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Salem witch trials abigail williams

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Guest Editorial: Uncounted: Power, inequalities and the post-2015 data revolution. People and groups go uncounted for reasons of power: those without power are further marginalized by their exclusion from statistics, while elites and salem trials abigail, criminals resist the counting of their incomes and Race, Class Essay, wealth. As a result, the pattern of counting can both reflect and exacerbate existing inequalities. The global framework set by the Sustainable Development Goals will be more ambitious, in terms of both the counting and the challenging of abigail williams inequalities, than anything that has gone before. This article explores the likely obstacles, and the unaddressed weaknesses in the agreed framework, and Jim Jones And The Massacre Essay, suggests a number of measures to strengthen the eventual challenge to inequalities, including by witch trials abigail the promotion of tax justice measures. Explains how the current patterns of counting can both reflect and exacerbate existing inequalities, and if poem analysis, explores the likely obstacles and the unaddressed weaknesses the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. Data: Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis. Revolution: A forcible overthrow of a government or social order, in favour of a new system . Oxford English Dictionary.

Counting matters. As the Stiglitz et al. (2009 : 7) report puts it: What we measure affects what we do; and if our measurements are flawed, decisions may be distorted . [I]f our metrics of performance are flawed, so too may be the trials williams inferences that we draw. The Commission criticizes at length the use of gross domestic product (GDP) and economic growth as the primary measures of progress, predominantly focusing on analysis, rich countries. In development thinking, there is salem abigail williams a comparatively rich and varied history of analysing different measures. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) represented the first attempt to establish a common set for all developing countries; the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) takes this further and identifies a universal (global) set of goals, targets and indicators, applicable from And The Massacre 2016 onwards. measures to strengthen the capacity and coverage of salem trials national and understanding do audiences not gain a soliloquy?, sub-national monitoring and evaluation, data collection and witch, analysis. These will need to track the impact of policies, legislation, budgets and programmes among those most disadvantaged and excluded; allow for truly participatory assessment of Jim Jones And The these measures; enable much more systematic disaggregation of salem witch abigail information for equity-focused targets and indicators; and provide mechanisms for locally-led citizen monitoring and feedback on progress and Evidence to Support Theory of Evolution Essay example, performance. ( UNICEF/UNWomen, 2013 : 10) Later that year, the High Level Panel of Eminent Persons confirmed to witch trials the UN Secretary General that any new goals should be accompanied by an independent and rigorous monitoring system, [requiring] a data revolution for sustainable development, with an do audiences international initiative to improve the quality of statistics and information available to citizens ( UNICEF/UNWomen, 2013 : 21; emphasis in original).

This momentum carried through, albeit somewhat imperfectly, into the SDGs framework, which achieved UN consensus in August 2015. This article evaluates the framework in terms of how far that data revolution is salem trials williams likely to reach. The term uncounted is used to describe a politically motivated failure to count . This takes two main forms. First, there may be people and groups at to Support Darwin’s of Evolution Essay, the bottom of distributions (e.g., income) whose uncounting adds another level to their marginalization, for example, where they are absent from statistics that inform policy prioritization. Second, there may be people and groups at the top of distributions who are further empowered by being able to go uncounted not least by hiding income and wealth from salem trials taxation and regulation. In either case, the phenomenon is not a random or arbitrary one. Being uncounted is not generally a matter of coincidence, but reflects power: the lack of And The Jonestown Essay it, or its excess.

As such, the term data revolution is most appropriate. The implication is not of a technical reform, but rather of a major political change. If the SDGs were to reach their potential in this regard, a substantial redistribution of power is implied. It is salem witch abigail williams argued here that for a range of reasons, both by design and by omission, the SDG framework is likely to go much further in tackling the phenomenon of those who are uncounted at the bottom. There are however a number of developments outside the framework that support some optimism about the And The Massacre Essay uncounted at the top also. Witch Abigail? Importantly, there is still scope to establish additional mechanisms to And The Jonestown strengthen the witch abigail framework and the prospects for empowering political change.

The article is analysis organized as follows. Abigail Williams? The first section outlines the enlightenment 1700s context of development thought within which the MDGs and SDGs were adopted, highlighting the major differences in salem abigail williams emphasis. Understanding Do Audiences From? The second section considers the implications of the SDG approach, as adopted, for those who are uncounted at the bottom: Will the framework really Leave No One Behind? The third section assesses those who are left ahead the witch williams uncounted at Theory Essay example, the top, and the extent to trials which the SDGs may shed light here in particular from a tax justice perspective. A final section concludes as to the prospects for a post-2015 data revolution, challenging inequalities and tax injustice, and offers two recommendations to strengthen the framework. Evolution of development thought: context for MDGs and SDGs.

The history of development thinking can be seen in a series of evolutionary steps in counting. In each stage, mainstream aims have become more nuanced and which from a soliloquy?, more relevant to the lived experience of populations. Inevitably, this greater nuance has driven better counting (i.e., better measurement of a populations lived experience). However, the causality runs in both directions because at salem witch trials, the same time, better measurement has revealed important realities that have in if poem turn informed different mainstream priorities. The longstanding preoccupation of much development analysis (and policy) has been GDP, and williams, its growth (or at best, GDP per reconstruction capita and its growth). With important interventions from UNICEFs Adjustment with a Human Face ( Cornia et al., 1987 ) and trials abigail williams, UNDPs (1990) first Human Development Report, this focus on poor countries gave way first to a greater emphasis on non-GDP aspects of national human development, and then to a focus instead on Essay, people living in poverty. Salem Witch Abigail Williams? The World Bank promoted extreme income poverty as the and Gender Essay central element, from the subsequent 1990 World Development Report ( World Bank, 1990 ), and its dollar-a-day measure was eventually adopted as the basis for the target of the first UN MDG in 2000. Alongside (and partly in response to) the salem witch trials abigail williams focus on absolute, monetary poverty came a much wider and analysis, richer analysis of (individual and salem witch, household) poverty that much more closely reflect the 1700s UNICEF and UNDP analysis. Salem Witch? Ruggeri-Laderchi et al. (2003) identify three main approaches. The capabilities approach (following Sen, 1999 ) treats poverty as the failure to achieve certain minimal capabilities, rather than as the failure to reach a certain consumption or income level.

While the emphasis remains on Evidence to Support of Evolution Essay, absolute achievements, the capabilities approach is necessarily a multidimensional one, going far beyond income as a proxy for utility. The social exclusion approach, which had by far the most important policy role in the European Union, puts greater emphasis on witch, relative aspects of poverty emphasizing the ability of Darwin’s of Evolution Essay example people to participate in a given society. From this approach tends to follow an understanding of poverty as clearly multidimensional, and significant attention to trials williams group characteristics (since these are frequently the basis for reconstruction, exclusion). Finally, the salem abigail participatory approach seeks to elicit views from within communities on the nature and locus of poverty. Important concerns here reflect issues around eliciting views without introducing external bias; ensuring the to Support Darwin’s Theory Essay example views that are heard are genuinely representative (a problem that looms ever larger as attempts are made to take this approach to national scale); and inherent problems of self-identification (including, e.g., the tendency to identify others as [more] poor). A comparison of four approaches to poverty. Social exclusion approach. Unit of witch analysis. Ideally the individual, de facto the household. Individuals or groups relative to others in Jim Jones And The Jonestown their community/society.

Groups and individuals within them. Required or minimum standard identified by. Reference to external information (defined outside the unit); central element food requirements. Reference to lists of dimensions normally assumed to be objectively definable. Reference to those prevailing in society and trials williams, state obligations. Local peoples own perceptions of of Evolution well-being and ill-being. Sensitivity to social institutions. None, but assessments can be broken down by group. Emphasis on adequacy rather than sufficiency leaves space for (non-modelled) variations. Reflected in the way poor people analyze their own reality. Importance of processes.

One of the main thrusts of the approach. Critical for achievement of salem witch williams satisfactory methods. Major weaknesses conceptually. Utility is not an adequate measure of well-being, and poverty is not an economic category. Elements of era definition arbitrariness in choice of basic capabilities, problems of witch trials adding up. Broad framework, susceptible to many interpretations, difficult to compare across countries. Whose perceptions are being elicited, and if poem, how representative or consistent are they? How does one deal with disagreements? Problems for trials, cross-country comparisons. Comparability of Evidence Darwin’s Theory of Evolution surveys, of price indices, of trials drawing poverty lines. Fewer problems if basic capabilities are defined externally, but adding up difficulties make comparisons difficult with inconsistencies according to reconstruction adding up methodology.

Lines of social exclusion essentially society-specific; also an adding up problem. Cultural difference can make appropriate processes differ across countries, results may not be comparable. Household surveys regularly conducted; omitted observations can be important. Use of national income data but requires assumptions about distribution. Data less regularly collected, but could easily be improved. Currently have to rely on williams, data collected for other purposes. If agreed on basic dimensions, data could be regularly collected. Generally only small purposive samples. Never available nationally, would be difficult to if poem analysis extend method for regular national data collection. Major weaknesses for measurement. Needs to be anchored to external elements.

Impossibility of set evaluation. How to deal with multidimensionality even if only of basic functionings. Problems with multidimensionality. How comparable? How representative? Challenge of capturing process.

Interpreted by policymakers as requiring. Emphasis on economic growth and distribution of monetary income. Investments in extending basic capabilities/basic needs via monetary incomes and public services. Foster processes of inclusion, inclusion in markets and social processes, with particular emphasis on formal labour market. Empowerment of the salem poor. In both aspects, the MDGs marked a final break from if poem analysis seeing development as a problem of poor countries, and focused instead on poor people. Colliers (2007) The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries are Failing and What Can Be Done About It can be seen as something of witch a throwback.

Its main thesis was subsequently demolished in Sumners (2010) work on the new bottom billion, showing that the majority of extreme income poverty occurred and had done for some time in middle- rather than low-income countries, reflecting within-country inequality rather than countries absolute poverty. The power of the latter analysis has combined with growing political attention to income and wealth inequalities in which do audiences from donor countries following the salem trials abigail williams 2008 financial crisis (see, e.g., the unexpected prominence of Piketty, 2014 ). But perhaps the strongest current in development thought since the reconstruction era definition establishment of the MDGs has been that focused on group inequalities. Two inter-related strands can be identified: one intellectual, one data-led. Witch Trials Abigail? Of the former, much credit is due to the pioneering work on horizontal inequalities of Stewart and the Centre for Research into Inequality, Security and 1700s, Ethnicity at Oxford (see, e.g. Salem Witch Trials Abigail Williams? Stewart, 2002 ). Reconstruction Era Definition? The MDG Achievement Fund played a major role in funding work that directly addressed potential applications within the SDG framework (in particular Kabeer, 2010 ; Paz Arauco et al., 2014 ). At the same time, the salem williams growing availability of relatively consistent survey data has allowed a range of group inequalities to be analyzed. Although the data remain far from perfect, the effect has been to demonstrate the Jim Jones And The Jonestown Massacre possibility of a truly global framework with disaggregation in multiple dimensions as reflected in salem calls from international NGOs such as Christian Aid (e.g. Cobham et al., 2010 ) and Save the Children (e.g. Espey et al., 2012 ; Roche et al., 2015 ). The Multidimensional Poverty Index (e.g. Alkire and Jim Jones And The Massacre Essay, Robles, 2015 ) has also highlighted the potential of survey data, albeit without stressing group inequalities.

In addition, the gender equality goal (MDG 3 of witch trials abigail williams 8) has increasingly been seen as a (perhaps even the) success story from the MDGs. By playing an important role in making concrete a norm that was still only emerging, this in turn set the analysis basis for witch williams, the group equality norm, which runs through the era definition SDGs, under the banner of witch trials abigail williams Leave No One Behind, and is the subject of the following section. Finally, note that both the process and the intended financing of the not gain from a soliloquy? SDGs differ in powerful ways from salem witch trials williams that for the MDGs, and these also reflect the changing currents of development thought. If Poem Analysis? The process was deliberately participatory, and established something much closer to a global conversation (albeit with inevitable issues of access and empowered engagement) than the few white men in a room approach that developed the MDG framework from the trials abigail williams original Millennium Declaration. In keeping with this wider ownership, the financing emphasis is very much on domestic resource mobilization (and on tax revenues in enlightenment 1700s particular), rather than foreign aid.

In this broader context of development thought, the SDGs represent an entirely logical evolution from the MDGs and one in effect mapped out by Ruggeri-Laderchi et al. (2003) . Where the MDGs combined then-dominant monetary poverty and witch trials abigail williams, capabilities approaches, the SDGs add important social exclusion dynamics to reconstruction the framework and in the process at least put rather greater emphasis on participatory approaches. Both aspects demand a step change in counting, in order to address inequalities and power questions. Salem Trials Abigail Williams? They require data to capture important group disaggregation as well as data to provide transparency and support accountability. The rest of the article considers how successful the framework is likely to to Support of Evolution Essay be. Uncounted at the bottom: will the SDGs really Leave No One Behind? As we embark on salem witch trials abigail, this great collective journey, we pledge that no one will be left behind. Recognizing that the dignity of the human person is fundamental, we wish to see the Goals and targets met for all nations and enlightenment, peoples and for all segments of society. And we will endeavour to reach the furthest behind first. SDGs, finalized text for adoption (1 August 2015: 3) The next development agenda must ensure that in salem witch trials abigail the future neither income nor gender, nor ethnicity, nor disability, nor geography, will determine whether people live or die, whether a mother can give birth safely, or whether her child has a fair chance in life.

We must keep faith with the promise of the MDGs and now finish the if poem job. The MDGs aspired to halve poverty. After 2015 we should aspire to put an end to hunger and extreme poverty as well as addressing poverty in witch all its other forms. This is a major new commitment to era definition everyone on the planet who feels marginalised or excluded, and to witch williams the neediest and most vulnerable people, to make sure their concerns are addressed and that they can enjoy their human rights To be sure that our actions are helping not just the largest number of if poem analysis people, but the neediest and most vulnerable, we will need new ways of measuring success. ( High Level Panel of Eminent Persons, 2013 ) A major criticism of the trials abigail MDGs reflected here is that by largely ignoring identity, and reconstruction, targeting aggregate progress instead, the framework actually incentivized greater inequality ( UNICEF, 2015 ). In terms of vertical inequalities, helping those living on US$0.01 a day is almost inevitably harder than tipping those on trials, $0.99 a day over the line instead.

In terms of horizontal inequalities, although it turns out that countries that reduced these tended to see greater aggregate success (as, e.g., Roche et al., 2015 find in child mortality reduction), this was not obvious ex ante . If Poem Analysis? Where existing inequalities reflected the balance of power in witch abigail williams a country, and/or were not widely recognized, then a well-meaning pursuit of national progress could easily exacerbate or simply fail to address them. The social exclusion impetus of the SDGs is intended to ensure that identity is well recognized from the outset; and that disaggregated data support accountability for And The Jonestown Massacre, addressing group inequalities. These are the final of the 169 targets: Data, monitoring and salem witch trials abigail, accountability. 17.18. By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.

17.19. By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement GDP, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries. Two main risks can be identified: first, that the core data necessary simply are not collected; and second, that the data are collected but characterized by Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Essay such systematic weaknesses as to undermine the salem witch trials aims of if poem inclusion from the outset. Analysis to date has largely focused on the first risk, and on the technical and financial aspects (rather than the political). Probably the most common interpretation of the data revolution call has been as requiring a major increase in the coverage and frequency of household surveys in order to establish that neither income nor gender, nor ethnicity, nor disability, nor geography remain determinants of major human development outcomes. Alkire and Samman (2014 : 35) compare possible data sources and conclude that traditional in-depth survey programmes accompanied by interim surveys have the greatest potential. Jerven (2014) suggests that the costs of such a survey push would be prohibitive. He estimates the cost of williams a full MDG data package at around $1 billion a year, extrapolating on a simple per-target basis to suggest a total figure for the SDGs of as much as $254 billion (or around two and a half times the annual aid budget).

Sandefur and Demombynes (2014) , however, conclude that this is overblown. In practice, they suggest that the total of international donor assistance needed is of the order of $300 million per year much of which is already provided, so should not be seen as additional for the SDGs. Less prominently analyzed in Jonestown Essay the post-2015 context is the salem witch abigail range of systematic weaknesses in current survey (and national census) data. If Poem? Carr-Hill (2013 , 2014 ) has led the witch way in enlightenment 1700s assessing the extent to which particular groups are excluded, either by design or by sampling failures. Household surveys by design exclude those who are not part of households, specifically: homeless populations; those in institutions (hospitals and prisons); and, highly mobile populations, including nomadic and salem trials, pastoralist groups. In addition, there is significant under-representation in practice of three further groups (all of which experience some level of insecurity or fragility): those living in to Support Darwin’s of Evolution informal settlements; those from households that are fragile and/or disjointed; and, those living in relatively insecure areas. Overall, albeit using inevitably somewhat crude estimates, Carr-Hill (2013) identifies the potential scale of the problem as affecting 300350 million people. While a randomly distributed undersampling of perhaps 5 percent of the global population might not be a grave concern, a common feature of the witch groups in question is the if poem likelihood of their being overwhelmingly over-represented at salem witch williams, the bottom of the relevant income distributions.

Quality of water sources, urban populations of sub-Saharan Africa. A separate failing of Essay survey data relates to the identities that are captured. On the salem witch abigail whole, surveys tend to allow regional and urbanrural disaggregation. Often, although not always, ethnolinguistic disaggregation is also possible. The long-standing problem of gender disaggregation remains, since important (especially economic) data may be captured at the household rather than the individual level. Perhaps the if poem analysis most egregious failing of surveys in respect of the groups identified in the SDGs, however, relates to persons living with disabilities. Here there has been a persistent failure, if anything worsening over salem witch trials time.

Samman and Rodriguez-Takeuchi (2013) address disabilities in survey data, and the somehow parallel issues of Jim Jones Massacre Essay mental health and old age. In each case, the salem williams authors highlight scale and identify associations with poverty. People over 60 make up 11 percent of the global population, and households they head are likely to have lower incomes; and to Support Essay, that mental health disorders affect 450 million people, although the comparative lack of study and data mean that any link to poverty or poor development outcomes is less clear. An estimated 1520 percent of the worlds population lives with some form of disability, including those resulting from mental health issues, and the disability is considered severe for salem witch abigail, an estimated 24 percent of the global population. People living with disabilities are again more likely to which do audiences from be income-poor and to be excluded in abigail a range of other ways. Jim Jones And The Massacre Essay? In the United Kingdom, for witch, example, where major data challenges remain, it is Evidence to Support Darwin’s Essay example estimated that women living with learning disabilities died 20 years earlier than the general population, and men with learning disabilities 13 years earlier ( Heslop et al., 2013 ). Samman and Rodriguez-Takeuchi (2013) also show that the three groups are undercounted, and often completely uncounted, with the main surveys conducted.

There are issues in terms of coverage (e.g., these groups may be more likely to salem trials abigail williams live outside formal households, a problem discussed above) and the extent of information collected (not least, whose opinion is sought about conditions affecting household members). However, the biggest issues relate to identification. Are the right questions being asked of sufficient numbers of people to obtain representative data? Almost without exception and above all for disabilities and mental health the answer is no. For example, disability questions are typically not included (sometimes with the Jim Jones And The justification that necessary over-sampling to obtain representative data would be prohibitively expensive). Where disability questions have been included, the form has been weak. For example, Is [NAME] physically or mentally handicapped or disabled? Such questions will tend to identify only severe, and typically more physically visible, disabilities, while issues of stigma may undermine even this identification.

There is now fairly broad consensus although only limited practical use of the minimum six-question approach proposed by the UNs Washington Group on Statistics, which instead puts the emphasis on self-reporting of actual capabilities: Do you have difficulty seeing even if wearing glasses? Do you have difficulty hearing even if using hearing aid/s or are you deaf? Do you have difficulty walking or climbing stairs? Do you have difficulty remembering or concentrating? Do you have difficulty (with self-care such as) washing all over or dressing?

Do you have difficulty communicating (for example, understanding or being understood by others)? Question response categories: No, Some, A lot, and Unable. Extended versions exist, but reasons of cost may prevent their widespread use in surveys that must address multiple issues. The areas of old age, mental health and above all disability, are ones in which being uncounted represents very clearly a further marginalization. Progress will require new approaches that condemn such exclusion to the past, and generate the trials williams data even to assess whether these groups are included in any individual SDG achievements. Survey data are of course not the only options.

Outlining elements of a solution to the systematic omissions he identifies, Carr-Hill (2013) highlights the importance of accurate census data, both as a central element of national statistics in era definition their own right and as the salem witch abigail williams basis to assess and possibly to reweight survey findings. By 2030, provide legal identity for 1700s, all, including birth registration. Dunning et al. (2014) note three reasons: that recognized identity supports the establishment of (at least notional) rights vis-a-vis a state; that it facilitates (practical) access to state services; and third, to support better data. Thus, as with broader aspects of counting, it is both means and end to development progress. Once again, the uncounted are not an salem witch trials arbitrary group: it is no accident that those lacking birth registration and legal identity are typically the most vulnerable people in the poorest countries ( Dunning et al., 2014 : 3). This includes an estimated 750 million children under 16, of whom around 230 million are under 5. A further 70 million registered children are estimated to have no birth certificate. By 2030, all countries at least halve the percentage of analysis unregistered births for children younger than five and reduce the average age of birth registration. By 2030, ensure that all individuals have well-defined and recognized legal identity by the time they become adult (1518) A further set of concerns relate to the linkages between legal identity and witch abigail, citizenship ( Bloom, 2015 ). These include the general risk that attention to legal identity exacerbates the And The Jonestown Massacre problems faced by those who are stateless (e.g., that they may receive an identity that confers illegal status, in effect; or that the salem SDGs emphasis on accountability to citizens may exclude them more comprehensively even than presently).

The need to ensure rights regardless of if poem analysis legal identity or citizenship is not made generally explicit (although migrants are explicitly included in some targets). Overall, as far as the trials abigail williams uncounted at era definition, the bottom are concerned, there is reason to be cautiously optimistic about the SDGs. The driving force of the social exclusion approach has resulted in a clear focused on group inequalities, and so the salem trials proposed data revolution may go a long way to improving identity-based development statistics. The underpinning political drivers cannot be ignored, however, and nor should they be expected simply to dissolve in the face of UN consensus. 1700s? There is no coincidence in the fact that so many of the groups about witch trials abigail williams whom data is now sought, but currently unavailable, have been unable to exert the to Support Darwin’s Theory example effective political demand to be counted. This may reflect a widespread lack of understanding or concern, for example, as is likely to be the case worldwide for abigail, persons living with disabilities. It may reflect embedded political dynamics, for example, such as that facing indigenous populations in which not gain from countries from Australia to salem trials abigail Canada that result in what the UN Special Rapporteur refers to Race, and Gender as nearly universal disadvantageous social and economic conditions ( OHCHR, 2014 ); or something more targeted such as the apparently deliberate marginalization of multiple regions and ethnolinguistic groups in salem witch abigail Sudan ( Cobham, 2005 ). 1.

In the if poem analysis last section, I consider some possibilities to support greater progress, reflecting the salem abigail williams political nature of the obstacles. Before doing that, it is essential to explore the role of the SDGs in respect of uncounted phenomenon related to the top of the distribution. Uncounted at which not gain a soliloquy?, the top: hidden inequalities and tax justice. At the other end of the distribution are phenomena that go uncounted because of an excess of power: tax abuses of individuals and companies; the financial secrecy provided by jurisdictions including some of the richest that undermine tax and the rule of law in witch trials abigail williams others including the Evidence Darwin’s example poorest; and the hidden criminality of private and public sector corruption. In addition, more prosaic forms of trials williams going uncounted also contribute to Jim Jones And The Massacre obscure actual inequality. The SDG approach to salem witch trials abigail illicit financial flows (IFFs) is considered below, but the immediate concern relates to the treatment of vertical inequalities. The most relevant goals and targets are as follows. Goal 10: Reduce inequality within and 1700s, among countries. 10.1. Salem Abigail Williams? By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the reconstruction era definition population at witch trials abigail williams, a rate higher than the national average.

10.2. To Support Theory Essay? By 2030, empower and promote the salem trials abigail social, economic and political inclusion of if poem all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status. 10.4. Witch Trials? Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality. Fully capturing the distribution at the top is necessary to enlightenment assess the salem trials williams extent to which growth is inclusive, and to ensure that fiscal policies progressively achieve greater equality. Cobham et al. (2015a) lay out three main ways in which income inequality in particular is hidden. First, higher-income households are undersampled in surveys (commonly because of refusal to participate). Increasingly, a remedy can be found through administrative tax data as now brought together for Essay, a growing number of countries in the World Top Incomes Database by Alvaredo et al. (2015) . Using such tax data appears to add in the order of 36 percentage points to the resulting Gini coefficient, for national (e.g., for the United States, Korinek et al., 2005 ) or global data ( Anand and Segal, 2014 ).

Second, tax data is itself likely to be systematically biased downwards, because of the under-reporting of incomes associated with tax evasion. Zucman (2013) estimates that undeclared assets held offshore may amount to as much as 10 percent of witch trials abigail global GDP. Forthcoming analysis ( Cobham et al., 2015b ) using IFF (rather than stock) estimates suggests that the resulting adjustment to national Gini coefficients for undeclared incomes may be of the same order as that found by allowing for declared incomes via administrative tax data. The third way in enlightenment which the true extent of income inequality can be hidden relates to the choice of measure. The relative insensitivity of the Gini coefficient to the tails of the distribution has long been recognized ( Atkinson, 1973 ). Cobham and Sumner (2013a , 2013b ) demonstrate that the Gini is also relatively insensitive at higher levels of inequality.

In addition, these papers provide evidence that such is the witch trials abigail relative stability (across countries and over time) of the income share of deciles 59 that despite its oversensitivity here that a regression of the Gini on the bottom 40 percent and top 10 percent income shares alone produces near-perfect fit. Class And Gender Essay? That same stability supports Palmas (2006 , 2011 ) findings, and the proposal of Cobham and Sumner (2013a , 2013b ) for an alternative inequality measure, the Palma ratio: the ratio of national income shares of the top 10 percent to the bottom 40 percent, since this is where most income inequality actually occurs. Per Atkinson (1973) , no single measure of inequality is without subjective implications; the best we can do is to be aware of that which we use. Although the same two income shares drive the Gini coefficient in witch abigail williams practice also, it occurs in a somewhat obscure and opaque way. In the Palma ratio, by contrast, it is direct and Jim Jones Jonestown Massacre, transparent. The subtitle of Palmas (2011) paper is The share of the rich is what its all about. What is disappointing about the income inequality measure in the SDGs is that it obscures the share of the rich almost completely.

As discussed above, the centrality of social exclusion as the development approach behind the SDG framework results in great emphasis on salem williams, group inequalities, and in particular on marginalized groups. Those relatively favoured groups do not necessarily come into such stark contrast, in particular if the progress of Evidence to Support Theory Essay example marginalized groups is witch compared with national averages rather than that of the most advantaged groups. This logic reaches a nadir in the income inequality target. The relationship between the bottom 40 percent, deciles 59 and the top 10 percent shares of national income is 1700s such that, in general, the target of higher income growth for the bottom 40 percent than for the mean is likely to be associated with reductions in the Palma or Gini but it is unclear why such a circular and complex route is preferred to, for example, the Doyle and Stiglitz (2014) proposal of salem abigail targeting a Palma ratio of 1, in each country, by 2030. The uncounted nature of reconstruction era definition some part of top-end incomes introduces no less important a bias in the SDG target than it would in a Palma target, only that it is somewhat hidden. There has been some criticism that the salem abigail focus on And The Jonestown Essay, the growth rate of witch trials abigail williams the per capita income of the poorest 40 percent ignores inequality. This criticism is misplaced. Since each nation already tracks the growth rate of the per capita income of its entire population and Jim Jones And The Jonestown Massacre, these data are widely available, as soon as we see the growth rate of the bottom 40 percent next to salem witch trials abigail williams this figure, it will be immediately obvious as to whether the poorest 40 percent is falling off from the rest or catching up. The fact that this is not combined into a single ratio means little, since the ratio is all too obvious. Moreover, there is some literature showing that what the poorest 40 percent loses goes largely to the top 10 percent of the population. ( Palma, 2011 ; Green, 2012 ) It was perhaps inevitable that the World Banks measure would not be taken directly into the SDGs, when its defenders begin by recognizing that only as a ratio can it speak to inequality. It seems at best unfortunate, however, to set a target that would loosely equate to to Support Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Essay example a reduction in inequality, with no attention paid to the starting point.

Given the universal nature of the SDGs, does it make sense for a country where the bottom 40 percent earn more than the top 10 percent (i.e., Palma1) face the same target as a country where the top 10 percent earn perhaps five or six times as much? Ultimately, the compromise between shared prosperity and a Palma target is an unsatisfactory one. The SDG position reflects clear progress from the absolute income focus of the MDGs, of course, but there is a sense of having ducked an important possibility. Returning to IFFs, a somewhat similar conclusion may be reached. In theory, MDG 8 (Develop a global partnership for development), and target 8A in particular, may be relevant: Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system. In practice, MDG 8 has been excoriated as badly designed, little measured and largely unaccountable; and 8A stands out even here. Not only is the target not SMART (arguably, it meets none of the criteria at all: certainly it is witch neither specific nor measurable); there is also no single indicator in the framework that relates. Overall, the if poem MDGs focused strongly on abigail williams, aid and had no space for enlightenment 1700s, domestic taxation; and included no references beyond the vague wording of 8A to the transparent or fair operation of witch abigail williams international finance and trade. 17.1.

Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries, to improve domestic capacity for tax and understanding do audiences not gain from a soliloquy?, other revenue collection. Note the trials somewhat ambiguous recognition of the international nature of the problem. Era Definition? Some (non-aid donor) countries had apparently pushed for clarity over salem trials abigail williams international responsibility, for Evidence to Support Darwin’s Theory, example, in respect of full inclusion of developing countries in salem abigail the exchange of tax information; some (donor) countries rejected this, allowing instead the language on support that could be interpreted as technical assistance in-country alone. This year has seen studies from both UNCTAD (2015 , for the World Investment Report) and the Fiscal Affairs Department of the International Monetary Fund ( Crivelli et al., 2015 ) highlighting the scale of revenue losses associated with profit-shifting by multinational groups. The former suggests that investment structures (including intra-group lending) through conduit jurisdictions results in a loss for developing countries of around $100 billion annually. The latter suggests that overall profit-shifting might have twice that impact, as well as causing around $500 billion of annual revenue losses for OECD countries. The fact that such estimates (based variously on statistics on tax revenues, FDI income and corporate tax rates) are currently the best guide for which do audiences not gain from, policy reflects a further aspect of uncounted. Current corporate reporting rules do not provide for country-by-country information on salem witch williams, the economic activities and tax paid by multinational groups; and without this, neither the multinationals nor national tax authorities can be effectively held accountable for their approaches. The first analysis and which not gain a soliloquy?, advocacy priority of the salem trials then nascent Tax Justice Network in 2003 was for public country-by-country reporting ( Murphy, 2003 ). Ten years later, with increasing pressure from media revelations about corporate tax abuse such as LuxLeaks, the understanding do audiences a soliloquy? G8 and G20 groups of countries called for the OECD to develop just such a standard, which it has now done ( OECD, 2014 ). At present, however, the information generated (potentially by every multinational group) will only be supplied to individual tax authorities so while some abuses may become visible and be addressed, there will be no greater public accountability of either multinationals or tax authorities. A related area for international support of domestic tax capacity, again data-dependent, is the exchange of tax information between jurisdictions.

This was the second of the Tax Justice Networks original priorities, and williams, again was adopted by the G8 and G20 some ten years later, and the OECD mandated to deliver. Race, Class? The automatic provision of information is seen as a powerful mechanism to minimize the hiding of witch trials williams taxable wealth and incomes in other jurisdictions including tax havens. Despite assurances to the contrary, however, it seems likely that the main beneficiaries will be OECD member states, while many developing countries may remain excluded from full participation. Enlightenment 1700s? In addition, there are currently no plans in place to witch ensure consistent partially aggregated is published on the scale of bilateral holdings so once again, the scope for accountability of tax authorities, or indeed of jurisdictions for their contribution to international financial transparency, or opacity. The lack of indicators in the SDGs, or indeed in the Financing for Development document, suggests again a missed opportunity to support domestic tax capacity this time by improving the counting of elites offshore incomes. As noted, the if poem analysis underlying assets are likely to represent a material share of world GDP, and to have significant implications for salem abigail, recorded inequality. 16.4. By 2030, significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows, strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets, and combat all forms of organized crime. We will redouble efforts to do audiences from a soliloquy? substantially reduce illicit financial flows by 2030, with a view to eventually eliminating them, including by combating tax evasion and corruption through strengthened national regulation and increased international cooperation. ( UN, 2015 : 8) The dictionary definition of illicit is salem trials williams forbidden by law, rules or custom; that is, it goes beyond narrow illegality. The consistent feature of IFFs those that are certainly illegal, such as cross-border money-laundering and tax evasion, and that those may be legal but are socially unacceptable such as the most egregious tax avoidance (or unproven evasion) of some multinational companies is the use of financial secrecy to prevent public visibility.

A typology of 1700s IFFs and trials williams, immediate impacts. Impact on state funds. Impact on state effectiveness. Exploit subsidy regime. (Re)patriate undeclared capital. Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Shift criminal proceeds out. Evade capital controls (including on profit repatriation) (Re)patriate undeclared capital.

Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Shift criminal proceeds out. Evade capital controls (including on profit repatriation) Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Shift criminal proceeds out.

Evade capital controls (including on profit repatriation) (Re)patriate undeclared capital. Hide market dominance. Hide political involvement. Evade capital controls (including on profit repatriation) Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Shift criminal proceeds out. Hide political involvement.

(If no expectation of repayment, or if under-priced) Public asset theft (illegitimate allocation of state funds) (If state illegitimate, or if over-priced) Public asset theft (illegitimate creation of state liabilities) Related party lending. Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Related party borrowing. Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Public asset sales. Public asset theft. Hide market dominance. Hide political involvement.

Public asset theft. Hide market dominance. Hide political involvement. Offshore ownership transfer. Note : IFF type defined as: 1 market/regulatory abuse, 2 tax abuse, 3 abuse of understanding do audiences power, including theft of state funds, 4 proceeds of crime. As the table illustrates, each form can occur via multiple channels (from, e.g., mispricing of williams trade to the use of anonymous shell companies); and each channel can be used for more than one form of illicit flow. As a result, precise estimates are difficult. The leading estimates of total IFFs come from Global Financial Integrity ( Kar and to Support Darwin’s Theory of Evolution example, Spanjers, 2014 ), and combine a hot money component reflecting capital account anomalies with a misinvoicing component reflecting trade anomalies. While there are criticisms of each, and alternatives in specific areas where more detailed trade data, for example, has been available ( Pak and Zdanowicz, 2000 ), Global Financial Integrity has long set the abigail challenge to international institutions to do better. As yet, none have attempted it. One major benefit of the SDG target then vague and currently unmeasured as it is is that it may finally prompt action, perhaps from the World Bank or the International Monetary Fund (IMF) or ideally a broader collaboration including NGO expertise, to establish a methodology around which consensus can be formed.

Ideally, such an approach would come closer to the breadth of IFF in 1700s Table 3 , and the work cited by UNCTAD and IMF researchers on multinational tax losses could well form a part. In any event, if there is to be accountability for progress, a necessary first step is to count IFF more effectively. Conclusions and salem williams, policy recommendations. This article has considered the new SDGs framework in reconstruction era definition the context of the evolution in development thought since 2000. The greater emphasis on social exclusion and witch, participatory approaches to poverty has been seen to underpin the frameworks attention to power and to inequalities, which represent important shifts from the focus on Class and Gender, absolute income poverty and basic capabilities that characterized the MDGs. If this shift is to gain traction in policy terms, and to drive meaningful rebalancing of political power as is implied, then the salem witch trials williams much-heralded data revolution will truly be required. While there are many technical and financial challenges to Jim Jones And The Massacre achieve this, such a revolution is fundamentally political and so too are the obstacles. The thesis of uncounted put forward here asserts that marginalized groups are often further excluded by their absence from statistics used for policy or in public debate, while elites may be further empowered by their lack of visibility. In both cases, technical fixes alone will not address the political reasons for the inequalities but genuine progress on counting can be a powerful step towards addressing the witch trials wider inequalities.

Two proposals are put forward, with the common aim of strengthening the political accountability of the counting that the 1700s framework requires. The first relates primarily to the uncounted at the bottom, the salem witch trials second to the uncounted at the top. Who will count those who themselves are counting? A major risk is that states and/or elites will either actively suppress the collation or publication of data on uncomfortable inequalities (note 1), or more through inertia simply fail to prioritize sufficiently the counting of those who are in fact most marginalized (consider, e.g., the failures globally in which do audiences from relation to trials williams persons with learning disabilities, and indigenous populations; or the effective absence of elites from Race, Class much income distribution data). At a minimum, reporting structures should be put in place so that the presence or absence of reporting, in relation to each inequality type relevant to each target, is itself reported . This would facilitate the comparison and ranking of the extent of uncounted phenomena, by witch trials abigail issue; by inequality type and/or group; and by country and enlightenment 1700s, region. Is health better counted than income poverty?

Is counting with respect to disabilities catching up or falling further behind? Which countries are leading, and which trailing, and why? Are there financial issues holding back overall progress, or more political aspects leaving individual groups or thematic areas uncounted? Sometimes, such analysis is likely to reveal legitimate prioritizations; in other cases, making the effective choices visible will ensure greater accountability, and a more participatory approach to future decisions. Equivalent accountability should be put in place for national statistical offices (NSOs) also, to track the extent to which they deliver their share of the necessary data.

Here the importance is as much to support the independence of witch abigail NSOs from domestic political pressure, as to hold them accountable themselves. To this end, the global framework might usefully be augmented by Jim Jones Jonestown Massacre the addition of salem annual indicators for each country of the de facto and de jure independence of NSOs, as are often constructed for central bank independence, for example. Even with the Evidence Theory Essay convoluted income inequality target 10.1, it remains the case that if those at the top are uncounted then it is impossible to witch abigail know if those at the bottom are being left behind or otherwise. While there may be more political discomfort to a focus on Evidence to Support Darwin’s Theory, top incomes, or other development outcomes and perhaps exactly because of that discomfort it is important that these groups do not remain uncounted, if the SDGs are to deliver their promise. A specific aspect of uncounted at the top relates to the inclusion or otherwise of data on offshore assets and witch trials, incomes to lower-income countries, and era definition, the publication or otherwise of salem abigail williams partial aggregates for accountability of both taxpayers and tax authorities, along with the country-by-country reporting of multinationals for exactly the same reasons. Much like the 1700s non-aid commitments of witch abigail donor countries in to Support Theory Essay example MDG 8, the trials williams G8 has yet to deliver on its promises of 2013 to ensure full inclusion of developing countries in tax information exchange.

The SDGs and Financing for Development outcome document have, in the end, delivered somewhat less of a shift in power than might have been hoped. Evidence To Support Essay? Neither, for example, has required the publication of country-by-country reporting data; and the latter narrowly failed to deliver an intergovernmental tax body with the witch trials abigail power to strengthen cooperation. For each country and jurisdiction, on what proportion of foreign-owned assets and to the states of what proportion of the worlds population, are they providing tax information bilaterally to others? For each country and jurisdiction, from which countries and reconstruction era definition, jurisdictions are they receiving tax information bilaterally? For each country and jurisdiction receiving information, what proportion and volume of trials abigail williams revealed assets were already declared by the taxpayer, and what resolution has reached each year in respect of the remainder? For each country and jurisdiction, for multinationals making up what proportion of the era definition declared multinational tax base is country-by-country reporting publicly available? For each country and jurisdiction, are they contributing to salem witch trials the World Top Incomes Database or elsewhere publishing equivalent data and/or adjusted income distribution data? There are of course a range of other areas in which SDG-related efforts to tackle the problems of the uncounted would be valuable. For potential adoption from the Evidence to Support Darwin’s of Evolution example outset, however, these two proposals could be quickly implemented and offer immediate support to existing stated intentions. The SDGs offer the promise of the greatest, global challenge to systematic power inequalities.

A true data revolution would overcome the deep-rooted political underpinnings to the intertwined problem of the uncounted. The paper shows the pattern by combining regionally disaggregated data on health and education outcomes, with equivalently disaggregated fiscal data published by the IMF in salem trials abigail williams the early 2000s. Evidence To Support Darwin’s Of Evolution Essay Example? When the IMF published a report nearly ten years later using updated data ( Abdoun et al., 2012 ), and I requested it, they delayed repeatedly apparently because the Sudanese government was doing the same in trials response to the IMFs request for permission. Ultimately, the if poem data was not made available to me or, presumably, to any Sudanese or other citizen with an witch abigail interesting in exploring these questions. The author is grateful for comments from participants and discussants at if poem, seminars and conferences at Birmingham, Columbia, Heriot-Watt, NYU Law School and at the Pan-African Conference on Inequalities in the Context of Structural Transformation in Accra. There are no affiliations available.

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The Evolution of La Virgen de Guadalupe in Chicano Art. A beautiful dark-skinned brunette stands before you. Her long, flowing hair beautifully frames her sweet face and demure smile. Yards of richly colored clothing adorn her tall, slender frame. Rays of sunlight appear from behind, emphasizing pure beauty. Her hands are joined together and she holds them at her chest in worship or, perhaps, in salem witch trials gratitude.

Who is which do audiences not gain she, or rather, who do you see? Practicing Catholics all over Central and South America see a venerated patron saint. In Mexico, she is immediately recognizable as symbolic mother of a nation, nuestra madre. New generations of mestizos see a symbol of all that is woman, as real and complex as their mothers, sisters, daughters, and lovers. Who you see depends on who you are, but all identify her as the Virgin of Guadalupe, perhaps the most recognizable icon to emerge out of post-conquest Americas. La Virgen of Guadalupe has evolved throughout history as a cross-cultural and multi-generational icon of virginity, femininity, purity, and maternal love. Her presence can be seen everywhere, on clothing, jewelry, car windows, and even on abigail williams, coffins. We will write a custom essay sample. on The Evolution of La Virgen de Guadalupe in Chicano Art or any similar.

topic specifically for you. This essay charts the evolution of La Virgen de Guadalupe in Chicano art, from religious icon to feminist mascot; I examine the forms in which contemporary Mexican-American artists have adopted this image, in the tradition of the Chicano art movement, to galvanize communities toward a common social or political cause, and, as Chicana artists will co-opt her image as a vehicle to assert gender issues within the larger agenda, I will argue that the opposition to such efforts reveals a double-standard of allegiance in stark contrast to if poem the goals of the Chicano movement. To understand how La Virgen has evolved outside of witch, her intended religious context, her genesis must first be examined. Era Definition? Origin stories vary but, according to salem abigail williams tradition, on do audiences not gain a soliloquy?, Dec 9, 1531, Juan Diego first saw La Virgen on top of Tepeyac, a hill northwest of salem trials williams, Mexico City. She instructed him to have the Bishop build a church on the site. Little Juan Diego immediately found the Jonestown Massacre Essay Bishop and trials abigail williams, relayed the message, but was dismissed asa storyteller. Three days later, on Juan Diegos walk to church, la Virgen again reappeared.

Page 2 The Evolution of La Virgen de Guadalupe in Chicano Art Essay. This time, she told Juan Diego to enlightenment go the hilltop and pick roses, pack them in his tilma, and take them to the bishop to prove he saw her and to convince the bishopto build a church there. Witch Trials Abigail? When he presented them to the bishop as instructed, he dropped his cloak with the roses. What appeared in their place was the brightly painted image of the Lady. Reconstruction? Once news spread of salem trials abigail williams, Juan Diegos sightings of the Mother of God speaking to if poem analysis him in salem witch trials his native tongue, thousands traveled to Mexico City to see the legendary cape of the brown Virgin Mary. Some say the Virgin of Class Essay, Guadalupe represents early efforts at syncretism by the Catholic church in an era when indigenous religious practices were discouraged. Witch Trials Abigail Williams? Jeanette Rodriguez explores this theory in Our Lady of Guadalupe, beginning with an in depth analysis of the Aztec empire and which from a soliloquy?, its eventual conquest by the Spanish. Rodriguez argues that, through conquest and abigail, colonialism, Christian deities overpowered indigenous gods in terms of propagandistic exposure and eventually a dichotomy of virtues emerges. The monotheistic male god came to if poem analysis represent power, assertiveness, rationality and independence, attributes once associated with Aztec gods. Salem Witch Trials? Opposing characteristics like purity, virginity, fertility and maternal love were then attributed to female deity figures, like the which Euro-Catholic Virgin Mary and Aztec goddess, Tonantzin.

Concurrently, contends Rodriguez, the salem witch trials folkloric story of Juan Diego and La Virgen on Tepayac Hill emerges and the legend of Guadalupe is born. Eventually, this image evolves into era definition the dominant national icon, symbolizing the new mestiza, who was born from witch trials abigail, both Spanish and indigenous blood. Jody Brant Smith agrees, in The Image of Guadalupe, that she appeared miraculously on the cactus cloth tilma, or cape, of Juan Diego, an Evidence to Support Aztec peasant, in 1531, a mere dozen years after Hernan Cortes conquered Mexico for the King of Spain. This cape proved valuable to salem trials williams the Church and its goals of conversion. In just seven years, from 1532 to 1538, eight million Indians were converted to Christianity. Whether one believes the Virgin de Guadalupe appeared to Juan Diego on the hill or believe that Guadalupe was created to convert the Indians to the Catholic Church, the legend of Guadalupe as we know her today begins at this time. Evidence Darwin’s Of Evolution Essay? As a placebo for a changing guard, La Virgen de Guadalupe proved highly successful. The iconic image of La Virgen de Guadalupe remains static in both form and symbolism until the mid twentieth century, when a new movement among Mexican-Americans emerges in California, dubbed the Chicano movement. As visual propaganda becomes a large part of the salem abigail movement, a significant body of art with common themes and styles, known as Chicano art, follows. 1700s? This shift in witch abigail williams subject matter among Mexican-American artists toward a specific social and political agenda began earlier, as evidenced by the work of Rivera, Orozco, and Posada, but, it isnt until the mid 1960s that national or religious iconographic images are recycled to support a larger political or social agenda. Scholars cite the famous 1966 United Farm Workers protest, in defense of migrant farm workers rights, as the beginning of what is now known as the Evidence to Support Darwin’s Theory Chicano Art movement. Organizers for the protest communicated through graphic art forms, like newsletters, posters, and cartoons.

Symbolism and iconography that drew upon cultural resources, like La Virgen de Guadalupe and an Aztec inspired thunderbird, connected visual communication to these agendas. Reclamation of traditional cultural and religious iconography for political purposes becomes a recurring theme among Mexican-American artists and the defining criteria for witch trials williams the classification of art as Chicano. While Chicano art differs from Mexican art in do audiences not gain from a soliloquy? that Mexican and other Latin art is rooted in pre-Columbian traditions and folklore, Chicano art also acknowledges American education and experience as part of salem abigail williams, what shapes an artist and his message. On the heels of the Chicano movement, the Civil Rights movement, and public outrage over Americas participation in the Vietnam War, womens issues also battle for attention on a national level. Race, And Gender? Feminism as a movement gains significant momentum in the 1960s; within a decade, Chicana feminists begin to use Guadalupe in their artwork. As Rosie the Riveter forged a path for Anglo feminists, Guadalupe remains the most powerful vehicle for trials the Chicana agenda. Understanding From A Soliloquy?? Up until this point, the witch trials Virgin was most often appropriated for purely inspirational purposes, and artists interpretation of her image and intent remain congruous to her religious authority.

Now, in light of new feminist theory, says Felipe Ehrenberg in Framing an Icon: Guadalupe and the Artists Vision, Latina artists seek to Essay reconstruct the deitys presence, and in doing so, manage to define her usefulness to their causes. Ester Hernandez, a Chicana artist working early in the movements history, is salem witch trials abigail one of the first to era definition utilize the witch abigail williams visual power of La Virgen for feminist purposes. Hernandezs work, which has exhibited internationally, focuses on the dignity, strength, experiences, and dreams of Latina women. If Poem Analysis? The etching, La Virgen de Guadalupe Defendiendo los Derechos de los Xicanos, (etching; 1974), does not explore issues of sexuality, but rather Hernandez takes the opportunity to make a social statement. The image portrays a woman in abigail karate clothes, stepping out of the And The classic ring of sunrays, with one leg in the air in a classic Karate pose. Reinterpreted by Hernandez, La Virgen is now a symbol of emerging feminist ideas, and will set the path for trials similar explorations by other Chicana artists. Born in 1942, Yolanda Lopez is another Chicana artist who uses Guadalupe as a springboard to discuss a feminist agenda. Lopez portrays herself in the image of la virgen in era definition Portrait of the Artist as the Virgin of Guadalupe (oil pastel on witch abigail, paper, 1978, 32x24).

No longer a passive icon, Lopez utilizes Guadalupe to represent slowly shifting views about gender issues and sexuality in Chicano culture. Lopez situates herself in the position of the Race, Essay virgin, assuming the role. However, Lopez instead depicts herself athletic and strong, even assertive. She wears jogging shoes and witch trials abigail, a grin as she appears to sprint toward the viewer. Juan Diego, the putti-like boy that generally supports the virgin in traditional versions, instead lay underfoot. Still, characteristics that identify this portrayal as an interpretation of Guadalupe are unmistakable: the palette remains faithful to original portrayals, the iconic rays surround her, and the navy tilma billows behind Lopez as she moves. For early Chicana feminist artists, utilizing the if poem iconic image of La Virgen de Guadalupe is critical to their agenda; in the tradition of the witch trials abigail Chicano art movement, Guadalupe recalls nationalistic affiliations while including gender issues as part of the debate. However, secondary to political concerns of the if poem analysis Chicano movement as a whole, Chicana artists whose work serves to insert gender issues into the rubric of the Chicano movement are criticized within the community. Salem? Says Gaspar de Alba, [a]ny divergence from that role, be it through a political engagement with the ideology of And The Essay, womens liberation, as in the case of Chicana feminists [] mmediately casts Chicanas who subscribe to either or both of these choices in a suspect light. Further challenging the virgin ideal, new generations of salem witch trials abigail williams, women are reinterpreting her image from a feminist viewpoint to explore sexuality as it pertains to gender.

Perhaps the most controversial example of such discourse involves the enlightenment work of salem witch abigail, Mexican-American artist, Alma Lopez. Lopez, a contemporary Chicana artist, explores her relationship with La Virgen de Guadalupe through mixed media piece titled Our Lady (digital print on canvas; 1999). She planned to Evidence Essay example show it at the Fullerton Museum Center as part of salem witch abigail williams, a larger exhibit, The Virgin of Guadalupe: Interpreting Devotion. The work depicts her partner, Raquel Salinas, posed and framed in the likeness of la Virgen de Guadalupe. Lopez choices, using her lover as subject and depicting her clothed only in bunches of roses worn like a bikini, reflect the difficulties experienced by Lopez and other lesbian women in a deeply Catholic culture. Which Do Audiences A Soliloquy?? Lopez explores personal contradictions between her religious piety and her own sexuality as a lesbian woman of Mexican-American descent. She saw the image of Guadalupe as one that belonged to her, to interpret as she saw fit. Salem? I am relating her to the women in my life, my mom, my grandma, my aunt.

They had to be strong to survive, like Christs mother. The piece caused a controversy among Mexican-American citizens in the community, and many citizens worked tirelessly to block the which do audiences not gain work from public view. Gustavo Arellano covers this story for OC Weekly in an article titled, Nuestra Senora de Censorship: Who Says the Virgin Cant be Sexy? which discusses the controversy surrounding the exhibit. Witch? Arellano cites a letter written by Ernesto Cienfuegos, editor of La Voz de Aztlan, a website devoted to contemporary Chicano/a issues. In the letter, Cienfuegos expresses his outrage (and homophobic sexism) with Lopez and her work. Evidence To Support Darwin’s Theory Essay? Firstly, the personrepresenting the Mother of Jesus is nothing less than Raquel Salinas, the witch trials lesbian lover of the so called artist Alma Lopez. Raquel Salinas calls herself La Chuparosa which Alma Lopez often depicts on her abominable images. He goes on to assert that such artwork is being promoted by many USA based pornographers and dismisses the museums directors decision to feature the piece as merely ignorant of the facts and not involved in an anti-Mexican effort to destroy our most revered spiritual beliefs and cultural values. Era Definition? Lopez defends her position, citing her unique perspective as a Chicana artist, and says of the salem abigail backlash, I admit, I was surprised by the violent reaction to analysis Our Lady because I am a community artist born in Mexico and raised in California with the Virgin as a constant in my home and trials williams, my community. I am know that there is And The Jonestown nothing wrong with this image which was inspired by the experiences of many Chicanas and their complex relationship to La Virgen de Guadalupe.

I am not the first Chicana to reinterpret the image with a feminist perspective, and witch trials williams, Im positive I wont be the last. Cienfuegos letter touches upon a larger, more serious concern for Chicana artists, such as Lopez, who utilize Guadalupe in reconstruction their art. Such evident venom and blanket disapproval is consistent with aggression received by many homosexual activists, including that of the Mexican-American woman, for whom both gender, religion, and salem witch williams, race are inextricably linked. Gaspar de Alba offers insight into why Chicana artists like Lopez have met with so much opposition, even within her own community. Viewed as wannabe white women, Chicana feminists are still accused in some inner circles of And The Massacre Essay, betraying the Chicano revolution and witch williams, subscribing to a divisive politics that breaks up the familia -both symbolically, by criticizing the brothers and jefes of the movement and calling them on their sexism and heterosexism, and literally, by not using their sexuality in the service of breeding new revolutionaries for La Causa[. Sandra Cisneros essay, Guadalupe as a Sex Goddess, offers an alternative contemporary perspective on the implied symbolism of the Class Essay Virgin of Guadalupe through her personal experiences growing up in a Mexican-American household. Within this framework, she reconciles her cultural roots with her emerging sexual curiosity. She writes that she looked for signs of witch abigail williams, Guadalupe as a whole woman. She wanted to enlightenment look underneath her dress to see if she was a real woman. Cisneros discussion about the double chastity belt of ignorance and erguenza also touches on the double standard that exists in Mexican-American culture as it relates to La Virgen. Did boys have to aspire to be Jesus? I never saw any evidence of it. These types of double standards perpetuate la Virgen as the symbol for a virgin/whore dichotomy deeply rooted in Mexican-American culture.

As Emma Perez writes in Sexuality and salem trials abigail williams, Discourse, Consciousness is born out of ones intimate awareness of ones oppression.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. If you're reading this article, I assume you're an IB Student, who is witch trials abigail williams, getting ready to write their Extended Essay. If you're looking at this as a potential future IB student, I recommend reading our other introductory IB articles first: What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? and What is the IB Curriculum? What are IB Diploma Requirements?. IB students around the globe fear writing the Extended Essay. In this articles, I'll try to get you excited about writing your Extended Essay and Evidence Darwin’s of Evolution Essay example provide you with the resources to get an A. I'm a recipient of an IB Diploma, and I happened to receive an A on salem trials abigail, my IB Extended Essay. If you dont believe me, the if poem proof is in the IBO pudding, If you're confused by what this report means, EE is short for witch abigail Extended Essay, and which not gain from a soliloquy? English A1 is the subject that my Extended Essay topic coordinated with.

In laymans terms, my IB Diploma was graded during May 2010, I wrote my Extended Essay in the English A1 category, and I received a grade A. The IB Extended Essay (or EE) is a 4,000 word structured mini-thesis that you write under the supervision of an abigail, advisor (an IB teacher at your school), which counts towards your IB Diploma (to learn about all of the IB diploma requirements, check out our other article). I'll explain exactly how the EE affects your diploma later in Race, Class Essay, this article. For the abigail williams Extended Essay, you choose a research question as a topic; this topic needs to be approved by IBO (which is not very difficult). You can do a typical research paper such as in this paper, or you conduct an experiment/solve a problem such as in enlightenment 1700s, this paper. Most schools allow you to pick your advisor (an IB teacher preferably at your school, although you can also get access to one at salem witch trials abigail williams, another school through the Pamoja Education). I'll explain how to pick your IB EE advisor below. And The Jonestown Massacre! The IB Extended Essay must include a cover page, an abstract (one-page synopsis of witch your essay), a table of contents, the 4,000-word essay (which will range from 10-20 pages depending on whether your topic requires illustrations such as an reconstruction, experiment would), and a bibliography. Your completed Extended Essay is then sent to the IBO to be graded (I will go into more detail on salem trials williams, grading below).

What Should You Write About in Your Extended Essay? You can technically write about anything, so long as the IBO approves it. Enlightenment 1700s! However, you should choose a topic that falls into one of the IB Course Categories, (such as Theatre, Film, Spanish, French, Math, Biology, etc.) which shouldnt be difficult because there are so many class subjects. Here is a range of sample topics with the attached extended essay: You can see from how varied the topics are that you have a lot of freedom when it comes to picking a topic. So, how do you pick when the options are limitless? I will help you with that next: 6 Tips for Writing a Grade A Extended Essay.

Tip #1: Write About Something You Enjoy Because You'll Be Spending a Lot of Time on It. I love British theatre and ended up writing mine about a revolution in post-WWII British theatre #theatrenerd. I really encourage anyone who pursues an IB Diploma to take the Extended Essay seriously. I ended up receiving a full-tuition merit scholarship to salem witch abigail, USCs School of Dramatic Arts program and in my interview for the scholarship, I spoke passionately about my Extended Essay. I genuinely think my Extended Essay helped me get my scholarship. How do you find a topic you are passionate about? Start by figuring out which classes you enjoy the most and why you enjoy them. Do you like Math because you like to problem solve? Or do you enjoy English because you like to analyze texts?

Once you have figured out to Support Darwin’s of Evolution Essay, a general subject area such as Physics, you should brainstorm more specific topics by putting pen to paper. What was your favorite chapter you learned in that class? Was it astrophysics or mechanics? What did you like about that specific chapter? Is there something you want to learn more about?

I recommend spending an hour on this type of brainstorming. After doing this preliminary brainstorming make sure to choose: Tip #2: Chose a Topic That Is Not Too Broad, But Not Too Narrow. Witch Abigail! This is a fine line. You need to write about something specific, but not so specific that you cant write 4,000 words on which understanding a soliloquy?, it . You cant write about WWII because that would be a book worth of witch abigail material. You dont want to write about which do audiences not gain a soliloquy?, what type of soup prisoners of war received in POW camps because you probably cant come up with 4000 words on it. However, you could possibly write about how the witch trials abigail williams conditions in Class and Gender, German POW camps were directly affected by the Nazis successes and failures. This may be too obvious of a topic, but you get my point. If you're really stuck trying to find a not too broad or narrow topic, I recommend trying to witch trials abigail, brainstorm a topic that uses a comparison.

If you refer back to the topics I mentioned above, you may notice that two use comparisons. I also used comparison in Race, Class Essay, my EE, comparing Harold Pinter's Party Time to John Osborne's Look Back in Anger in order to salem trials, show a transition in Theory example, British Theatre. Topics with comparisons of 2-3 plays/books/diets/etc. tend to be in witch trials abigail williams, the sweet spot of not too narrow or broad because you can analyze each portion and after doing in-depth analysis on each, you compare and explain the significance of the reconstruction era definition comparison. The key here is that the comparison needs to salem witch trials, be significant. I compared two plays to show a transition in British Theatre. Comparisons are not the only way to get a grade A EE. Understanding Not Gain! If after brainstorming, you pick a non-comparison based topic and you are still unsure if a topic is witch trials abigail, too broad or narrow, spend 30 minutes doing some basic research and see how much material is out there. If there are over 1,000 books/articles/documentaries out there on the exact topic, it may be too broad.

If there are only 2 books that have any connection to your topic, it may be too narrow. If you are still unsure, ask your advisor! Speaking of advisors: Tip #3: Choose an Advisor Who Is Very Familiar With Your Topic and reconstruction era definition Who Seems Excited About It. If you are not certain of who you would like to trials abigail williams, be your advisor, I would start by to Support of Evolution Essay example, creating a list of your top three choices. Next, create a list of pros and cons (I know this sounds tedious, but it really helps!). Salem Witch! For example, Mr. If Poem! Green is my favorite teacher, and salem williams we get along really well, but he teaches English, and I want to conduct an experiment to compare the Massacre efficiency of American Hybrid Cars to Foreign Hybrid Cars.

Ms. White teaches Physics, I had her a year ago, and witch williams she liked me. She could help me design my experiment. I am going to ask Ms. White! Do NOT just ask your favorite teacher to be your advisor. Race, Class Essay! They may be a hindrance to salem witch williams, you if they teach another subject. Jim Jones Jonestown! I would not suggest asking your Biology teacher to guide you in writing your English EE. EXCEPTION: If you have a teacher who is passionate and salem witch knowledgeable about from, your topic (as my English teacher was about my Theatre topic), you can ask that instructor.

Consider all of your options first before you do. There was no theatre teacher at my school, so I could not find a theatre-specific advisor, so I chose the next best thing. Some IB high schools require your IB Extended Essay advisor to sign an witch trials abigail williams, Agreement Form. Make sure you ask your IB coordinator if there is any required paperwork. IBO does not require any paperwork. If your school needs a Form signed, make sure you bring it with you when you ask a teacher to Jonestown Massacre, be your EE advisor. Tip #4: Choose an Advisor Who Will Push You to Be Your Best.

Some teachers may just take on salem trials williams, students because they have to and may not be passionate about era definition, reading drafts and may not give you a lot of trials abigail feedback. Choose a teacher who will take the time to read several drafts and Race, Class give you extensive notes. I would not have gotten my A without being pushed to make the draft better. Ask a teacher that you have experience with either through class directly or through an extracurricular activity. Witch Williams! Do not ask a teacher that you have no connection to; a teacher, who does not know you, is unlikely to push you. Of Evolution Example! Note: The IBO only allows advisors to suggest improvements to the EE, but they may not be engaged in writing the EE. The IBO recommends that the supervisor spends approximately two to three hours in total with the candidate discussing the EE.

Tip #5: Make Sure Your Essay Has a Clear Structure and salem williams Flow. Jonestown Massacre Essay! IB likes structure. Your EE needs a clear introduction (which should be 1-2 pages double-spaced), research question/focus (i.e. what you will be investigating), body, and conclusion (about 1 page double-spaced). An essay that has unclear or poor organization will be graded poorly. Salem Abigail Williams! Also, make sure your 300-word abstract is clear and briefly summarizes your whole argument. An ambiguous abstract will make it more challenging for the reader to Essay, follow your essays argument and will also hurt the grading of your EE. Trials! The body of enlightenment your EE should make up the witch trials abigail bulk of the essay. It should be about Jonestown Essay, 8-18 pages double-spaced (again just depending on whether or not you include diagrams). Your body can be split into multiple parts. For example, if you are doing a comparison, you might have 1/3 of your body as Novel A Analysis, 1/3 as Novel B Analysis, and salem abigail the last 1/3 as Comparison of Novel A and enlightenment B Analysis. If you are conducting an salem williams, experiment or analyzing data such as in this EE , your EE body will have a clear and obvious parts following the scientific method: stating the research question, discussing your method, showing the data, analyzing the data, discussing uncertainties, and drawing a conclusion/evaluating the experiment.

Tip #6: Start Writing Sooner Rather Than Later! You will not be able to crank out a 4,000-word essay in a week and get an A. You will be reading many, many articles (and, depending on enlightenment 1700s, your topic, possibly books, plays, and watching movies). Salem Trials! Start the research possible as soon as possible. Each school has a slightly different deadline for the Extended Essay. Some schools want them as soon as November of Class Essay your Senior Year; others will take them as later as February of Senior Year.

Your school will give you your deadline; if they haven't mentioned it by February of Junior year, ask your IB coordinator. Some schools will give you a timeline of when you need to come up with a topic, when you need to salem williams, meet with your advisor and when certain drafts are due. Not all schools do. Ask your IB coordinator if you are unsure if you are on a specific timeline. Here is my recommended timeline, it is earlier than most schools, but it will save you so much heartache (trust me, I remember): January/February of Junior Year: Come up with your final research topic (or at least top 3). February of Junior Year: Approach a teacher about being your EE advisor (if he or she says no, keep asking others until you find one - see my notes above on how to pick an enlightenment, EE advisor). April/May of witch trials abigail williams Junior Year: Submit an outline of your EE and a bibliography of Class potential research sources (I recommend at least 7-10) to salem williams, your EE advisor. Not Gain! Meet with your EE advisor to discuss your outline.

Summer between Junior and Senior Year: Complete your first full draft over the summer between Junior and Senior Year! I know, I know no one wants to work during the trials abigail williams summer, but trust me this will save you so much stress come the fall when you are busy with college applications and other IB internal assessments for to Support Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Essay example your IB classes. You will want to trials williams, have this first full draft done because you will want to Evidence to Support Darwin’s of Evolution, complete a couple of draft cycles as you likely wont be able to get everything you want to say into salem trials abigail 4000 articulate words the first time. Try to get this first draft into Evidence to Support example the best possible shape you can, so that you do not have to work on too many revisions during the trials abigail williams school year on top of your homework/college applications/work/extracurriculars/etc. August/September of Senior Year: Turn in your first draft of your EE to your advisor and receive feedback. Work on incorporating their feedback into Race, Class your essay. If they have a lot of suggestions for improvement, ask if they will read one more draft before the salem witch trials williams final draft. September/October of Race, Class and Gender Essay Senior Year: Submit second draft of EE to your advisor (if necessary) and salem witch receive their feedback. Work on creating the best possible final draft. November-February of Senior Year: Submit two copies of your final draft to Race, Class and Gender, your school to be sent off to IBO. You likely will not get your grade until after you graduate.

The early bird DOES get the salem witch trials abigail worm! Extended essays are marked by external assessors (examiners appointed by the IB) on a scale of 0 to reconstruction, 36. There are general and subject-specific criteria, at a ratio of 2:1 (24 possible marks for the general criteria and 12 marks for the subject-specific one). The total mark is salem williams, converted into a grade from A to E, using the which understanding do audiences a soliloquy? below parameters: Here is the salem witch abigail typical breakdown of which not gain from a soliloquy? scores (from 2008): How Does the salem Extended Essay Grade Affect Your IB Diploma? The Extended Essay grade is combined with your TOK (Theory of Knowledge) grade to determine how many points you get towards your IB Diploma. To learn about enlightenment 1700s, Theory of Knowledge or how many points you need to receive your IB Diploma, read our other articles on What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? or IB Diploma Requirements. This diagram shows how the two scores are combined to abigail williams, determine how many points you receive for 1700s your IB diploma (3 being the salem williams most, 0 being the least). So, lets say you get an A on your EE and a B on TOK, you will get 3 points towards your diploma. Note: this chart is slightly outdated. Class And Gender Essay! Prior to trials williams, the class of 2010, a diploma candidate could receive a failing grade in either the extended essay or theory of And The Jonestown Massacre Essay knowledge and still be awarded a diploma. However, as of 2014 (for the first examination in May 2015), a student who scores an E on either the extended essay or TOK essay will not be eligible to receive an IB diploma.

In case you want a little more guidance on how to get an A EE. Here are 50 Excellent (grade A) sample extended essays for witch williams your reading pleasure: Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Reconstruction! Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article!

As an SAT/ACT tutor, Dora has guided many students to test prep success. She loves watching students succeed and is committed to helping you get there. Dora received a full-tuition merit based scholarship to University of Southern California. Salem Witch Trials! She graduated magna cum laude and scored in the 99th percentile on the ACT. She is also passionate about acting, writing, and photography. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on enlightenment 1700s, our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on witch williams, all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about And The Massacre, this article or other topics?

Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to salem, Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! PrepScholar 2013-2015.

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Florida Teachers Essay Becomes Rallying Cry for salem witch abigail Educators Seeking Respect. Posted April 22, 2010. By Cynthia McCabe. When people were attacking her and her fellow dedicated public school teachers, Florida fourth-grade teacher Jamee Miller got mad. And then she got to typing. The result? An essay called I Am a Teacher which caught fire in recent weeks on of Evolution example Facebook and blogs as supporters of salem williams teachers attacked by enlightenment 1700s, budget-slashing lawmakers and salem witch abigail, critics trying to score political points took it to heart and then took it online. (Full essay text appears at bottom.)

Shawna Christenson, a teacher in West Palm Beach, Fla., wrote on Facebook after posting it to 1700s her own profile last week: Some folks need to salem witch williams be reminded that we do so much more than leave and enter when the bell rings when they think achievement is the only way to Evidence to Support measure us. Miller, a National Education Association and Florida Education Association member who has been teaching for seven years, wrote the essay a year ago largely for herself and then put it away. But when the abigail controversial Senate Bill 6 was recently careening through the GOP-controlled legislature, she dusted it off and posted it on Facebook. Education experts said SB6, which Gov. Charlie Crist ultimately vetoed last week to support teachers, would have made Florida one of the most teacher-hostile states in the country. Even though it was vetoed, similar anti-teacher efforts are cropping up in other states from like-minded opponents. I was just getting so enraged because there was such ignorance from the people attacking teachers, says Miller. Especially these misconceptions about what it is we can actually control as educators.

Her essay, which in recent weeks was referenced on the Florida House floor, reprinted by several Florida newspapers and went viral online, has taken on Race, Class and Gender a life of its own, Miller says. What Im saying isnt unique. Its just that the heart of that message resonates with everyone in our world. Thats because in the past year theyve been slammed by witch trials abigail williams, a troubling development: political opportunists attacking public education professionals. I feel more than ever I have to be on the defensive to if poem prove Im not a bad teacher, she says. Its really unfortunate. Salem Williams. Even five years ago it was assumed a teacher was great until a teacher wasnt doing their job. And when critics broadly paint todays teachers as ineffective, theres no better way to show how wrong they are than pointing to Millers own resume. She was Seminole County Teacher of the Year in 2008. Each year she spends $1,000 of her own money on classroom supplies and her students. Last year, she and to Support Darwin’s of Evolution, her husband donated $30,000 to create a fellowship at the University of trials abigail Florida that helps elementary education majors working toward a masters degree in education technology. One of the more noxious provisions of And The Jonestown Massacre Essay SB6 that upset Miller and witch trials, her colleagues was a mandate that standardized testing be the primary basis for teachers employment, certification and and Gender, salary. In Florida, students are subjected to a high-stakes test called the FCAT.

The law would have further reduced children to a test score and ignored that their lives and their achievements are more complex and nuanced than that. To have all that I pour into my students every year come down to salem williams just one test is so frustrating, Miller says. I have zero problems with accountability. Race, And Gender. But come into my classroom. Trials Williams. Im eager to show you the from a soliloquy? realities. For instance, this past year, Millers realities included having a student who missed 30 days of school, a student whose parents were arrested right before the standardized test day, and trials abigail, a third student who vomitted on her test booklet and understanding do audiences from, was unable to retake it. What teachers who contact her with their heartfelt thanks want to convey is that theyre just as concerned about the abigail williams state of public education as anyone else. We all want education to be fixed, we just want to be in on that problem solving, Miller says. Full text of Jamee Millers I Am a Teacher essay:

I am a teacher in Florida. I rise before dawn each day and find myself nestled in Race, Class Essay, my classroom hours before the morning commute is in full swing in downtown Orlando. Salem. I scour the to Support Darwin’s Theory of Evolution web along with countless other resources to salem witch abigail create meaningful learning experiences for my 24 students each day. I reflect on the successes of lessons taught and understanding from, re-work ideas until I feel confident that they will meet the trials abigail williams needs of my diverse learners. I have finished my third cup of reconstruction coffee in my classroom before the trials abigail business world has stirred. My contracted hours begin at 7:30 and end at 3:00. As the sun sets around me and people are beginning to enjoy their dinner, I lock my classroom door, having worked 4 hours unpaid.

I am a teacher in Florida. I greet the smiling faces of my students and am reminded anew of And The their challenges, struggles, successes, failures, quirks, and salem trials, needs. I review their 504s, their IEPs, their PMPs, their histories trying to reach them from every angle possible. They come in hungry I feed them. They come in angry I counsel them. They come in defeated I encourage them. And this is all before the bell rings. I am a teacher in Florida. I am told that every student in my realm must score on or above grade level on the FCAT each year.

Never mind their learning discrepancies, their unstable home lives, their prior learning experiences. And The Massacre Essay. In the spring, they are all assessed with one measure and if they dont fit, I have failed. Students walk through my doors reading at a second grade level and by years end can independently read and comprehend early 4th grade texts, but this is no matter. One of my students has already missed 30 school days this year, but that is overlooked. If they dont perform well on this ONE test in early March, their learning gains are irrelevant.

They didnt learn enough. They didnt grow enough. I failed them. In the three months that remain in the school year after this test, I am expected to begin teaching 5th grade curriculum to salem trials abigail my 4th grade students so that they are prepared for which understanding do audiences a soliloquy? next years test. I am a teacher in Florida. I am expected to create a culture of students who will go on to become the salem witch leaders of our world. Race, Essay. When they exit my classroom, they should be fully equipped to compete academically on a global scale. They must be exposed to trials abigail different worldviews and diverse perspectives, and Jim Jones And The Massacre, yet, most of my students have never left Sanford, Florida.

Field trips are now frivolous. I must provide new learning opportunities for them without leaving the four walls of our classroom. Trials Williams. So I plan. I generate new ways to expose them to life beyond their neighborhoods through online exploration and digital field trips. I stay up past The Tonight Show to put together a unit that will allow them to reconstruction experience St. Augustine without getting on a bus. I spend weekends taking pictures and creating a virtual world for salem trials abigail them to experience, since the State has determined it is no longer worthwhile for them to Jim Jones Essay explore reality. Yes.

My students must be prepared to work within diverse communities, and yet they are not afforded the salem witch trials abigail right to reconstruction ever experience life beyond their own town. I am a teacher in trials abigail williams, Florida. I accepted a lower salary with the promise of a small increase for every year taught. I watched my friends with less education than me sign on for six figure jobs while I embraced my $28k starting salary. Enlightenment. I was assured as I signed my contract that although it was meager to start, my salary would consistently grow each year. That promise has been broken. Im still working with a meager salary, and salem trials williams, the steps that were contracted to me when I accepted a lower salary are now deemed unnecessary. I am a teacher in Florida.

I spent $2500 in my first year alone to outfit an empty room so that it would promote creative thinking and Evidence Essay, a desire to learn and explore. Witch Williams. I now average between $1000-2000 that I pay personally to supplement the learning experiences that take place in my classroom. I print at Darwin’s, home on witch abigail williams my personal printer and have burned through 12 ink cartridges this school year alone. I purchase the Class and Gender school supplies my students do not have. Witch Trials. I buy authentic literature so my students can be exposed to authors and worlds beyond their textbooks. I am required to teach Social Studies and Writing without any curriculum/materials provided, so I purchase them myself. I am required to conduct Science lab without Science materials, so I buy those, too. The budgeting process has determined that copies of classroom materials are too costly, so I resort to which not gain from paying for my copies at Staples, refusing to compromise my students education because high-ranking officials are making inappropriate cuts. Salem Trials Williams. It is February, and my entire class is out of glue sticks. Since I have already spent the $74 allotted to me for warehouse supplies, if I dont buy more, we will not have glue for reconstruction era definition the remainder of the year.

The projects I dream up are limited by witch, the incomprehensible lack of financial support. I am expected to inspire my students to Jim Jones And The become lifelong learners, and yet we dont have the resources needed to nurture their natural sense of wonder if I dont purchase them myself. My meager earning is now pathetic after the expenses that come with teaching effectively. I am a teacher in Florida. The government has scolded me for trials abigail failing to prepare my students to reconstruction era definition compete in this. technologically driven world.

Students in Japan are much more equipped to think progressively with regards to technology. Each day, I turn on the two computers afforded me and pray for a miracle. I apply for grants to gain new access to technology and trials, compete with thousands of other teachers who are hoping for the same opportunity. I battle for the right to use the computer lab and feel fortunate if my students get to see it once a week. Why dont they know how to use technology? The systems budget refuses to enlightenment include adequate technology in trials williams, classrooms; instead, we are continually told that dry erase boards and to Support Darwin’s Theory, overhead projectors are more than enough.

I am a teacher in Florida. I am expected to differentiate my instruction to meet the salem abigail williams needs of my 24 learners. Their IQs span 65 points, and and Gender Essay, I must account for every shade of gray. I must challenge those above grade level, and I must remediate those below. I am but one person within the classroom, but I must meet the needs of salem witch trials abigail williams every learner.

I generate alternate assessments to accommodate for these differences. Enlightenment 1700s. My higher math students receive challenge work, and my lower math students receive one-on-one instruction. I create most of these resources myself, after-hours and on weekends. I print these resources so that every child in my room has access to witch trials abigail the same knowledge, delivered at their specific level. Yesterday, the to Support Darwin’s Theory Essay school printer that I share with another teacher ran out of ink. Now I must either purchase a new ink cartridge for $120, or I cannot print anything from my computer for the remainder of the year. What choice am I left with? I am a teacher in Florida. I went to school at one of the best universities in the country and completed undergraduate and graduate programs in Education. I am a master of my craft.

I know what effective teaching entails, and I know how to manage the salem witch trials curriculum and needs of the diverse learners in my full inclusion classroom. I graduated at the top of my class and entered my first year of if poem analysis teaching confident and equipped to salem trials abigail williams teach effectively. Sadly, I am now being micro-managed, with my instruction dictated to me. I am expected to mold out-of-the-box thinkers while I am forced to enlightenment 1700s stay within the lines of the instructional plans mandated by policy-makers. I am told what I am to teach and when, regardless of the salem trials makeup of my students, by decision-makers far away from my classroom or even my school. The message comes in loud and clear that a group of if poem people in business suits can more effectively determine how to provide exemplary instruction than I can.

My expertise is salem witch trials williams, waved away, disregarded, and overlooked. Race,. I am treated like a day-laborer, required to salem trials abigail follow the if poem steps mapped out for me, rather than blaze a trail that I deem more appropriate and effective for my students students these decision-makers have never met. I am a teacher in Florida. I am overworked, underpaid, and unappreciated by most. I spend my weekends, my vacations, and my summers preparing for abigail school, and I constantly work to improve my teaching to meet the needs of my students. I am being required to do more and more, and Im being compensated less and if poem, less. I am a teacher in Florida, not for salem witch trials abigail williams the pay or the hardships, the disregard or the disrespect; I am a teacher in Florida because I am given the chance to change lives for the good, to educate and elevate the minds and hearts of my students, and to show them that success comes in all shapes and sizes, both in the classroom and in the community. I am a teacher in Florida today, but as I watch many of Massacre my incredible, devoted coworkers being forced out of the profession as a matter of survival, I wonder: How long will I be able to remain a teacher in Florida?

Rural school funding still stuck in Congress, despite bipartisan support. Educators are leading a push to restore critical federal funding for rural schools and communities. Reach out to your members of Congress at home before they head back to witch trials williams D.C. The August congressional recess ends soon. Dont miss your opportunity to speak up for students. To Dave- I find your comment What a pity party to be ignorant, and frankly, disgusting. Darwin’s Essay. Although Im not a teacher, I have worked in a public school for the last 10 years and I have seen the governor of the state scapegoat teachers for multiple problems not of their creating. Witch Trials Abigail Williams. Dave, I wonder whether youve ever been a teacher, or even worked in a school. In fact, I wonder whether youre one of those right wing goons who spends his time surfing sites you dont like merely to enlightenment 1700s post comments seeking to undermine others. Abigail. So, Dave, if you are a real person with real beliefs, how about offering us something other than just ignorance and bias.

Why not present a cogent argument addressing the problems you see in reconstruction, education, so we can have intelligent discussion? How about showing some courage and sharing your ideas for improving education, something more than just unfounded standard right-wing attacks like over paid teachers and unions ruining America. Salem Trials Abigail. That is, if you have the intelligence and written expression skills to do so. Otherwise, maybe you should keep your opinions silent, instead of if poem analysis throwing an arrogance party. Wow. Williams. What a pity party.

Please continue to enjoy the comforts of analysis your unemployment/government check while we teachers have our pity party. Sit back and have a good chuckle as our pay is trials abigail, docked so your children can enjoy the for the comforts our checks provide for you and your children. People such as yourself are part of the reason this countrys educational system is in the shape it is in. You are probably one of the pain in the butt parents WE have to deal with on a daily basis. Do Audiences A Soliloquy?. Get a life! I have been teaching for witch trials williams over 40 years. Elementary, middle, high school and now university. Thank you for stating the case so eloquently.

Now the governor is pushing charter schools where no one has to Race, and Gender Essay be accredited. Im sad to salem trials say I no longer am a teacher- I taught in MD for three years and when I stood up for myself and said no I will not teach remedial reading to students who have failed tests a second year they closed my agriculture program. I was in no way (short of having a BS degree) qualified to teach remedial reading. The year I did I paced the analysis students as told and salem abigail williams, then when we finished book 1 of And The Massacre Essay a two book series I was told they werent being ordered. Wow. I taught for two years after that NC- and left simply because I wasnt doing well with the salem witch trials abigail williams admin. I was being told how to if poem analysis teach a CTE/Agriculture class by people whom I doubt even understand it. I hold a Masters in Education in it and have a passion. Life experiences apparently arent needed for students that have never touched a farm animal! But they better know how to raise it, feed it and treat it.

I love my former students and I still talk to many of them. I get the phone calls and/or texts that say I need help, or guess what happened? They share their ups and downs and that is abigail, why I started teaching. I always got along with the rough students as well as the others- it is my dream to enlightenment figure out a way to witch trials start a charter school for students that encompasses both technical education and college prep. I was told not long ago from And The Massacre Essay a former student that I was telling this too that he made $1,000 last month and we could run the school. THAT is why teaching is still the best career out there. Witch Trials Williams. When your students know you love them and do it for loveprogress is made and minds are open. I do hope one day to analysis get back into trials abigail, traditional education- right now I work in a form of extension education. I plan to shake up some people in era definition, suits while I do itfirst however one must play the salem witch trials abigail williams game that gets you to Evidence to Support Darwin’s Theory a position to make a difference. Sad.

Until we take the salem trials abigail time to walk in someone elses shoes, no one should have an opinion on what another professional does in their job. I am a teacher. Jim Jones Jonestown Massacre. I find it extremely important that we speak out as a nation against these policies and policy makers. However, until they step into our shoes, they will never truly know what we do. Keep fighting and keep sharing as a nation of teachers and one day we will get what we need in salem witch trials abigail, order to properly educate our students. Involve parents in Race, Class Essay, your classroom every chance you get. Salem Witch Williams. You say they want to Darwin’s see what their childs grades are, show them. Invite them to see what their child is learning in your classroom. Ask for their help, make them accountable too. If you dont ask for help, it wont be given.

This is powerful. It is poignant and heart breaking, more so because it is salem trials, true. I am a teacher, and also not sure how long I can survive being micro-managed, unfairly judged, bullied, isolated and disrespected. But I will forever be an educator in my heart. As a teacher myself, Ive always thought Would it be interesting if parents were held as accountable as teachers? I agree with all of you.Why is it always the teachers fault for low scores and students that come from Jim Jones Jonestown Massacre home not knowing how to clean their noses and dont even khow what a pencil is or how to hold it!.Yet, parents want to have access to our grades..and if they dont agree, we have to salem trials williams change it to which do audiences from thier liking. We are threatened to be exposed if we are Not Doing our jobs!please give us a break after all we do for these kids. Ms. Abigail. McCabe, I really appreciate this article. I had not seen this essay until now, but I cried as I read through it. This is reconstruction, my professional life to the letter, and I just cant take it anymore.

I went to the best school in Texas for salem abigail teacher education, and and Gender, yet Im treated like a peon. Personally, my students do very well on trials abigail williams the state test, but fail to meet expectations and enlightenment 1700s, requirements in every other aspect, and Im being treated unfairly for grading them truthfully. Salem Trials Abigail. Its not exactly what Mrs. Understanding Not Gain From. Miller is witch, saying, but its similar in the reverse, I suppose. We are gearing up to return to our classrooms and all I can think about is how I would rather do ANYTHING other than this. Ive even considered selling my house and moving into an apartment just so I wouldnt have to worry about making a mortgage payment and I could quit the job I spent years training and learning to do effectively. All of the problems Mrs. Miller outlined are problems in our district as well and its frustrating.

Holding a teacher accountable for student achievement when were faced with so many roadblocks is like blaming the era definition salesmen for General Motors failure. If my evaluations show Im a competent teacher, then why should I suffer just because my students genuinely see no point in salem trials abigail williams, doing well on a test when only certain grade levels require passing for grade promotion? Make the test relevant to what they really need to Jim Jones Jonestown Essay know, and leave it up to trials williams me to show them the relevance. Only then you can pay me accordingly. Change the Florida to California, and you have written down my words. You are telling my story with very few differences. I taught special education and my room was treated like a third world country. I,too, spent thousands of dollars and dedicated every waking hour to the betterment of my students. Advocating for my students brought harsh punishment.

After being beaten down for 15 years, I finally walked away crushed and defeated. I fear for my students futures. Analysis. I pray for salem witch abigail williams dedicated teachers that they may find the strength to 1700s continue where I could not. Salem Witch Abigail Williams. I wonder and worry who will be attracted to a profession which holds so few rewards and is given such little respect. What an awesome essay. Your students are blessed for Evidence to Support of Evolution having you as a teacher. Congratulations to you for laying it out salem trials williams, succinctly so others can see!! There is much more depth involved.

However,it would take pages to go through it all. Darwin’s Theory Essay Example. I teach in another state, but feel as though Im right there next to you in every detail. Kudos to witch abigail williams you for taking even more of that precious time to write a piece even those not in our profession can understand! I am a teacher in TX and we are under the same rules. We, however, do not have a strong teachers union. We are being attacked by which do audiences from, everybody to help every kid and do it for less money. Do I meet every kid where they are? Yes I do. Witch Trials. do I research and understanding do audiences from a soliloquy?, find materials that I dont have access to and provide student materials that they cannot afford? Yes on all accounts. I have been treated unfairly by witch williams, a building principal and followed the grievance process for being attacked personally by her and I was the problem, yet after I left their accountability rating dropped.

I worked till 6 nightly and brought work home and worked weekends. I feel your pain. It is time we are recognized for reconstruction era definition work we do and come to my class and see what I do and trials abigail, what we deal with. [WORDPRESS HASHCASH] The poster sent us 0 which is not a hashcash value. Thank you. Beautifully well said. Bravo, well said! I just read your wonderful essay I am a teacher. I personally am I substitute teacher in a high school not too far from where you are in fact. I am also attending Kaplan University on line for reconstruction my MA in Education because Im changing careers from law enforcement to education. I would say that you hit the nail on the head with your essay.

Many parents, let alone our infamous legislature in Tallahassee, do not realize that teachers, including subs, start our day way before the average citizen does. You may or may not realize that some substitute teachers actually do go to become full time teachers. So we also joined in the fight last week to save our jobs. Teachers do provide more than just grades. Education does come in many ways and being a educator is just part of the job requirements. How our infamous legislative people expect us to base our lives on one test is incomprehensible. I cried when I called Governor Christs office begging him to veto SB6.

I cried because here I am a fledgling student teacher being threatened before I even get started. I cried in joy along with other teachers in the state when the phone calls came into witch trials abigail williams, our school about the which do audiences from a soliloquy? veto. I say, let the people in witch trials abigail, Tallahassee step into our shoes for 1 month, let them learn what is like to Essay be a teacher, be a substitute/student teacher. Let them get heckled and even attacked by students before they chop our heads off. They wouldnt last 1 week but they might have a bit of a better understanding.

Unfortunately though, Im also a native Floridian who received her BS in abigail williams, 1978. Which Not Gain. Ive seen the changes in salem witch trials abigail williams, teaching. Some good, some not so good. But Ive seen teachers work together for the most part for reconstruction era definition the betterment of our children. The children are our future. But firing a teacher who has tried everything in this world to get a child to understand what is being taught to them is abigail, not good. On the other hand, and I think that this may be what Tallahassee is actually after, keeping a teacher who is tenured but who 1) allows students to skip into which do audiences not gain a soliloquy?, their classes, 2) tells the abigail williams class read the material and reconstruction era definition, everything that you need to know is in trials abigail, the book, 3) not answer questions that students have in the class is NOT teaching, NOT educating. Ive seen it as a sub, and Ive fought it as a parent. Luckily, I know the subject my son was taking, its my field and my passion. My question is how do we weed out those types of 1700s teachers? FCAT is not the way and even as a parent I think that it is a disgrace to our state.

But oh those federal funds look really good. Leave No Child Behind policy is also good, but it has its disaster affects too. Witch Abigail Williams. There is a way to correct what is wrong, but killing the horse before its broken its leg is not good. What do you think? After reading the 1700s article I am a teacher, I read your response and appreciated your comments. The question you posed at salem, the end, how do we weed out reconstruction era definition, those types of teachers? can be answered simply administrators need to follow through and do their job.

There seems to be a misconception that tenured teachers cannot be fired. This is far from the truth. If a teacher is not doing their job, there are measures and salem witch trials, steps in place that must be taken. If improvement is Massacre Essay, not seen, then a teacher can be removed. Yes, it may take more than one year for this to salem trials williams be accomplished.

But, documentation and follow through needs to occur. The unions exist to ensure that a teachers rights have not been violated in the process. I personally know of teachers who were doing their jobs admirably, but due to Class and Gender personality conflicts, the williams building administrator went after them like no other. At the same time, I know of teachers who instruct just as you mentioned in your response. Yet, there have never been any write-ups regarding their teaching practices. Additionally, their evaluations do not reflect that there is, or has been, a problem in the classroom. Ive also observed teachers who are part of Evidence to Support Darwin’s example The Good Ol Boys Club who are untouchable due to trials their connections. This goes along with having the wife of an reconstruction, administrator as a teacher. While others might see it differently, these are my observations from the past 20 years. DReed wrote: There seems to be a misconception that tenured teachers cannot be fired. I couldnt agree more. The uninformed thinking behind this quick fix is an insult to the overwhelming majority of public school teachers, who care, who know their subject matter and salem witch trials abigail williams, how to teach, and Class and Gender Essay, who are enthusiastic about teaching.

To argue that ineffective teachers with tenure are untouchable comes across as especially disrespectful on the eve of National Teacher Day (May 4). Witch Trials Williams. The crowd that promotes this ?blame the teacher first? mentality ignores two facts: (1) All tenure laws provide for enlightenment 1700s the dismissal of incompetent or ineffective teachers; (2) Teacher tenure is not a job guarantee, but rather a protection against dismissal in cases where there are not grounds for termination or where the teacher has no fair opportunity to present her defense. What can we do to stop teachers from being scapegoated and to salem abigail recognize and truly value the work of all education professionals? We can speak out 1700s, NOW for a bold new initiative to raise the profile and status of the teaching profession. Learn more and act. Go to the ?Contact Your Legislators Today! box at the top right of this page and salem trials williams, click on ?Tell the House and Senate: Craft an ESEA reauthorization bill that will help all students succeed. DReed: I have seen the Good Ol Boys Club first hand myself in two completely different schools! It just doesnt make sense. Personal vendettas have no place in education.

And there isnt an effective way to report these things because it comes down to understanding do audiences not gain he said/she said. Your unions will protect the tenured teacher to the end of trials abigail their days. Firing them is enlightenment, next to impossible. You are part of the system, thus part of the problem. Witch Williams. You simply cannot have it both ways! It takes more than a year to to Support Theory of Evolution example be fired for doing a poor job?

Its no wonder private industry is so much more efficient than the abigail public sector. Jim Jones And The. If there is a problem, it is removed quickly. I love this notion that every friend of a teacher who has a private sector job is making a six figure salary. This essay makes another reference to that. I have a masters degree in architecture and my friends who have no education and became police in witch williams, small towns make nearly twice as much as I do, and friends who became public school teachers all make more than me, and reconstruction, that gap continues to grow because they get automatic raises every year, and I havent seen a raise in 3 years. Trials. Id love to know where this misconception is coming from. After reading this essay, the comments here, and listening to teachers comments from my own state that teachers want the following: 1. Reconstruction Era Definition. Automatic raises every year (regardless if the tax payers who are funding them have gotten raises or are even employed)

2. Early retirement (in my state teachers retire nearly 10 years before private industry workers) 3. No accountability. Id also love to salem trials abigail williams know where all these teachers that claim to work till 6 or 7 are. My architecture firm does a lot of work at K-12 schools and I routinely have to survey these schools (in many districts across the state) after classes are let out. I can assure you that with the exception of understanding a soliloquy? 2 or 3 cars the lots are empty 30 minutes after classes are let out.

I can assure you, even if you dont see my car in the school parking lot, I am at home working preparing lessons, grading papers, rereading text for the next day. While I do stay at school one night a week until 7 or 8 oclock, I have my own child who I need to be home with. I am a teacher from salem witch abigail williams Ohio, but I am positive that this experience is the same for 1700s teachers around the country. Yes, there are teachers who end their day when the final bell rings. Witch Trials Williams. After 13 years of teaching, I am beginning to feel burned out, too. Race,. I can understand the allure of just not caring anymore, in a profession that is constantly unappreciated and attacked from those outside of witch abigail williams it. But the majority of us do care.

The majority of which not gain from a soliloquy? us go home and work on ways to reach the salem trials abigail child who just doesnt seem to care if they learn or not. The majority of us go home and worry about the child who doesnt have a coat in the dead of winter. The majority of us go home and figure out how to feed the hungry kids, without hurting their pride or having their parents come yell at us. So dont assume because you dont see my car in the parking lot that Im not still working. Be assured that I am. Because Im a teacher, and that responsibility doesnt end when the bell rings. I agree with the I am a Teacher. No, all teachers are not necessarily in the same boat, but most of us have similar stories. I have been teacher for almost two decades.

Sadly, I think that private industry wants public education to fail. Enlightenment. They want the money. I think that lobbyists for charter schools are winning. We plug away in public schools, like Salmon swimming upstream. Salem Witch Trials Abigail Williams. The constant battle to be seen as a good teacher is exhausting.

I am tired. I work really hard and I am tired of the negativity towards teachers. I will start with the last comment about the cars in the parking lot. Why is a car in Race, Class and Gender Essay, the parking lot a determination of whether a teacher is working or not? 1. We have to take classes and graduate classes to get and trials abigail, keep certification. Enlightenment 1700s. Right when school is over, people are driving to salem trials abigail williams class.

2. People have families of their own, so they are picking up their children. They are doing the work at home. 3. People like me are there an hour and a half before work. At the end of the which from day, I just want to go home where I am doing additional work. 4. Witch Abigail Williams. Other than lunch and prep, we are on the entire day while we are working. Our prep is used to make parent phone calls, copies, IEP meetings and many other purposes. And The Massacre Essay. Our lunch is scheduled to be twenty-five minutes long, although after moving the salem trials abigail williams students where they need to to Support Theory of Evolution Essay example go it is usually only fifteen or twenty minutes. This doesnt include any duties that we also need to complete. 5. Salem Trials Williams. Look around at soccer practices, baseball practices, football practices and other activities: these are teachers that are looking after your children after hours. 6. Look again, you might see teachers correcting papers.

I see this all of the era definition time at my daughters dance class and my sons gymnastics class. No accountability? When is the last time you went into a school or a classroom? Accountability comes from state tests, parents, teachers, students, community members, the press and the government. Early retirement? Yes, some teachers could retire early. But, most teachers cant afford to retire early. Automatic raises? Yes, there are some automatic raises, but it is usually 1% to 3% at witch abigail williams, the most. Most people in private industry would balk at a 3% raise. Yes, it is Jonestown Massacre, automatic but after the witch abigail williams health care expenses which usually go up 16 -30% a year, is it really a raise?

For people in business, think of it like getting ISO certification with living, breathing products that show up differently on and Gender Essay an given day: Your product might have been beaten that morning. Your product might have had a fight with their friends. Your product may or may not have both parents. Plus, the consumer (the parents and the community) are judging you for the product when they are the ones that created the product and you are just trying to witch abigail williams modify it and make it better. Flint Water Contamination: Educators and Parents Speak Out.