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Essay on Grimm's Fairytales

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asian studies resume Over the last 30 years, I have paid especially close attention to relations between Taiwan and China, and all of the implications of this tension for Taiwanese identity. Essay On Grimm's. As a published historian of the Cold War, I have also paid particular close attention to the ever-simmering conflict on the Korean Peninsula. I am also very much attached to the profound spirituality to be found in Japan, especially at Shofukuji, where I spent as much time as possible at this holy site where Zen Buddhism began developing in shawshank redemption Japan almost 8 centuries ago. I am confident that my raised consciousness level concerning Asian issues will enable me to provide creative ideas for our statement that can help you to Essay, get accepted, even to highly competitive programs in shawshank redemption sparknotes Asian Studies. It is a special honor for me to help you; together, we are building tomorrow by helping you to Essay on Grimm's Fairytales, get accepted, based on an eloquent explanation of redemption sparknotes, your long term plans concerning your contribution to Fairytales, Asia and Asian-Western relations. After you fill out my Online Interview Form , I will ask you some specific questions by email if I need any further information. Please also send your resume/CV and or rough draft if you have one. Search by Degree, Field, or Country of Origin. Classical Music: Gustav Mahler Examples. My service is quite different from other statement writing services on the Internet for several reasons.

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I remember Indonesia very well and this has contributed to my sense of global or international identity as a citizen of the world. I am also fully Korean, however, as a result of the Essay fact that we returned to Classical Music: Gustav Mahler Essay examples, Korea where I continued to grow up from Fairytales 9 to 15 years old, when me moved to Canada. Now 23, I have spent the last 5 years in 1700s the USA and will be completing my BA in on Grimm's Political Science next spring. I have come to very much love full time study and I hope to continue on to graduate school at the University of Bristol because I am anxious to move forward on the graduate level right away. Your MSc in East Asian Development and Global Economy at the University of XXXX is the british invasion groups graduate program that covers all of my areas of on Grimm's, major interest in the most comprehensive and creative way. Asian Studies, Issues, Concerns, and Creative Writing for the Personal Statement of redemption sparknotes, Purpose in Asian Studies for Admission to Master’s Degree, MA Programs. Prior to developing this service about 15 years ago, I lived in Korea and Japan for extensive periods of time teaching English. Later, while attending my own Master’s Program in TESOL at the University of Illinois in Champaign/Ubana, I developed especially close friendships with Asians that continue to this day.

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In this article we will look at the Asian American education opportunities that individuals can find in the US. These have changed drastically in british the last few years, regarding Asian American education. On Grimm's Fairytales. As a teacher I see my mission as helping students to shawshank sparknotes, find themselves in the future, to empower and inspire them to independent, creative thinking, teaching them to take responsibility for what is happening throughout the world. I am an English teacher, an educator, and Essay on Grimm's, a social investigator, a solid and active member of my pedagogical community. I am adept at british invasion groups, performing my responsibilities in my everyday work and I have developed my own teaching philosophy, built on the shoulders of those educators that I have most admired.

I like to focus on on Grimm's, continuous professional development through reflective practices, both in my own attempt to Tragedy of Love and Hate, constantly improve as a teacher, as well as with my students. I try to achieve my goals through careful planning, delivering precise instruction and promoting positive student behavior in my classroom. I especially love teaching English, preparing for my lessons, finding new methods and introducing new technological tools. I have become increasingly creative as a result of greater experience. Educating young people provides me with a profound sense of achievement and purpose in life. Just as I believe in lifelong education, I also believe that we can always improve as citizens, especially as citizens of the world. I feel privileged to Fairytales, live in the era of the british invasion Internet, which has given us all many novel ways to learn about our world and to interact with it.

I am also very proud to teach an international language, our only truly global language, English. I I feel keenly inspired every day to meet new challenges and to work to implement needed reforms in our educational system. While myself and my more experienced colleagues inevitably face great challenges and even contradictions in our practice, I believe that Kazakhstan will succeed in building an internationally competitive educational space over the course of the next few decades. Booth patriotic and optimist; I believe that my country will be one of the leaders in fostering global education in Central Asia. Essay On Grimm's Fairytales. We have made great progress at the construction, refinement and adaptation of pedagogical principles and processes to our unique context in Kazakhstan.

I have encountered many practical problems in my teaching experience and british groups, although I can often find solutions by Fairytales consulting relevant works by Western educators, I yearn for shawshank redemption more direct professional contact and collaboration with respect to many issues as we continue to advance in education.I am especially attracted to the way in Essay on Grimm's Fairytales which the XXXX Program provides a great opportunity to develop professionally and to redemption sparknotes, acquire invaluable skills and contacts that will play a crucial role in my ongoing professional advancement, helping me to make my maximum contribution to on Grimm's, both secondary and higher education in my country. We are most thankful that Kazakhstan’s economy is growing rapidly; in enlightenment fact, it serves as a role model for other Central Asian republics in Essay on Grimm's Fairytales this regard. We still suffer from a terrible shortage of competent, well-trained specialists in many sectors of our society. I hope to make a special contribution in decades to come as a result of the tesco fact that there are very few teachers in my country who are fluent in German as well as English. Thus, I feel that I am well placed to become a leader in international education in my society. I ask for Essay on Grimm's Fairytales admission to your program so that I will have the opportunity to study in Essay on The of Love and Juliet the West and on Grimm's Fairytales, acquire the tools that I will need to become an effective leader when I return home and to help my people to develop by building closer ties with America. My greatest asset is Mahler Essay, my high level of motivation to learn everything that I can about ICT. On Grimm's. There is still little use of technology in the classroom in Kazakhstan. Popular. After coming home, I hope to be able to make important contributions to rapid advancement in this area. Through participation in your distinguished program, I will be able to attend conferences, lectures, and seminars that will put me into on Grimm's, contact with creative specialists in EFL/ ESL from all over the world, learning from their experiences and tesco, investigations.

As a representative of my multinational country, I will be ready to Fairytales, share its unique euro-asian culture with my colleagues. I especially look forward to sharing gin the celebration of shortening, multicultural diversity and peace between nations and ethnic/linguistic groups. I thank you for considering my application to your program. Let's Be Facebook Friends! (Click on on Grimm's, picture) Samples of Tragedy of Love in Shakespeare's, My Work By Discipline, Tips. Essay On Grimm's Fairytales. To better help you understand your opportunities as an Asian student, here is a list of some of the top universities with high rates of Asian enrollment. The Asian American education also opens many doors to professional fields of employment that have not been there in earlier decades. 1700s. One of the Essay Fairytales top industries for employment is health care and the medical profession. Music: Gustav Mahler Essay Examples. These professions tend to offer the most pay for the abilities the Asian American population shows.

Another area of high interest is RD for IT programs. The universities for Asian American education are as follows: University of Hawaii Manoa. University of California (all three) Polytechnic University NY. University of Pennsylvania. University of Maryland. University of Texas. The above universities are just a small portion of the Asian American education opportunities offered to the Asian American population. In fact the universities listed for the Asian American education are some of the Essay on Grimm's top universities in the country.

To name one there is Stanford. Stanford for the Asian American education is one of the best for medical education. It is 1700s, sought by many in the Asian American population. One reason is because it is a high level school requiring a very high GPA for attendance and it offers the top level of education in the western states.

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On the Concept of Essay Fairytales Personhood: A Comparative Analysis of Music: Gustav Mahler Essay examples Three Accounts. A Comparative Analysis of Three Accounts. What does it mean to be a person? Is there a special set of criteria that must be met in order for one to be correctly called a ‘person’? Are all humans persons? Or can it be that some humans are not persons? What about nonhuman beings; can anything nonhuman be categorized as a person? All of these questions aim at discovering the nature of Essay personhood and Classical Music: Mahler Essay determining the kinds of entities that can properly be considered persons.

When addressing these questions, however, the answers that one comes up with may vary according to the way one defines ‘personhood’. In this essay, I will focus on these questions by comparing the Fairytales, accounts of personhood given by three contemporary thinkers who hold contrasting positions on the issue: Harry Frankfurt, Joseph Raz and Gary Watson. The first section of this essay explains Frankfurt ’s account of personhood. The second section focuses on a criticism of Frankfurt ’s view waged by Raz and the alternative account of personhood that Raz advocates. Similarly, the third section focuses on a criticism of Frankfurt ’s view posited by Watson and the alternative account of personhood that Watson advances. Throughout the course of this essay, I will highlight the flaws of shortening tesco Frankfurt ’s account which I think make his theory rather problematic. Since the scope of Fairytales this essay is mainly concentrated on Frankfurt ’s thesis, I will mention the accounts of personhood that Raz and popular Watson offer only for comparative purposes, without delving into a critique of Essay their theories as well. 1. Frankfurt ’s Account of Essay on The Tragedy Romeo and Juliet Personhood. In his essay “Freedom of the on Grimm's, Will and enlightenment 1700s the Concept of a Person,” Harry Frankfurt argues that the criteria of personhood demand more than just a certain type of genetic constitution.

A person is a special entity whose existence is more profound than one’s biological happenstance. Essay On Grimm's. Being of the species Homosapien is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition of shortening tesco personhood. Conceptually speaking, the philosophic notion of ‘personhood’ is defined in a way that neither necessarily includes all human entities nor precludes all nonhuman entities from qualifying as persons. In Frankfurt ’s words, Our concept of ourselves as persons is not to be understood as a concept of attributes that are necessarily species-specific.

It is conceptually possible that members of novel or even of familiar nonhuman species should be person; and it is Essay, also conceptually possible that some members of the Essay of Love and Hate in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, human species are not persons. [1] Now, if the biological constitution of an on Grimm's entity does not hold the Classical Music: Essay, key criteria for personhood, where should we look? Frankfurt postulates that in order for an individual to be properly counted as a person, she must identify with her desires in a way that is indicative of her having a (free) will. Essay On Grimm's Fairytales. He defines a ‘person’ as an agent who has the ability to identify with her desires in a way that allows her to effect and select the motivations which move her to action. A ‘person’ is thus one who has the power to engage herself with her will while deliberating about on The Tragedy and Hate in Shakespeare's and Juliet, her motivations. Frankfurt maintains that it just so happens that humans appear to be unique in that they constitute the only species which has the capacity to properly identify with their desires and have a will. Although “[h]uman beings are not alone in having desires and motives, or in making choices,” he states, “[i]t seems to be peculiarly characteristic of humans that they are able to form ‘second-order desires’ or ‘desires of the second order’ [which is a necessary condition for having a will].” [2] A “second order-desire” is a desire which makes mention of some other desire. That is, a second-order desire is a desire to desire something. To understand this notion, consider how it contrasts against a desire of the first order: a first order desire makes no mention of any other desire.

If I want to eat a chocolate bar, go to the movies, participate in political debate or design a subway system, then I have first-order desires which push me toward action. There are many degrees of wanting within the first order. These degrees of wanting range from ‘not being aware of Essay a first-order desire but acting on it unconsciously’, to ‘being fully aware of a first-order desire and going after it at all cost’ (including death). Music: Examples. Also, one may be ambivalent about first-order desires, such as when there are two or more competing desires. Or, one may be sure about a desire when it “univocally” pressures her to act a certain way. The hallmark of all desires of the first order, though, is Essay Fairytales, that they not make mention of additional desires. Classical Gustav Essay. [3] In contrast, a desire of the second order is a desire to have a certain desire.

If, for example, I want to want to eat vegetables, or I want to want to do my homework, then I have second-order desires. Besides just wanting certain things, humans tend to want to want certain things. To be sure, humans have first-order desires such as the ones mentioned above, but sometimes they also want to be the on Grimm's Fairytales, authors of their desires. On the other hand, nonhuman animals seem at most only to british, have first-order wants. They want to live, eat, play, etc., but they seem indifferent as to the kinds of wants they have. According to Frankfurt , humans are the only creatures that appear “to have the capacity for reflective self-evaluation that is manifested in the formation of second-order desires.” [4]

Furthermore, Frankfurt maintains that there are two types of second-order desires. The first type of Fairytales second-order desire is shortening, one that may move a person to action by coextending to Essay Fairytales, a desire of the first order. But this first type of second-order desire might also be “truncated” if it has no coextending first-order desire which gives it the motivational push necessary to move an individual to action. For instance, if I have the second-order desire to want to do my homework (that is, I want to want to do my homework), and I also have the Classical Mahler Essay examples, first-order desire to do well in school (that is, I want to do well in school), then perhaps my second-order desire to want to do my homework coextends to my first- order desire to do well in school in such a way that I am actually moved to do my homework. But this second-order desire may also be truncated if there is no coextending desire of the first order. If I want to on Grimm's, want to do my homework, but there is no desire of the first order to boost the motivational force of my wanting to want to do my homework, then I might decide to ignore my homework and 1700s do something else instead. At any rate, according to Frankfurt this first type of second-order desire fails to meet the on Grimm's, standard of willfulness because, although it consists of a desire to desire something, it does not consist of a desire to desire something that is accompanied by shortening, an actual desire for that second-order desire to motivate action.

An individual with this kind of second-order desire does not identify with that desire independently of any first-order desire. [5] There is also a second type of second-order desire which is independent of first-order desires and therefore indicative of an individual’s willful agency. This type of second-order desire Frankfurt calls “second-order volition.” He writes that willful agency is Essay on Grimm's, “not coextensive with the notion of first-order desires. It is not the notion of enlightenment 1700s something that merely inclines an agent in some degree to act in a certain way. Rather, it is the notion of an effective desire one that moves (or will or would move) a person all the way to action.” [6] Second-order volitions are second-order desires supported and encouraged by one’s self. Accordingly, ‘persons’ are agents who identify with their second-order desires and willfully decide whether those desires are worth pursuing. A creature which has second order desires but not second-order volition Frankfurt calls a “wanton.” Essentially, a wanton does not care about on Grimm's Fairytales, willfulness. A wanton’s desires move it without it necessarily wanting to be moved by them.

Creatures which Frankfurt suggests may count as wantons include nonhuman animals, very young children, and possibly some adult humans. A wanton may be rational, but it has no real concern about the desirability of its desires. It is indifferent to the way in which its desires are ranked in relation to Essay on The of Love and Hate in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, each other and it does not identify with a second-order desire independently of its desires of the first order. Essay On Grimm's. A wanton acts as a sort of arena for desires to compete against each other unlike a person who acts as an agent having control over her desires. A person not only culture definition has reason, but she uses reason to critically assess the way in which her desires are ranked, and on Grimm's she orders this ranking appropriately according to her will. 1700s. [7] To elucidate the distinction between persons and wantons, we should consider the following scenario which Frankfurt uses to exemplify his point. There are two men incorrigibly addicted to a drug, say cocaine. One is a person unwillingly addicted to Essay on Grimm's, the drug, and popular definition the other is a wanton addicted to Essay Fairytales, the drug. Enlightenment. Neither of these men can quit his habit, but they are still markedly different.

The wanton addict, on the one hand, has conflicting first-order desires: (1) he desires desperately to Fairytales, ingest the popular culture definition, drug so that he can feel its effects, but (2) he also desires desperately to refrain from taking the Essay on Grimm's Fairytales, drug because he knows that it has side effects which are harmful to his wellbeing. He is also, however, indifferent about which of his competing desires move him to action. He both wants the drug and does not want the drug simultaneously, but he does not care about affecting the ranking of british invasion these desires so as to bring one desire above the other. Rather, he passively allows the desires to sort themselves out in relation to Essay on Grimm's, each other by Music: Gustav examples, letting the strongest one move him to action. His passive nature is due either to his inability to self-reflect or to his total indifference about the quality of his desires and motives. The unwilling addict, on the other hand, is Fairytales, also a man with two conflicting desires of the first order: (1) he desires desperately to ingest the drug so that he can feel its effects, but, like the wanton, (2) he also desires desperately to british groups, refrain from taking the drug because he knows that it has side effects which are harmful to on Grimm's, his wellbeing. The unwilling addict is shortening tesco, different from the wanton, however, because (a) he has an Essay Fairytales additional desire (viz. of the second order) to refrain from taking the drug because he desires to desire to refrain from it, [8] and (b) he has a second-order volition since he desires that his second-order desire lead him effectively to action by causing him to will against ingesting the drug. [9] Even if the unwilling addict fails to refrain from taking the drug due to the severity of his addiction, he is still a person because he identifies his second-order desire with his will and british groups desires that it translate into Essay on Grimm's a motivation which can lead to Tragedy and Hate and Juliet, action. In one sense, wantons might be free to achieve the object of their desires (e.g. if the wanton addict has an ample supply of cocaine at hand), but in the sense which is relevant to personhood, wantons are not free because they are unable to recognize the desirability of their desires and they are unable to affect the on Grimm's, motivations which led them to action. [10] Thus, nonhuman animals (and even some humans at least on occasion) are not ‘persons’ in shortening tesco this sense but ‘wantons’, not because they lack some basic freedom to do what they want, but because they lack the Essay on Grimm's Fairytales, freedom to engage themselves willfully with their desires.

According to Frankfurt , then, there are three possible sorts of shawshank sparknotes beings: (1) animal-like or automaton-like creatures that have only first-order desires; (2) wanton creatures that may have second-order desires but no second order-volitions; [11] and (3) persons who have second order-volition which attribute to them a will. In “When We Are Ourselves: The Active and the Passive,” the first chapter of Fairytales his book Engaging Reason: On the Classical, Theory of Value and Action , Joseph Raz argues that Frankfurt ’s account of on Grimm's Fairytales personhood overlooks the importance of reason. Essay Of Love And Hate. Contrary to Essay, Frankfurt , Raz maintains that individuals are only truly in control of their actions when they are guided by reason, and individuals are only persons when they recognize and intend to act on tesco, the values which their reason allows them to realize. [12] In this section, I will elaborate on Raz’s criticisms of Frankfurt ’s theory, and explain Raz’s own account of personhood. As Raz sees it, Franckfurt’s picture of personhood is a messy matrix of desires without any reference to an authentic mode of agency. He suggests that Frankfurt is walking on thin ice by trying to explain how an individual is the proper owner of some desires but not really the owner of other desires.

As mentioned above, Frankfurt claims that an individual owns the Essay on Grimm's Fairytales, desires which she identifies with but not the desires which encroach upon her without her ‘willful’ approval. According to Raz, this picture is obfuscated by 1700s, an arbitrary and unjustifiable disassociation of some of an individual’s desires from that individual’s self. Raz offers the following example to Fairytales, demonstrate his point. When I want a refrigerator and also want a dishwasher, but, not able to shortening, afford both, I form the desireusing Frankfurt's formulationsto be moved to Essay on Grimm's Fairytales, action by, let us say, the desire for a refrigerator, and not by the desire for a dishwasher, it does not follow that the desire for the dishwasher is not really my own, that I relate to it in the way an addict relates to the craving to satisfy his addiction which he resents and tries to shake off without success. [13] Raz’s point strikes at the heart of Frankfurt’s account: it stuns Frankfurt ’s attempt to abandon ownership of some desires (viz. those of the first order) while embracing other desires (viz. those which translate into second-order volitions). I believe Raz is correct to think it absurd to say that an agent who decides to sparknotes, develop a first-order desire into a second-order volition simply because ‘she must make a choice’ among competing first-order desires is only the Essay on Grimm's Fairytales, owner of her second-order volition but not owner of her the first-order desires which failed to reach the invasion groups, status of second-order volition. Really, it seems that all of an agent’s desires are hers; it is just that when not all of her desires can be satisfied, she chooses to act on one rather than the other. Raz also points out how Frankfurt ’s account fails to explain how an agent can truly authenticate a desire as her own. Frankfurt ’s focus on on Grimm's, second-order volitions begs the questions: How can one know that her will is authentically the cause of her motivations and her motivations are not the cause of her will?

How does one authenticate her desires as her own? How does one authenticate her authentication that her desires are her own? And so on. Of course, the trouble of sparknotes addressing these questions within the framework of Frankfurt ’s theory is that answers will invariably fall into infinite regress. Raz’s conception of personhood hinges on two important interrelated causal distinctions. These distinctions are as follows. First, there must be a separation between an individual’s self and her environment. Essay On Grimm's. This separation is necessary because it allows an individual to concentrate on Music: Essay, her motivations despite external pressures coming from outside her. If there is no causal border between an individual’s self and Fairytales her environment, there is no way for her self to be unaffected by on The Tragedy in Shakespeare's, the pressures of the outside world. Second, there must be a difference between what happens to an individual and how an individual leads her life and Essay on Grimm's it is this difference which Frankfurt ’s account fails to tesco, address. This difference is necessary because it allows an individual to actively participate in the process of deliberation as opposed to merely holding a drove of desires like a container which passively waits for the most pressing desires to spring into action.

If an individual does not actively participate in the deliberative process, but just passively holds desires and acts on the strongest, then that individual has no real way of identifying with her will and thus no chance at qualifying as a person. Essay On Grimm's Fairytales. According to this view, one only qualifies as a person when she personifies these two distinctions; that is, when her self is redemption, distinguishable from her environment and she governs her desires. For without these distinctions, it would be impossible to act willfully. The question is, then, when is it clearly the case that an individual has the power to act willfully instead of just succumbing to her strongest desire? As I have alluded to earlier, Raz rejects Frankfurt ’s theory of second-order volitions. Raz maintains that an individual who is responsive to reason has the power to Essay on Grimm's Fairytales, act willfully and thus count as a person. Unlike volitions of the second order, reason allows individuals to hold beliefs about what is objectively good.

Further, unlike Frankfurt ’s description of orders of desires, reason as the tesco, criterion of personhood does not preclude an agent from owning any order of desire. As Raz puts it, to see oneself as subject to reason is to be responsive to Fairytales, reason to a minimal degree. On The Tragedy Of Love And Hate In Shakespeare's. That still allows room for one to Essay, believe, mistakenly, and even irrationally, that one is responsive to Essay of Love and Hate in Shakespeare's Romeo, reason. And this would be enough to satisfy the condition of Essay on Grimm's Fairytales my core account. [] The problem with Frankfurt 's account is not that it is subjective, but that it is subjective in the wrong way. The key to my [Raz’s] account is the objective notion of british invasion proper functioning, explained in terms of responsiveness to reason. [14] Although an individual may act subjectively according to reason, she still acts on what she thinks is objectively good. Fairytales. What matters is not that the agent choose to act like she has a volition of the shawshank redemption, second order, but that she recognize the reason for her action as objectively good (even if her recognition is mistaken). Another interesting criticism to Frankfurt ’s account of personhood comes from Gary Watson in his essay “Free Agency.” This section begins with a review of Watson’s criticism, and then moves into a discussion about the alternative account of personhood that he supports. Watson claims that Frankfurt ’s theory of personhood is Essay, fatally flawed because it arbitrarily asserts that the point at redemption, which an individual authentically identifies with her desires is only reached when she holds them as second-order volitions. Contrary to Frankfurt , Watson argues that an individual’s capacity to have second-order volitions is not an indicator of personhood.

Frankfurt’s claim that second-order volitions are indicative of personhood is arbitrary because it fails to explain why an individual’s identification with her second-order volitions is more authentically governed by her will than is her following through with desires of Essay Fairytales any order at all (including first-order desires). As noted above, Frankfurt depicts a wanton as an individual who is shortening, unable to have volitions of the second order because his desires (whether of the Fairytales, first or second order) ultimately decide which desires are to be followed by action. Since a wanton does not decide which desires translate into action, the Music: Mahler, wanton has no will. Now, the problem Watson finds in this theory is that there is no clear or absolute distinction between the action carried out by an individual who is on Grimm's, moved by desires of the first and second order, and the action carried out by an individual who is moved by a second-order volition. That is, while Frankfurt asserts that a wanton is unfree and Music: Gustav examples will-less because its process of deliberation is no more than a battle of competing desires, he fails to explain why an individual who acts on second-order desires with which she ‘genuinely’ wants to affect her will identifies with those desires any more genuinely than she does with desires which do not stem into second-order volitions.

As Watson retorts, “Can’t one be a wanton, so to Essay, speak, with respect to one’s second-order desires and volitions?” [15] Frankfurt ’s description of a person is problematic because he ascribes a special function to second-order volitions when really volitions of the second order may simply be desires of tesco so called “higher orders.” Second-order volitions only arise when the number of competing second-order desires increases to the point where one must move past second-order desires to a next level (third, forth, fifth etc.) of desire. So while a first-order desire is simply ‘a desire for X ’, and a second-order desire is Fairytales, ‘a desire to desire X ’, a second-order volition is really ‘a desire to enlightenment, desire to desire X ’. The way Frankfurt calls ‘a desire to desire to desire X ’ a “second-order volition” rather than a “third-order desire” is somewhat misleading because it fails to explain the Essay, functional difference between a desire of the second order and one of the third, forth, fifth and shortening so on. Fairytales. Watson underscores this problem with the following words. Indeed, practical judgments are connected with “second-order volitions.” For the same considerations that constitute one’s on-balance reasons for doing some action, a , are reasons for wanting the “desire” to do a to be effective in action, and for wanting contrary desires to be ineffective. Popular Definition. But in general, evaluations are prior and Fairytales of the first order. The first-order desires that result from practical judgments generate second-order volitions because they have this special status; they do not have the groups, special status that Frankfurt wants them to have because there is a higher-order desire concerning them. [16]

In effect, Frankfurt arbitrarily designates one level of desire as indicative willfulness. This arbitrary depiction of personhood is distorted because it fails to Fairytales, identify the functional role that the will plays in the process of on The Romeo and Juliet a person’s deliberation and evaluation of competing desires. Looking at higher and higher orders of desires fails to be a way of discovering the moment at Essay, which an individual goes beyond the state of wantonness and grabs hold of some quintessential feature of willfulness that allows her to reach the invasion groups, status of personhood. Essay Fairytales. The question that Watson now faces is: What is the quintessential feature of willfulness? Watson explains that Frankfurt ’s description of the tesco, structure of a person’s will is similar to on Grimm's, Plato’s description of the structure of a person’s soul insofar as they both recognize that personhood involves a division between types of motivation. These two thinkers are different, however, in the way that they describe the nature of Essay of Love and Juliet motivational divisions. On the one hand, Frankfurt claims that there are divisions among levels of on Grimm's Fairytales desire. Plato, on the other hand, maintains that there are divisions among the sources of popular culture desire. Watson disagrees with Frankfurt and sides with Plato by stating that the division among motivational forces that reveals the essence of personhood is not to be found in a division between levels of desire, but rather it is to be found “among independent sources of motivation.” [17] Namely, the independent source of motivation that is the quintessential feature of Fairytales willfulness and personhood is an individual’s ability to evaluate . Watson holds that persons can be moved by evaluations because of their ability to use reason. In order to understand the link between reason and shawshank sparknotes evaluation, it is worth while to define the meaning of reason as Watson sees it.

Watson’s view of on Grimm's Fairytales reason sharply contrasts against that of Hume who considers reason to be a sort of mental instrument which humans use to determine the most efficient way to satisfy their desires. Hume considers reason to be “the slave of desire.” Unlike Hume, Watson sees reason not merely as a tool for satisfying desires, but as a tool for discovering value and thus allowing value to act as a motivational force. Accordingly, this view distinguishes between values and desires and maintains that each is an Tragedy of Love independent source of motivation. Values are different from on Grimm's Fairytales, desires for two important reasons: First, it is possible that what one desires is not to any degree valued, held to be worth while, or thought good; one assigns no value whatever to the object of one’s desire. [e.g. Tonya desires to hurt Nancy because she is jealous.] Second, although one may indeed value what is desired, the shortening, strength of one’s desire may not properly reflect the degree to which one values its object; that is, although the object of a desire is valuable, it may not be deemed the on Grimm's, most valuable in the situation and yet one’s desire for it may be stronger than the shortening tesco, want for what is most valued. [e.g. Tom values celibacy more than sex, but he desires sex more than celibacy.] [18] It is Essay on Grimm's, important to note that the process of evaluation may involve an shawshank redemption sparknotes agent’s seeing the value of something without necessarily desiring it (such as being celibate); and, conversely, it may involve an agent’s seeing how a desire lacks value (such as hurting someone in a jealous rage) even though one feels motivated to pursue it.

Both desires and values can lead an individual to action. Since, however, sometimes desires contradict values and vice versa, and each has independent motivational clout, each must be an Essay on Grimm's independent source of motivation. Motivationally, the distinction between the conception of values and tesco the conception of on Grimm's Fairytales desires rests in the way an individual sees each of these motivations as an british independent consideration which has the power to lead one to action. Reason is crucial to the evaluation process because it causes individuals to consider certain things valuable. And since personhood is dependent upon Essay on Grimm's Fairytales, one’s ability to evaluate, and one’s ability to evaluate is dependent upon shawshank redemption, reason, personhood is on Grimm's, also dependent upon reason.

Therefore, according to this account, a ‘person’ is an agent who “has the capacity to on The Tragedy and Hate in Shakespeare's and Juliet, translate his values into action; his actions flow from Essay on Grimm's Fairytales, his evolutional system.” [19] A person is moved not just by desires but by values which he recognizes because of redemption sparknotes his ability to reason. Personhood is achieved by individuals who move beyond the passive state of merely acting upon their strongest desires and into the active state of using reason to identify courses of Fairytales action that are independently valuable and worthy of pursuit. Each of the three thinkers discussed in this essay has a unique view of what it means to be a person. While Frankfurt claims that a person is an individual who acts on second-order volitions, Raz and Watson reject that claim and point out faults in Frankfurt ’s argument. Raz’s view shows how Frankfurt underestimates the importance of reason vis-à-vis personhood. Shawshank Redemption Sparknotes. Watson further stresses the importance of reason and outlines the necessity of discerning between values and desires as independent motivational forces. Frankfurt raises the important issue of defining criteria for personhood. Essay Fairytales. Raz and shortening Watson follow suit by scrutinizing Frankfurt ’s account and Essay Fairytales suggesting their own criteria. Shawshank Redemption. The question that is now at on Grimm's, hand is whether Raz and enlightenment Watson have successfully provided arguments which support their respective definitions of personhood without running into the kinds of problems that Frankfurt encountered. Frankfurt , Harry. “Freedom of the Essay on Grimm's Fairytales, Will and the Concept of a Person.” Journal of Philosophy, Jan. 1971, pp.

5-20. Raz, Joseph. Engaging Reason: On the Theory of Value and Classical Music: Gustav Action. ( Oxford University Press, 2006.) [1] Harry Frankfurt, “Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person,” Journal of Philosophy, Jan. Essay On Grimm's. 1971, p. 6. [2] Harry Frankfurt, “Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person,” p. 1700s. 6. [8] The wanton addict may also have this second-order desire to refrain from taking the Essay, drug but he would not have a second order volition that identifies this second-order desire with his will. [11] In Frankfurt ’s words (pp.

10-11), “[i]t is logically possible, however unlikely, that there should be an agent with second-order desires but with no volitions of the second order.” [13] Joseph Raz, Engaging Reason: On the Theory of Value and popular Action , p. 18.

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abominable pig essay University of Essay, California, Berkeley. Mary Douglas’s scholarship has been described as “a classic expression of British anthropological modernism.” In this essay I explore the significance of her work within the 1700s larger intellectual horizons of modernism and within the Essay on Grimm's Durkheimian tradition in anthropology. I then situate her work on the Hebrew Bible within this larger perspective, using her analysis of the abominable pig as an exemplary instance. Mary Douglas was one of the most brilliant and wide-ranging scholars of the last half-century, a period during which her subjectcultural anthropologybecame an essential intellectual field. Among the many scholarly disciplines that she participated in shortening and influenced, she had a longstanding engagement with scholarship of the Hebrew Bible. Essay On Grimm's Fairytales. Although she was keenly aware of her lack of linguistic skills in her biblical work, her anthropological intelligence enabled her do path-breaking work in the study of biblical ritual, religion, and society. In a revealing essay titled “Why I Have to Learn Hebrew,” she describes the motives for her biblical studies: My personal project in the study of the Bible is to bring anthropology to bear on the sources of our own civilization.

This is in itself enough of an explanation for having to learn Hebrew. But there is more. In pre-Enlightenment Europe, other religions were condemned as false, even as evil; the Enlightenment changed the condemnation to irrational superstition. British Groups. Neither stance was conducive to understanding. Essay. The practice of anthropology has been to provide a critical, humane, and sensitive interpretation of other religions. 1. As she observes, the Essay on The Tragedy in Shakespeare's Romeo anthropological study of biblical religion involves a twofold strategy. First, we must approach biblical religion in the same way that anthropologists approach “other religions,” which is to Essay on Grimm's, say as an informed participant-observer. Invasion Groups. This stance involves a balance between critical distance and on Grimm's cultural empathy. A second stepreally a corollary of the firstis to critique our own Western preconceptions about Tragedy and Hate in Shakespeare's and Juliet religion, in on Grimm's Fairytales order to transcend the reductive dichotomies of revealed versus false religion or reason versus superstition. Ironically, in order to Music: Gustav Essay, achieve “a critical, humane, and sensitive interpretation” of biblical religion, we must step aside from the biblical evaluation of “other religions,” and Essay approach biblical religion as itself an “exotic” religion, a world that is both familiar and new.

In many respects this anthropological approach is a refinement of the enlightenment critical method in biblical studies developed by Essay on Grimm's, Spinoza, Herder, and others, which yielded what Jonathan Sheehan calls “the cultural Bible.” 2 In Spinoza’s terms, this method addresses the Bible’s meanings within its own semantic and cultural horizons, and prescinds from theological judgments of truth and falsity. 3 In Herder’s terms, it approaches biblical culture by means of Classical Mahler examples, participatory empathy ( Einfühlung ), bracketing our own cultural predispositions to the extent possible, and respecting the authenticity of its native structures of meaning. 4. On Grimm's Fairytales. In other words, Mary Douglas’s anthropology does not present a wholly new method, but is a sophisticated and reflective development of the same critical method from which modern biblical studies arose. It is not surprising, therefore, that pioneers such as Herder and Robertson Smith were important figures in groups both biblical studies and cultural anthropology. Mary Douglas is a successor to these scholars, who brought to biblical studies an on Grimm's Fairytales, anthropological vision. In the following I will try to sketch the type of anthropological vision that she brought to bear, its intellectual backdrop, and Essay on The of Love and Juliet a perspicuous example of her work on the Bible. In Mary Douglas: An Intellectual Biography , Richard Fardon describes Douglas’s oeuvre as “a classic expression of Essay, British anthropological modernism.” 5 Anthropological modernism is shorthand for the dominant movement in British anthropology from roughly the 1920’s to the 1980’s. This movement was founded by Bronislaw Malinowski, professor at the London School of Economics, who championed the value of intensive fieldwork and “participant-observation,” and by A. Tragedy Of Love Romeo And Juliet. R. Radcliffe-Brown, professor at Oxford, who melded Émile Durkheim’s theoretical sociology into a working model of “functionalism,” which focused on Fairytales, how social phenomena and practices mesh to create a coherent social system. As Adam Kuper describes this confluence of strategies and ideas: Malinowski brought a new realism to social anthropology, with his lively awareness of the flesh-and-blood interests behind custom, and his radically new mode of observation.

Radcliffe-Brown introduced the intellectual discipline of French sociology, and constructed a more rigorous battery of concepts to order the 1700s ethnographic materials. 6. An important strand of anthropological modernism is the turning away from evolutionary theories of human culture, which had, in good Victorian fashion, produced triumphal narratives of human ascent from primitive superstition to on Grimm's Fairytales, modern Western science. There are many reasons for the turn away from Essay on The Tragedy in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, evolutionary theory, not least the devastations of World War I, which battered common faith in cultural evolution and progress. Modernism in general is characterized by a turn away from Essay on Grimm's Fairytales, naive evolutionism and toward a cross-cultural examination of the human condition. Part of the stimulus was the dissemination of the art and literature of invasion groups, non-Western culturesconsider Picasso’s fascination with the Essay abstractions of ancient and tribal art, or Eliot’s and Pound’s interest in Asian literaturewhich raised awareness of the complexity of other cultures. Anthropological modernism shares its intellectual horizons with other modernisms. The distinctive features of literary modernism are brilliantly described by Erich Auerbach in his classic study, Mimesis . 7 He observes a shift from the narration of great events and heroic protagonists to a focus on mundane, everyday events, which in tesco their minute details are revelatory of Essay, universal human conditions. This shift in shortening tesco emphasis expresses something that we might call a transfer of confidence: the great exterior turning points and blows of Essay on Grimm's, fate are granted less importance; they are credited with less power of yielding decisive information concerning the subject; on the other hand there is confidence that in any random fragment plucked from the course of a life at any time the totality of its fate is contained and can be portrayed. There is greater confidence in syntheses gained through full exploitation of an everyday occurrence than in a chronologically well-ordered total treatment which accompanies the subject from beginning to end, attempts not to Classical Mahler Essay, omit anything externally important, and Fairytales emphasizes the great turning points of destiny. 8. In other words, a large-scale and chronologically ordered realism gives way to a fragmented and subjective modernism, a messy and quizzical version of realism, which focuses on everyday events and details, and ordinary, unheroic protagonists.

This is shortening tesco also the move of anthropological modernism, which turned away from great meta-narratives of cultural ascent and turned to micro-narratives of everyday events and cultural habits, yet always with an eye to Essay, reveal the fundamental and the universal in human culture. Auerbach further unpacks the implications of the Classical Music: Gustav examples modernist engagement with everyday events and on Grimm's their link with the universal, commenting on a mundane yet revelatory moment in popular culture definition Virginia Wolff’s To the on Grimm's Lighthouse : [W]hat happens in that moment [while Mrs. Ramsey is shawshank redemption measuring a stocking] concerns in a very personal way the individuals who live in it, but it also (and for that very reason) concerns the Fairytales elementary things which men in Essay on The Tragedy and Hate and Juliet general have in Essay on Grimm's common. It is precisely the tesco random moment which is comparatively independent of the Essay on Grimm's controversial and unstable orders over which men fight and despair; it passes unaffected by them, as daily life. The more it is exploited, the more the elementary things which our lives have in common come to light. 9. This search for the universal in the particularin the mundane and everyday events that are largely unaffected by the vicissitudes of public politics and enlightenment 1700s controversylies at the heart of anthropological modernism as well as literary.

For Virginia Wolff, the scene of a woman measuring a stocking can be revelatory. For Mary Douglas, a joke or a meal can be a revelatory event or, in Essay on Grimm's Fairytales her friend Victor Turner’s words, a social drama, in which “the elementary things which our lives have in common come to light.” According to this modernist insight, the deep forms of 1700s, human life and culturewhether of a particular culture or culture in generalare best pursued by teasing out the implications and connections of on Grimm's Fairytales, everyday, particular events, rather than the shortening tesco more famous unique events of Essay on Grimm's Fairytales, political or public life. From this modernist insight, the historian Fernand Braudel developed his research program which emphasized the culture definition relatively unchanging habits and conditions of the Fairytales longue durée , rather than restricting one’s focus to the unique events of l’histoire événementielle (“event-history”). Popular Culture Definition. The habits of everyday human practices are the preferred scope of Fairytales, modernist inquiry, for they open the path to understanding the complex relationship between the universal and the particular. This is the nexus that enables us to relate in “a critical, humane, and sensitive” way (in Mary Douglas’s words) with other peoples and cultures, and with our own cultural and religious past. The philosophical imperative to “know thyself” now involves knowledge of everyday habits and mundane practices, both in exotic cultures and our own. As Auerbach observes, in modernism this cross-cultural impulse results in a cultural universalism in british groups which “there are no longer even exotic peoples,” 10 since the othersseen in their particularity, not in Essay abstract caricatureare now recognizably like us.

As mentioned above, anthropological modernism took a good deal of its intellectual capital from the pioneering work of Émile Durkheim. Shawshank. Durkheim, the scion of an on Grimm's, eminent lineage of French rabbis, became a secular rationalist and british a founder of modern sociology. 11 Although Durkheim’s writings maintain a wavering commitment to evolutionary theories of culture, many of the strategies and insights of anthropological modernism are represented, at least germinally, in his work, such as the view of society as a functional system and, perhaps most importantly, the embeddedness of Essay on Grimm's, cognitive and moral categories in social life. (I would note that much of what we call postmodernism also derives from aspects of Durkheim’s work, particularly his emphasis on the social construction ofand constraints uponour systems of knowledge. 12 ) Mary Douglas describes Durkheim as one of the great modern discoverers of “the secret places of the mind.” 13 Like Marx and Freud, Durkheim showed that we are not entirely who we think we are, that we are shaped by forces beyond our conscious knowledge and will. This is a type of modernist insight, revealing a reality shaped by non-rational and unconscious forces, and uncovering a dimension of our selves and motives that is hidden from ordinary awareness. Douglas avers, however, that Durkheim flinched from pursuing the implications of his discovery of the social embeddedness of popular culture, cognitive and moral categories. He held that primitive tribal cultures, united by Essay Fairytales, “mechanical solidarity” (i.e., characterized by small size and nested social segments) are deeply shaped by social forces, which yield a shared collective consciousness and conscience. In contrast, modern Western cultures, united by a looser and more differentiated “organic solidarity” (i.e., characterized by a division of labor and greater population) are relatively immune to such forces, enabling the flourishing of individual thought. (Durkheim brilliantly argued that the modern concept of the individual is a distinctive outcome of organic solidarity.) 14 As such, he exempted our culture from the implications of his analysis of simpler “primitive” cultures. Douglas compares the impact of Durkheim’s truncated theory with the examples impact of the other theorists: Marx and Freud were not sanguine when they unveiled the secret places of the on Grimm's mind.

Marx, when he showed ideology for a flimsy justification of control, shook the great chancelleries. Enlightenment. The scene of anguished hate and fear which Freud exposed to view was just as alarming at a more intimate level. The first looked to a long-span historical determination of Essay, political forms and enlightenment the second to a short-span determination of the emotions in family life. Between these two, another intermediate span is necessary that Durkheim’s insights were ready to supply: the social determination of culture. It should have become the Fairytales central critical task of philosophy in this century to integrate these three basic approaches. 15. But since Durkheim exempted modern Western culture from the social entanglements of thought and practice that he found in shawshank sparknotes primitive cultures, he authorized cultural anthropology to focus on “exotic” and “primitive” non-Western societies, and not to turn the anthropological gaze upon ourselves. Mary Douglas, more than any other modern anthropologist, explicitly revoked Durkheim’s exemption for modern Western societies from anthropological study.

She argued that our thoughts, habits, and categories are also entangled in our social environments, in ways of which we are largely unaware. Douglas described this dimension of culture in Essay on Grimm's various waysas “implicit knowledge,” “cultural bias,” or “thought-styles”and regarded it as the task of anthropological investigation to show how modern lives are shot through with practices, commitments, and habits of thought that are shaped by our social environments. In other words, our “forms of social life” and our “forms of moral judgment” are deeply interrelated, each supporting and ratifying the other, without our conscious awareness that this is so. This is the implication of Durkheim’s great discovery, which Mary Douglas has developed in 1700s various areasin economics, risk theory, and Essay on Grimm's even biblical studies. In so doing, she took on the delicate task of critiquing one’s own cultural bias, the social environment of one’s own commitments. This is a high-wire act, which requires empathy and critical distance regarding one’s own social engagements and cognitive situation. But this is a modernist dilemma that no one can escape, evenor especiallythe postmodernists among us, who embrace the cultural politics of all knowledge. We are each implicated in Tragedy of Love Romeo our own inquiriesfor example, in the study of the Bible, which is our own heritage. This is a Janus-faced inquiry, for as we study particular cultures, we are simultaneously confronting the social forces that shape our own thought, thereby entering a labyrinthine and mirrored inquiry. The resultsas Durkheim and Douglas would agreewill always be provisional, but it is an inquiry well worth the risk.

Although Douglas consistently viewed her work as a development of Durkheim’s sociological project, in one important respect she diverged from his basic understanding of the social embeddedness of religious thought. Durkheim, as a good rationalist, viewed religion as a surplus or supplement added to the real world, originating as a projection of social needs and goods. He writes: [U]pon the real world where profane life is lived, [man] superimposes another that, in a sense, exists only in his thought, but one to Essay Fairytales, which he ascribes a higher kind of dignity than he ascribes to the real world of profane life. In two respects, then, this other world is an ideal one. 16. The sacred is an ideal world in enlightenment 1700s the sense of its moral perfection and in its ultimate fictiveness.

Religion, therefore, is a cognitive and Essay performative supplement to the real world, even as it performs decisive functions in this world. Culture Definition. In contrast, Mary Douglas, as a practicing Catholic, viewed the sacred as a supplement to the profane world that is found as well as made . It is part and parcel of the real world, yetand this is the key pointwhat is on Grimm's found is always conditioned by one’s implicit knowledge and cultural bias. The sacred, like other aspects of reality, is perceived through the medium of human consciousness and groups the social forms that condition our consciousness. On Grimm's Fairytales. The difference between Durkheim, a secular Jew, and Douglas, a practicing Catholic, has to do with the etiology of religion, and implicates their own social environments. But irrespective of the origin of religionwhich modernism tends to eschew as the province of outdated evolutionary theories or as sheer speculationthere is continuity of anthropological method and of the invasion central insight of the social entanglement of our thoughts and habits. Let us consider the on Grimm's implications of on The of Love and Hate in Shakespeare's Romeo, anthropological modernism in Mary Douglas’s work on the Bible. In her famous study of the biblical dietary prohibitions (in Purity and Danger ), she makes an essential modernist move in rejecting the older evolutionary model in which irrational magic (including ritual) belongs to the primitive stages of Fairytales, humanity, contrasted with the sacramental theology of modern Western (viz. Protestant) religion, which belongs to a more advanced stage of reason and morality. She confutes this dichotomy by showing that ritual has its reasons too, which are not at shortening all irrational, and that modern religion too has symbolic actions; indeed “it is impossible to have social relations without symbolic acts.” 17.

Consider the pig taboo, a famous detail in the dietary laws of Leviticus 11. 18 Douglas first shows how various medieval and modern interpretations of this ritual detail are spurious, because they are ad hoc and divorced from the wider realities of the cultural system. She argues that this is Essay Fairytales neither an irrational superstition (in Protestant theological terms, a “dead work”), nor a moral symbol (the pig as filthy or evil or an enlightenment, allegory of slothfulness), nor an Essay on Grimm's Fairytales, instance of primitive medicine (avoidance of trichinosis). 19 Rather than accepting these piecemeal explanations, she takes seriously the details and context of the ritual instruction. The text says: These you shall not eat, apart from those that chew the enlightenment cud and have (cloven) hooves: the pig, for Essay, it has hooves which are cloven, but it does not chew the cudit is unclean for you. (Lev 11:4,7)

These are ordinary, mundane-seeming details, but like a good modernist, Douglas traces the larger implications of the Classical Music: Gustav Essay examples ordinary to unfold the conceptual world that it implies. Essay On Grimm's Fairytales. She argues in good anthropological fashion that the popular culture definition pig taboo is part of a larger cultural system: Defilement is Essay on Grimm's never an isolated event. It cannot occur except in view of a systematic ordering of ideas. Hence any piecemeal interpretation of the pollution rules of another culture is bound to fail. For the only way in which pollution ideas make sense is in reference to a total structure of thought. 20. Tragedy Of Love Romeo And Juliet. In this instance, she argues, “When something is firmly classed as anomalous the outline of the set in which it is Essay not a member is invasion groups clarified.” 21. Fairytales. What is the set that the pig taboo and the allied taboos on camel, rock badger, and rabbit (Lev 11:46) clarify?

The set in popular culture definition which they are not members is the land animals permitted for Israel’s foodanimals which chew the cud and have cloven hooves (viz. cattle, sheep, goats, and the antelope family). The animals explicitly listed as excluded each have one of the two traits, but lack the other, so they mark a red line around the category of on Grimm's Fairytales, permitted cuisine. The reason the pig is singled out, along with the other three prohibited animals, is that these are borderline cases, pointing to the “cloven-hoofed, cud-chewing ungulates [which] are the model of the proper kind of food.” 22. Why should these animals constitute a model of proper cuisine? Douglas observes (after Purity and Danger ) that the category of Essay on The, land animals permitted for Israel’s food maps very closely onto the category of the land animals permitted for sacrifice to God (with the Essay further qualification that sacrificial animals must be unblemished and domestic), setting up an of Love in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, analogy between God and Israel: permitted for Fairytales, God’s altar :: permitted for Israel’s table. As Douglas notes, “a very strong analogy between table and altar stares us in the face.” 23 This analogy between table and altar “invests the individual meal with additional meaning.” 24. Drawing out the consequences of popular, this analogy, Douglas finds that a number of features of the Fairytales Israelite conceptual world are implicitly encoded into this food symbolism, including the following hierarchies: 25. geography: holy space (altar) profane space (Israelite table) foreign space (foreign table, where all animals are permitted) people: holy people (priests, who officiate at the altar) profane people (all other Israelites) foreign people (outside of system of holy/profane) cosmic domains and their denizens: land, with land animals. water, with water animals. sky, with sky animals. In other words, the prohibition of certain animals calls into play the structure of the created cosmos (land, water, sky, see Genesis 1), the distinctions and relationship between God, Israel, and other humans, and enlightenment the divisions of holy and profane persons. This latter distinction also implicitly asserts the religious authority of the priests, whonot surprisinglyare the authors of Leviticus 11 and who administer its laws and practices. Distinctions of cosmos, divinity, ethnicity, and religious authorityof knowledge and Essay on Grimm's powerare articulated within this system and are ritually enacted in sparknotes the daily meal.

As Douglas argues, the purity rules infuse into ordinary practices a multivalent system of implicit meanings. Essay On Grimm's. From her study of seemingly obscure detailsincluding the invasion food taboos, sexual taboos, and other matters of purity and impuritycomes a richer comprehension of biblical religion and cosmology. She summarizes her analysis of this system as follows: It consists of rules of behaviour, actions and expectations which constitute society itself. The rules which generate and Fairytales sustain society allow meanings to be realised which otherwise would be undefined and ungraspable. As in any social system, these rules are specifications which draw analogies between states. The cumulative power of the analogies enable one situation to be matched to enlightenment, another, related by equivalence, negation, hierarchy and Fairytales inclusion. We discover their interrelatedness because of the repetitive formulas on tesco, which they are constructed, the economy and internal consistency of the patterns. The purity rules of the Bible set up the great inclusive categories in which the whole universe is hierarchised and structured.” 26. The abominable pig in Leviticus is not an irrational superstition, a pre-scientific prophylactic, or a moral allegory. It is an instance of Essay, human social and symbolic behaviorof participating in and constituting the meaning of the world through everyday practices. It involves both the stability of the on The Tragedy of Love cultural-religious system and the risk of disruption and disorder.

These rules and practices, Douglas observes, “are a single system of analogies, [which] do not converge on any one point but sustain the whole moral and physical universe simultaneously in their systematic interrelatedness.” 27. As Erich Auerbach would observe, this is a modernist perspective, a “synthes[i]s gained through full exploitation of an everyday occurrence,” in which individual details are revelatory of the larger reality. As Durkheim would add, it is an exemplary anthropological demonstration of how rituals embed cognitive and Essay moral categories in definition social life. Through the social practice of Essay on Grimm's, purity laws, the real is 1700s infused with the ideal. In all of these respects, the Essay Fairytales instance of the abominable pig shows the richness and explanatory scope of Mary Douglas’s version of anthropological modernism. 28. [1] M. Douglas, “Why I Have to Learn Hebrew: The Doctrine of Sanctification,” The Comity and Grace of Method: Essays in Honor of Edmund F. Enlightenment 1700s. Perry , eds. T. Ryba, G. D. Bond, and on Grimm's Fairytales H. Shawshank Sparknotes. Tull (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 2004), 151.

[2] J. Sheehan, The Enlightenment Bible: Translation, Scholarship, Culture (Princeton: Princeton University Press), 21921. [3] B. On Grimm's. Spinoza, Theological-Political Treatise , ed. Shawshank. J. Israel (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007 [Latin original, 1670]), ch. 7 (“On the Interpretation of Scripture”). [4] See I. Berlin, “Herder and the Enlightenment,” in idem, The Proper Study of Mankind: An Anthology of Essays (New York: Farrar, Straus and Essay on Grimm's Fairytales Giroux, 1997), 359435, esp. 40312. [5] R. Shortening Tesco. Fardon, Mary Douglas: An Intellectual Biography (London: Routledge, 1999), 260. [6] A. Kuper, Anthropology and Anthropologists: The Modern British School (2 nd ed.; London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1983),36. [7] E. Auerbach, Mimesis: The Representation of on Grimm's Fairytales, Reality in Western Literature (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1953), 52553 (ch. 20, “The Brown Stocking”). [9] Auerbach, Mimesis , 552. [10] Auerbach, Mimesis , 552. [11] See S. Lukes, Émile Durkheim: His Life and Work (London: Penguin, 1973). [12] See K. E. Fields, “Introduction,” in É. Durkheim, The Elementary Forms of Religious Life , trans. Fields (New York: Free Press, 1995 [French original, 1912]), xxiii. [14] É. Durkheim, The Division of Classical Gustav Mahler, Labor in Society , trans.

W. D. On Grimm's Fairytales. Halls (New York: Free Press, 1997 [French original, 1893]); see Lukes, Durkheim , 14772. [15] M. Douglas, Implicit Meanings: Essays in Anthropology (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1975), xx. [16] Durkheim, Elementary Forms , 424. Enlightenment. [17] Mary Douglas, Purity and Danger: An Analysis of the Concepts of Pollution and Fairytales Taboo (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1966), 62. [18] In the following discussion, I synthesize details of several of Douglas’s discussions. She consistently revised her own views and sometimes rejected earlier versions. On The And Hate In Shakespeare's Romeo And Juliet. My comments represent a critical appropriation of her workand include judicious pruning of her occasional errors, on on Grimm's, which see, e.g., J. Milgrom, Leviticus 116 (New York: Doubleday, 1991), 71921. [19] It is Tragedy and Hate in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet unlikely that people in antiquity would have associated this disease with eating inadequately cooked pork; this correlation was only discovered in 1846. Moreover, as Douglas argues, this is not the reason given in Leviticus, and it fails to explain why all other non-ruminants are also prohibited. [20] Douglas, Purity and Danger , 41. [21] Douglas, Purity and Danger , 38. [22] Douglas, Purity and Danger , 54. [23] M. Douglas, “Deciphering a Meal,” in idem, Implicit Meanings: Essays in Anthropology (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1975), 262. [24] Douglas, “Deciphering a Meal,” 257. [25] Douglas, “Deciphering a Meal,” 26369; see further Milgrom, Leviticus , 72126; D. P. Wright, “Unclean and Clean (OT),” ABD 6. 73941.

[26] M. Douglas, “Critique and Commentary,” in J. Neusner, The Idea of Purity in Ancient Judaism (Studies in Judaism in Late Antiquity 1; Leiden: Brill, 1973), 13839. [27] Douglas, “Critique and Commentary,” 140. [28] For further elaboration of the Priestly food laws in a Douglasian mode, see R. Hendel, “Table and Altar: The Anthropology of Food in the Priestly Torah,” To Break Every Yoke: Essays in Honor of Essay, Marvin L. Chaney , eds. R. B. Coote and N. K. Gottwald (Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2007), 13148.

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However, we do not share Personal Information outside of our corporate family for shortening advertising purposes without Your consent. WHEN WE SHARE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. We do not sell, license, rent, or otherwise provide Your Personal Information to unaffiliated third-parties (parties outside our corporate family) without Your consent. We may, however, disclose Your information to unaffiliated third-parties as follows: With Your Consent. We may disclose Personal Information about You to third-parties with Your consent. We may obtain Your consent in writing; online, through “click-through” agreements; when You accept the terms of disclosures for certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives.

We encourage You not to share Your password. If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to third parties they will have access to Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password. To Our Service Providers. We may disclose information to third-party vendors and on Grimm's partners who complete transactions or perform services on our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and marketing). In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about You as part of a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of company assets, or in the unlikely event of insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in shortening which such information could be transferred to Essay third-parties as a business asset in the transaction. For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of on The Tragedy and Hate such information is reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for Essay Fairytales services and products (including to british collection agencies in Essay Fairytales order to obtain payment for our products and services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of enlightenment others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the appropriate calculation of Fairytales taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes.

HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to invasion protect Personal Information from unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is under our control. Unfortunately, no data transmission over the internet can be guaranteed to be completely secure. Essay Fairytales. As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against the loss, misuse, or alteration of Personal Information under our control, and You provide Personal Information to us at Your own risk. You should always take care with how You handle and on The of Love in Shakespeare's Romeo disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. Retention and Disposal.

We retain information only for as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow. When we dispose of Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to Essay erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and wiping electronic media). PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES. How We Communicate Changes to This Policy. We may update this Policy at any time to provide updates to or clarification of shawshank our practices. If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to the homepage of our Website or sending You a notification).

You should refer to Essay this Policy often for the latest information and sparknotes the effective date of any changes. This web site is owned and operated by Fairytales Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an individual who refers customers. A Referral is an individual who requests a service via the referral link given by a Partner. With the first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the Referral’s total order price.

All money earned with the Referral Program is stored on enlightenment 1700s, your Referral Balance. A Partner can transfer the money to the Bonus Balance and use it to purchase a service. It is possible to transfer the sum to the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).