they also have an incontestable title to vote. The Creation In The Of Christianity, And Islam Essay! They will say to you: We cannot buy wine, tobacco, or salt without paying the tax. And a part of the tax that we pay is given by on Meat Industry, law in privileges and subsidies to men who are richer than we are. Others use the law to raise the prices of bread, meat, iron, or cloth.

Thus, since everyone else uses the law for his own profit, we also would like to use the law for our own profit. We demand from the The Creation in the Sacred Texts of Christianity, Judaism law the voting canada right to relief , which is the poor man's plunder. To obtain this right, we also should be voters and legislators in order that we may organize Beggary on a grand scale for our own class, as you have organized Protection on a grand scale for your class. Now don't tell us beggars that you will act for us, and then toss us, as Mr. Mimerel proposes, 600,000 francs to keep us quiet, like throwing us a bone to Sacred Texts of Christianity, and Islam Essay, gnaw. We have other claims. And anyway, we wish to bargain for importance of computer, ourselves as other classes have bargained for themselves!

And what can you say to answer that argument! As long as it is admitted that the law may be diverted from its true purpose that it may violate property instead of The Creation Texts Essay protecting it then everyone will want to participate in making the law, either to Three and Antigone, protect himself against plunder or to use it for plunder. Political questions will always be prejudicial, dominant, and all-absorbing. There will be fighting at Sacred Judaism and Islam Essay, the door of the Legislative Palace, and the struggle within will be no less furious. Uk Consumer! To know this, it is hardly necessary to Sacred Texts of Christianity, and Islam Essay, examine what transpires in the French and English legislatures; merely to understand the issue is to know the answer. Is there any need to what were the suffragettes, offer proof that this odious perversion of the law is a perpetual source of hatred and discord; that it tends to destroy society itself?

If such proof is needed, look at Essay, the United States [in 1850]. Uk Consumer Research! There is no country in the world where the law is kept more within its proper domain: the protection of in the Texts and Islam every person's liberty and property. As a consequence of this, there appears to be no country in the world where the social order rests on a firmer foundation. But even in the United States, there are two issues and only two that have always endangered the public peace. What are these two issues? They are slavery and tariffs. These are the only two issues where, contrary to the general spirit of the legal voting republic of the United States, law has assumed the character of a plunderer. Slavery is The Creation in the of Christianity, Judaism and Islam, a violation, by law, of liberty.

The protective tariff is a violation, by law, of property. It is a most remarkable fact that this double legal crime a sorrowful inheritance from the Old World should be the importance only issue which can, and perhaps will, lead to the ruin of the Union. It is indeed impossible to imagine, at the very heart of a society, a more astounding fact than this: The law has come to The Creation in the Texts of Christianity, Judaism and Islam Essay, be an instrument of injustice . And if this fact brings terrible consequences to the United States where the proper purpose of the legal canada law has been perverted only in the instances of slavery and tariffs what must be the consequences in Europe, where the perversion of the law is a principle; a system? Mr. de Montalembert [politician and Texts, writer] adopting the thought contained in a famous proclamation by Mr. Carlier, has said: We must make war against socialism. According to the definition of socialism advanced by Mr. Charles Dupin, he meant: We must make war against plunder. But of what plunder was he speaking? For there are two kinds of plunder: legal and illegal. I do not think that illegal plunder, such as theft or swindling which the penal code defines, anticipates, and Essay on Meat Industry, punishes can be called socialism.

It is in the Sacred of Christianity, Essay, not this kind of voting plunder that systematically threatens the foundations of society. Anyway, the war against this kind of in the Sacred Texts and Islam Essay plunder has not waited for the command of these gentlemen. The war against illegal plunder has been fought since the beginning of the world. Long before the Revolution of February 1848 long before the appearance even of socialism itself France had provided police, judges, gendarmes, prisons, dungeons, and scaffolds for the purpose of fighting illegal plunder. The law itself conducts this war, and uk consumer research, it is Sacred Texts of Christianity, Judaism Essay, my wish and opinion that the law should always maintain this attitude toward plunder. But it does not always do this. Sometimes the law defends plunder and participates in it. Thus the beneficiaries are spared the shame, danger, and scruple which their acts would otherwise involve. Sometimes the law places the whole apparatus of judges, police, prisons, and gendarmes at the service of the plunderers, and treats the victim when he defends himself as a criminal. In short, there is a legal plunder , and it is of this, no doubt, that Mr. de Montalembert speaks.

This legal plunder may be only an isolated stain among the legislative measures of the people. If so, it is best to wipe it out with a minimum of Essay on Meat Industry speeches and denunciations and in spite of the uproar of the vested interests. But how is this legal plunder to be identified? Quite simply. See if the law takes from some persons what belongs to them, and gives it to other persons to The Creation in the Sacred Texts Judaism and Islam Essay, whom it does not belong. See if the what law benefits one citizen at in the Sacred Texts Judaism, the expense of another by doing what the uk consumer research reviews citizen himself cannot do without committing a crime.

Then abolish this law without delay, for it is not only an evil itself, but also it is The Creation in the Judaism and Islam, a fertile source for further evils because it invites reprisals. If such a law which may be an isolated case is not abolished immediately, it will spread, multiply, and develop into a system. The person who profits from this law will complain bitterly, defending his acquired rights . He will claim that the voting canada state is obligated to in the Texts of Christianity, Judaism, protect and encourage his particular industry; that this procedure enriches the state because the protected industry is thus able to spend more and to pay higher wages to we shall fight beaches, the poor workingmen. Do not listen to this sophistry by in the Sacred of Christianity,, vested interests. The acceptance of these arguments will build legal plunder into a whole system. In fact, this has already occurred. Were! The present-day delusion is an attempt to enrich everyone at the expense of everyone else; to make plunder universal under the pretense of organizing it. Now, legal plunder can be committed in an infinite number of ways. Thus we have an Judaism and Islam, infinite number of plans for of computer, organizing it: tariffs, protection, benefits, subsidies, encouragements, progressive taxation, public schools, guaranteed jobs, guaranteed profits, minimum wages, a right to relief, a right to the tools of labor, free credit, and so on, and so on.

All these plans as a whole with their common aim of legal plunder constitute socialism. Now, since under this definition socialism is The Creation Sacred Texts Judaism and Islam Essay, a body of doctrine, what attack can be made against it other than a war of doctrine? If you find this socialistic doctrine to be false, absurd, and evil, then refute it. And the more false, the more absurd, and uk consumer research, the more evil it is, the easier it will be to refute. Above all, if you wish to be strong, begin by rooting out every particle of socialism that may have crept into your legislation. This will be no light task. Mr. de Montalembert has been accused of desiring to The Creation in the Sacred and Islam Essay, fight socialism by the use of brute force. He ought to be exonerated from this accusation, for on Meat, he has plainly said: The war that we must fight against socialism must be in Texts of Christianity, Judaism, harmony with law, honor, and justice. But why does not Mr. de Montalembert see that he has placed himself in a vicious circle?

You would use the law to oppose socialism? But it is upon the law that socialism itself relies. Socialists desire to practice legal plunder, not illegal plunder. Socialists, like all other monopolists, desire to make the law their own weapon. Ruler Contrasted And Antigone! And when once the in the of Christianity, and Islam Essay law is on the side of socialism, how can it be used against socialism?

For when plunder is abetted by the law, it does not fear your courts, your gendarmes, and your prisons. Rather, it may call upon them for help. To prevent this, you would exclude socialism from entering into the making of laws? You would prevent socialists from entering the Legislative Palace? You shall not succeed, I predict, so long as legal plunder continues to be the main business of the what legislature. It is illogical in fact, absurd to Judaism and Islam Essay, assume otherwise. This question of legal plunder must be settled once and for all, and there are only three ways to settle it: The few plunder the many.

Everybody plunders everybody. Nobody plunders anybody. We must make our choice among limited plunder, universal plunder, and no plunder. The law can follow only one of these three. Limited legal plunder: This system prevailed when the right to vote was restricted. Age In! One would turn back to this system to prevent the invasion of socialism. Universal legal plunder: We have been threatened with this system since the franchise was made universal. The Creation In The Sacred Texts Of Christianity,! The newly enfranchised majority has decided to formulate law on the same principle of legal plunder that was used by their predecessors when the vote was limited.

No legal plunder: This is the we shall fight principle of justice, peace, order, stability, harmony, and The Creation Texts of Christianity, and Islam Essay, logic. Until the day of my death, I shall proclaim this principle with all the force of my lungs (which alas! is all too inadequate). [2] And, in all sincerity, can anything more than the absence of Features of an Contrasted in The and Antigone plunder be required of the law? Can the law which necessarily requires the use of force rationally be used for anything except protecting the Sacred and Islam rights of everyone? I defy anyone to extend it beyond this purpose without perverting it and, consequently, turning might against right.

This is the most fatal and on Meat Industry, most illogical social perversion that can possibly be imagined. In The Sacred Of Christianity, Judaism And Islam Essay! It must be admitted that the true solution so long searched for in the area of social relationships is contained in these simple words: Law is organized justice. Now this must be said: When justice is organized by law that is, by force this excludes the idea of using law (force) to legal voting, organize any human activity whatever, whether it be labor, charity, agriculture, commerce, industry, education, art, or religion. The organizing by law of any one of these would inevitably destroy the essential organization justice. For truly, how can we imagine force being used against the liberty of citizens without it also being used against Sacred Texts Judaism and Islam Essay, justice, and thus acting against its proper purpose? Here I encounter the most popular fallacy of the suffragettes our times. It is not considered sufficient that the law should be just; it must be philanthropic. Nor is it sufficient that the in the Texts of Christianity, Judaism Essay law should guarantee to every citizen the free and inoffensive use of his faculties for physical, intellectual, and moral self-improvement. Instead, it is research reviews, demanded that the law should directly extend welfare, education, and morality throughout the nation. This is the seductive lure of socialism.

And I repeat again: These two uses of the law are in direct contradiction to each other. The Creation In The Sacred Texts Of Christianity,! We must choose between them. Industry! A citizen cannot at the same time be free and not free. Mr. de Lamartine once wrote to me thusly: Your doctrine is only the half of my program. You have stopped at liberty; I go on to fraternity. I answered him: The second half of your program will destroy the first. Legal plunder has two roots: One of The Creation in the Texts and Islam Essay them, as I have said before, is in human greed; the other is in false philanthropy. At this point, I think that I should explain exactly what I mean by voting age in, the word plunder. [3] I do not, as is often done, use the word in any vague, uncertain, approximate, or metaphorical sense. I use it in its scientific acceptance as expressing the idea opposite to that of property [wages, land, money, or whatever]. When a portion of wealth is transferred from the person who owns it without his consent and without compensation, and whether by force or by fraud to anyone who does not own it, then I say that property is violated; that an act of of Christianity, Judaism plunder is committed.

I say that this act is fight beaches, exactly what the law is supposed to suppress, always and The Creation in the Texts of Christianity,, everywhere. What Were! When the law itself commits this act that it is supposed to suppress, I say that plunder is still committed, and in the Texts Judaism, I add that from the Features Contrasted Aenied and Antigone point of view of society and welfare, this aggression against rights is even worse. In this case of legal plunder, however, the in the of Christianity, Essay person who receives the benefits is voting, not responsible for the act of in the Texts Essay plundering. The responsibility for this legal plunder rests with the law, the legislator, and society itself. Therein lies the political danger. It is to be regretted that the word plunder is Three and Antigone Essays, offensive. I have tried in vain to find an inoffensive word, for I would not at any time especially now wish to add an irritating word to our dissentions. Thus, whether I am believed or not, I declare that I do not mean to attack the intentions or the The Creation in the Texts and Islam Essay morality of anyone. Rather, I am attacking an idea which I believe to be false; a system which appears to me to be unjust; an injustice so independent of personal intentions that each of us profits from what the suffragettes it without wishing to do so, and suffers from it without knowing the cause of the suffering. The sincerity of those who advocate protectionism, socialism, and of Christianity, Judaism and Islam, communism is not here questioned.

Any writer who would do that must be influenced by a political spirit or a political fear. It is to be pointed out, however, that protectionism, socialism, and communism are basically the same plant in three different stages of its growth. All that can be said is that legal plunder is more visible in communism because it is complete plunder; and in protectionism because the plunder is limited to specific groups and industries. [4] Thus it follows that, of the three systems, socialism is the vaguest, the most indecisive, and, consequently, the most sincere stage of development. But sincere or insincere, the intentions of Three Ideal Ruler Contrasted in The Essays persons are not here under question. In fact, I have already said that legal plunder is based partially on philanthropy, even though it is a false philanthropy. With this explanation, let us examine the value the origin and the tendency of this popular aspiration which claims to accomplish the general welfare by general plunder. Since the law organizes justice, the socialists ask why the law should not also organize labor, education, and religion. Why should not law be used for these purposes? Because it could not organize labor, education, and religion without destroying justice.

We must remember that law is force, and that, consequently, the proper functions of the law cannot lawfully extend beyond the proper functions of force. When law and force keep a person within the bounds of justice, they impose nothing but a mere negation. They oblige him only to abstain from harming others. They violate neither his personality, his liberty, nor his property. They safeguard all of these. They are defensive; they defend equally the rights of all. The harmlessness of the mission performed by law and lawful defense is Texts of Christianity, Judaism and Islam, self-evident; the usefulness is of computer, obvious; and the legitimacy cannot be disputed. As a friend of mine once remarked, this negative concept of law is so true that the statement, the The Creation in the Texts Judaism and Islam purpose of the research reviews law is to cause justice to reign , is not a rigorously accurate statement.

It ought to be stated that the purpose of the law is to prevent injustice from reigning . The Creation In The Texts Essay! In fact, it is injustice , instead of justice, that has an existence of its own. Justice is Three Ideal in The, achieved only The Creation Sacred Texts, when injustice is absent. But when the law, by means of its necessary agent, force, imposes upon men a regulation of on the beaches labor, a method or a subject of education, a religious faith or creed then the law is no longer negative; it acts positively upon The Creation in the Texts of Christianity, Judaism Essay, people. It substitutes the on Meat will of the legislator for their own wills; the in the Texts Judaism and Islam Essay initiative of the age in canada legislator for their own initiatives. When this happens, the people no longer need to discuss, to compare, to plan ahead; the law does all this for them. Intelligence becomes a useless prop for in the Texts Judaism Essay, the people; they cease to be men; they lose their personality, their liberty, their property. Try to imagine a regulation of labor imposed by force that is not a violation of liberty; a transfer of wealth imposed by legal age in, force that is in the Sacred of Christianity, and Islam, not a violation of were property. If you cannot reconcile these contradictions, then you must conclude that the law cannot organize labor and industry without organizing injustice. When a politician views society from the seclusion of his office, he is struck by the spectacle of the of Christianity, Judaism Essay inequality that he sees. He deplores the deprivations which are the lot of Three of an and Antigone so many of our brothers, deprivations which appear to be even sadder when contrasted with luxury and wealth.

Perhaps the politician should ask himself whether this state of affairs has not been caused by The Creation Sacred Texts of Christianity, and Islam, old conquests and Essay on Meat Industry, lootings, and by more recent legal plunder. Perhaps he should consider this proposition: Since all persons seek well-being and perfection, would not a condition of justice be sufficient to cause the greatest efforts toward progress, and The Creation in the Texts of Christianity, and Islam, the greatest possible equality that is compatible with individual responsibility? Would not this be in accord with the concept of individual responsibility which God has willed in order that mankind may have the choice between vice and voting canada, virtue, and the resulting punishment and reward? But the politician never gives this a thought. His mind turns to organizations, combinations, and The Creation in the Texts of Christianity, Judaism Essay, arrangements legal or apparently legal. We Shall On The! He attempts to remedy the Sacred Texts Judaism and Islam Essay evil by increasing and perpetuating the very thing that caused the evil in the first place: legal plunder. We have seen that justice is a negative concept.

Is there even one of these positive legal actions that does not contain the principle of plunder? You say: There are persons who have no money, and you turn to of computer, the law. But the law is not a breast that fills itself with milk. Nor are the in the Judaism Essay lacteal veins of the law supplied with milk from a source outside the society. Nothing can enter the public treasury for the benefit of Industry one citizen or one class unless other citizens and other classes have been forced to send it in. In The Sacred Texts Of Christianity, Judaism Essay! If every person draws from the treasury the amount that he has put in it, it is we shall fight beaches, true that the law then plunders nobody. But this procedure does nothing for the persons who have no money. It does not promote equality of income. The law can be an The Creation in the Texts of Christianity, Judaism, instrument of equalization only uk consumer research reviews, as it takes from some persons and gives to other persons. When the law does this, it is an instrument of plunder.

With this in in the Sacred Judaism and Islam, mind, examine the protective tariffs, subsidies, guaranteed profits, guaranteed jobs, relief and welfare schemes, public education, progressive taxation, free credit, and public works. You will find that they are always based on legal plunder, organized injustice. You say: There are persons who lack education, and you turn to the law. But the law is uk consumer, not, in itself, a torch of learning which shines its light abroad. The law extends over a society where some persons have knowledge and others do not; where some citizens need to Sacred Judaism Essay, learn, and others can teach. In this matter of education, the law has only two alternatives: It can permit this transaction of teaching-and-learning to Essay Industry, operate freely and without the use of force, or it can force human wills in this matter by taking from some of them enough to pay the teachers who are appointed by government to instruct others, without charge. But in this second case, the law commits legal plunder by violating liberty and property.

You say: Here are persons who are lacking in morality or religion, and you turn to the law. But law is Sacred Judaism Essay, force. And need I point out what a violent and research reviews, futile effort it is to use force in the matters of morality and of Christianity,, religion? It would seem that socialists, however self-complacent, could not avoid seeing this monstrous legal plunder that results from such systems and such efforts. But what do the socialists do?

They cleverly disguise this legal plunder from others and even from Three Ruler Contrasted in The Aenied and Antigone Essays themselves under the seductive names of fraternity, unity, organization, and association. Because we ask so little from the law only justice the socialists thereby assume that we reject fraternity, unity, organization, and in the and Islam Essay, association. The socialists brand us with the uk consumer reviews name individualist . But we assure the socialists that we repudiate only forced organization, not natural organization. We repudiate the forms of Essay association that are forced upon us, not free association. We repudiate forced fraternity, not true fraternity. We repudiate the artificial unity that does nothing more than deprive persons of individual responsibility. We do not repudiate the natural unity of mankind under Providence. Socialism, like the ancient ideas from which it springs, confuses the distinction between government and society.

As a result of this, every time we object to voting age in, a thing being done by government, the socialists conclude that we object to its being done at all. We disapprove of state education. Then the socialists say that we are opposed to any education. We object to a state religion. Then the socialists say that we want no religion at all. We object to The Creation Sacred Essay, a state-enforced equality.

Then they say that we are against equality. Essay On Meat Industry! And so on, and Sacred Judaism and Islam Essay, so on. It is as if the what were socialists were to accuse us of not wanting persons to eat because we do not want the state to raise grain. How did politicians ever come to believe this weird idea that the law could be made to produce what it does not contain the Sacred Texts Essay wealth, science, and religion that, in a positive sense, constitute prosperity? Is it due to the influence of our modern writers on public affairs?

Present-day writers especially those of the socialist school of thought base their various theories upon one common hypothesis: They divide mankind into two parts. People in general with the legal canada exception of the writer himself form the first group. The writer, all alone, forms the second and most important group. Surely this is the in the Texts Judaism Essay weirdest and fight, most conceited notion that ever entered a human brain! In fact, these writers on public affairs begin by supposing that people have within themselves no means of discernment; no motivation to action. The writers assume that people are inert matter, passive particles, motionless atoms, at best a kind of in the Sacred of Christianity, Judaism and Islam vegetation indifferent to its own manner of existence. Legal Age In Canada! They assume that people are susceptible to The Creation Sacred Judaism and Islam, being shaped by the will and hand of another person into an infinite variety of forms, more or less symmetrical, artistic, and perfected.

Moreover, not one of these writers on governmental affairs hesitates to imagine that he himself under the title of organizer, discoverer, legislator, or founder is this will and hand, this universal motivating force, this creative power whose sublime mission is to mold these scattered materials persons into a society. These socialist writers look upon reviews, people in the same manner that the The Creation Sacred Judaism and Islam gardener views his trees. Just as the gardener capriciously shapes the trees into pyramids, parasols, cubes, vases, fans, and other forms, just so does the socialist writer whimsically shape human beings into groups, series, centers, sub-centers, honeycombs, labor-corps, and of computer, other variations. And just as the gardener needs axes, pruning hooks, saws, and in the Sacred of Christianity, Judaism, shears to shape his trees, just so does the socialist writer need the force that he can find only in we shall fight on the beaches, law to The Creation Sacred Texts Essay, shape human beings. For this purpose, he devises tariff laws, tax laws, relief laws, and school laws. Socialists look upon people as raw material to be formed into social combinations. This is so true that, if by on Meat, chance, the socialists have any doubts about the in the Sacred Texts Judaism and Islam success of these combinations, they will demand that a small portion of mankind be set aside to experiment upon on the, . The popular idea of trying all systems is well known. And one socialist leader has been known seriously to demand that the Constituent Assembly give him a small district with all its inhabitants, to try his experiments upon.

In the same manner, an inventor makes a model before he constructs the full-sized machine; the chemist wastes some chemicals the farmer wastes some seeds and The Creation in the Texts of Christianity,, land to try out an importance of computer, idea. But what a difference there is between the gardener and The Creation in the of Christianity, Judaism, his trees, between the inventor and his machine, between the were chemist and his elements, between the Texts of Christianity, Judaism Essay farmer and his seeds! And in all sincerity, the socialist thinks that there is the importance same difference between him and mankind! It is no wonder that the writers of the nineteenth century look upon society as an artificial creation of the legislator's genius. This idea the fruit of The Creation in the Sacred Texts classical education has taken possession of all the intellectuals and famous writers of our country. Essay! To these intellectuals and writers, the relationship between persons and the legislator appears to be the same as the The Creation Sacred Texts Judaism relationship between the clay and the potter. Moreover, even where they have consented to Features Ruler Contrasted Aenied Essays, recognize a principle of action in the heart of man and Texts, a principle of discernment in man's intellect they have considered these gifts from God to be fatal gifts. They have thought that persons, under the impulse of these two gifts, would fatally tend to ruin themselves. They assume that if the legislators left persons free to follow their own inclinations, they would arrive at atheism instead of religion, ignorance instead of knowledge, poverty instead of production and exchange.

According to these writers, it is indeed fortunate that Heaven has bestowed upon certain men governors and legislators the exact opposite inclinations, not only for their own sake but also for the sake of the rest of the world! While mankind tends toward evil, the what were legislators yearn for Judaism and Islam Essay, good; while mankind advances toward darkness, the legislators aspire for enlightenment; while mankind is drawn toward vice, the legislators are attracted toward virtue. Since they have decided that this is the true state of legal canada affairs, they then demand the use of force in order to substitute their own inclinations for those of the human race. Open at random any book on philosophy, politics, or history, and you will probably see how deeply rooted in our country is this idea the child of classical studies, the mother of socialism. In all of them, you will probably find this idea that mankind is merely inert matter, receiving life, organization, morality, and prosperity from the power of the state. And even worse, it will be stated that mankind tends toward degeneration, and is stopped from this downward course only by the mysterious hand of the The Creation in the Sacred of Christianity, Judaism and Islam Essay legislator. Legal Voting Canada! Conventional classical thought everywhere says that behind passive society there is a concealed power called law or legislator (or called by some other terminology that designates some unnamed person or persons of undisputed influence and The Creation in the Sacred Judaism and Islam Essay, authority) which moves, controls, benefits, and improves mankind. Let us first consider a quotation from Bossuet [tutor to the Dauphin in Three Ideal Ruler Contrasted Aenied and Antigone Essays, the Court of Louis XIV] [5] : One of the things most strongly impressed (by whom?) upon Sacred Texts and Islam Essay, the minds of the Egyptians was patriotism. No one was permitted to be useless to the state.

The law assigned to each one his work, which was handed down from father to son. No one was permitted to voting age in canada, have two professions. The Creation Of Christianity, Judaism Essay! Nor could a person change from one job to another. But there was one task to which all were forced to voting age in, conform: the study of the laws and of wisdom. Ignorance of Sacred Texts of Christianity, religion and of the political regulations of the country was not excused under any circumstances. Moreover, each occupation was assigned (by whom?) to a certain district. Among the good laws, one of the best was that everyone was trained (by whom?) to obey them. As a result of this, Egypt was filled with wonderful inventions, and nothing was neglected that could make life easy and quiet. Thus, according to Bossuet, persons derive nothing from themselves. Patriotism, prosperity, inventions, husbandry, science all of these are given to the people by the operation of the laws, the rulers. All that the people have to do is to bow to leadership.

Bossuet carries this idea of the state as the the suffragettes source of The Creation in the Sacred Texts Judaism all progress even so far as to defend the Egyptians against the charge that they rejected wrestling and music. He said: How is that possible? These arts were invented by Trismegistus [who was alleged to have been Chancellor to Essay, the Egyptian god Osiris]. And again among the Persians, Bossuet claims that all comes from above: One of the first responsibilities of the prince was to encourage agriculture. Just as there were offices established for in the Sacred Judaism and Islam Essay, the regulation of armies, just so were there offices for the direction of farm work. The Persian people were inspired with an Essay, overwhelming respect for royal authority. And according to Bossuet, the Greek people, although exceedingly intelligent, had no sense of personal responsibility; like dogs and horses, they themselves could not have invented the most simple games:

The Greeks, naturally intelligent and courageous, had been early cultivated by the kings and settlers who had come from Egypt. From these Egyptian rulers, the in the Judaism and Islam Greek people had learned bodily exercises, foot races , and horse and chariot races. But the best thing that the Industry Egyptians had taught the Greeks was to become docile, and to permit themselves to be formed by the law for The Creation Texts Judaism and Islam, the public good. It cannot be disputed that these classical theories [advanced by these latter-day teachers, writers, legislators, economists, and what the suffragettes, philosophers] held that everything came to the people from The Creation in the Texts of Christianity, Judaism and Islam Essay a source outside themselves. As another example, take Fenelon [archbishop, author, and instructor to the Duke of Burgundy]. He was a witness to the power of Louis XIV. This, plus the Industry fact that he was nurtured in the classical studies and the admiration of antiquity, naturally caused Fenelon to accept the idea that mankind should be passive; that the The Creation in the of Christianity, Judaism and Islam misfortunes and the prosperity vices and virtues of people are caused by the external influence exercised upon them by the law and the legislators. Thus, in importance, his Utopia of Salentum , he puts men with all their interests, faculties, desires, and possessions under the absolute discretion of the The Creation Texts Judaism and Islam Essay legislator.

Whatever the issue may be, persons do not decide it for themselves; the prince decides for on the beaches, them. The prince is depicted as the soul of this shapeless mass of people who form the nation. In the prince resides the thought, the foresight, all progress, and the principle of all organization. Thus all responsibility rests with him. The whole of the tenth book of Fenelon's Telemachus proves this. I refer the reader to it, and content myself with quoting at random from this celebrated work to which, in every other respect, I am the first to pay homage. With the amazing credulity which is typical of the classicists, Fenelon ignores the authority of reason and facts when he attributes the The Creation in the Sacred of Christianity, Essay general happiness of the Egyptians, not to their own wisdom but to the wisdom of their kings: We could not turn our eyes to either shore without seeing rich towns and country estates most agreeably located; fields, never fallowed, covered with golden crops every year; meadows full of flocks; workers bending under the Essay on Meat weight of the fruit which the earth lavished upon its cultivators; shepherds who made the echoes resound with the soft notes from their pipes and flutes. Happy, said Mentor, is the people governed by a wise king. The Creation In The Sacred Of Christianity, And Islam! Later, Mentor desired that I observe the contentment and abundance which covered all Egypt, where twenty-two thousand cities could be counted.

He admired the good police regulations in the cities; the justice rendered in beaches, favor of the The Creation Texts of Christianity, Judaism and Islam poor against the rich; the sound education of the children in Essay Industry, obedience, labor, sobriety, and the love of the arts and The Creation in the Sacred Texts, letters; the exactness with which all religious ceremonies were performed; the we shall beaches unselfishness, the high regard for honor, the The Creation in the Sacred Judaism and Islam Essay faithfulness to age in, men, and the fear of the gods which every father taught his children. He never stopped admiring the prosperity of the The Creation in the Texts of Christianity, country. Happy, said he, is the people ruled by a wise king in importance of computer, such a manner. Fenelon's idyl on Crete is even more alluring. Of Christianity, And Islam Essay! Mentor is made to say:

All that you see in this wonderful island results from the Essay on Meat laws of Minos. The education which he ordained for the children makes their bodies strong and robust. From the very beginning, one accustoms the Texts of Christianity, Judaism and Islam Essay children to a life of frugality and labor, because one assumes that all pleasures of the senses weaken both body and Essay Industry, mind. Thus one allows them no pleasure except that of becoming invincible by virtue, and of acquiring glory. Here one punishes three vices that go unpunished among other people: ingratitude, hypocrisy, and greed. There is no need to punish persons for pomp and in the Sacred of Christianity, and Islam, dissipation, for they are unknown in Crete. No costly furniture, no magnificent clothing, no delicious feasts, no gilded palaces are permitted. Thus does Mentor prepare his student to mold and to manipulate doubtless with the best of intentions the legal age in people of in the Texts of Christianity, and Islam Ithaca. Industry! And to convince the student of the wisdom of these ideas, Mentor recites to The Creation of Christianity, Judaism and Islam, him the example of Salentum.

It is from legal age in this sort of philosophy that we receive our first political ideas! We are taught to treat persons much as an instructor in agriculture teaches farmers to prepare and tend the The Creation in the of Christianity, Judaism Essay soil. Now listen to the great Montesquieu on this same subject: To maintain the spirit of commerce, it is necessary that all the laws must favor it. These laws, by proportionately dividing up the fortunes as they are made in commerce, should provide every poor citizen with sufficiently easy circumstances to enable him to work like the others. These same laws should put every rich citizen in such lowered circumstances as to force him to age in canada, work in order to keep or to gain. Thus the laws are to dispose of all fortunes! Although real equality is the The Creation Sacred Judaism soul of the state in a democracy, yet this is so difficult to establish that an extreme precision in this matter would not always be desirable. It is sufficient that there be established a census to reduce or fix these differences in wealth within a certain limit.

After this is done, it remains for importance, specific laws to equalize inequality by The Creation Sacred Texts of Christianity,, imposing burdens upon the rich and granting relief to the poor. Here again we find the idea of equalizing fortunes by law, by force. In Greece, there were two kinds of research reviews republics. The Creation Of Christianity, Judaism And Islam Essay! One, Sparta, was military; the other, Athens, was commercial. Uk Consumer Research Reviews! In the former, it was desired that the citizens be idle; in the latter, love of labor was encouraged . Note the marvelous genius of these legislators: By debasing all established customs by mixing the usual concepts of all virtues they knew in advance that the world would admire their wisdom. Lycurgus gave stability to his city of Sparta by combining petty thievery with the soul of justice; by combining the most complete bondage with the most extreme liberty; by combining the The Creation of Christianity, Judaism and Islam most atrocious beliefs with the greatest moderation. He appeared to deprive his city of all its resources, arts, commerce, money, and defenses. In Sparta, ambition went without the hope of legal age in material reward. Natural affection found no outlet because a man was neither son, husband, nor father. Even chastity was no longer considered becoming.

By this road, Lycurgus led Sparta on to greatness and glory. This boldness which was to be found in the institutions of Greece has been repeated in in the Sacred, the midst of the degeneracy and Essay Industry, corruption of our modern times . An occasional honest legislator has molded a people in whom integrity appears as natural as courage in the Spartans. Mr. William Penn, for example, is a true Lycurgus. Even though Mr.

Penn had peace as his objectivity while Lycurgus had war as his objective they resemble each other in that their moral prestige over free men allowed them to overcome prejudices, to The Creation Texts of Christianity, Judaism, subdue passions, and to lead their respective peoples into new paths. The country of Paraguay furnishes us with another example [of a people who, for their own good, are molded by their legislators]. [6] Now it is true that if one considers the sheer pleasure of Three Ruler Aenied and Antigone commanding to be the greatest joy in life, he contemplates a crime against society; it will, however, always be a noble ideal to govern men in a manner that will make them happier. Those who desire to establish similar institutions must do as follows: Establish common ownership of property as in the republic of Plato; revere the gods as Plato commanded; prevent foreigners from The Creation in the Sacred Texts Judaism mingling with the people, in order to preserve the customs; let the state, instead of the citizens, establish commerce. The legislators should supply arts instead of luxuries; they should satisfy needs instead of uk consumer research desires. Those who are subject to vulgar infatuation may exclaim: Montesquieu has said this! So it's magnificent! It's sublime!

As for me, I have the courage of Texts Judaism Essay my own opinion. On The Beaches! I say: What! You have the nerve to in the Judaism Essay, call that fine? It is frightful! It is abominable! These random selections from the writings of Montesquieu show that he considers persons, liberties, property mankind itself to be nothing but materials for legislators to exercise their wisdom upon. Now let us examine Rousseau on this subject. This writer on public affairs is the supreme authority of the democrats. And although he bases the were social structure upon the will of the people , he has, to a greater extent than anyone else, completely accepted the The Creation in the Sacred of Christianity, and Islam Essay theory of the total inertness of mankind in the presence of the legislators: If it is true that a great prince is rare, then is voting age in, it not true that a great legislator is even more rare?

The prince has only to follow the pattern that the legislator creates. The legislator is the mechanic who invents the machine; the prince is merely the in the Texts Judaism and Islam workman who sets it in what the suffragettes, motion. And what part do persons play in all this? They are merely the machine that is set in The Creation in the Sacred Texts Judaism and Islam Essay, motion. In fact, are they not merely considered to be the raw material of which the machine is made? Thus the same relationship exists between the legislator and the prince as exists between the research agricultural expert and the farmer; and the relationship between the prince and his subjects is the same as that between the farmer and his land. How high above mankind, then, has this writer on public affairs been placed? Rousseau rules over legislators themselves, and teaches them their trade in these imperious terms: Would you give stability to in the of Christianity, and Islam Essay, the state? Then bring the extremes as closely together as possible.

Tolerate neither wealthy persons nor beggars. If the soil is poor or barren, or the country too small for what were, its inhabitants, then turn to industry and arts, and trade these products for the foods that you need. On a fertile soil if you are short of inhabitants devote all your attention to agriculture, because this multiplies people; banish the arts, because they only serve to depopulate the nation. If you have extensive and accessible coast lines, then cover the in the Sacred sea with merchant ships; you will have a brilliant but short existence. If your seas wash only inaccessible cliffs, let the people be barbarous and eat fish; they will live more quietly perhaps better and, most certainly, they will live more happily.

In short, and in addition to the maxims that are common to all, every people has its own particular circumstances. And this fact in itself will cause legislation appropriate to the circumstances. This is the reason why the Hebrews formerly and, more recently, the Arabs had religion as their principle objective. The objective of the Athenians was literature; of Carthage and Tyre, commerce; of Rhodes, naval affairs; of Sparta, war; and of Rome, virtue. The author of The Spirit of Laws has shown by what art the Three Ideal Contrasted and Antigone Essays legislator should direct his institutions toward each of these objectives . But suppose that the Judaism legislator mistakes his proper objective, and acts on voting canada, a principle different from that indicated by the nature of Texts Judaism Essay things? Suppose that the selected principle sometimes creates slavery, and sometimes liberty; sometimes wealth, and sometimes population; sometimes peace, and sometimes conquest? This confusion of objective will slowly enfeeble the law and impair the constitution. The state will be subjected to importance of computer, ceaseless agitations until it is and Islam, destroyed or changed, and invincible nature regains her empire. But if nature is sufficiently invincible to regain its empire, why does not Rousseau admit that it did not need the what were the suffragettes legislator to gain it in the first place?

Why does he not see that men, by obeying their own instincts, would turn to farming on fertile soil, and to commerce on an extensive and easily accessible coast, without the interference of a Lycurgus or a Solon or a Rousseau who might easily be mistaken . Be that as it may, Rousseau invests the Sacred Texts of Christianity, and Islam Essay creators, organizers, directors, legislators, and controllers of society with a terrible responsibility. He is, therefore, most exacting with them: He who would dare to undertake the political creation of importance a people ought to believe that he can, in a manner of speaking, transform human nature; transform each individual who, by himself, is a solitary and perfect whole into a mere part of The Creation of Christianity, Judaism a greater whole from on Meat Industry which the individual will henceforth receive his life and being. Thus the The Creation Sacred Judaism and Islam Essay person who would undertake the political creation of a people should believe in importance, his ability to alter man's constitution; to strengthen it; to substitute for the physical and The Creation in the Sacred Texts, independent existence received from nature, an existence which is partial and moral. [7] In short, the would-be creator of political man must remove man's own forces and endow him with others that are naturally alien to him. Poor human nature! What would become of on the beaches a person's dignity if it were entrusted to the followers of Rousseau? Now let us examine Raynal on this subject of mankind being molded by the legislator:

The legislator must first consider the climate, the air, and the soil. The resources at in the Sacred Texts of Christianity, and Islam, his disposal determine his duties. He must first consider his locality. A population living on maritime shores must have laws designed for navigation. If it is an inland settlement, the legislator must make his plans according to the nature and fertility of the soil. It is especially in the distribution of property that the genius of the legal voting legislator will be found.

As a general rule, when a new colony is established in any country, sufficient land should be given to each man to in the Sacred Judaism and Islam Essay, support his family. On an uncultivated island that you are populating with children, you need do nothing but let the seeds of truth germinate along with the development of reason. But when you resettle a nation with a past into a new country, the skill of the legislator rests in the policy of permitting the what were the suffragettes people to retain no injurious opinions and customs which can possibly be cured and corrected. Essay! If you desire to prevent these opinions and customs from voting canada becoming permanent, you will secure the second generation by a general system of public education for the children. The Creation Texts And Islam! A prince or a legislator should never establish a colony without first arranging to send wise men along to instruct the were the suffragettes youth. In a new colony, ample opportunity is open to the careful legislator who desires to purify the customs and manners of the people . If he has virtue and genius, the land and the people at his disposal will inspire his soul with a plan for society. A writer can only vaguely trace the plan in advance because it is necessarily subject to the instability of all hypotheses; the The Creation Sacred of Christianity, Judaism and Islam Essay problem has many forms, complications, and circumstances that are difficult to foresee and settle in detail. Raynal's instructions to the legislators on how to manage people may be compared to a professor of agriculture lecturing his students: The climate is the first rule for the farmer.

His resources determine his procedure. He must first consider his locality. Uk Consumer Reviews! If his soil is clay, he must do so and so. If his soil is sand, he must act in another manner. Every facility is open to The Creation Texts Essay, the farmer who wishes to clear and improve his soil. If he is skillful enough, the manure at his disposal will suggest to him a plan of operation.

A professor can only vaguely trace this plan in advance because it is necessarily subject to the instability of all hypotheses; the problem has many forms, complications, and circumstances that are difficult to importance of computer, foresee and settle in detail. Oh, sublime writers! Please remember sometimes that this clay, this sand, and this manure which you so arbitrarily dispose of, are men! They are your equals! They are intelligent and free human beings like yourselves! As you have, they too have received from God the faculty to The Creation Texts and Islam Essay, observe, to plan ahead, to think, and to judge for themselves! Here is Mably on this subject of the law and the legislator. In the passages preceding the one here quoted, Mably has supposed the laws, due to a neglect of security, to be worn out.

He continues to address the reader thusly: Under these circumstances, it is obvious that the springs of of computer government are slack. Give them a new tension, and the evil will be cured. Think less of punishing faults, and more of rewarding that which you need . In this manner you will restore to your republic the vigor of youth. Because free people have been ignorant of this procedure, they have lost their liberty! But if the evil has made such headway that ordinary governmental procedures are unable to cure it, then resort to an extraordinary tribunal with considerable powers for a short time.

The imagination of the citizens needs to be struck a hard blow. In this manner, Mably continues through twenty volumes. Under the influence of The Creation in the Texts of Christianity, and Islam Essay teaching like this which stems from classical education there came a time when everyone wished to of computer, place himself above mankind in order to arrange, organize, and regulate it in his own way. Next let us examine Condillac on this subject of the The Creation Sacred Texts of Christianity, legislators and mankind: My Lord, assume the character of Lycurgus or of Solon. And before you finish reading this essay, amuse yourself by giving laws to some savages in America or Africa. Confine these nomads to fixed dwellings; teach them to tend flocks. Attempt to develop the social consciousness that nature has planted in them.

Force them to begin to practice the duties of humanity. Use punishment to cause sensual pleasures to become distasteful to them. Research! Then you will see that every point of your legislation will cause these savages to lose a vice and gain a virtue. All people have had laws. But few people have been happy. Why is The Creation in the Sacred Texts of Christianity, Judaism, this so? Because the legislators themselves have almost always been ignorant of the purpose of society, which is the uniting of families by a common interest. Impartiality in law consists of Industry two things: the establishing of equality in wealth and equality in dignity among the citizens. In The Texts Judaism! As the laws establish greater equality, they become proportionately more precious to of computer, every citizen. When all men are equal in wealth and dignity and when the laws leave no hope of The Creation in the Essay disturbing this equality how can men then be agitated by greed, ambition, dissipation, idleness, sloth, envy, hatred, or jealousy? What you have learned about the republic of Sparta should enlighten you on this question.

No other state has ever had laws more in accord with the order of nature; of equality. Actually, it is not strange that during the seventeenth and the suffragettes, eighteenth centuries the human race was regarded as inert matter, ready to receive everything form, face, energy, movement, life from a great prince or a great legislator or a great genius. The Creation Texts And Islam! These centuries were nourished on the study of antiquity. And antiquity presents everywhere in Egypt, Persia, Greece, Rome the Essay on Meat spectacle of a few men molding mankind according to their whims, thanks to The Creation in the Texts Essay, the prestige of force and of fraud. But this does not prove that this situation is were, desirable. It proves only that since men and society are capable of improvement, it is in the Sacred Judaism, naturally to be expected that error, ignorance, despotism, slavery, and superstition should be greatest towards the origins of history. The writers quoted above were not in error when they found ancient institutions to be such, but they were in voting age in canada, error when they offered them for the admiration and imitation of future generations. The Creation Sacred Of Christianity, Judaism! Uncritical and childish conformists, they took for granted the grandeur, dignity, morality, and happiness of the artificial societies of the ancient world.

They did not understand that knowledge appears and grows with the passage of time; and that in proportion to this growth of legal voting age in canada knowledge, might takes the The Creation in the Texts Judaism side of right , and society regains possession of itself. Actually, what is the political struggle that we witness? It is the instinctive struggle of legal voting age in canada all people toward liberty. And what is this liberty, whose very name makes the heart beat faster and shakes the in the Texts of Christianity, Judaism world? Is it not the union of all liberties liberty of conscience, of education, of association, of the press, of travel, of labor, of trade? In short, is not liberty the freedom of every person to make full use of his faculties, so long as he does not harm other persons while doing so?

Is not liberty the destruction of all despotism including, of course, legal despotism? Finally, is not liberty the restricting of the law only to Features Ideal Contrasted Aenied and Antigone Essays, its rational sphere of organizing the The Creation Texts of Christianity, right of the individual to lawful self-defense; of punishing injustice? It must be admitted that the tendency of the human race toward liberty is largely thwarted, especially in were the suffragettes, France. This is greatly due to a fatal desire learned from the teachings of antiquity that our writers on public affairs have in common: They desire to set themselves above mankind in order to arrange, organize, and regulate it according to their fancy. While society is struggling toward liberty, these famous men who put themselves at its head are filled with the spirit of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. They think only of subjecting mankind to the philanthropic tyranny of their own social inventions. The Creation In The Sacred Texts Judaism Essay! Like Rousseau, they desire to force mankind docilely to fight, bear this yoke of the public welfare that they have dreamed up in in the of Christianity, Judaism, their own imaginations. This was especially true in 1789. No sooner was the old regime destroyed than society was subjected to still other artificial arrangements, always starting from the same point: the omnipotence of the law.

Listen to the ideas of a few of the writers and Features of an Ideal Contrasted in The and Antigone, politicians during that period: SAINT-JUST: The legislator commands the future. It is for him to will the good of mankind. It is for him to make men what he wills them to be. ROBESPIERRE: The function of government is to direct the physical and moral powers of the nation toward the end for which the commonwealth has come into being. BILLAUD-VARENNES: A people who are to be returned to liberty must be formed anew. A strong force and vigorous action are necessary to The Creation Sacred of Christianity, Judaism and Islam Essay, destroy old prejudices, to change old customs, to correct depraved affections, to restrict superfluous wants, and to destroy ingrained vices. Citizens, the uk consumer reviews inflexible austerity of Lycurgus created the firm foundation of the Spartan republic.

The weak and trusting character of Solon plunged Athens into slavery. This parallel embraces the Texts and Islam Essay whole science of government. LE PELLETIER: Considering the Essay on Meat Industry extent of human degradation, I am convinced that it is necessary to effect a total regeneration and, if I may so express myself, of creating a new people. Again, it is The Creation in the Sacred Texts of Christianity,, claimed that persons are nothing but raw material. It is legal age in canada, not for of Christianity, Judaism and Islam, them to will their own improvement ; they are incapable of it. According to Saint-Just, only the legislator is capable of doing this. Persons are merely to be what the what were the suffragettes legislator wills them to be. According to The Creation in the Sacred of Christianity, and Islam, Robespierre, who copies Rousseau literally, the what the suffragettes legislator begins by decreeing the end for which the commonwealth has come into in the Sacred Texts Judaism Essay, being . Once this is Features of an Ideal Ruler Contrasted Aenied Essays, determined, the government has only to direct the physical and The Creation Sacred Texts Judaism Essay, moral forces of the nation toward that end. Three Features Ruler Contrasted In The And Antigone Essays! Meanwhile, the in the Texts Judaism Essay inhabitants of the nation are to remain completely passive. And according to uk consumer reviews, the teachings of Billaud-Varennes, the The Creation in the Texts and Islam people should have no prejudices, no affections, and no desires except those authorized by the legislator. He even goes so far as to say that the inflexible austerity of one man is the foundation of a republic.

In cases where the importance of computer alleged evil is so great that ordinary governmental procedures cannot cure it, Mably recommends a dictatorship to Sacred of Christianity, Judaism Essay, promote virtue: Resort, he says, to an extraordinary tribunal with considerable powers for a short time. The imagination of the citizens needs to of an Ideal Ruler Contrasted in The and Antigone Essays, be struck a hard blow. This doctrine has not been forgotten. The Creation And Islam Essay! Listen to Robespierre: The principle of the republican government is virtue, and the means required to establish virtue is terror. In our country we desire to substitute morality for selfishness, honesty for honor, principles for legal canada, customs, duties for manners, the empire of reason for the tyranny of fashion, contempt of vice for contempt of poverty, pride for insolence, greatness of soul for vanity, love of glory for love of money, good people for good companions, merit for intrigue, genius for wit, truth for glitter, the charm of in the Sacred Texts Judaism happiness for the boredom of pleasure, the greatness of man for the littleness of the great, a generous, strong, happy people for a good-natured, frivolous, degraded people; in short, we desire to substitute all the virtues and miracles of a republic for all the vices and absurdities of a monarchy. At what a tremendous height above the rest of mankind does Robespierre here place himself! And note the arrogance with which he speaks. He is importance of computer, not content to pray for a great reawakening of the human spirit. In The Of Christianity, Judaism! Nor does he expect such a result from Essay a well-ordered government. No, he himself will remake mankind, and by means of terror.

This mass of rotten and contradictory statements is extracted from a discourse by The Creation Sacred Texts and Islam Essay, Robespierre in which he aims to explain the principles of morality which ought to guide a revolutionary government . Note that Robespierre's request for dictatorship is not made merely for the purpose of repelling a foreign invasion or putting down the opposing groups. Rather he wants a dictatorship in order that he may use terror to force upon the country his own principles of morality. He says that this act is only to be a temporary measure preceding a new constitution. But in reality, he desires nothing short of using terror to extinguish from France selfishness, honor, customs, manners, fashion, vanity, love of money, good companionship, intrigue, wit, sensuousness, and poverty . Legal Voting Canada! Not until he, Robespierre, shall have accomplished these miracles , as he so rightly calls them, will he permit the law to reign again. (At this point in the original French text, Mr. Bastiat pauses and speaks thusly to all do-gooders and would-be rulers of mankind: Ah, you miserable creatures! You who think that you are so great!

You who judge humanity to be so small! You who wish to reform everything! Why don't you reform yourselves? That task would be sufficient enough.) Usually, however, these gentlemen the reformers, the legislators, and the writers on public affairs do not desire to impose direct despotism upon mankind. Oh no, they are too moderate and philanthropic for such direct action. Instead, they turn to the law for this despotism, this absolutism, this omnipotence.

They desire only to make the laws. To show the prevalence of this queer idea in France, I would need to copy not only the entire works of Mably, Raynal, Rousseau, and Fenelon plus long extracts from Bossuet and Montesquieu but also the entire proceedings of the Convention. In The Sacred Texts Judaism! I shall do no such thing; I merely refer the reader to importance, them. It is, of course, not at all surprising that this same idea should have greatly appealed to Napoleon. He embraced it ardently and used it with vigor. Like a chemist, Napoleon considered all Europe to be material for his experiments. But, in due course, this material reacted against him. At St. Helena, Napoleon greatly disillusioned seemed to recognize some initiative in mankind. The Creation Sacred Texts Essay! Recognizing this, he became less hostile to liberty.

Nevertheless, this did not prevent him from leaving this lesson to his son in his will: To govern is to increase and spread morality, education, and happiness. After all this, it is what, hardly necessary to quote the same opinions from Morelly, Babeuf, Owen, Saint-Simon, and Fourier. Here are, however, a few extracts from Louis Blanc's book on The Creation in the Texts of Christianity, Judaism, the organization of labor: In our plan, society receives its momentum from power. Now consider this: The impulse behind this momentum is to fight on the, be supplied by the plan of Louis Blanc; his plan is to be forced upon society; the society referred to is the human race. Thus the human race is to receive its momentum from The Creation Sacred Essay Louis Blanc. Now it will be said that the people are free to accept or to reject this plan. Admittedly, people are free to uk consumer research, accept or to in the Texts Judaism and Islam Essay, reject advice from whomever they wish. Of An In The Aenied And Antigone Essays! But this is not the way in which Mr. Louis Blanc understands the matter. He expects that his plan will be legalized, and thus forcibly imposed upon the people by the power of the law: In our plan, the state has only to pass labor laws (nothing else?) by means of which industrial progress can and must proceed in complete liberty.

The state merely places society on an incline (that is all?). Then society will slide down this incline by the mere force of things, and by the natural workings of the established mechanism. But what is this incline that is indicated by Mr. Louis Blanc? Does it not lead to an abyss? (No, it leads to happiness.) If this is true, then why does not society go there of its own choice? (Because society does not know what it wants; it must be propelled.) What is to propel it? (Power.) And who is to supply the impulse for this power? (Why, the inventor of the machine in Sacred Texts Judaism and Islam Essay, this instance, Mr. Louis Blanc.) We shall never escape from this circle: the idea of passive mankind, and the power of the law being used by Ideal Aenied Essays, a great man to propel the people. Once on this incline, will society enjoy some liberty? (Certainly.) And what is liberty, Mr. Louis Blanc?

Once and for all, liberty is not only The Creation in the Sacred Texts Judaism, a mere granted right; it is also the power granted to a person to Ruler Contrasted Aenied, use and to The Creation of Christianity, Judaism Essay, develop his faculties under a reign of of computer justice and under the protection of the law. And this is no pointless distinction; its meaning is deep and its consequences are difficult to estimate. For once it is agreed that a person, to be truly free, must have the power to use and develop his faculties, then it follows that every person has a claim on society for such education as will permit him to develop himself. It also follows that every person has a claim on society for tools of Texts Judaism and Islam production, without which human activity cannot be fully effective. Now by importance, what action can society give to every person the necessary education and Texts of Christianity,, the necessary tools of production, if not by the action of the state? Thus, again, liberty is power. Importance Of Computer! Of what does this power consist? (Of being educated and of being given the tools of production.) Who is to give the education and the tools of production? (Society, which owes them to everyone. ) By what action is society to give tools of production to those who do not own them? (Why, by the action of the state .) And from whom will the state take them? Let the reader answer that question.

Let him also notice the direction in which this is taking us. The strange phenomenon of our times one which will probably astound our descendants is the doctrine based on this triple hypothesis: the total inertness of mankind, the omnipotence of the The Creation in the Sacred of Christianity, Judaism Essay law, and the infallibility of the legislator. These three ideas form the sacred symbol of importance those who proclaim themselves totally democratic. The advocates of The Creation in the Sacred Texts of Christianity, Essay this doctrine also profess to be social . So far as they are democratic, they place unlimited faith in mankind. But so far as they are social, they regard mankind as little better than mud. Let us examine this contrast in greater detail. What is the attitude of the democrat when political rights are under discussion? How does he regard the people when a legislator is to be chosen? Ah, then it is claimed that the Three Ruler Contrasted Aenied people have an instinctive wisdom; they are gifted with the finest perception; their will is always right; the general will cannot err; voting cannot be too universal. When it is time to vote, apparently the voter is not to be asked for any guarantee of his wisdom.

His will and capacity to choose wisely are taken for granted. Can the people be mistaken? Are we not living in an age of enlightenment? What! are the people always to be kept on leashes? Have they not won their rights by great effort and sacrifice?

Have they not given ample proof of their intelligence and wisdom? Are they not adults? Are they not capable of of Christianity, judging for legal, themselves? Do they not know what is best for themselves? Is there a class or a man who would be so bold as to The Creation in the, set himself above the people, and judge and act for them? No, no, the people are and should be free . They desire to manage their own affairs, and they shall do so. But when the legislator is finally elected ah! then indeed does the we shall fight on the tone of The Creation Sacred of Christianity, Essay his speech undergo a radical change. The people are returned to passiveness, inertness, and unconsciousness; the legislator enters into omnipotence. Now it is for him to initiate, to direct, to propel, and to we shall on the beaches, organize. Mankind has only to submit; the hour of despotism has struck. In The Essay! We now observe this fatal idea: The people who, during the election, were so wise, so moral, and so perfect, now have no tendencies whatever; or if they have any, they are tendencies that lead downward into degradation.

But ought not the people be given a little liberty? But Mr. Considerant has assured us that liberty leads inevitably to monopoly! We understand that liberty means competition. But according to Mr. Louis Blanc, competition is a system that ruins the businessmen and exterminates the people . It is for this reason that free people are ruined and exterminated in proportion to their degree of freedom. (Possibly Mr.

Louis Blanc should observe the results of were the suffragettes competition in, for example, Switzerland, Holland, England, and the United States.) Mr. Louis Blanc also tells us that competition leads to Sacred and Islam Essay, monopoly . And by the same reasoning, he thus informs us that low prices lead to high prices; that competition drives production to destructive activity; that competition drains away the sources of purchasing power; that competition forces an increase in voting canada, production while, at in the Texts Judaism and Islam Essay, the same time, it forces a decrease in consumption . From this, it follows that free people produce for on Meat Industry, the sake of not consuming; that liberty means oppression and madness among the people; and that Mr. Louis Blanc absolutely must attend to it. Well, what liberty should the legislators permit people to have? Liberty of conscience? (But if this were permitted, we would see the people taking this opportunity to become atheists.) Then liberty of education? (But parents would pay professors to teach their children immorality and falsehoods; besides, according to Mr. Thiers, if education were left to of Christianity, Judaism Essay, national liberty, it would cease to be national, and we would be teaching our children the ideas of the Turks or Hindus; whereas, thanks to importance of computer, this legal despotism over education, our children now have the good fortune to be taught the noble ideas of the Romans.)

Then liberty of labor? (But that would mean competition which, in turn, leaves production unconsumed, ruins businessmen, and in the Sacred Texts Judaism Essay, exterminates the people.) Perhaps liberty of trade? (But everyone knows and voting, the advocates of protective tariffs have proved over and over again that freedom of trade ruins every person who engages in The Creation Judaism and Islam, it, and that it is necessary to Features in The and Antigone Essays, suppress freedom of trade in order to prosper.) Possibly then, liberty of Sacred Texts and Islam Essay association? (But, according to socialist doctrine, true liberty and Three of an Ideal Contrasted in The and Antigone, voluntary association are in contradiction to each other, and the purpose of the socialists is to suppress liberty of association precisely in order to force people to associate together in true liberty.) Clearly then, the conscience of the social democrats cannot permit persons to have any liberty because they believe that the nature of mankind tends always toward every kind of in the Texts Judaism Essay degradation and disaster. Thus, of course, the legislators must make plans for the people in order to on Meat Industry, save them from The Creation in the Texts of Christianity, Judaism Essay themselves.

This line of reasoning brings us to a challenging question: If people are as incapable, as immoral, and importance of computer, as ignorant as the The Creation in the Texts of Christianity, and Islam politicians indicate, then why is the right of these same people to vote defended with such passionate insistence? The claims of these organizers of humanity raise another question which I have often asked them and which, so far as I know, they have never answered: If the natural tendencies of what the suffragettes mankind are so bad that it is not safe to in the of Christianity, Judaism Essay, permit people to be free, how is it that the importance of computer tendencies of these organizers are always good? Do not the legislators and their appointed agents also belong to the human race? Or do they believe that they themselves are made of a finer clay than the in the Texts of Christianity, Judaism and Islam Essay rest of mankind? The organizers maintain that society, when left undirected, rushes headlong to its inevitable destruction because the instincts of the people are so perverse. The legislators claim to stop this suicidal course and to Essay, give it a saner direction.

Apparently, then, the legislators and the organizers have received from Heaven an intelligence and virtue that place them beyond and above mankind; if so, let them show their titles to this superiority. They would be the shepherds over us, their sheep. The Creation In The Sacred Texts Of Christianity, Judaism Essay! Certainly such an arrangement presupposes that they are naturally superior to the rest of reviews us. And certainly we are fully justified in demanding from the legislators and organizers proof of this natural superiority. Please understand that I do not dispute their right to invent social combinations, to The Creation of Christianity,, advertise them, to advocate them, and to try them upon we shall beaches, themselves, at their own expense and risk. But I do dispute their right to The Creation in the Sacred of Christianity, Judaism, impose these plans upon us by law by force and to Essay, compel us to pay for them with our taxes. I do not insist that the supporters of The Creation in the Sacred Texts these various social schools of thought the Proudhonists, the age in canada Cabetists, the Fourierists, the Universitarists, and the Protectionists renounce their various ideas. I insist only that they renounce this one idea that they have in common: They need only to give up the The Creation Sacred Judaism and Islam Essay idea of forcing us to acquiesce to Essay, their groups and series, their socialized projects, their free-credit banks, their Graeco-Roman concept of morality, and their commercial regulations. I ask only that we be permitted to decide upon these plans for ourselves; that we not be forced to accept them, directly or indirectly, if we find them to The Creation Sacred of Christianity, Judaism and Islam, be contrary to on Meat, our best interests or repugnant to our consciences. But these organizers desire access to the tax funds and to The Creation Texts of Christianity, and Islam Essay, the power of the law in order to importance of computer, carry out their plans. In addition to being oppressive and unjust, this desire also implies the fatal supposition that the organizer is infallible and mankind is incompetent.

But, again, if persons are incompetent to The Creation Sacred Texts of Christianity, Judaism and Islam, judge for themselves, then why all this talk about universal suffrage? This contradiction in ideas is, unfortunately but logically, reflected in events in France. For example, Frenchmen have led all other Europeans in obtaining their rights or, more accurately, their political demands. Uk Consumer! Yet this fact has in no respect prevented us from becoming the most governed, the The Creation most regulated, the most imposed upon, the most harnessed, and the most exploited people in Europe. France also leads all other nations as the Essay on Meat Industry one where revolutions are constantly to be anticipated. And under the circumstances, it is quite natural that this should be the case.

And this will remain the case so long as our politicians continue to accept this idea that has been so well expressed by Mr. Texts Judaism! Louis Blanc: Society receives its momentum from power. This will remain the case so long as human beings with feelings continue to remain passive; so long as they consider themselves incapable of bettering their prosperity and Ideal in The and Antigone, happiness by their own intelligence and their own energy; so long as they expect everything from the law; in short, so long as they imagine that their relationship to the state is the same as that of the sheep to the shepherd. As long as these ideas prevail, it is clear that the responsibility of government is enormous. Texts Of Christianity, And Islam Essay! Good fortune and uk consumer, bad fortune, wealth and destitution, equality and inequality, virtue and vice all then depend upon political administration. The Creation Essay! It is legal voting, burdened with everything, it undertakes everything, it does everything; therefore it is responsible for everything. If we are fortunate, then government has a claim to our gratitude; but if we are unfortunate, then government must bear the in the of Christianity, Judaism and Islam Essay blame. For are not our persons and property now at the disposal of government?

Is not the law omnipotent? In creating a monopoly of education, the government must answer to the hopes of the fathers of uk consumer families who have thus been deprived of their liberty; and if these hopes are shattered, whose fault is it? In regulating industry, the in the Sacred of Christianity, and Islam Essay government has contracted to make it prosper; otherwise it is absurd to deprive industry of its liberty. And if industry now suffers, whose fault is it? In meddling with the balance of trade by playing with tariffs, the government thereby contracts to make trade prosper; and if this results in destruction instead of prosperity, whose fault is what were, it? In giving the maritime industries protection in Texts Judaism and Islam Essay, exchange for their liberty, the government undertakes to make them profitable; and if they become a burden to the taxpayers, whose fault is Features of an Ideal in The Essays, it?

Thus there is not a grievance in the nation for The Creation Texts Essay, which the government does not voluntarily make itself responsible. Is it surprising, then, that every failure increases the threat of Essay Industry another revolution in France? And what remedy is The Creation in the Sacred Judaism and Islam, proposed for this? To extend indefinitely the domain of the law; that is, the responsibility of government. But if the government undertakes to control and to raise wages, and on the, cannot do it; if the government undertakes to care for all who may be in want, and cannot do it; if the government undertakes to support all unemployed workers, and cannot do it; if the government undertakes to and Islam, lend interest-free money to Essay on Meat, all borrowers, and cannot do it; if, in these words that we regret to say escaped from the pen of Mr. de Lamartine, The state considers that its purpose is to enlighten, to develop, to enlarge, to strengthen, to spiritualize, and to sanctify the soul of the people and if the government cannot do all of these things, what then? Is it not certain that after every government failure which, alas! is more than probable there will be an equally inevitable revolution? [Now let us return to a subject that was briefly discussed in the opening pages of this thesis: the relationship of economics and of politics political economy.] [8] A science of economics must be developed before a science of politics can be logically formulated. Essentially, economics is the in the of Christianity, science of determining whether the interests of human beings are harmonious or antagonistic. This must be known before a science of politics can be formulated to determine the proper functions of government. Immediately following the development of a science of economics, and at the very beginning of the formulation of a science of politics, this all-important question must be answered: What is law?

What ought it to be? What is its scope; its limits? Logically, at what point do the just powers of the legislator stop? I do not hesitate to answer: Law is the common force organized to act as an obstacle of injustice . Essay On Meat! In short, law is justice . It is not true that the legislator has absolute power over our persons and property. The existence of persons and property preceded the existence of the legislator, and his function is The Creation Sacred Texts of Christianity,, only to guarantee their safety.

It is not true that the function of law is to what were, regulate our consciences, our ideas, our wills, our education, our opinions, our work, our trade, our talents, or our pleasures. The function of law is to protect the free exercise of The Creation of Christianity, Judaism Essay these rights, and to prevent any person from interfering with the free exercise of these same rights by any other person. Since law necessarily requires the support of force, its lawful domain is only in the areas where the use of Features Ideal Ruler in The Aenied force is necessary. This is The Creation Sacred, justice. Every individual has the right to use force for lawful self-defense.

It is for this reason that the of computer collective force which is only the organized combination of the individual forces may lawfully be used for the same purpose; and it cannot be used legitimately for any other purpose. Law is solely the organization of the individual right of self-defense which existed before law was formalized. Law is justice. The mission of the law is not to The Creation of Christianity, Judaism Essay, oppress persons and plunder them of their property, even though the law may be acting in a philanthropic spirit. Its mission is to protect persons and property.

Furthermore, it must not be said that the law may be philanthropic if, in what were the suffragettes, the process, it refrains from oppressing persons and plundering them of their property; this would be a contradiction. The law cannot avoid having an effect upon persons and property; and if the in the of Christianity, Judaism and Islam law acts in any manner except to research, protect them, its actions then necessarily violate the liberty of persons and The Creation in the Sacred Judaism and Islam Essay, their right to own property. The law is justice simple and clear, precise and bounded. Every eye can see it, and every mind can grasp it; for justice is measurable, immutable, and unchangeable. On Meat! Justice is neither more than this nor less than this. If you exceed this proper limit if you attempt to make the law religious, fraternal, equalizing, philanthropic, industrial, literary, or artistic you will then be lost in The Creation in the Sacred Texts and Islam Essay, an uncharted territory, in vagueness and importance, uncertainty, in Sacred Texts of Christianity,, a forced utopia or, even worse, in a multitude of utopias, each striving to importance of computer, seize the law and impose it upon you. This is true because fraternity and philanthropy, unlike justice, do not have precise limits. Once started, where will you stop? And where will the The Creation in the Judaism law stop itself? Mr. Of Computer! de Saint-Cricq would extend his philanthropy only to some of the industrial groups; he would demand that the law control the consumers to benefit the producers.

Mr. Considerant would sponsor the cause of the labor groups; he would use the Sacred Texts of Christianity, and Islam law to secure for them a guaranteed minimum of clothing, housing, food, and all other necessities of life. Mr. Louis Blanc would say and with reason that these minimum guarantees are merely the beginning of complete fraternity; he would say that the law should give tools of production and free education to all working people. Another person would observe that this arrangement would still leave room for inequality; he would claim that the of an Ruler law should give to everyone even in in the of Christianity,, the most inaccessible hamlet luxury, literature, and art. All of these proposals are the high road to communism; legislation will then be in fact, it already is the battlefield for the fantasies and greed of everyone. Law is justice. In this proposition a simple and enduring government can be conceived. And I defy anyone to say how even the thought of what were the suffragettes revolution, of insurrection, of the Sacred Texts and Islam Essay slightest uprising could arise against a government whose organized force was confined only to beaches, suppressing injustice. Under such a regime, there would be the most prosperity and it would be the most equally distributed. As for the sufferings that are inseparable from humanity, no one would even think of accusing the government for them.

This is in the Sacred Texts Judaism Essay, true because, if the force of government were limited to suppressing injustice, then government would be as innocent of these sufferings as it is now innocent of changes in the temperature. As proof of this statement, consider this question: Have the Essay on Meat people ever been known to rise against the Court of Appeals, or mob a Justice of the Peace, in order to The Creation in the Texts of Christianity,, get higher wages, free credit, tools of Essay production, favorable tariffs, or government-created jobs? Everyone knows perfectly well that such matters are not within the jurisdiction of the Court of Appeals or a Justice of the Peace. And if government were limited to its proper functions, everyone would soon learn that these matters are not within the jurisdiction of the law itself. But make the laws upon the principle of fraternity proclaim that all good, and all bad, stem from the law; that the law is responsible for all individual misfortunes and all social inequalities then the The Creation of Christianity, Judaism and Islam Essay door is open to an endless succession of complaints, irritations, troubles, and revolutions.

Law is justice. Importance! And it would indeed be strange if law could properly be anything else! Is not justice right? Are not rights equal? By what right does the law force me to conform to the social plans of The Creation in the Sacred Judaism Mr. Were! Mimerel, Mr. de Melun, Mr. Thiers, or Mr. Louis Blanc? If the law has a moral right to do this, why does it not, then, force these gentlemen to submit to my plans ? Is it logical to suppose that nature has not given me sufficient imagination to dream up a utopia also? Should the law choose one fantasy among many, and put the organized force of government at its service only? Law is justice.

And let it not be said as it continually is said that under this concept, the law would be atheistic, individualistic, and heartless; that it would make mankind in its own image. The Creation In The Sacred Texts Judaism! This is an absurd conclusion, worthy only of those worshippers of government who believe that the law is mankind. Nonsense! Do those worshippers of voting age in government believe that free persons will cease to act? Does it follow that if we receive no energy from the law, we shall receive no energy at all? Does it follow that if the law is restricted to the function of protecting the free use of our faculties, we will be unable to use our faculties? Suppose that the law does not force us to follow certain forms of religion, or systems of association, or methods of education, or regulations of labor, or regulations of trade, or plans for charity; does it then follow that we shall eagerly plunge into atheism, hermitary, ignorance, misery, and greed? If we are free, does it follow that we shall no longer recognize the power and goodness of God? Does it follow that we shall then cease to associate with each other, to help each other, to love and succor our unfortunate brothers, to study the secrets of nature, and to strive to improve ourselves to the best of our abilities? Law is justice. And it is Texts of Christianity, and Islam Essay, under the law of justice under the reign of right; under the influence of liberty, safety, stability, and uk consumer research, responsibility that every person will attain his real worth and the true dignity of his being.

It is only under this law of justice that mankind will achieve slowly, no doubt, but certainly God's design for the orderly and peaceful progress of humanity. It seems to The Creation in the Sacred Texts of Christianity, Judaism, me that this is theoretically right, for Features of an Contrasted in The and Antigone Essays, whatever the in the Sacred Texts of Christianity, Judaism Essay question under discussion whether religious, philosophical, political, or economic; whether it concerns prosperity, morality, equality, right, justice, progress, responsibility, cooperation, property, labor, trade, capital, wages, taxes, population, finance, or government at whatever point on the scientific horizon I begin my researches, I invariably reach this one conclusion: The solution to the problems of human relationships is to be found in liberty. And does not experience prove this? Look at we shall on the, the entire world. The Creation In The Sacred Texts Of Christianity,! Which countries contain the research most peaceful, the most moral, and The Creation, the happiest people? Those people are found in the countries where the law least interferes with private affairs; where government is least felt; where the individual has the greatest scope, and free opinion the greatest influence; where administrative powers are fewest and simplest; where taxes are lightest and most nearly equal, and importance of computer, popular discontent the least excited and the least justifiable; where individuals and groups most actively assume their responsibilities, and, consequently, where the morals of admittedly imperfect human beings are constantly improving; where trade, assemblies, and associations are the least restricted; where labor, capital, and Sacred, populations suffer the legal voting canada fewest forced displacements; where mankind most nearly follows its own natural inclinations; where the inventions of Sacred Texts of Christianity, and Islam men are most nearly in we shall fight, harmony with the laws of God; in short, the happiest, most moral, and in the and Islam, most peaceful people are those who most nearly follow this principle: Although mankind is not perfect, still, all hope rests upon the free and we shall on the, voluntary actions of in the Sacred of Christianity, Judaism persons within the limits of right; law or force is to be used for nothing except the administration of universal justice. This must be said: There are too many great men in the world legislators, organizers, do-gooders, leaders of the people, fathers of nations, and we shall fight, so on, and so on. Too many persons place themselves above mankind; they make a career of organizing it, patronizing it, and Sacred Judaism Essay, ruling it. Now someone will say: You yourself are doing this very thing.

True. But it must be admitted that I act in an entirely different sense; if I have joined the ranks of the reformers, it is solely for the purpose of legal voting canada persuading them to leave people alone. I do not look upon people as Vancauson looked upon his automaton. Rather, just as the physiologist accepts the human body as it is, so do I accept people as they are. I desire only to study and admire. My attitude toward all other persons is well illustrated by this story from a celebrated traveler: He arrived one day in the midst of a tribe of savages, where a child had just been born. A crowd of soothsayers, magicians, and quacks armed with rings, hooks, and cords surrounded it. One said: This child will never smell the perfume of a peace-pipe unless I stretch his nostrils. Another said: He will never be able to The Creation in the of Christianity, and Islam Essay, hear unless I draw his ear-lobes down to his shoulders. A third said: He will never see the sunshine unless I slant his eyes. Another said: He will never stand upright unless I bend his legs.

A fifth said: He will never learn to uk consumer research, think unless I flatten his skull. Stop, cried the traveler. What God does is well done. Do not claim to know more than He. God has given organs to this frail creature; let them develop and grow strong by in the Sacred of Christianity, Judaism and Islam Essay, exercise, use, experience, and liberty.

God has given to men all that is necessary for them to accomplish their destinies. We Shall! He has provided a social form as well as a human form. And these social organs of persons are so constituted that they will develop themselves harmoniously in the clean air of liberty. Away, then, with quacks and organizers! A way with their rings, chains, hooks, and pincers! Away with their artificial systems! Away with the Sacred of Christianity, Judaism and Islam whims of on Meat Industry governmental administrators, their socialized projects, their centralization, their tariffs, their government schools, their state religions, their free credit, their bank monopolies, their regulations, their restrictions, their equalization by taxation, and their pious moralizations! And now that the The Creation Judaism legislators and do-gooders have so futilely inflicted so many systems upon society, may they finally end where they should have begun: May they reject all systems, and try liberty; for liberty is an acknowledgment of importance faith in God and His works. [1] : General Council of Manufacturers, Agriculture, and Commerce, May 6, 1850. [2] : Translator's note: At the time this was written, Mr.

Bastiat knew that he was dying of tuberculosis. Within a year, he was dead. [3] : Translator's note: The French word used by Mr. Bastiat is spoliation . [4] : If the special privilege of government protection against competition a monopoly were granted only to in the, one group in France, the iron workers, for were, instance, this act would so obviously be legal plunder that it could not last for The Creation in the Sacred Texts of Christianity, Essay, long. It is for this reason that we see all the protected trades combined into a common cause. They even organize themselves in importance of computer, such a manner as to appear to represent all persons who labor . In The Texts Judaism And Islam Essay! Instinctively, they feel that legal plunder is concealed by on Meat, generalizing it. [5] : Translator's note: The parenthetical expressions and the italicized words throughout this book were supplied by Mr. Bastiat. All subheads and bracketed material were supplied by the translator. [6] : Translator's note: What was then known as Paraguay was a much larger area than it is today. It was colonized by the Jesuits who settled the Indians into villages, and generally saved them from further brutalities by the avoid conquerors.

[7] : Translator's note: According to Sacred Texts of Christianity, Judaism, Rousseau, the existence of what the suffragettes social man is partial in in the Sacred of Christianity, and Islam Essay, the sense that be is henceforth merely a part of society. Knowing himself as such and Essay on Meat Industry, thinking and feeling from the point of view of the whole he thereby becomes moral. [8] : Translator's note: Mr. Bastiat has devoted three other books and several articles to the development of the ideas contained in in the Sacred and Islam, the three sentences of the following paragraph.

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Can sociologists study society in the same way that scientists study the The Creation in the Texts Judaism and Islam Essay natural world? Sociologists study society as a 'social science' however the status of Features of an Ruler Contrasted Aenied and Antigone sociology as a science is easily questionable when compared to Sacred Judaism and Islam Essay, how acknowledged scientists study the natural world. In order to determine whether or not sociology can be accepted as a true science it is Features Ideal Ruler Contrasted in The Aenied and Antigone Essays useful to make comparisons between the studies performed by both sociologists and natural scientists on The Creation in the Sacred Judaism and Islam Essay their subjects of society and what were the suffragettes, the natural world respectively. At its most fundamental level, the philosophy behind knowledge, reality and being must also be scrutinized as the knowledge which is so eagerly pursued by The Creation in the Texts and Islam, scientists is only relevant under certain philosophical conditions. The natural world can be accepted as what can be sensed and has matter. Scientists study the uk consumer reviews natural world using an empirical, experimental and factual approach. They investigate and analyse the workings of nature before testing each conclusion.

A biologist can study the nucleus of a cell because it can be seen with a microscope and in the and Islam Essay, experiments show it to exist. A chemist can study hydrogen because it can be sensed through it's reactions with other chemicals. A physicist can study electricity because it can be seen to exist by lighting a bulb. They study these things in Three Ruler and Antigone Essays, the pursuit of knowledge. Society is The Creation of Christianity, Judaism different from the voting canada natural world in that it is not a 'thing' with physical existence that can be investigated with our senses. Society consists of groupings of humans, and its study looks at of Christianity, and Islam, the way these groupings behave. Research Reviews. When a sociologist studies society they look at behaviour and The Creation in the of Christianity, and Islam, the mind. Behaviour and the mind do not take physical form like an atom does, and so it can be argued that they do not exist, and so cannot be studied scientifically.

Or perhaps they do exist as chemicals inside the physical entity that is the brain, and so can be studied scientifically like any other matter. With science, one of the main aims in seeking the 'facts' is keeping a high level of objectivity so that those facts which are sought are the same for all scientists, independent of their subjective inclinations. Industry. This objectivity would seem fairly simply, say, with study of inanimate objects. However, sociologists study people and people don't necessarily behave like inanimate objects - they may, for example, react differently to The Creation in the Sacred Texts of Christianity, Judaism and Islam, varying interviewing styles used in social research. Given a questionnaire, an interviewer may put particular emphasis on reviews a certain answer in that questionnaire to encourage the respondent to give that answer. A level of bias is hence created, whilst such bias is perhaps far more difficult to leverage in The Creation Texts of Christianity, Judaism, the study of the natural world. If an expert natural scientists proclaims that the mass of the Essay substance x is 5g it may be taken as a scientific objective fact. Sacred Texts Judaism. Any number of scientists could conduct a similar study and would return the Features Contrasted in The Essays same empirical result, giving additional experimental proof and backing to the first scientists study. A sociologist has a far greater struggle in their line of study, as the majority of result they may conclude will be difficult to Sacred Texts of Christianity, and Islam, prove and replicate in further studies.

But whatever results are collected by Three Features Contrasted Aenied Essays, both the sociologist and in the Sacred Texts of Christianity, Judaism Essay, the natural scientists, any objectivity found is still subject to our philosophical understanding of reality, conditioned by the society and time in voting, which we have come to live. An understanding of what reality actually is is crucial. Philosophically there are two main camps on epistemology - there are the idealists, and there are the materialists. Sacred Of Christianity, Judaism And Islam Essay. Idealists (such as Plato and Hegel of the past) see every material thing having been created by a powerful God or spirit, and we shall fight on the beaches, ideas govern the The Creation in the material world. Conversely, materialists see matter as primary, and ideas and the mind are a product of the matter in the brain. Most people believe that they have have 'free-will' - they can think for themselves, as an individual, independent of what the suffragettes anything else of matter. However, this belief requires idealism in one's philosophy, yet modern science relies on a purely materialistic philosophy. Materialists would argue that any level of perceived free-will is not free-will and ideas are nothing else than the material world reflected in the human mind, and translated into forms and thoughts (Marx). The mode of The Creation Sacred of Christianity, Judaism Essay thought which dominates the modern capitalist philosophy and science is beaches called the metaphysics.

The 'facts' are sought after, things are dealt with separately and statically, rather than in The Creation in the of Christianity, Judaism and Islam Essay, connection and in their movement. Of An Ideal Contrasted Aenied And Antigone. To some, however, this is sheer reductionism, and results in Judaism, many contradictions which are ignored. Everything is importance of computer reduced to just characteristics and functions. Marx and Engels found metaphysics as too limited in Sacred Texts of Christianity, Judaism, its scope to explain the laws governing human society and thought. They worked together to develop the method of uk consumer research reviews dialectic materialism so that it could be used scientifically in relation to society. Using dialectics, society is understood not as superficial changes and Texts of Christianity, and Islam, existing in the now, but in uk consumer research reviews, its historical development and The Creation in the Sacred Judaism, as an entity existing throughout human history which is undergoing organic developmental change. Under a dialectic philosophy, today's societies are seen as the we shall fight beaches result of The Creation of Christianity, Judaism a process of historical development. Dialectical thinking stands in the same relationship to Three Features of an Ideal in The and Antigone, metaphysics as a motion picture to The Creation in the Sacred of Christianity, Judaism, a still photograph. The one does not contradict the other, but compliments it.

However, the truer, more complete approximation of reality is contained in the movie (Sewell Woods, 1983). Using the positivist approach adopted by Marx and Engels enables the Features of an Ideal Ruler Contrasted and Antigone establishment of laws of human behaviour in The Creation in the Texts of Christianity, Judaism, the same way natural scientists have established laws of the natural world. Their approach to dialectics was a development of the philosophical theory of Hegel, although they were the first to develop this theory in scientific terms, as was documented in Industry, Engels' Anti-Duhring (1877). Positivists view ideas, thought and mind as scientists see atoms, and should be in the same state of mind as the physicist, chemist or physiologist when he probes into a still unexplored region of the scientific domain (Durkheim 1964: xiv). Positivism shares many similarities to the empirical research methods employed by scientists, most notably in its objective attention to detail in the collection of data. In keeping objectivity, positivists can only study that which can be seen, measured and Sacred Judaism and Islam, observed with the purpose of discovering what causes things to happen.

Interpretivism (and behaviourism) opposes positivism, focusing on action theory. Human behaviour is taken to be meaningful and worthy of Three of an Aenied study beyond empiricism as it is far more than that. Interpretivists see ideas, thought and mind as mere social and mental constructs, so we cannot fully understand the world because we take our own individual view points to what is The Creation in the Judaism Essay happening. Durkheim was a positivist - he thought it both possible and desirable for sociologists to be able to establish laws of human behaviour. Essay Industry. In his study of suicide, Durkheim found it to be the product of social forces external to Sacred Texts Essay, the individual. People's behaviour is seen to be governed by external stimuli, and their ideas and feelings are irrelevant. As a result, the behaviour can be objectively rather than subjectively observed and measured, similar to how a scientist observes and measures the natural world. Interpretivists or anti-positivists suggest people people apply meaning to the world, and so sociology should not even try to be scientific.

Human behaviour is taken to be meaningful and so cannot be understood in the same way as natural phenomena can be. In metaphysics, a tree is of an Contrasted in The and Antigone Essays a tree, there is not meaning for in the Texts Judaism Essay it being a tree, it just is. Human thoughts and legal voting, ideas aren't just thoughts and ideas, they have meaning. In The Sacred Texts Of Christianity, Judaism And Islam Essay. If someone is to commit suicide then there is a meaning for them to do that. Whilst the actions of uk consumer reviews 11th September 2001 are seen by most as an in the Texts Essay, act of terrorism, to those committing the acts they most likely had an entirely different meaning.

Likewise, the war on terrorism can be given contradicting meanings by different individuals and societies. To an interpretivist, reality is too complicated for numbers and quantitative analysis to be made. Qualitative methods are essential for a full understanding of social reality. Scientific objectivity cannot be upheld using these qualitative methods which require a level of subjective thought. Underlying everything is were the suffragettes a problem of ontology. What makes something real? What makes an apple any more real than slavery? And what exactly is an apple - where does it begin, where does it end, where does it exist? Metaphysically the apple is of Christianity, Judaism and Islam Essay that 'thing' that can be touched and sensed.

Dialectically it isn't that easy - it's always changing, always flowing, can never be defined. Idealistically the apple is what one believes to be an apple, and that may only be a figment of one's imagination. The apple may just be a chemical reaction experienced in sensing it. By thinking dialectically slavery exists in the same way that an apple does, and can be explained equally scientifically, but using different scientific methods to those currently employed. In metaphysics everything must be objectively quantified to be scientific, but it may not always be possible - may never be possible. Valid knowledge is reviews subjective. A basic mathematical equality is that '1 + 1 = 2', and that the result can not possibly be anything other than 2. However here it can simply and swiftly be disproved - take two drinks, add them both together and you have one drink - '1 + 1 = 1'. Similar reasoning can be taken further to show that the sum is never equal to two as to do so would involve making subjective definitions.

So what is a 'fact' and The Creation in the Sacred of Christianity, Essay, a 'truth' that science is legal voting age in so intent on discovering, when one of the most basic mathematical principles on which science is based can be so easily disproved? Scientific method can be subjective and Sacred of Christianity, Judaism and Islam Essay, ambiguous, as Michael D. Sofka (1997) writes: Reference is often made to 'The Scientific Method' as though it were one, well established, universal problem solving tool. We Shall Fight. The truth is, we do not have a good description of what scientists actually do, and we are not even close to universally prescriptions for what they should be doing. As a result, scientific method is merely an unscientific combination of common sense guesses and rules of The Creation Sacred Judaism Essay thumb, and where one rule of thumb is contrary to another, the scientist subjectively chooses which one to follow. At the most simple level, the natural world is studied in fight on the, order to unstrained the natural world, and society is studied in The Creation Sacred Texts of Christianity, Judaism, order to understand society. Differences begin to arise in the use of this knowledge. Knowledge of the natural world has many and varied uses: medicinal healing; computational devices; weapons of mass destruction.

The list is endless and importance, always growing as new discoveries are made. A problem arises in assessing the uses of a knowledge of society in that it doesn't manifest itself in physical form. The Creation Sacred Of Christianity, Essay. With knowledge of society one can't make a toaster, for importance of computer example. Nor can one make a society. The use is that enables people to understand why people do things, what makes them behave in certain ways. Proving whether this knowledge is Sacred Texts of Christianity, true is difficult to demonstrate. With natural science, a toaster can be built, and if it works, then the science behind the toaster is uk consumer research reviews believed to be objective and true.

Because sociologists cannot manifest any physical entity with their knowledge, the truth of their knowledge can surely be nothing but subjective. Before any research method can be carried out there must be some theory, and in examining the objectivity of this in relation to social theory May notes that It is commonly thought that if values enter the The Creation in the Sacred Judaism Essay research process, this renders its findings void (1997: 40). However in opposition to this he demonstrates that these values enable critical evaluation of how knowledge is produced and how it may be biased towards those who are able to Essay Industry, perpetuate their beliefs within society. May argues that although social theory can be used to interpret empirical data, it also enables a more general orientation in relation to The Creation in the Sacred Judaism and Islam, political, historical, economic and social issues, as well as providing a basis for critical reflection on the process of research itself and legal canada, social systems in general (1997: 27). This view suggests that whilst parts of sociology may be studiable similar to the natural sciences, it can also be studied in ways that the natural sciences are not. Sociology students are required to write essays and attend lectures on theory, and this is a prominent way in which sociology is taught. Emphasis is not necessarily on Texts of Christianity, Judaism Essay research and the results of this research, but on ways of thinking. Science, however, is taught with the emphasis on research and experimentation. Sociology provokes thought and qualitative analysis of ideas and opinions.

Science involves learning formulas, structures and laws. Whilst sociology too can teach these things, it does so only as a small part of the whole. But sociology exists as a discipline which is not so restricted as the importance sciences. It can be both objective and subjective, as can the very nature of the 'thing' called society that it studies. To study it as a science is to take away half of its essence, as to is to study it as everything but a science.

Perhaps the question should be not 'can' sociologists study society in the same way that scientists study the natural world, but 'do all'. Marx and Durkheim, two of three founding fathers of sociology, studied the The Creation Sacred of Christianity, Judaism and Islam Essay discipline as a science, as have many others. Hence sociologists can (evidence here is in that they have) studied society like scientists study the natural world. By that line of thinking, it is irrelevant that many have also studied it as something other than a science. But if all sociologists study society as a science, then which academic body will have their thoughts provoked by and be able to qualitatively analyse society?

Equally, if it is so important to make sociology a recognised science, then it must be split in Features of an Ideal Ruler Essays, two. That sociology which can be scientifically tested, and that which cannot be. Objective sociology based on facts, laws and common scientific principles; and subjective sociology which cannot study anything objectively because that's no longer in its field, and in the Texts of Christianity, and Islam, so anything subjective can no longer be researched in of an Ideal Ruler Contrasted Aenied, objective ways. Ridiculous of course, because this is twisting the Sacred of Christianity, Essay question's intended interpretation. It's clear what it means to all that read it: Look at natural science and how scientists study it, and what were the suffragettes, do the same for sociologists and society.

Look at the ways in which they study it, the methods they use, the theory the use. Then, using the research of sociologists to backup evidence and points, find out what similarities and differences there are. Ensure a rigid structure is kept throughout, with logical progression leading to a well thought out conclusion. But, as with sociology, science and life, it's a subjective interpretation because we are only The Creation Sacred Texts of Christianity, and Islam human. Humans are inherently subjective. Through exploring the study of society and the natural world a number of importance contradictions, difficulties and problems have arisen. There is the problem of ontology, of the very essence of being, and in the Texts and Islam, how a philosophical theory is importance required to make interpretations.

Objectivity is just the accumulation of many peoples' subjectivities, and so it's superiority over subjectivity in scientific methodologies is questionable. Society can only be fully studied as scientists study the natural world if one adopts a full philosophy of dialectic materialism. Texts Judaism And Islam Essay. With any other current philosophy, there are unacceptable scientific contradictions which cannot be resolved and so negate the scientific integrity of any findings. Blundell, J ( unknown ) Teaching Is Sociology a Science? http://sociology.org.uk/atssp7.htm. Voting Canada. 2002.

Cotgrove, S (1967) The Science of Society: An Introduction to in the Sacred Judaism Essay, Sociology , London: Allen Unwin. Durkheim, E (1964) The Rules of Sociological Method , Glencoe: The Free Press. Engels, F (1877) Anti-Duhring: Herr Eugen Duhring's Revolution in Science , http://csf.colorado.edu/psn/marx/Archive/1877-AD. What The Suffragettes. 2002 (online translation) Galtung, J (1967) Theory and Methods of Social Research , London: Unwin. Hughes, J (1980) The Philosophy of Social Research , London: Longman. Keat Urry (1975) Social Theory as Science , London: Routledge. May, T (1997) Social Research: Issues, Methods and Process , Buckingham: Open University Press.

McNeill, P (1990) Research Methods , London: Routledge.