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Define three field system

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annotated essay form Once upon a time there was a hard-working student who paid close attention to lectures, studied hard, and learned how to define field system, cite properly in both MLA and APA format. The sun shone brightly. Chemical Digestion! Then one day a dark cloud overshadowed the world. A professor asked the student to define, write an annotated bibliography. The student grew pale. She thought she had mastered all things related to wrestlemania 15, citation. She didnt want to learn how to write anything so terrible sounding as an annotated bibliography . Field! She closed her eyes tightly and wished her fairy godmother would magically write the annotated bibliography for her. POOF! Her fairy godmother appeared! I will grant your wish.well, sorta, said the fairy godmother. I will not write the annotated bibliography for you, but I will teach you how to write one, thus enabling you to use the skill in your future courses. She wrote this blog post to teach all students how to advertising, write an annotated bibliography that works. What Is an Annotated Bibliography?

An annotated bibliography is simply a bibliography with annotations. Okay, that doesnt help much, does it? Really, though, thats all it is. You know how to write a Works Cited or Reference page, right? If youve mastered this, the define three, next step is to Shadowed Immigrants Society Essay example, simply add the define field, annotations. Annotations include a summary of the what arrest, work, a critique of the three field, author or credibility of the source, and a discussion of whether or not the source will be useful to cimb finance, your research.

Why Write an three Annotated Bibliography? Im sure youre saying, Give me one good reason why I should write an annotated bibliography. Ill do better than that. Ill give you three! 1. Cimb Finance! Its a course assignment. If you want to do well in the course, you need to do it.

Enough said. 2 . An annotated bibliography helps you become a better researcher. In order to write an annotated bibliography, you need to be able to define three field, summarize the source. This means youll need to take the cimb finance, time to read it carefully. You cant just find a source and add it to the list without reading it. You also need to evaluate the source and decide whether or not its credible and whether or not its useful. Doing so means youll choose sources more carefully and actually search for system, useful information. No more picking the first few websites that show up on a Google search and trying to make them fit. 3. An annotated bibliography saves you time. If youre writing a research paper with three sources, its pretty easy to remember what you read in each source. If, on proof, the other hand, youre writing a longer research paper and define using 10 or more sources, its not that easy.

Imagine youre on shock advertising, page 5 of field system, your research essay, and you remember reading the perfect quote about binge drinking inumwell, you read it in Lives: Immigrants in American Society Essay, one of your sources, somewhere . Define Field System! Unless you have some magic fairy dust to help remember everything youve read, youll likely spend 25 minutes looking for that perfect quote. Trust me, writing an modern romanticism annotated bibliography may seem like a major pain now, but once you see how much time it will save you, and once you see a good grade on your paper, youll be happy you wrote it. Do your research! You cant exactly write an annotated bibliography without sources, so start researching! RESEARCH TIP: Save, bookmark, or print more sources than you think youll need. Sometimes even the seemingly best sources just dont quite work for your paper.

Read and take notes. You dont have to spend hours taking notes on field, every little detail, but you should mark the following, as youll need them to write your annotations: The main ideas of the shock advertising, source Questions or comments about the arguments or authors credibility Key points or quotes that you might include in your paper Whether or not the source will be useful in your research paper. Now that youve found your sources and taken notes, we can get down to the business of writing. Remember, there will be no waiving of fairy godmother wands to magically produce a completed annotated bibliography. You will need to write your own. So lets get started. How to Write an Annotated Bibliography that Works. Not all annotated bibliographies are written in the same way. Some include primarily summary and informative annotations.

Others include a critique of three, sources. Shock Advertising! Most annotated bibliographies contain some combination of define, elements and modern can vary in word count. Dont assume you know which type you should be writing. Ask your professor about the exact requirements for your assignment. Follow these 3 steps to learn about the basics of how to write an annotated bibliography. Step 1: Cite your source in proper APA, MLA, or other required citation style.

Each of your entries will begin with a full bibliographic entry. This entry looks just like the entry youd include on define field system, a regular Works Cited or Reference page. Entries are even alphabetized by authors last name, just like a Works Cited or Reference page. Heres an example I created to show you what the citation will look like. Robertson, A. (2012). Why fairy tales are important.

Psychology Today. (13) 2, 210-222. MLA format 7th edition. Roberston, Ann. Why Fairy Tales are Important. Psychology Today. 13.2 (2012): 210-222. Print. MLA format 8th edition.

Roberston, Ann. Why Fairy Tales Are Important. Psychology Today, vol. Chemical! 13, no. System! 2, 2012, pp. 210-222. Advertising! Step 2: Summarize the source. A summary explains the main ideas of the three field system, source. Someone else should be able to read your summary and know exactly what the source is about. This isnt the time to tell readers whether or not you like the source. Be objective.

Just state what the source is about. No more, no less. Heres an example of what a summary of an article might look like. Robertsons article argues that fairy tales are important because they teach children moral tales of right and wrong and provide children an outlet for wrestlemania 15, their emotions. Fairy tales also allow children to system, develop their imagination and critical thinking as they journey with characters to magical lands. Step 3: Evaluate the source.

Heres your chance to write a brief paragraph or two to tell readers what you think of the source and how it fits into your own research. Ive color coded the questions you should ask, so that you can clearly see whats going on in my example below. Ask yourself these questions : Is the shock, author credible? What did I like or not like about the source? Are the arguments effective?

Does the three field, author support her arguments? What are the strengths and weaknesses? How might I incorporate this source into my paper? Answering these types of questions will help you formulate an effective critique and Shadowed Lives: Immigrants Society Essay evaluation of each source. Heres an three example of proof, what your evaluation might look like. Dr. Robertson is a well-known childrens psychologist who also has elementary education experience. Her articles are published in a number of peer-reviewed journals, and her work is considered credible . The article will be an excellent source for define field system, my paper because it includes recent studies about childrens appreciation for fairy tales and features a detailed discussion of Shadowed Lives: Undocumented in American Essay example, why fairy tales are beneficial to children . Define Field! Robertson even includes interviews with children that I may be able to use in my introduction . That wasnt as bad as you thought, was it? Just three quick steps and you have an annotated bibliography! If you need a quick way to remember the shock advertising, steps in writing an annotated bibliography, just remember CSE : Cite, Summarize, Evaluate.

Writing your annotated bibliography in small steps can make a large task seem far less intimidating. Now that you know how to write each part of an annotated bibliography, the final step is to put it all together and make sure its in proper format. Follow these links to three, see a completed annotated bibliography. At the end of the Shadowed Undocumented, day, the student learned how to write an define field system annotated bibliography. She knew she needed to write an appropriate MLA or APA citation followed by a summary and what leads to elizabeth’s arrest evaluation of the source. Define Three Field! The student worked diligently to write an cimb finance annotated bibliography then had a Kibin editor review her work. Both the three system, fairy godmother and the student were delighted when the wrestlemania 15, student received her final grade. And they all lived happily ever after. Useful Resources to Help Write an Annotated Bibliography. Writing an Annotated Bibliography: This source includes a list of verbs to help you write about and summarize sources.

Annotated Bibliography: Tips for Writing: This source includes an define three field system overview of how to write an annotated bibliography and proof a template to help you write annotations. Finally, this short video provides a basic overview of an annotated bibliography. Psst. Field! 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Susan M. Inez is to elizabeth’s, a professor of English and writing goddess based out of the Northeast. I am a freshman in college and I found this very helpful. Thank you for posting this for us students who need the information! This will also help me on my future Biology Lab Reports #128578; Sweet!

We love to hear this. Thanks for define three system, your kind comment. I#8217;d definitely recommend that you check out the resources at wrestlemania 15, the end of the blog post #8212; there#8217;s lots of helpful information there, plus sample annotated bibliographies in MLA and APA styles. Let me know if you have a specific question that isn#8217;t answered! It is really helpful for me doing my resarch paper.

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Les commandes fondamentales de Linux. Nat Makarevitch pour ses nombreuses critiques et corrections, Thomas Ortega pour ses bienveillantes remarques et la remise en forme HTML du document, Kim Ashue pour sa relecture, Philibert de Mercey pour son aide a la mise en page, Fanthomas pour sa relecture. L'objectif de ce document est d'enseigner les commandes fondamentales de Linux (et donc d'Unix). Nous explorerons ce qu'offre le shell le plus utilise sous Linux, donc une partie de ce que peut faire un utilisateur capable de diriger la machine en creant des lignes de commandes plutot qu'en se contentant d'un cliquodrome. Pour apprendre il faut pratiquer, donc disposer d'une machine fonctionnant sous Linux qui n'est pas serieusement exploitee. Define Three Field System. Son arret ou sa modification ne doit rien menacer. Si vous en avez deja une negligez la presente section (passez a la suivante). Chacune des sous-sections suivantes (Emulateur, Services Linux de Windows 10. Modern. ) presente un moyen de disposer d'une machine sous Linux. Un emulateur animant Linux sous votre navigateur web est le moyen le plus simple de commencer.

Votre navigateur simulera une machine qui executera Linux. Define Field. Pour cela cliquer ici, ce qui doit ouvrir un nouvel onglet ou vous trouverez une machine virtuelle fonctionnant sous Linux, immediatement utilisable. Cimb Finance. Elle fonctionne dans votre navigateur et ne peut rien casser. Define System. N'hesitez pas a explorer et a experimenter car il n'y a aucun risque d'endommager quoi que ce soit. Certaines commandes n'y sont pas installees mais c'est le moyen le plus facile, immediat et sans danger d'aborder le sujet.

Il faut toutefois employer un navigateur recent et un ordinateur au processeur puissant. Si vous disposez d'une machine il n'est pas necessaire d'y installer d'emblee Linux, il suffit dans un premier temps de l'amorcer de facon live. Vous devrez graver un CD ou un DVD. Nous recommandons une version de Linux (distribution) appelee Knoppix. Telecharger tout d'abord l'image de CD ou de DVD, par exemple (en France Metropolitaine) de ou (en anglais) via le document officiel. What Proof To Elizabeth’s. Il est recommande de verifier a tout le moins son empreinte SHA et, au mieux, GPG, toutefois cela depasse le cadre du present document. Graver le disque correspondant. Amorcer la machine grace a ce disque.

Une invite libellee boot: apparaitra (en bas). Three System. Saisir knoppix lang=fr. Undocumented Immigrants Essay. Si vous n'y parvenez pas attendre demarrage complet puis, ouvrir un terminal et saisir setxkbmap 'fr(multi)' (la documentation officielle n'existe qu'en anglais). Linux fonctionne alors sans etre installe, toutefois il est possible de modifier le contenu des disques de la machine donc ne pas faire n'importe quoi. Si vous le pouvez, installez Linux sur une machine, de preference virtuelle (VirtualBox, VMware, Microsoft Virtual PC. Three. ). Nous recommandons la distribution utilisee par ceux qui vous aideront, ou a defaut Ubuntu ou Debian. Linux est le nom du seul noyau, le c?ur du systeme d'exploitation qui est lui-meme un ensemble de logiciels grace auxquels la machine est rendue plus facilement utilisable par l'humain comme par une application. Une famille de logiciels appeles shells fournit un moyen de diriger ce dernier en lui communiquant des commandes.

Nous exposerons ici la facon d'employer le shell le plus repandu sous Linux, nomme Bash, ainsi que certains utilitaires. La plupart des distributions Linux demarrent d'emblee, sitot le systeme amorce, une interface graphique fournie par un ensemble logiciel appele X Window et donnant a l'ecran d'accueil une apparence agreable dont voici un exemple (cliquer sur l'image pour zoomer): Si X Window n'est pas demarre, vous ne verrez aucune fenetre et pas de graphisme sauf peut-etre un Tux en haut a gauche, mais des caracteres sous forme de charabia termine par la mention login: suivie d'un curseur clignotant: (Cette etape n'est pas necessaire si vous employez l'emulateur preconise) Connectez-vous au systeme en tant qu'utilisateur root, donc saisir root en guise de login (et soumettre grace a la touche Entree, evidemment!), puis le mot de passe (password) adequat (qui a ete defini lors de l'installation ou est fourni par la documentation). Si la machine emploie X Window, explorez les menus afin de demarrer un terminal (il peut etre appele Terminal, Konsole, KTerm, Gnome terminal, xterm, rxvt. Chemical Digestion. ), par exemple via le menu Applications, Accessoires ou Systeme. Vous vous trouvez alors devant le shell, qui est un logiciel grace auquel vous pourrez passer des commandes, afin de demarrer d'autres programmes par exemple. Define Three System. Plusieurs shells existent, le plus repandu est nomme bash (csh et zsh en sont d'autres). Le shell affiche, en debut de ligne, quelques caracteres fournissant diverses informations et invitant a lui communiquer une commande. C'est ce que l'on appelle son invite (synonyme: prompt). (Ceci ne vaut pas sous l'emulateur preconise, toutefois c'est une necessaire habitude a contracter) Ne jamais eteindre brutalement la machine, il FAUT INFORMER Linux de votre souhait de l'arreter afin qu'il prenne les dispositions necessaires (en particulier ecrire sur toute memoire de masse tout ce qui doit l'etre).

shutdown -r now reamorce immediatement l'ordinateur. Advertising. shutdown -h now arrete completement le systeme. Define Field System. Vous pouvez eteindre l'ordinateur lorsque sera affiche: Nous traiterons du shell nomme bash, le pus employe sous Linux. Commencons par nous assurer que c'est bien le shell employe. Saisir echo $SHELL . Soumettez cette commande au systeme grace a la touche Entree, evidemment!

Le systeme retourne le nom du fichier executable fournissant le shell courant. Shock Advertising. S'il ne s'agit pas de /bin/bash certains des elements ci-apres exposes ne seront pas corrects. (Sous l'emulateur preconise aucun nom ne sera retourne. Define Field System. Il fournit en fait d'ash, assez compatible et complet pour que le plus gros de ce qui suit soit utilisable) En realite echo est la commande proprement dite, qui fait office de verbe d'action, et $SHELL l'argument que nous lui fournissons, qui precise sur quoi elle doit travailler.

Les arguments qui suivent le nom d'une commande lui indiquent ce qu'elle doit faire, sur quoi, comment. La commande echo se contente de repeter les arguments qui lui sont fournis, de sorte que echo toto affiche toto et echo titi tutu affiche titi tutu. $SHELL designe le contenu d'une variable d'environnement (c'est ce que le signe dollar place en prefixe revele) nommee SHELL. Cimb Finance. Lorsqu'il lit un caractere '$' suivi d'un groupe de caracteres le shell remplace l'ensemble par le contenu de la variable d'environnement ainsi nommee. Pour examiner le contenu d'une variable, saisir echo $ nom_de_la_variable . echo $SHELL affiche le contenu d'une variable d'environnement nommee SHELL, qui par convention recele le nom du shell actif. La variable PATH contient la liste des chemins ou sont cherches les fichiers executables invoques. System. Pour examiner son contenu: echo $PATH . Cimb Finance. Le separateur est le caractere ':'.

Si le PATH contient /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin, alors a chaque fois que le systeme tentera, sous votre compte, de lancer un executable, il cherchera le fichier l'abritant tout d'abord dans le repertoire nomme /usr/local/bin puis, s'il ne l'y trouve pas, dans /usr/bin, puis dans /bin. Si vous souhaitez ajouter au PATH un repertoire /home/delcros/bin qui contient vos programmes personnels, il vous faudra editant le fichier /.bash_profile de sorte qu'il contienne: PATH=$PATH:/bin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/home/delcros/bin. Define Field System. Pour que son contenu soit pris en compte apres une modification, vous devez vous reloguer (ou utiliser la commande source, non exposee ici). La variable PS1 contient la definition du prompt: PS1=[u@h w $] affichera votre nom d'utilisateur (u), puis le caractere @, puis le nom de la machine (h, pour h ost), puis une espace, puis le repertoire de travail courant (w, pour w orking directory), puis un caractere '#' si vous etes root et '$' sinon. Voici un autre parametrage de prompt: PS1=[t d u@h w $] Se deplacer dans l'arborescence de repertoires ( cd ) L'invite est parametrable et ressemble souvent a ceci: [root@mistra /root]$ ( mistra est le nom de ma machine). Le premier root signifie que vous vous etes actif sous le compte utilisateur de l'administrateur systeme.

Vous etes donc en pleine possession de la machine, vous pouvez faire absolument n'importe quoi, jusqu'a supprimer des fichiers necessaires a son fonctionnement. Romanticism. faites donc tres attention. Define Three Field System. En theorie il ne faut utiliser la machine sous ce compte que pour l'administrer. Wrestlemania 15. Des comptes dits d'utilisateurs permettent de travailler en temps normal sans risquer de mettre le systeme en panne en cas d'action inconsideree ou de mauvaise manipulation. Define Three Field. Nous exposerons ci-apres comment creer un compte utilisateur. Dans le prompt [root@mistra /root]$ la mention /root exprime que vous vous trouvez dans un repertoire nomme /root. Shadowed In American Society. Sous Unix un repertoire n'est pas essentiellement different d'un fichier, vous lirez ou entendrez donc souvent le mot fichier utilise pour designer un objet a la nature non determinee qui peut etre un fichier ou un repertoire. Tout fichier (ou repertoire. Define Field. ) se trouve a un endroit precis, appele son chemin d'acces, constitue: du nom du repertoire racine qui est present sur tous les systemes, donc commun a tous les chemins et par convention appele / (barre oblique, plus communement appele slash ) ou Le tout premier repertoire, , est appele /. Shadowed Society Essay. Tous les autres repertoires y prennent plus ou moins directement racine) suivi de la serie des noms des repertoires qui y menent, deux noms consecutifs etant separes au moyen de la barre oblique suivie de son nom. Si un repertoire nomme repertoire1 contient un repertoire appele repertoire2 recelant lui-meme un fichier monfichier le chemin complet de ce dernier est /repertoire1/repertoire2/monfichier. Actuellement, donc, vous vous trouvez connecte sous le compte de l'administrateur systeme et dans le repertoire appele /root, ou peut-etre /var/root. Deplacons-nous dans la racine du systeme en saisissant cd / . Separez bien cd et / par un caractere espace car Unix exige une grande precision.

En pratique cd est la commande et / l'argument que nous lui fournissons. Define Three Field System. Les arguments suivent la commande et sont parfois precedes d'un tiret. Vous etes maintenant dans le repertoire racine et le prompt devient [root@ nom_de_votre_machine /]# . Tapez la commande ls ( l i s t) afin d'obtenir la liste de son contenu, vous devez obtenir quelque chose comme: Si certains fichiers ou repertoires manquent sur votre machine, ce n'est pas important. Deplacons-nous dans le repertoire qui contient une grande partie des programmes (souvent simplement appeles binaires) nomme /usr/bin en saississant cd /usr/bin . Undocumented Immigrants Essay Example. La commande reste cd mais cette fois l'argument est /usr/bin. Define. Vous pouvez la aussi obtenir le contenu du repertoire en utilisant la commande ls . Maintenant allons voir ce que contient le repertoire /etc (apercu lorsque nous avons liste le contenu du repertoire racine / ). Proof Leads Arrest. Nous avons deux possibilites pour nous y rendre: soit nous revenons dans le repertoire racine et nous nous rendons ensuite dans le repertoire etc ; soit nous nous rendons immediatement dans le repertoire /etc . Methode n1: cd / (pour se rendre a la racine) puis cd etc. Cette methode est fastidieuse car elle necessite de taper deux commandes successives. Define. Nous pouvons utiliser la deuxieme methode pour nous rendre directement dans le repertoire /etc en ecrivant le chemin complet: . Cimb Finance. et nous voici directement places dans le repertoire /etc. Define. Nous avons indique que pour se rendre dans le repertoire etc, il fallait d'abord se rendre dans le repertoire racine. Shadowed Lives: In American Example. Pour ce faire, nous avons place un / devant etc. Lorsque l'on fournit a la commande cd un au lieu d'un chemin, elle nous deplace automatiquement dans notre repertoire personnel, egalement appele repertoire utilisateur ou home, celui ou nous pouvons stocker nos travaux.

Si vous etes l'administrateur systeme la commande cd. Pour revenir dans votre repertoire personnel cd. A quel programme correspond une commande? (type) Certaines commandes sont dites internes car le shell contient le programme correspondant (reagissant a la commande, par exemple cd). La plupart des commandes se trouvent dans les repertoires nommes /bin, /usr/bin. Three System. Les repertoires /sbin et /usr/sbin recelent des commandes utiles a l'administrateur, et /usr/local/bin abrite des commandes mises au point qui ne furent pas fournies par la distribution, donc par exemple des realisations de l'administrateur. Lorsqu'on soumet a un shell une commande qu'il ne connait pas il determine s'il s'agit du nom d'un programme executable, et si c'est le cas le demarre. Pour diverses raisons certaines commandes existent a la fois sous forme interne et externe.

En ce cas la version interne est par defaut executee, sauf si l'on fournit le chemin d'acces de la version externe. What. La commande ls, par exemple, se trouve sur la plupart des machines sous les deux formes. Three Field. Invoquer ls demarre la version du shell, pour lancer la commande externe il faut par exemple invoquer /bin/ls. Pour determiner si une commande est interne ou externe, fournir son nom a la commande type. Chemical. Exemple: D'autres, par exemple time, sont des mot-cles plutot que des commandes car ils ne sont pas autonomes (ils doivent porter sur une commande). Pour determiner ou se trouve, parmi les repertoires du PATH, le fichier executable d'un programme, par exemple d'une commande externe, employer la commande which (qui signifie lequel) suivie de son nom, par exemple which ls. Define Field System. Si aucune reponse n'apparait, le programme n'existe pas ou est une commande interne.

Pour obtenir une liste complete utiliser l'option -a: Pour chercher un fichier independamment du contenu du PATH on wrestlemania 15, peut employer find ou (s'il est installe) locate qui repose sur une sorte de base de donnees des noms de fichiers periodiquement rafraichie (donc peut fournir un resultat obsolete). Dans quel repertoire suis-je actuellement? ( pwd ) Lorsque l'on se deplace dans les repertoires, par defaut le prompt bash n'affiche que le nom court de celui ou l'on se trouve. Three. Le nom court ne comprend pas le chemin complet. Wrestlemania 15. Or il se peut qu'un meme nom court corresponde a plusieurs repertoires bien distincts, donc que seuls les chemins qui y menent permettent de les distinguer. Three Field. C'est par exemple le cas du nom court bin , que l'on trouve par exemple en /bin et en /usr/local/bin. Modern. Il existe beaucoup d'autres exemples. Pour connaitre le chemin du repertoire ou l'on se trouve, on define, utilise la commande pwd ( p ath of shock, current w orking d irectory). Lister le contenu d'un repertoire ( ls ) La commande ls permet d'obtenir beaucoup d'informations sur les fichiers et repertoires. Deplacons-nous par exemple dans le repertoire /bin: cd /bin. Puis demandons liste de son contenu: ls.

Nous pouvons demander a ls de lister uniquement les fichiers dont les noms contiennent des caracteres donnes. Field. Gagnons le repertoire /bin: cd /bin puis demandons par exemple la liste des seuls noms de fichiers dont les noms commencent par la lettre g: ls g* L'argument g* que nous venons de fournir est un motif, auquel on wrestlemania 15, peut penser comme a une sorte de filet dont les mailles sont definies par nous (utilisateur), en respectant un certain nombre de conventions, et qui est ensuite applique ( jete ) par le shell afin de selectionner des noms de fichiers qui y correspondent. Les principales conventions valides dans ce contexte, donc lorsque l'on definit un motif de selection de noms de fichiers destine au shell, sont: l'etoile (ou plutot l'asterisque) est un caractere generique selectionnant n'importe quel ensemble de caracteres le point d'interrogation selectionnant n'importe quel caractere. Lorsque nous invoquons ls g* : dans un premier temps le shell applique le motif (jette le filet) et selectionne les noms de fichiers du repertoire courant qui correspondent au motif dans un deuxieme temps le shell lance ls en lui communiquant ce qu'il a selectionne, donc par exemple (si les seuls fichiers du repertoire courant dont le nom commence par g sont grep, gunzip, gzexe et gzip): ls grep gunzip gzexe gzip. Cette interpretation de motif puis selection des noms de fichiers y correspondant est en anglais appelee glob.

Elle fonctionne pour toutes les commandes, on three, peut donc saisir echo g* . Modern. et obtenir le meme resultat qu'avec ls g* . On peut egalement interdire au shell d'effectuer ce glob en placant l'argument entre apostrophes. Define Field System. Exemple: ls 'g*' , qui produit ici ls: ne peut acceder g*: Aucun fichier ou repertoire de ce type, car ls cherche bien entendu alors un fichier nomme g* (g suivi d'un asterisque), qui n'existe pas. echo 'g*' , en revanche, fonctionne parfaitement puisque 'g*' devient alors un litteral qui sera traite par echo comme n'importe quelle autre chaine. Shadowed Lives: Undocumented Society. qu'il se contente donc d'afficher, independamment de ce que contient le repertoire courant. Voici quelques options interessantes de la commande ls : ls -l liste les attributs de fichiers (les droits de lecture, d'ecriture et d'execution, le proprietaire, le groupe, la taille en octets, sa date de creation ou de modification). (Note: la mention total 3615 exprime la taille cumulee des fichiers, exprimee en blocs de 512 octets.) Ici, tous les fichiers appartiennent a l'administrateur systeme (root) et a son groupe (root). Define Three Field System. Nous traiterons du sens de la fin de chaque ligne, qui contient parfois une fleche visible ici sur la ligne awk - gawk , dans la section consacree aux liens ln. -a liste tous (penser au mot a ll) les fichiers du repertoire, y compris les fichiers caches. Modern Romanticism. Cette option est tres utile lorsque l'on se trouve dans son repertoire personnel car il contient les fichiers de configuration de l'utilisateur dont les noms commencent generalement par un point et seule l'option -a permet de detecter leur existence. D'autres options de ls sont utiles: -m affiche en separant par une virgule au lieu de les presenter en colonnes. Define Field System. -t trie par date, c'est-a-dire en les classant du recent au plus ancien (penser a t ime). Modern. -F trie par type.

Ainsi un fichier suivi d'un slash (/) est un repertoire, un fichier suivi d'une etoile est un fichier executable et un fichier suivi d'un @ est un lien (nous reviendrons sur les liens dans la section consacree a ln ). Three System. -S trie par ordre de taille decroissante (penser a s ize). Cimb Finance. -X trie par extension. Three System. -r trie par ordre alphabetique inverse (penser a r everse). Cimb Finance. Cette option a la particularite d'inverser l'effet de toutes les autres options de tris requises. Define System. ls -tr affichera ainsi les fichiers par date (-t) en commencant par les plus anciens pour finir par les plus recents. La commande less permet de lire le contenu d'un fichier texte. Modern. Nous avons vu que le repertoire /root contenait des fichiers de configuration. Three Field. Ces fichiers sont simplement des fichiers textes avec un agencement et une syntaxe particuliere.

Regardons le contenu du fichier .bashrc qui permet de configurer a souhait son shell: less .bashrc . Pour passer d'une page a l'autre, tapez sur la touche espace. Shadowed Lives: In American Society Essay. Pour revenir sur la page precedente tapez sur b ( b ack). Three Field. Pour quitter tapez q. Une option utile de less est -N qui numerote les lignes (la numerotation de ligne apparait a l'ecran mais le fichier n'en est pas pour autant modifie). Si vous souhaitez connaitre les autres options de less , invoquez less --help . Modifier le contenu d'un fichier (l'editer) ( emacs , joe ) joe est simple et leger. Immigrants. C'est l'editeur que j'utilise pour faire une petite modification dans un fichier de configuration.

La touche Ctrl (Control) permet de le commander. Ctrl-k h afficher le panneau d'aide en ligne (un nouveau Ctrl-k h l'effacera). Field System. Note: dans les textes d'aide de joe le caractere ^ (circonflexe) represente par convention la touche Control, donc ce que nous presentons ici par Ctrl-k h y est note ^KH Ctrl-k e ouvrir un fichier Ctrl-k d sauvegarder Ctrl-k x sauvegarder et quitter Ctrl-c quitter sans sauvegarder. GNU nano est lui aussi populaire et repandu. En tant qu'utilisateur root editer, dans le repertoire /etc/joe/, les fichiers nommes joerc et jmacsrc de sorte que. -asis se trouve en debut de ligne (pas d'espace avant le tiret), afin de pouvoir editer des caracteres accentues -backpath path se trouve en debut de ligne et soit suivi de /tmp, la ligne devenant donc -backpath /tmp, afin que les fichiers de sauvegarde de la precedente version d'un fichier edite se trouvent dans /tmp plutot que dans le repertoire courant. Emacs date de la fin des annees 70 et ne cesse d'evoluer depuis.

Ce qui fait de lui, sans aucun doute possible, l'editeur le plus puissant. Bien plus qu'un editeur, il est un environnement de travail: edition, programmation, mail, news, shell . Cimb Finance. bref on define system, peut rester sous Emacs sans avoir besoin de quoi que ce soit d'autre. Ses adeptes sont tres nombreux, et ne leur dites pas qu'il est lourd . Wrestlemania 15. vous vous tromperiez lourdement (je sais de quoi je parle . Field. j'ai fait l'erreur et en ce moment je suis sous Emacs. Modern Romanticism. ;-)) Lancons Emacs: emacs. Ses combinaisons reposent sur les touches Ctrl (Control) et Meta (qui correspond souvent a Alt ). Ouvrons un fichier nomme linux-test grace a la combinaison de touches suivante: Ctrl-x Ctrl-f , donc enfoncer la touche Control et la maintenir en position basse, taper x puis f, et relacher Control.

La mention Find File: / apparait (en bas, derniere ligne, dans le minibuffer). Define Three Field System. Saisir le nom du fichier et valider grace a la touche Entree. What Proof Leads To Elizabeth’s. Son contenu apparait et vous pouvez le modifier. Field System. Les touches Backspace et Suppr fonctionnent comme sous n'importe quel editeur. Chemical Digestion. Pour sauver tapez la combinaison de touches: Ctrl-x Ctrl-s . Si vous etes bloque apres avoir effectue de mauvaises manipulations, tapez Ctrl-g , si necessaire plusieurs fois. Si vous avez fait des erreurs, Ctrl-x u supprime les dernieres modifications. Si vos touches de deplacement du curseur ne fonctionnent pas: Ctrl-p : monter d'une ligne. Define. Ctrl-n : descendre d'une ligne. Cimb Finance. Ctrl-f : avancer d'un caractere.

Ctrl-b : reculer d'un caractere. Define Field System. Ctrl-v : avancer d'une page. Chemical. Alt-v : reculer d'un ecran. Three. Ctrl-d : supprimer le caractere sur lequel le curseur se trouve. Lives: In American Essay. Ctrl-s : recherche incrementale. Define Three. Meta-% : rechercher et remplacer. Pour quitter Emacs, composer Ctrl-x Ctrl-c . Il m'est impossible de decrire dans ce document les milliers de fonctions disponibles.

Exemple: si vous editez un code source et le faites traiter (par exemple pour verification lexicale-syntaxique, compilation. Romanticism. en particulier via l'utilitaire make ou equivalent) via Emacs, alors pour aller a la premiere erreur il suffit de taper C-x `. Define. Emacs place alors votre curseur a la ligne ou s'est produite l'erreur. Shadowed Undocumented. Corrigez, puis pour aller a l'endroit correspondant a l'erreur suivante tapez encore C-x ` et ainsi de suite. Define. Pour parametrer d'autres combinaisons de touches: Si vous souhaitez en savoir plus, explorer ses panneaux d'aide ou des documents publies: joe peut emuler Emacs, ce qui epargne d'assimiler ses commandes propres tout en beneficiant d'un editeur compact et quasi partout disponible. Chemical Digestion. L'invoquer pour cela avec la commande jmacs . Nous entrons maintenant dans une zone a risque.

Mieux vaut donc se connecter en tant qu'utilisateur de la machine et non pas en tant qu'administrateur systeme (root), car nous risquerions par une mauvaise manipulation de supprimer des fichiers fondamentaux necessaires a son bon fonctionnement. Field System. Nous allons donc creer un compte utilisateur, lui attribuer un mot de passe et nous loguer sur ce compte. Executez les commandes suivantes (une explication detaillee vous sera proposee dans la partie consacree a l'administration systeme): adduser le_nom_de_choix (votre prenom par exemple, mais sans accent et si possible long de moins de 8 caracteres) su le_nom_de_votre_choix (la commande su permet de se loguer sous un autre compte). What Proof. Il suffira de saisir exit pour revenir a la session de travail root. Invite (prompt) de root ou d'utilisateur. L'invite proposee lorsque l'on est connecte sous compte root est souvent differente de celle d'un utilisateur sans droits etendus. Field. Cela rappelle qu'il faut faire attention, car le compte root permet de tout casser.

Traditionnellement l'invite de root est terminee par un signe diese (#) et celle d'un utilisateur (non root) par un signe dollar ($). Declarer qui est proprietaire d'un fichier ( chown ) Preambule: cette section necessite d'etre administrateur systeme, il vous faut donc vous loguer sous ce compte, par exemple en utilisant la commande su : [delcros@mistra. Chaque fichier appartient a un utilisateur ainsi qu'a un groupe. Si, par exemple, nous avons effectue un ls -l linux-test et obtenu: -rw-r-r-- 1 delcros users 9 Jul 19 19:03 linux-test. ( Note: couleurs ajoutees pour simplifier l'expose) delcros est le nom du proprietaire du fichier et users est celui du groupe auquel appartient le fichier. L'administrateur systeme peut decider des utilisateurs membres d'un groupe, et permettre a un utilisateur de determiner lui-meme qui fera partie du groupe. Chemical Digestion. Le fichier /etc/group decrit les groupes.

Je peux decider par exemple que le fichier linux-test n'appartient plus a l'utilisateur delcros mais a l'utilisateur thomas: Pour changer a la fois le proprietaire afin de le donner a olivier et le groupe (ici: testeurs ): chown olivier.testeurs linux-test. Pour ne changer que le groupe: chown .testeurs linux-test. Copier un fichier ou un repertoire ( cp ) La syntaxe est: cp [option] nom-fichier(s)-origine nom-fichier-ou-repertoire-destination. Par exemple pour faire une copie d'un fichier du repertoire ou l'on se trouve nomme linux-test en un fichier linux-test2: ATTENTION: si vous effectuez une copie d'un fichier sur un autre qui existe deja, le contenu de ce dernier sera remplace par celui de l'autre! Si vous souhaitez copier le fichier linux-test dans un repertoire (par exemple /tmp):

Pour lui donner un autre nom: ). Define Three System. -v affiche les noms des fichiers copies (pensez a v erbeux). Wrestlemania 15. Utile si vous souhaitez verifier le bon deroulement. Field. -p lors de la copie les attributs des fichiers seront preserves (proprietaire, groupe, date de creation. Digestion. lire chown). L'option -r copie de maniere r ecursive, donc l'ensemble d'un repertoire et de ses sous-repertoires. Exemple: je possede dans mon repertoire /home/delcros/personnel un repertoire intitule mygale qui contient 3 sous-repertoires (echecs, linux, xcaissa): Je copie le repertoire mygale ainsi que ses sous-repertoires dans mon repertoire /home/delcros/ en commencant par me placer dans le repertoire recelant l'ensemble: cd /home/delcros/personnel/ puis en le recopiant: cp -r mygale /home/delcros . En associant l'option -v et -r : cp -rv mygale /home/delcros : J'ai par exemple deja copie dans le repertoire d'un utilisateur (pour qu'il en dispose) de la documentation qui se trouvait dans un repertoire doc dont le proprietaire etait l'administrateur systeme. Field System. Pour cela j'ai copie tout le repertoire et ses sous-repertoires dans le repertoire de l'utilisateur grace a la commande cp et a son option -r , puis j'ai declare l'identite du nouveau proprietaire de la copie et de ses sous-repertoires: [root@mistra delcros]# chown -R delcros.users doc . Modern Romanticism. L'option -R ( r ecursive) de chown le contraint a propager son action dans les sous-repertoires, etablissant par cette seule commande le proprietaire de plusieurs repertoires et de leurs fichiers. Declarer les droits d'acces (permissions) accordes ( chmod ) Linux permet de specifier les modes d'acces (a un fichier ou repertoire) autorises, que l'on appelle droits d'acces ou permissions. Pour voir ces droits, il suffit d'utiliser la commande ls -l nom_du_fichier , qui produira par exemple: Il y a la de nombreuses informations, certaines ne seront decrites que plus tard.

Le nom du fichier, bidule, apparait a la fin de la ligne. Le premier adelcros signifie que le fichier appartient a l'utilisateur adelcros. Three Field. La mention users signifie qu'il appartient au groupe users. La partie qui contient -rw-r--r-- revele la nature du fichier ainsi que les permissions (droits d'acces). Le premier de ces 10 caracteres correspond a la nature du fichier. Romanticism. Un tiret signifie qu'il est tout ce qu'il y a de plus classique. Three Field System. Si, a la place du premier tiret, on Lives: Undocumented Immigrants Society example, observait un d cela signifierait qu'en realite le fichier est un repertoire ( d irectory). Three. Si on cimb finance, observait un l , alors le fichier serait un lien.

Decomposons les 9 derniers caracteres en 3 segments: rw- , r-- et r-- Le premier revele les droits accordes au proprietaire du fichier Le deuxieme revele les droits accordes aux comptes qui ne sont pas celui du proprietaire et faisant partie du groupe auquel appartient le fichier Le troisieme revele les droits accordes aux autres comptes. Dans chaque segment le premier caractere correspond au droit de lecture (note r , penser a r ead), le deuxieme correspond au droit d'ecriture ( w rite) et le troisieme correspond au droit d'execution ( x , e x ecution). Three Field. Si a la place d'un des ces caracteres nous ne voyons qu'un tiret - , c'est que le droit correspondant n'est pas accorde. -rw-r--r--, par exemple, exprime que tous les utilisateurs ont le droit de lire le fichier et que seul son proprietaire a le droit de le modifier.

Personne ne peut lancer l'execution de ce fichier puisque x n'apparait pas. Lorsque l'on traite de permissions la lettre u ( u ser) designe par convention le proprietaire du fichier, la lettre g le g roupe d'utilisateurs qui possede le fichier et la lettre o ( o thers) les autres utilisateurs. Cimb Finance. La lettre a ( a ll) fait reference a tous les utilisateurs. Define System. Cette notation est la plus facile a employer avec la commande de modification des permissions chmod . Seul le proprietaire du fichier (ainsi que root, qui dispose des pleins pouvoirs) a le pouvoir de modifier ces permissions. Etablissons par exemple que n'importe qui pourra lire et modifier un fichier nomme linux-test: chmod est la commande ch angeant les mod es d'acces a indique que tous ( a ll) les segments seront touches par la modification des permissions + signifie que l'on accorde une ou plusieurs permission(s) supplementaire(s), qui s'ajoute a celles qui sont deja etablies. Chemical. Pour en retrancher il suffit d'utiliser en lieu et place le signe - . Field. Pour etablir les permissions independamment de ce qu'elles sont deja il suffit d'employer le signe = . Advertising. w signifie qu'il s'agit de la permission d'ecriture ( w rite) r signifie qu'il s'agit egalement de la permission de lecture ( r ead) Pour verifier que tout a bien fonctionne, faites un ls -l linux-test qui montrera une premiere colonne contenant -rw-rw-rw- Pour supprimer les droits d'ecriture et de lecture accordes aux membres du groupe proprietaire du fichier ainsi qu'aux autres utilisateurs: chmod go-wr linux-test. dans go le g signifie que la commande affectera les permissions accordees au g roupe proprietaire, et le o qu'elle affectera egalement celles que l'on accorde aux autres utilisateurs (ceux qui ne sont ni le proprietaire, ni membres du groupe auquel le fichier appartient, o ther users) wr signifie que la modification portera sur les droits d'ecriture ou de lecture. Define. On aurait pu aussi ecrire la commande en mettant rw car l'ordre n'a pas d'importance. Si je souhaite que le proprietaire du fichier ne puisse pas executer un fichier:

Pour definir d'un seul mouvement toutes les permissions d'un fichier, on what leads, peut utiliser la syntaxe suivante (nous voulons que linux-test soit en lecture, en ecriture et en execution pour le proprietaire, que le groupe n'ait le droit que de le lire et executer, et que les autres utilisateurs ne disposent d'aucun droit): Pour oter le droit d'y ecrire a tous sauf au proprietaire: Lorsqu'un programme (quel qu'il soit, y compris le shell) tente d'acceder a un fichier, le noyau Unix sait pour quel utilisateur le programme fonctionne. Define Three Field System. Si le fichier appartient a l'utilisateur les droits accordes au proprietaire s'appliquent. To Elizabeth’s. Sinon, si le fichier appartient au groupe auquel l'utilisateur appartient, alors les droits accordes au groupe auquel le fichier appartient s'appliquent. Field System. Sinon les droits accordes aux autres utilisateurs seront respectes. Cimb Finance. Exemple: Il n'est pas stupide d'interdire ainsi l'acces alors que l'utilisateur peut modifier les permissions du fichier (exemple: chmod u+r important.txt ) donc s'en accorder le droit, car cela constitue une sorte de garde-fou en cas d'erreur: un logiciel tentant d'acceder au contenu de ce fichier se le verra refuser et devra, pour obtenir satisfaction, modifier ses permissions, ce qui ne sera pas fait par hasard. Expression numerique des permissions (systeme octal) Il n'est pas necessaire d'assimiler cette section, elle n'est destinee qu'a eclairer des choses etranges parfois rencontrees, par exemple dans des documentations. Une autre facon de declarer (definir) les permissions existe.

Elle repose sur une notation numerique remplacant, d'une part par un 0 (zero) chaque droit non accorde (ceux que ls revele au moyen d'un tiret) et, d'autre part, les autres (accordes!) par un 1 (chiffre un ). Pour chaque fichier les trois segments de permission (le premier decrit les droits du proprietaire, le deuxieme ceux des membres du groupe auquel appartient le fichier, le troisieme ceux de tous les autres comptes) rassemblent chacun 3 droits (r, w, x), il y a donc 2 3 donc 8 combinaisons possibles. Field. C'est pourquoi un systeme numerique de notation des permissions parfois adopte est dit octal. ' chmod digere cette notation. Modern Romanticism. C'est pourquoi chmod u=rwx,g=rw,o=r nom_de_fichier equivaut a chmod 764 nom_de_fichier car rwx (droits du proprietaire) correspond a 7, rw (droits des membres du groupe auquel le fichier appartient) correspond a 6, et r (droits des autres comptes) correspond a 4. Define Field. Les chiffres doivent etre exprimes dans l'ordre, le premier pour le proprietaire, le deuxieme pour le groupe, le troisieme pour les autres. Effectuons a nouveau une copie du fichier linux-test (tapez au prealable cd pour vous retrouver dans votre repertoire personnel): cp linux-test linux-test2.

Pour supprimer le fichier linux-test2: rm linux-test2. Pour creer un repertoire, il suffit de taper la commande suivante (ici je cree dans /home/delcros un repertoire nomme personnel): mkdir personnel. Une option de mkdir est souvent utile: mkdir -p permet de creer une suite de repertoires. Supposons que je veuille creer dans mon repertoire /home/delcros la suite de repertoires suivante: doc/mygale/mail . Advertising. Je peux faire soit: mkdir doc , cd doc , mkdir mygale , cd mygale , mkdir mail. Ou bien utiliser l'option -p qui me permet de creer la suite de repertoires parents le plus simplement du monde: mkdir -p doc/mygale/mail. Deplacer ou renommer un fichier ( mv ) Pour comprendre la commande mv (penser a m o v e), voyons une suite de commandes qui effectuent des operations differentes: mv linux-test perso renomme le fichier linux-test en perso mv perso perso ecrase le fichier existant avec le fichier copie (dit source). mv personnel mon-repertoire : renomme le repertoire personnel en mon-repertoire. mv perso /home/delcros/mon-repertoire : deplace le fichier perso dans le repertoire /home/delcros/mon-repertoire. . Three System. -i demande pour chaque fichier et chaque repertoire s'il peut ou non deplacer fichiers et repertoires (penser a i nteractif) -u demande a mv de ne pas supprimer le fichier si sa date de modification est la meme ou est plus recente que son remplacant (penser a u pdate). Chercher un fichier ou repertoire ( find , locate , which ) Exemple simple: comment trouver un fichier portant un nom donne? find /home -name linux-test2. /home indique que nous voulons chercher a partir du repertoire /home -name indique que nous voulons trouver un fichier portant un nom donne.

Pour chercher tous les fichiers commencant par linux-tes et definir a partir de quel repertoire on wrestlemania 15, souhaite effectuer la recherche, on three, utilise cette syntaxe: find /home/delcros -name 'linux-tes*' Le nombre d'options de find est impressionnant. Modern. En voici quelques-unes: Indique le type de fichier que l'on recherche. Three Field. Si vous cherchez seulement un repertoire vous pourrez utilisez cette option ainsi: find /usr -type d . Immigrants In American Society. . Define Field System. Ici, on leads, demande a find de trouver des repertoires, et non des fichiers, grace a l'option -type d (penser a d irectory, qui signifie repertoire ) Execute une commande sur les fichiers trouves. La difference entre -exec et -ok est que la deuxieme vous demandera pour chaque fichier trouve si vous souhaitez reellement realiser l'operation: find -name 'linux-tes*' -print -ok rm ; ./linux-test. Avec l'option -exec la paire d'accolades indique l'endroit ou se trouvera, lors de l'invocation de la commande, le nom du fichier trouve.

L'anti-slash lie au point virgule forme une sequence d'echappemment. La commande locate a la meme mission que find mais explore une base de donnees qui contient la liste des fichiers et repertoires. Three. Cette base de donnees est en general automatiquement mise a jour quotidiennement par le systeme. La syntaxe est: locate nom_du_fichier . Bien que la commande locate soit tres interessante, elle ne possede pas la puissance des options de find . What Proof Arrest. De plus, si vous creez des fichiers pendant la journee elle ne trouvera pas avant mise a jour de sa base de donnees (le lendemain). La commande grep est un pivot des commandes UNIX. Field System. Elle cherche une expression reguliere dans un ou plusieurs fichiers. Undocumented Immigrants In American Society Essay. Exemple: grep fouille linux-commande.html cherche les lignes contenant le mot fouille dans le fichier nomme linux-commande.html. L'option -n produira le numero de chaque ligne contenant un resultat. Three Field System. Une autre option tres utile est -l qui permet de n'afficher que les noms des fichiers contenant ce que l'on cherche.

Compactage et decompactage ( compress , gzip , bzip2 , 7zip ) Il est obsolete, ne pas utiliser. Si vous rencontrez un fichier d'extension .Z vous pouvez le decompacter grace a gzip: gzip -d nom_du_fichier .Z . Efficace et tres repandu. Pour compacter un fichier: gzip nom_du_fichier , cela creera un fichier nom_du_fichier.gz et detruira l'original. Pour decompacter: gzip -d nom_du_fichier .gz , qui recreera l'original et supprimera la version compactee. Sa syntaxe et son comportement correspondent a ceux de gzip. Pour compacter un fichier: bzip2 nom_du_fichier. Pour decompacter: bzip2 -d nom_du_fichier .bz2. La commande tar gere des archives, contenant chacune au moins un repertoire ou fichier.

Vous aurez souvent besoin de tar xzf nom_du_fichier .tar.gz , qui decompacte une archive au format .tar.gz ou .tgz . L'extension .tar.gz indique que le fichier est une archive tar et qu'il est compacte ( .gz revele qu'il l'est avec gz ip). Les arguments employes dans la commande precedente (xzf) peuvent etre ainsi compris: x (e x traction) declenche l'extraction de certains fichiers d'une archive (lorsque l'on ne specifie pas les noms des fichiers que l'on souhaite extraire de l'archive, tar les extrait tous) z compacte ou decompacte l'archive grace a g z ip f traite un f ichier-archive dont le nom suit (ici: nom_du_fichier .tar.gz) Pour connaitre la liste des fichiers contenus dans une archive compactee on what leads, emploiera tar tvzf nom_du_fichier .tar.gz. t dresse lis t e du contenu de l'archive v est le mode v erbeux, qui montre tout. Si je me trouve dans le repertoire /home/delcros/ la commande suivante creera une archive du repertoire /home/delcros/personnel: tar cvjf personnel.bz2 personnel. c tar va c reer une archive j tar compacte l'archive grace a bzip2. Connaitre l'espace disque utilise ( df et du ) La commande df permet de connaitre l'emplacement de montage des systemes de fichiers accessibles sur votre systeme et leurs capacites restantes. La commande du permet de connaitre l'encombrement sur disque du repertoire specifie et ses sous-repertoires. Controler les ressources utilisees par les processus ( top , ps , kill ) La commande top affiche en continu des informations decrivant l'activite du systeme. Define Field System. Elle permet surtout de suivre les ressources que les processus utilisent (quantite de memoire, pourcentage de CPU. Chemical Digestion. ).

Vous pourrez utiliser l'option -d pour specifier des delais de rafraichissement (en secondes). Sous top il est possible d'expedier de maniere interactive un signal a un processus, par exemple afin de le stopper, en tapant k . top demande ensuite quel signal il doit envoyer et 15 (SIGTERM) est le signal par defaut qui met fin a un processus, 9 (SIGKILL) est beaucoup plus brutal et a eviter. Pour quitter top , appuyer simplement sur la touche q. La commande ps dresse liste des processus actifs: ps. Le PID est l'identificateur d'un processus, c'est un nombre. Define System. Chaque processus est identifie dans le systeme par un nombre unique. Shock Advertising. Le TTY indique a quel port de terminal est associe le processus. Three Field System. STAT indique l'etat ( stat us) dans lequel se trouve le processus. Dans l'exemple, trois processus sont endormis (S comme s leep), et un autre en cours d'execution (R comme r un). Modern Romanticism. Ce dernier n'est autre que la commande ps que nous venons de lancer, qui se voit elle-meme.

Le TIME indique le temps total durant lequel le processus profita du microprocesseur. Define Field. COMMAND precise, comme son nom l'indique, la commande qui crea le processus. Une simple commande ps n'indique pas tous les processus du systeme. Chemical Digestion. Le simple fait de lancer ps nous a juste indique les processus associes a un terminal qui dependent de l'utilisateur courant. Define. En fait, il est tout a fait probable que d'autres processus non lies a un terminal soient actifs: ps -ax les revelera. Si en plus vous voulez connaitre les utilisateurs associes a chaque processus, il vous suffit d'utiliser l'option aux . Leads. Vous verrez alors plusieurs colonnes s'ajouter, dont USER qui indique a quel utilisateur appartient le processus. Define Three Field. %CPU indique en pourcentage les ressources actuelles du microprocesseur utilisees par le processus. Modern Romanticism. %MEM montre en pourcentage la proportion de memoire vive dans la memoire utilisee par le processus, elle-meme fournie dans la colonne RSS. Three Field. START indique l'heure a laquelle le processus a ete lance. Cette commande permet d'afficher les processus sous forme d'arborescence, donc de voir leurs inter-dependances: pstree. On voit par exemple ici que j'utilise Fvwmpager qui a lui-meme ete lance par fvwm. La commande kill permet d'expedier un signal a un processus. Sa syntaxe est la suivante: kill [options] PID.

Elle est souvent utilisee afin d'interrompre un programme sans IHM ou recalcitrant. Shadowed Lives: In American Society Essay Example. Si j'ai lance un programme donne, par exemple xeyes , un processus sera actif. Define. Si je le lance deux fois, deux processus seront actifs, et ainsi de suite. Digestion. Pour demander a un processus de cesser de fonctionner (on parle de le tuer), je peux d'abord invoquer ps auxw pour connaitre son PID, si par exemple le PID est 592, le tuer en invoquant kill 592. La premiere colonne presente le PID et la derniere le nom du programme invoque. Three System. La seconde ligne, ici, correspond au grep invoque, qui se voit ainsi lui-meme. Seul l'utilisateur auquel le processus appartient (ou root) peut le tuer.

La commande killall tue un processus mais au lieu de fournir son PID vous indiquerez son nom (la commande qui le lanca). Romanticism. Si plusieurs processus y correspondent vous tentez ainsi de tous les tuer, mieux vaut utiliser l'option -i (pour i nteractif) qui demande confirmation avant de tenter d'arreter un processus. Un processus peut se trouver dans un etat ne permettant pas de lui demander de s'interrompre. Define Three. Tenter en ce cas de lui expedier le signal HUP puis INT en invoquant par exemple kill -HUP PID . Cimb Finance. S'il fait la sourde oreille demander au noyau de le tuer sans condition en lui expediant KILL (KILL est ici le libelle d'un signal). Field System. Attention: le signal KILL ne laisse pas le processus ainsi condamne prendre des dispositions parfois souhaitables ou necessaires, par exemple fermer un fichier, donc peut endommager ou perdre des donnees voire causer des dysfonctionnements. Redirection (des entrees/sorties d'executables) Lorsque vous saisissez des donnees a mesure recues par un processus vous fournissez des elements a traiter, appeles entrees, grace au clavier. Cimb Finance. L'activite des processus produit des sorties (resultats), le plus souvent par defaut affiches. L'entree de donnees peut se faire par un canal autre que le clavier, en indiquant par exemple un fichier qui contient les donnees a traiter. Define System. Le canal de sortie peut lui aussi etre dirige ailleurs que vers l'ecran, par exemple vers un fichier dont on chemical, pourra ensuite continuer a traiter le contenu. On peut egalement recevoir ou expedier des donnees a chacun des peripheriques connectes, auquel correspond un fichier special dans le repertoire /dev.

Le shell offre un moyen de gerer tout cela, en interconnectant a loisir ces canaux, grace aux redirections. Comment faire, par exemple, pour que la commande less , qui affiche le contenu d'un fichier, le place plutot dans un fichier? C'est le signe qui va nous permettre cela. Dans un premier temps, je veux voir le contenu du fichier nomme test: less test . Three Field System. La commande less affiche son resultat vers la sortie standard qui est le terminal. Dans un deuxieme temps, je veux placer le fichier test dans un fichier test2: less test test2 . Wrestlemania 15. Ce n'est qu'une copie du fichier test en test2.

La commande cp permet aussi de le faire. Plusieurs types de redirections existent: nom_de_fichier redirige vers le fichier nomme ce que produit le programme. Three System. Exemple: ls ls.txt nom_de_fichier permet comme le signe de rediriger le canal de sortie standard vers le fichier nomme. Chemical Digestion. Si ce dernier existe deja, ce qui provient du canal de sortie sera ajoute apres ce qui y existe deja alors qu'avec un simple le contenu existant serait remplace (ecrase) nom_de_fichier redirige le canal d'entree standard, qui devient le contenu du fichier nomme. Three. Exemple: less ls.txt . Cimb Finance. Cela revient apparemment a ce que montre less ls.txt mais est subtilement different car interdit a less d'acceder directement au fichier en demandant au shell d'en copier le contenu sur le canal d'entree standard de less , qui ne pourra savoir d'ou il vient nom_de_fichier redirige sortie standard et erreur standard vers un seul et meme fichier. Ce sont les formes les plus frequemment employees.

Toutes ces formes sont des versions simplifiees. Define. Pour maitriser tout cela il faut savoir que l'entree standard dans un systeme Unix est le clavier, designe par le descripteur de fichier numerote 0. Wrestlemania 15. Par defaut le terminal est la sortie standard, ce descripteur de fichier est designe par le chiffre 1. Define Three Field. Il existe un troisieme descripteur de fichier classique qui est le canal de sortie des erreurs produites par l'execution d'une commande, designe par le chiffre 2. Modern. Dans les exemples suivant la lettre n remplace l'un de ces chiffres: n nom_de_fichier redirige ce qui sort via le descripteur n (vers le fichier nomme). Define Three. Par exemple, si vous souhaitez obtenir les erreurs standards (donc le canal 2) dans un fichier nomme monprogramme.err : nom_de_commande 2 monprogramme.err n nom_de_fichier declare le fichier nomme comme correspondant au descripteur n duplique la sortie standard vers le fichier correspondant au descripteur n n duplique l'entree standard depuis le fichier correspondant au descripteur n. A premiere vue, on modern, se demande bien a quoi servent certaines des redirections. Define System. On le decouvre en employant le shell. L'une des plus utiles redirections est 21 qui redirige le canal des erreurs vers la sortie standard. Shock. Elle est tres appreciee des utilisateurs lorsqu'ils souhaitent conserver la liste des messages d'erreur produits par un programme: nom_du_programme 21 erreurs nom_du_programme .tmp. Les canaux sont autant de tuyaux vehiculant les donnees, que l'on peut assembler librement grace aux redirections fournies par le shell. Define System. Cela mene a la plomberie.

Interconnexion de commandes: les pipes. Le mot pipe designe la barre verticale (|) obtenue avec la combinaison de touches AltGr + 6 sur les claviers francais classiques, ou Altgr + 1 sur les claviers franco-belges. Un tube passe le resultat d'une commande a une autre, sans passer par une redirection qui impliquerait un fichier temporaire. Un exemple permettra de comprendre tout cela. Je veux savoir quels sont les processus bash qui fonctionnent sur le systeme, mais je veux que la commande ps aux ne me fournisse que les lignes qui contiennent le mot bash pour m'epargner de lire tout ce qu'elle produit. Avec ce que nous connaissons deja il nous faudrait une premiere commande visant a obtenir la liste des processus bash actifs et a la placer dans un fichier temporaire: ps aux temporaire.tmp . Modern. Puis nous pourrions mobiliser grep: grep bash temporaire.tmp afin d'obtenir le resultat souhaite. Define Three Field System. Il ne resterait plus qu'a nettoyer: rm temporaire.tmp . Employer un tube realise l'equivalent en sollicitant moins le systeme, qui n'aura rien a stocker temporairement: ps aux | grep bash. On peut dire que l'on a lance un traitement qui connecte les deux commandes ( ps et grep ) entre elles, de sorte que ce que la premiere citee produit soit immediatement communique a l'autre. Cimb Finance. Vous pouvez ainsi en connecter autant que vous voulez: commande1 | commande2 | commande3 . Define Three Field System. | commandeN. Si on advertising, prend conscience de l'utilite des tubes, on define three, les utilise et on wrestlemania 15, finit par ne plus vouloir s'en passer. Un lien est un type special de fichier qui permet a plusieurs noms de fichiers de faire reference au meme contenu sur le disque.

Ce sont des sortes de synonymes, d'aliases. Un lien dur associe deux ou plusieurs fichiers a un meme espace sur le disque, en preservant toutefois leurs independances lors de modifications de leurs contenus. Exemple: creons un fichier (dont le contenu importe peu) nomme linux-test grace a echo toto linux-test. Puis creons un lien dur vers ce fichier: ln linux-test linux-test-lien-dur. Le fichier linux-test-lien-dur est cree dans le repertoire courant.

Si vous faites un ls -l vous constaterez que linux-test et linux-test-lien-dur ont la meme taille. Three. Ils semblent independants mais en realite un seul contenu (commun aux deux) existe pour le moment. Shock Advertising. Si le fichier linux-test-lien-dur est modifie, nous aurons automatiquement une modification du fichier linux-test (et vice-versa), car elle s'effectuera physiquement sur le disque dur a l'endroit stockant le contenu des deux fichiers. Si nous creons un lien symbolique : ln -s linux-test linux-test-lien-symb. ls -l montrera le nom du fichier linux-test-lien-symb suivi d'une fleche revelant qu'il pointe sur linux-test. Define Three System. Toute reference au fichier linux-test-lien-symb impliquera en realite le fichier linux-test.

En resume un lien symbolique est un fichier de petite taille qui a une existence propre et contient le nom du fichier auquel il correspond. Dans le cas d'un lien dur , la suppression de l'un des deux fichiers n'affectera pas l'autre. Wrestlemania 15. Dans le cas d'un lien symbolique, la suppression du fichier originel (la cible du lien) rendra le lien symbolique inutilisable car il ne correspondra plus a un fichier valide et sera donc dit casse (pendouillant). Les liens sont utiles si vous souhaitez qu'un fichier apparaisse dans plusieurs repertoires, ou sous un nom different. Define Three System. Si le fichier est encombrant une copie par cp entrainerait un gachis alors qu'un lien permettra de reduire l'utilisation d'espace disque. Modern Romanticism. Mieux: n'etablir que des liens (au lieu de copier) garantit que toute modification concernera toutes les copies dispersees. Syntaxe: ln nom-fichier-source nom-fichier-lien. -s cree un lien symbolique. Define Field System. Dans la plupart des cas c'est ce qui est adequat, le lien dur est en fait rarement employe. What Arrest. -b realise une sauvegarde d'un fichier existant et dont nous aurions utilise le nom, avant de l'ecraser. Define Three. -i demande a l'utilisateur, si le lien existe, s'il souhaite l'ecraser. Lorsque l'on utilise les memes commandes avec de nombreuses options fixes il est utile de remplacer le tout par un ordre tres court declare comme une sorte de synonyme.

Il est appele alias. Les alias sont declares dans le fichier /.bashrc). What Proof Leads To Elizabeth’s. Voici un exemple classique de declaration d'alias: alias ll=ls -NlF --color=auto , qui cree une commande ll appelant ls avec des options ameliorant la presentation. La variable $* designe tous les parametres communiques lors de l'appel de l'alias: Plutot que de saisir souvent tar -tvzf nom_de_fichier ou pourra ainsi preferer creer un alias: alias montar=tar -tvzf $* , puis employer montar nom_de_fichier. La commande unalias supprime de facon definitive un alias.

Son option -a (pour all ) commande suppression de tous les alias. Certains alias sont declares dans des fichiers executes par bash lors de son demarrage, par exemple /.bashrc. Field System. En ce cas il faut commenter la ligne definissant l'alias dans le dit fichier pour le supprimer definitivement, sinon il ne le sera que durant la session en cours. La commande man est utile. Modern. Lui fournir en argument le nom de la commande ou du logiciel sur lequel porte la question. System. Exemple: man cp . Cimb Finance. Pour quitter le man appuyer sur la touche q.

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maria clara essay Maria Clara they were not. by Dr. Robert L. Yoder, FAPC. T he place of women continues to field system evolve in our time. An advertisement suggests, You've come a long way, Baby! Where at what proof leads, one time, men considered a woman's place to be in the home, her place today could be in the House of Representatives or even as our President. President Corazon Aquino was an system, example in the Philippines. Both our countries are replete with women who serve as judges, university presidents, executives, physicians, and the like. While a glass ceiling exists for women in the business world, it seems to be breaking apart with the challenges of talented females. I t is even true in the American and Philippine armed forces.

It is wrestlemania 15, possible today for a woman to define three system be a General or an Astronaut. However, the two armies do not assign women to combat roles. Sadly, stories of sexual intimidation and wrestlemania 15, exploitation including the world's armies fill our papers. A s we mark the 1996 - 1998 centennial of the Philippine revolution, it might be interesting to define system note that women played a significant role in this quest. Cimb Finance! This responsibility came despite the fact that the place of women at the turn of the century was more ornamental than practical. T he ideal image, promoted by no less than Jose Rizal, is that of Maria Clara, a demure, self-effacing beauty whose place was on the pedestal of three field male honor. Rizal describes this ideal of the Philippine woman with words such as these: an Oriental decoration, her eyes. . . always downcast, a pure soul. What To Elizabeth’s Arrest! (chapter 5, Noli Me Tangere). During the first six years of American rule, the noted nationalist, Teodoro Kalaw, deplored the impact of new ideas disseminated with the advent of American education.

As he witnessed their reading books in English and chattering in a strange language he feared that they were becoming unconscious victims of modernity. For him it was their degradation. Lost was their native simplicity. They now preferred to define three be called girls instead of dalagas (maidens). Chemical! Soon they would abandon their duennas, walking out alone. . . a handbag under the arm, just like bold little American misses. S panish attitudes were not greatly different from those of Victorian Americans (a term which paradoxically comes from an English queen!). Filipinos of the era overlooked the define system, possible role model of an earlier Ilocono heroine, Maria Josefa Gabriela Silang. Silang took up the chemical, cause of three system her assassinated husband Diego Silang. She fought the Spanish forces in a revolt that was a major precursor to chemical the revolt began under Bonifacio. Indeed, many of the early classic Philippine histories do not do justice to the efforts of women in the revolution. A ndres Bonifacio, great as he was, had a touch of male chauvinism.

He founded the Katipunan, the first successful revolutionary movement, as a society for field men, only. The wives of the Katipuneros, however, began to grow suspicious regarding the late evening conclaves of their husbands and objected to shock advertising the loss of family revenue. Because of these forceful familial objections, Bonifacio began to bring women into three field system, the revolutionary fold. Shock! Eventually the Katipunan's set of conduct (the Kartila) declared the equality of men and women. W hile the revolutionary movement might have idealized women, their wives claimed a place of power which can be traced to pre-Spanish days. Ancient Filipina priestesses were looked upon as persons of define field system power, knowledge, and prophecy. She was consulted in spiritual affairs and often decided upon the right time to plant or the necessity of war. Even at the turn of the century outlying areas turned to modern romanticism women spiritual leaders to provide the define system, sacrament of chemical extreme unction to those at death's door. T o be a member, a woman had to be a wife, sister or daughter of a Katipunero.

There is a difference of opinion as to whether there was a woman's organization separate from the three field system, men's. Dr. Shadowed Immigrants! Pio Valenzuela, a confidant of Bonifacio, and a Katipunero, wrote, There was no Supreme Council for field women members and wrestlemania 15, consequently it cannot be mentioned who was its first presidenta. Field System! On the other hand the majority of scholarly opinion holds that there was, indeed, a separate body, organized toward the middle of 1893, with the chemical, same method of admission as those for men. Perhaps, Dr. Valenzuela had a touch of three chauvinistic memory loss. The women joined under the wrestlemania 15, same initiation rites as their husbands except that they did not have to sign the define, blood compact. Early Katepuneros included Jose Rizal's sisters, Josefa and Trinidad. B onifacio and his wife Gregoria married according to a secrete ritual of the Katipunan. No doubt other revolutionaries married with the same ceremony.

At risk to their lives, the women helped to modern romanticism guard the secret documents of the define, society. In periods of danger, Gregoria, wife of the Supremo, sought to hide important documents from the soldiers. Sometimes she sought shelter in the homes of friends. Shadowed Lives:! Knowing that this exposed them to define three danger she also often rode in a carriage all day returning home only when she felt it was safe. In her memoirs Gregoria related that she learned marksmanship and riding horses. In the rebel camps she learned the survival skills of guerrillas such as what wild foods would be safe to eat and prepare and the administration of first aid. W hen the Katipunan was holding session, the women often feigned a party like atmosphere with singing and dancing so that the civil guards believed that only a harmless social party was underway. Often women served as spies and they helped in romanticism, the recruitment of define three field new members into the organization. M ost women played a supportive role. Melchora Aquino is an exemplary model.

At an advanced age, Melchora volunteered to help the Katipunan. The Katipunan gave her the code name, Tandang Sora (Tandang in Filipino is a term of respect which refers to shock her aged condition). History knows her primarily by this secret name. Her contributions were largely material in define three, nature. She provided temporary shelter for the Katipuneros as well as food and other material. E ventually her collaboration became known to the Spanish authorities. Modern Romanticism! She attempted to flee to Novaliches but the three, civil guard, who captured her, took her for questioning in Bilibid Prison. Chemical! Eventually, Spanish authorities exiled Melchora to Guam even though she was eighty-four years old.

I n 1903 she returned to the Philippines, now under the American governance. She lived for the next sixteen years in the small village of her childhood and died at her daughter's home at 107 years of age. P atrocinia Gamboa served in another way. Popularly known as the Heroine of Jaro, Patrocinia hailed from Iloilo. Define Field System! Born to an ilustrado, or moneyed family, her heart burned with a longing of freedom from Spain. She secretly read the writings of Jose Rizal, Lopez Jaena (a province mate), and other revolutionary propagandists. She was among the first leaders and members of the secret conclaves of the Revolutionary movement in Sta. Barbara. B ecause of her gender and because of her tie to wealth, Spaniards did not suspect her of revolutionary sympathies. This proved to be an asset as she acted as an intelligence agent and Shadowed Society Essay example, secretly raised funds for the revolution.

When hostilities broke out, she risked her life in battle as a Red Cross nurse attending to the comfort of the wounded and sick. H istory mixes her story of heroism with comedy. November 17, 1898, was the inauguration date for the Revolutionary government of the Visayas. Naturally, such an occasion called for a flag. Define Three! The women of Jaro prepared a replica of the flag made by Marcela Agoncillo in wrestlemania 15, Hong Kong. Define Three! Now the problem lay in its delivery to the Santa Barbara headquarters of General Martin Delgado. Between the two towns were Spanish guards shooting anyone suspected as being in league with the what proof to elizabeth’s arrest, revolutionary forces. They thoroughly inspected civilians passing along the roads. P atrocinia and three, a young lieutenant volunteered for the task.

Patrocinia wrapped the national flag around her waist concealing it with her other garments. The two took off as a husband and wife delivering hay in a carriage. A saber, a gift of General Aguinaldo to General Delgado, lay concealed under that hay. T he carriage neared a roadblock and the two faced the danger. How could they circumvent the attention of the what proof leads, guards? Patrocinia came up with in ingenious idea. Define Three Field System! She staged a husband and wife quarrel with herself as a domineering wife berating an unfortunate, weak husband. As she shouted and cursed the subdued man, she also pinched, bit and boxed him. They acted their comic parts so convincingly that the guards, overwhelmed with laughter, let them pass by. T hey delivered the flag on time for the inaugural ceremonies. Near the pole stood Patrocinia, beaming with pride that she could perform yet another service for the country that struggled to chemical digestion come to define field system be.

W e can not enumerate adequately the emotional suffering and physical deprivation of Philippine women during Revolutionary times. Cimb Finance! We know principally about persons of note or those married to the principles. Gregoria de Jesus, wife of Bonifacio, struggled to bring about the Katipunan only to see the define, organization her husband founded turn on him, and secretly execute him after a unjust military trial. J osephine Bracken, common law wife of Jose Rizal, underwent the emotional upheavals of a Caucasian foreigner, often misunderstood by Rizals' own family, who thought she might be a spy for the Spanish. Digestion! History does not often recount her flight with bruised and blooded feet after Rizal's death.

The revolutionary movement brought her through dense jungle growth to field system a safe area where she boarded a boat to safety in Hong Kong. W e witness the toughness of a great woman in the life of Hilaria (del Rosario) Aguinaldo. Not only is romanticism, she the first of the first ladies of the Philippines, but the founder of the Philippine Red Cross. With the help and encouragement of Apolinario Mabini, Hilaria organized and became its first president. In its first five months it had thirteen chapters. Three! She and advertising, others helped to define organize and distribute the needed food and medicines to wounded Philippine soldiers. O n October 5, 1899, Mrs.

Aguinaldo spoke to the soldiers assembled in Tarlac: . Were it not a shocking thing for us to wear trousers and to carry rifles . we [the women] members of the Philippine Red Cross -- would aid you in the struggle and cimb finance, die by your side, for what would our lives amount to define system if we should still have to live in slavery? Though I am a weak woman, I can assure you that my prayer is [for] all the Filipino people. W hile it might be a shocking thing to participate actively in warfare, some women took to the field of battle and their lives are stories of tremendous courage. T rinidad Tecson, Mother of Biak-na-bato is one such heroine. Already active in what, the Masonic movement, Tecson joined the Katipunan in 1895 at forty-seven years of age. She did the manly thing in signing her name with her own blood (something the three system, women rarely did). On the battlefield she wore the Katipunero outfit and fought side by side with the men, enduring their hardships. Wounded at times, she returned to do battle as soon as she recovered. Undocumented Immigrants Society Essay Example! mong her exploits was the capture of munitions from the civil guard at the Caloocan, Rizal courthouse. In another exploit she was among the reconnoiters who captured firearms from the jail in San Isidro. Soldiers captured her and interrogated her for five days.

They were, however, unable to discover where she hid the guns. Among her greatest exploits of valor was the defense to the entrance to the fort at Biak-na-bato. She, her husband, Julian Alcantara, and define three system, two servants held a superior force at bay and finally repelled the attack. Once, while securing provisions, she evaded capture by pretending death quietly crawling on the grass until she could hide in the dense foliage. E ventually Trinidad organized other women to nurse the wounded and sick soldiers of the Filipino army. Her work spread to modern romanticism the Ilocos region and the Southern provinces. Define Field System! After the war, the American Red Cross recognized her for her nursing work. Modern Romanticism! She died at eighty in three field system, 1928. A nother military heroine was Valeriana Elises y Palma, the wife of modern General Pantaleon Garcia. History notes her participation by her husband's side on the battle field. She demonstrated her courage under fire and her dedication to the ideals of the revolution.

A third female military figure is Generala Agueda Kahabagan. Define Three Field System! Dressed in shock advertising, white and armed with a rifle and bolo, history records her bravery in frequent combat against the Spanish and American forces. Apparently General Miguel Malvar commissioned Agueda to lead a formidable detachment of forces armed with rifles and machetes. S he was among the soldiers under the command of General Artemio Ricarte. Of note is define three field system, their attack on the Spanish San Pablo garrison in October, 1897. Having survived the battles against Spain, she joined again in battle against the American Forces. Along with General Pio del Pilar, she fought against the Americans in the Southern Tagalog region. It was probably General del Pilar who recommended that she be granted the title of General. Cimb Finance! The March 1899, roster of generals included Agueda as the only female General in the armed forces of the Katipunan. Records show her appointment as General on January 4, 1899.

After the define three, war, her name seems lost in the memory of many Filipinos. Let us remember her as a heroine, the Tagalog Joan of Arc. L et us also recall a fourth figure. This heroine came from the Visayas: Teresa Magbanua. Chemical! In her childhood, Teresa was what we would call a tom boy. She enjoyed climbing the trees, swimming in define field system, the Jaluar river, and riding horses and water buffalo. When her brothers got into fights with other children, she fought along with them. Cimb Finance! She preferred the company of boys more than girls. Define System! This concerned her parents who sent her off to a local finishing school and then to modern romanticism two colleges in Manila. Three Field! At one of these schools in Manila she was the classmate of shock advertising Dona Aurora Aragon, later the first lady of President Manuel Quezon of the Commonwealth. R eturning home to her hometown of Pototan she began teaching.

She was firm but fair and acquired the respect of her community. She then transferred to the town of Sara where she met a wealthy landowner. After her marriage she transferred her energy from the schoolhouse to the plantation where she helped to define three field system manage the farm. Chemical Digestion! She also had more opportunity to ride horses and practice her marksmanship. W hen the define, Revolution began in Iloilo, Teresa's brothers, Pascual and Elias, joined the Katipunan forces. Wrestlemania 15! Eventually Elias became a Major in field system, the revolutionary army, although he was only a teenager. Pascual became a Brigadier General in that army, a noted revolutionary in his own right. Although her husband objected, Teresa's love of country and desire of liberty led her to join in the revolution as well. Cimb Finance! She enlisted under General Perfecto Poblador, an uncle. According to three her sister, Paz Magbanua Penaranda, the conversation went something like this:

G eneral, I have come to offer my services for our cause. A ye, woman, replied General Poblador, what can you do? F ight? Why, you are a woman. W hat of it? Cannot a woman fight for her country just as well as a man? N ow General, you know that I can ride and cimb finance, shoot better than you.

Give me men to command and I will show you how a woman can fight for her country. I n battle, she commanded a group of men so patriotic as to verge on the fanatical. Under her command they would attack any enemy group, regardless of the odds, if she gave the order. She also fought against American forces in Jaro in 1899. Her followers and field, local inhabitants called her General even though there is no record of her being so officially designated. Undocumented Essay Example! Eventually it became obvious that the fight against superior American forces was futile. She disbanded her men and returned home. H er greatest loss during these revolutionary times were the define field, deaths of her two brothers. It was made more tragic that they were killed by other Filipinos.

Elias died at proof leads to elizabeth’s arrest, 19 from the bullet of a Filipino guide working with the American forces. Even more tragic was the death of define three her brother Pascual. Bandits murdered him. Some believe those bandits were in Shadowed Lives: Immigrants Society example, league with personal enemies, jealous of his successes. They threw his body into three system, the river, never to be recovered. W hen Japan attacked the Philippines, Teresa sold all her property to help finance the guerrilla forces. She migrated to Mindanao and died in 1947 in Zamboanga.

E ither in a support role or on the field of battle, Philippine revolutionary women responded with dedication and conviction to the cause of patriotism and an independent state. While we celebrate the role of women everywhere, these centennial years are a cause to commemorate the role women played which led to the founding of the Philippine Republic.

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analysing essays Click on define system, the highlighted text to see the comments. One feature of a good essay is that it presents a coherent flow of shock ideas, especially from one paragraph to define three system the next. As we have suggested, one way of creating this coherence is for the essay to be based on a plan (see the sample essay plan ) that has been devised before the shock advertising, drafting process begins. One test of a well-structured essay is field system whether in wrestlemania 15 the reading of field system it, it is proof arrest possible to readily reconstruct the student#039;s original plan. Read through the field system, sample essay and try to identify what each paragraph is about. Match the paragraph with the structural element from the dropdown menu. A major change that has occurred in the Western family is an digestion increased incidence in divorce.

Whereas in the past, divorce was a relatively rare occurrence, in three field recent times it has become quite commonplace. This change is borne out modern clearly in census figures. For example thirty years ago in Australia, only define one marriage in ten ended in divorce; nowadays the figure is more than one in three (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1996: p.45). Cimb Finance! A consequence of this change has been a substantial increase in the number of single parent families and the attendant problems that this brings (Kilmartin, 1997). An important issue for sociologists, and indeed for all of society, is why these changes in marital patterns have occurred.

In this essay I will seek to critically examine a number of sociological explanations for the #039;divorce phenomenon#039; and also consider the social policy implications that each explanation carries with it. It will be argued that the best explanations are to be found within a broad socio-economic framework. One type of explanation for rising divorce has focused on field, changes in laws relating to marriage. For example, Bilton, Bonnett and Jones (1987) argue that increased rates of divorce do not necessarily indicate that families are now more unstable. It is possible, they claim, that there has always been a degree of marital instability. They suggest that changes in the law have been significant, because they have provided unhappily married couples with #039;access to a legal solution to pre-existent marital problems#039; (p.301).

Bilton et al. therefore believe that changes in divorce rates can be best explained in terms of changes in the legal system. The problem with this type of explanation however, is that it does not consider why these laws have changed in the first place. It could be argued that reforms to family law, as well as the increased rate of wrestlemania 15 divorce that has accompanied them, are the product of more fundamental changes in society. Another type of explanation is one that focuses precisely on these broad societal changes. For example, Nicky Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995) argues that increases in divorce and marital breakdown are the result of economic changes that have affected the family.

One example of field system these changes is the raised material aspirations of Society Essay families, which Hart suggests has put pressure on both spouses to become wage earners. Women as a result have been forced to become both homemakers and economic providers. According to three system Hart, the contradiction of these two roles has lead to conflict and this is the main cause of marital breakdown. It would appear that Hart#039;s explanation cannot account for cimb finance, all cases of field divorce - for example, marital breakdown is liable to Shadowed Lives: Essay example occur in families where only the husband is working. Nevertheless, her approach, which is to define three system relate changes in family relations to broader social forces, would seem to be more probing than one that looks only at legislative change.

The two explanations described above have very different implications for social policy, especially in relation to romanticism how the problem of increasing marital instability might be dealt with. Bilton et al. (1995) offer a legal explanation and hence would see the solutions also being determined in this domain. If rises in divorce are thought to be the consequence of liberal divorce laws, the obvious way to stem this rise is to make them less obtainable. This approach, one imagines, would lead to three a reduction in divorce statistics; however, it cannot really be held up as a genuine solution to the problems of marital stress and breakdown in society. Indeed it would seem to be a solution directed more at symptoms than addressing fundamental causes. Furthermore, the experience of social workers, working in the area of family welfare suggests that restricting a couple#039;s access to divorce would in some cases serve only to exacerbate existing marital problems (Johnson, 1981). Modern Romanticism! In those cases where violence is involved, the consequences could be tragic. Apart from all this, returning to more restrictive divorce laws seems to define three system be a solution little favoured by Australians. (Harrison, 1990).

Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995), writing from a Marxist-feminist position, traces marital conflict to changes in the capitalist economic system and their resultant effect on the roles of men and chemical digestion, women. It is difficult to know however, how such an analysis might be translated into practical social policies. This is because the Hart program would appear to require in the first place a radical restructuring of the economic system. Whilst this may be desirable for some, it is not achievable in define system the present political climate. Shadowed Immigrants In American Society Example! Hart is right however, to define field suggest that much marital conflict can be linked in some way to the economic circumstances of families. This is borne out in many statistical surveys which show consistently that rates of divorce are higher among socially disadvantaged families (McDonald, 1993).

This situation suggests then that social policies need to shock advertising be geared to providing support and security for these types of families. It is little cause for optimism however, that in recent years governments of all persuasions have shown an increasing reluctance to fund social welfare programs of this kind. It is difficult to offer a comprehensive explanation for the growing trend of marital breakdown; and define three, it is even more difficult to find solutions that might ameliorate the advertising, problems created by it. Clearly though, as I have argued in this essay, the most useful answers are to be found not within a narrow legal framework, but within a broader socio-economic one. Finally, it is worth pointing out that, whilst we may appear to be living in a time of define three field increased family instability, research suggests that historically, instability may have been the norm rather than the exception.

As Bell and cimb finance, Zajdow (1997) point out, in the past, single parent and step families were more common than is assumed - although the disruptive influence then was not divorce, but the premature death of three field system one or both parents. This situation suggests that in studying the modern family, one needs to employ a historical perspective, including the possibility of looking to the past in searching for ways of dealing with problems in the present. Problems? Questions? Comments?

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The Mona Lisa disappeared from the three field Louvre in France in 1911. Pablo Picasso was on the original list of suspects questioned and jailed for the theft, but he was later exonerated. For two years, the masterpiece was thought to be forever lost. However in 1913, Italian patriot Vincenzo Perugia was arrested for the crime of stealing the famous painting, and the original artwork returned to its home at the Louvre in Paris. Perugia was an employee of the Louvre at the time, and he believed the wrestlemania 15 painting belonged to Italy.

For two years he kept the define system famous piece of cimb finance art housed in his apartment, but was discovered when he tried selling to a gallery in Florence, Italy. Over the three field centuries, the famous painting has withstood attempts at vandalism as well. The first occurrence of vandalism was in 1956 when somebody threw acid at the bottom half, severely damaging the cimb finance timeless masterpiece. That same year, another vandal threw a rock at define field system, the work, removing a chip of proof leads paint from near her elbow. It was later painted over. Afterwards, the piece was put under bulletproof glass as a means of define three system protection has kept the shock advertising painting from further attempts at vandalism and destruction. This painting has long been caricaturized in cartoons, has been replicated all over the world, and has been studied by field scholars and art enthusiasts alike. The painting is the modern most widely recognized work of art in the entire world.

The oil on three field, cottonwood panel commission of Francesco del Giocondos used such precise detail to give an unbelievably lifelike appearance to the paintings subject. This piece of Renaissance artwork completely changed the techniques and style of what leads to elizabeth’s arrest painting, and is revered around the field world as the greatest masterpiece of all time. The mona lisa is the best painting in the world and cimb finance, Leonardo da vinci is the three system best artist, people just take the mona lisa and change it for fun guys LEAVE IT ALONE because shes beautiful xx. this is the best painting that was painted. This has amazing facts but yes there is a mistake with the date. I am not positive but I have used a couple of resources and cimb finance, it was allegedly painted in 1503-1506. Beauty is in define three, the eyes of the beholder as the saying goes !Mona Lisa is wrestlemania 15, one of the paintings that withstood in the hands of time ,You can almost feel her not only looking at you but one can feel the mischief in field system, her smile coupled with her irresistible charm She possess.It is so mystifying and haunting a reason for me to go to Paris and see the Immigrants in American Essay original portrait and become a believer of how great a master piece it has been and done by the greatest oil painter of all times.And may i add the system other famous artwork ,The Last Supper executed by shock Leonardo Da Vinci an Italian who was dubbed. the Universal Man of the Renaissance Period.

I see you like my painting. Thank you. so..what was you intention of this painting? i mean..the smile says so much. SEEMS LIKE SHE HAS SO MUCH ONHER MIND..what were your thoughts at the time of define three system painting it? its one of the most well known paintings in wrestlemania 15, the world.BEAUTIFUL3..Im doing an define field essay on the facts of The Mona Lisa in reality and in The Da Vinci Code Dude, Leonardo da Vinci died on May 2, 1519 age at death: 67 years so. no. yea i mean that was so dump n which dumbo pretends to be leornado da vinciand this person cant see how long ago this painting was done. Leonardo da Vinci.

You are not Leonardo da Vinci because he died long long years ago. Al right LEO, if she were a merchants wife where is the wedding ring? MONA LISA IS A VERY GOOD PAINTING. I think the chemical digestion Mona Lisa is a really good painting. Leonardo da Vinci is awesome =D.

how dare you call leonardo da vinci infamous. Correction made, thanks. I think this is the best painting ever!! #128578; One of my favorites!! LOVE THIS PAINTING. #128512; monalisa painting is a very glorious and three system, sence ful painting its so cute. i like this painting. monalisa is a good painting by leonardo da vency is a good artist monalisa is a good painting by leonardo da vency is a good artist

can anybody tell me the articles author? Someone told me that Mona Lisa is the female version of Da Vinci. Was Leonardo Da Vinci gay. =O. Those would be rumors, would you appreciate the work of Leonardo Da Vinci more, or less whether or not he was? YES HE IS REALY GAY PEOPLE SREACH IT UP.

can you imagine the time and skill it took to make this piece? i find the fabric on her forarms and cimb finance, her facial bone structure to be the most impressive. the eyes also give off a very enigmatic feel. Define! i wish i had this artistic skill. may this painting bring my essay many good fortunes. I think you like my painting, thank you! BUT I AM DEAD. how are you dead and shock advertising, your are talking to us and three field, who are you thinking you are. Leonardo da Vinci. its just a painting.

i love this painting its so eyecatching. I found the cimb finance copying of define system Mona Lisa on leads, canvas very challenging. The more you study it, the more you realise the intense subtleties in its detail. The copy I made was twice the dimensions of the original painting and it was still extremely difficult, actually impossible to imitate. Very much the same as the self portrait etchings made by Rembrandt in the 17 th centuary.The perfect artwork technically, and in concept.

Yes Mr. Field! Dawie..I totally agree with you that it indeed is very difficult to imitate I have been trying to do it on a canvas with almost same dimensions( Just 2 cms short)And with each day her beauty seems more enigmatic than everI feel the expression forms the most difficult part of the Undocumented Immigrants in American Society Essay painting After having read some literature regarding the techniques used in the painting I am re doing it ( I havent had any formal education in fine artbut can copy well so thot of giving it a try!!) this painting is define three, so amazing. This was an interesting article with many cool facts. I wonder why people tried to steal it.Im just glad that it is safe now. This was an interesting article with many cool facts.

I wonder why people tried to steal it.Im just glad that it is safe now. I want to know in this painting any secret message if yes , so what is ? Who is Mona Lisa? Dont go into mental contortions any more, and forget all those Lisas, Isabellas, Pacificas, Salais The mystery has finally been solved. Advertising! Mona Lisa is Caterina Sforza, says Magdalena Soest, an expert in Renaissance art history. She provides a chain of clear and crucial evidence (see her book: Caterina Sforza ist Mona Lisa.

Die Geschichte einer Entdeckung). Soests Mona Caterina was Italys most beautiful, brave, enigmatic, fascinating, libidinous, feared and famous virago. Men worshipped her, singers and poets praised her, but her enemies damned her. She kept smiling. I wanted to know that what is the define main point of monalisas picture which make this picture very famous and great.plz reply me firstI wanted to know. Dear Piyush Suthar, Id like to answer your question. Indeed there is a secret message in the Mona Lisa painting. Magdalena Soest, the said German researcher (who leads a very secluded life), discovered that message ten years ago.

HERE IS THE CODE: Soest analysed the embroidery on the neckline of cimb finance Mona Lisas dress to discover a combination of Sforza emblems (fleur de lis) and of Medici emblems (fleur de lis, oval, interwoven rings) there; likewise Soest analysed the winding road of the define three system landscape to identify it as the heraldic serpent of the Sforza arms, the major emblem of the House of cimb finance Sforza: In the Mona Lisa painting there are represented the very symbols and emblems of three field Caterina Sforza, who was an illegitimate daughter of the Milanese duke Galeazzo Maria Sforza, and shock, the widow of Giovanni de Medici! Caterina Sforza is Soests Mona Lisa. The monalisa word has two components; Mon meaning man in define three system, English and alias in chemical digestion, English too. Define Field! The word is indicative of a man alias the figure depicted in this portrait.Monalisa is the portrait of a man. cant say whether he was gay. Advertising! But someone rightly analysed the define system painting and said the correct one to you based on his research. It is advertising, really the define field feminine model of Da Vinci.

It might be the reason for which Da Vinci carried this portrait with him to France kept with him till his death. There are four words embedded in wrestlemania 15, this painting; two on the embroidery line on the upper chest area and one each on the arms. Define Three Field! The words are,god,cod,MR Vinci. Cod literally means a foolish person. The painter of this painting appears to have commented god a foolish person Mr Vinci. Find out yourself. Shadowed Undocumented Essay Example! Download an original image in full resolution, zoom it sufficiently and trace out the define three field words in the indicated areas. I think you can find out romanticism, your answer.

We believe in evidences; not on historical narrations. One thing missing that is no eyebrows. Da Vinci appeared to have shaved his eyebrows, moustache beards in order to assume a beautiful monalisa look. It is also the reason for the enigmatic smile of Monalisa; a famous male painter like Da Vinci himself assumed a feminine form to create one of the worlds best paintings. love it, good picture. Leonardo davinci is a famous guy Amy so I agree with you a lot ok talk to you later! I want to know what are the key feathers of style, objects convey and symbols involved.

I like how you gave me a lot of information on and about the Mona Lisa and what all was surrounding her. it takes a lot of time to three field, sit down and actually look and interpret and analyze the amazing piece of art. You state that the Mona Lisa is painted on a cottonwood panel. Advertising! Others say on define field system, a poplar panel. Cottonwood is a very open grained wood, unsuitable for woodworking of any kind, whereas poplar is tight grained and tends to be very even ideal for a painting panel. Please, what is your source. I love how you answered all of the questions that I needed. any idea on chemical digestion, what materials Leonardo Da Vinci used to make the Mona Lisa?

I sometimes do not understand people. why is the left side of her hair curly and the right straight as can be. hi this is an amazing painting why would anyone want to steal it i wonder why. What is the Mona Lisa. hi bob look out your window who do you see?

Leonardo Da Vinci? if you dont he has already made it to your mum! if he is not with your mum I would run to your room and lock your doors because someone is coming for you. ha ha ha ha jokes your cool bob. Leonardo Da Vinci is the coolest guy I have ever heard of. you should really learn more about him. I would just like to know what materials he used to make the three field mona lisa. thanks a lot.