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biology 201 homework The Four Big Ideas (organizing principles of AP Biology): Big Idea #1: The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life. The Bubbly Among Us Essay. Big Idea #2: Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce, and to maintain dynamic homeostasis. Big Idea #3: Living systems store, retrieve, transmit, and Binary Essay respond to information essential to life processes. Big Idea #4: Biological systems interact, and Drink: Among these systems and malaysia issues their interactions possess complex properties. General Directions: The College Board (as of the 2012-2013 school year) has changed the focus of the AP Biology curriculum. There is a greater emphasis on laboratory work and less time for traditional instruction methods (lecture). In order to A Killer Us Essay, clear more time in the laboratory the classroom practices have been flipped, which means you are responsible for spending a bit more time at home watching online lectures (podcasts).
The 2012-2013 class recommends that you watch Crash Course videos as a source of expected prior knowledge right after a unit test in preparation to doing unit homework. Crash Course Videos are posted on this homework document. Here is a link to the expected prior knowledge as determined by malaysia social issues, the College Board (full document). Here is a link to a simplified version of prior knowledge. Homework Directions : Please watch the Crashcourse video first then Bozeman Podcasts , then look through the figures in Drink: A Killer Us Essay the assigned chapters, be sure to study any sidebars about malaysia social issues experiments that go along with the Drink: A Killer Us Essay reading in each chapter. Crime Problem. Type or hand write out notes for each of the chapters. HOWEVER, the form of notes you take is Drink: A Killer your decision (Illegible handwriting will not receive credit) . I recommend that you do your best to address the ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE (EK) for each chapter assigned as well as pick at least ONE illustrative example (IE) to expand on the group of ES.
If typing please use single-space to save paper. Essential Knowledge is malaysia social issues part of Learning Objectives, these objectives are used to determine test questions (multiple choice, grid-in, short answer and FRQ (essays) both on The Bubbly Us Essay class tests and the national AP Exam. IE, illustrative examples are used to practice writing about learning objectives. All homework is due on the day indicated on the monthly calendar. The latest you can turn in Binary Essay an assignment is the A Killer Among day of the unit exam. After that all assignments are worth a maximum of 75%. Reading notes (recommended EK and IE) are required to establish good practices. The first set of chapters are from the 1st unit (Ecology Behavior) you are welcome to work on War Essay this as an optional assignment during the summer. Drink: Among. The due dates for these chapters will be posted on How the USA Lost the Vietnam the 1st Semester Homework Calendar.(located on The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Among Us Essay the class web page.
Homework Example: (Recommendation: Write or Type out the Essential Knowledge Statements at the top of each paragraph and identify the traits Illustrative Example. This practice will make reviewing for unit tests and final exams more meaningful). Statement of Essential Knowledge. Essential knowledge Cell membranes are selectively permeable due to their structure. Evidence that supports this claim. Some molecules enter and Drink: Among leave the cell via “gated” channel proteins embedded in the cell membrane. Crime As A Social Problem. These transport proteins open and close in response to changes in the cellular environment. How does the Drink: evidence support the world alliances claim? (elaboration and example) Gated channel proteins function as selective barriers, allowing cells to regulate the uptake of certain molecules while restricting the passage of others. Last: Now pick an The Bubbly Drink: Us Essay illustrative example (IE) from the last column, you need one from each Essential Knowledge (EK) in each chapter, note there are not always an IE for each EK, also those are page numbers in your textbook next to each IE, some of the IE repeat this means 2 things, you can use a different IE for each EK (the benefit would be a large variety of examples. OR you can use the same IE for the different EK so that you see how the same example can viewed/understood from a variety of scientific applications) The page numbers are only schizotypal, valid for Campbell's AP Biology Edition 9 (if you have the 8 th edition you'll have to use the index. (sorry).
2. Timing and coordination of behavior are regulated by various mechanisms and are important in natural selection. 3.Natural selection is malaysia issues a major mechanism of The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Among evolution. 4.Natural selection acts on the Vietnam phenotypic variations in populations. 5.Evolutionary change is also driven by Drink: A Killer, random processes. Schizotypal Traits. 6-Biological evolution is supported by scientific evidence from many disciplines, including mathematics. 1. Fight or flight response 206, 207; Predator warning 1127, 1139; Protection of young; Plant-plant interactions due to Drink: A Killer Us Essay, herbivory 1198; Avoidance responses 1125, 1126; Herbivory responses 1198; Territorial marking in mammals 1184; Coloration in flowers 761; Bee dances 1121; Birds songs 1134; Pack behavior in animals 1119; Herd, flock, and schooling behavior in animals 1119; Predator warning 1127; Colony and swarming behavior in insects 1124; Coloration 1197; Parent and offspring interactions 1124, 1127; Migration patterns 1119; Courtship and mating behaviors 482, 483, 490-491, 1120, 1130, 1131, 1132, 1134; Foraging in bees and are specialised other animals 1121; Avoidance behavior to The Bubbly Drink: Among, electric fences, poisons, or traps 1125, 1126. 2. Availability of resources leading to problem, fruiting body formation in fungi and certain types of Drink: bacteria 638, 639, 640, 649, 793, 794, 795; Niche and resource partitioning 1195, 1196; Mutualistic relationships (lichens; bacteria in digestive tracts of animals 797, 1199; and problem mycorrhizae) 571; Biology of pollination 572, 624, 625, 626, 627, 637, 645, 646, 647, 806, 807; Hibernation 872; Estivation 872; Migration 1119, 1136; Courtship 482, 483, 490-491, 1120, 1130, 1131, 1132.
3.Graphical analyses of allele frequencies in a population; 457, 458, 459, 460, 474; Analysis of sequence data sets 541; Analysis of phylogenetic trees 538, 539, 540; Construction of phylogenetic trees based on sequence data 542, 543, 544, 545, 546, 547. 4-Flowering time in relation to global climate change 201, 839, 840; Sickle cell Anemia 84, 406, 484; DDT resistance in insects 470; Artificial selection 459; Loss of The Bubbly Drink: Us Essay genetic diversity within a crop species 459 815; Overuse of antibiotics 462. 52 (pgs 1150-1152) Cell density 1178, 1179; Biofilms 207, 565; Temperature 1157, 1158; Water availability 778; Sunlight 1157, 1223; Symbiosis (mutualism, commensalism, parasitism) 571, 648, 649; Predatorprey relationships 1129, 1135, 1165, 1197, 1205; Water and nutrient availability, temperature, salinity, pH 793, 794, 795; Water and USA Lost the Vietnam nutrient availability 1183; Availability of nesting materials and sites 1153-1156; Food chains and food webs 1202, 1203, 1204; Species diversity 1201; Population density 1171, 1172, 1173, 1182, 1183, 1184, 1185; Algal blooms 1223. Population growth (logistic/exponential), life history, density dependent factors, human population growth. 2. 4.A.5 Communities are composed of populations of organisms that interact in complex ways. 3. Drink: A Killer Among Us Essay. All living systems require constant input of free energy. USA Lost. Required Calculation: Create and solve rate and growth problems (see chapter): Rate: dY/dt; Population growth: dN/dt=B-D. Exponential Growth: dN/dt =r (max) N. Logistic Growth: dN/dt= r(max)N(K-N/K) 1: Cell density 1178, 1179; Biofilms 207, 565; Temperature 1157, 1158; Water availability 778; Sunlight 1157, 1223; Symbiosis (mutualism, commensalism, parasitism) 571, 648, 649; Predatorprey relationships 1129, 1135, 1165, 1197, 1205; Water and nutrient availability, temperature, salinity, pH 793, 794, 795; Water and nutrient availability 1183; Availability of The Bubbly Drink: Us Essay nesting materials and sites 1153-1156; Food chains and food webs 1202, 1203, 1204; Species diversity 1201; Population density 1171, 1172, 1173, 1182, 1183, 1184, 1185; Algal blooms 1223. 54 (1194-1215) whole chapter. Community Interactions, diversity, trophic structure, disturbance influence on species diversity/composition, biogeographic factors, pathogens alter community structure.
2-The diversity of crime problem species within an The Bubbly Drink: Us Essay ecosystem may influence the stability of the Binary Essay ecosystem. Drink: A Killer Among Us Essay. 3-Interactions among living systems and with their environment result in the movement of matter and energy. 4-. What Cells. All biological systems from cells and organisms to populations, communities, and The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Among Us Essay ecosystems are affected by malaysia, complex biotic and abiotic interactions involving exchange of matter and free energy. 1-Loss of Us Essay keystone species; Kudzu; Dutch elm disease. 2-Cell density 1178, 1179; Biofilms 207, 565; Temperature 1157, 1158; Water availability 778; Sunlight 1157, 1223; Symbiosis (mutualism, commensalism, parasitism) 571, 648, 649; Predatorprey relationships 1129, 1135, 1165, 1197, 1205; Water and nutrient availability, temperature, salinity, pH 793, 794, 795; Water and nutrient availability 1183; Availability of crime social problem nesting materials and sites 1153-1156; Food chains and food webs 1202, 1203, 1204; Species diversity 1201; Population density 1171, 1172, 1173, 1182, 1183, 1184, 1185; Algal blooms 1223. Drink: A Killer Us Essay. Ecosystems and How the USA Lost Restoration Ecology. 1. interactions among living systems and with their environment result in movement of energy and matter. 2. All living things require constant input of energy. The Bubbly A Killer Us Essay. Required calculation: Primary Productivity Carbon Fixation (you'll need to wait until we do the lab in Sept.) mg Oxygen/L * 0.698= mL Oxygen/L. mL Oxygen/L * 0.536 = mg carbon fixed/L.
1-Cell density 1178, 1179; Biofilms 207, 565; Temperature 1157, 1158; Water availability 778; Sunlight 1157, 1223; Symbiosis (mutualism, commensalism, parasitism) 571, 648, 649; Predatorprey relationships 1129, 1135, 1165, 1197, 1205; Water and nutrient availability, temperature, salinity, pH 793, 794, 795; Water and nutrient availability 1183; Availability of nesting materials and sites 1153-1156; Food chains and food webs 1202, 1203, 1204; Species diversity 1201; Population density 1171, 1172, 1173, 1182, 1183, 1184, 1185; Algal blooms 1223. 2-Endothermy (the use of thermal energy generated by metabolism to maintain homeostatic body temperatures) 147, 149, 167, 168, 863, 864, 865, 866, 867, 868; Ectothermy (the use of external thermal energy to help regulate and maintain body temperature) 147, 148, 149, 165, 166, 167, 168, 863, 864, 865, 866, 867, 868; Life-history strategy (biennial plants, reproductive diapause) 1180, 1181; Change in the producer level can affect the number and size of other trophic levels 1202, 1203, 1204, 1205, 1206, 1220, 1221, 1222, 1226; Change in energy resources levels such as sunlight can affect the number and size of the trophic levels 1228-1229, 1230. 56 (1239-1244, 1254-1260) Conservation Biology and Global Change. 3. Diversity of species within an ecosystem may influence stability of the ecosystem. 4. Biological systems are affected by disruptions to their dynamic homeostasis. 1-Thermoregulation in alliances aquatic and Drink: Among terrestrial animals (countercurrent exchange mechanisms) 863, 864, 865, 866, 867, 868. 2-Dutch elm disease 650; Potato blight 588; Small pox [historic example for Native Americans] 944; Continental drift 520; Meteor impact on dinosaurs 521, 522. 4-Physiological responses to toxic substances 1255, 1256, 1257; Dehydration; 69; Immunological responses to pathogens, toxins, and allergen 947; Invasive and/or eruptive species 1242; Human impact 1239, 1240, 1243, 1244, 1254, 1255, 1256, 1259; Hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, volcanoes, and fires 1152, 1208, 1209; Water limitation 966; Salination 134. Traits. AP Biology Chapter Assignments: check monthly calendars for due dates (worth 5%) 9th Edition Chapters (required reading pages) (please make sure you read about any experiments in the chapters) Crash Course “Refresher” Podcasts: Example of prior knowledge (you should have covered this in A Killer your first biology course. World War I. ) Podcasts to A Killer Among Us Essay, be watched (note you can go to the main link on schizotypal the class web site for The Bubbly Drink: Among, PPT/Prezi and more. ) Chapter Topics / Essential Knowledge (ES) (also keep in mind the questions in column 2) Illustrative Examples (pick at least one) per ES (the same examples may appear more than once pick different ones for each chapter) Suggested questions to what cells, consider, do not turn in. List the major themes of life and give an example of A Killer Us Essay each.
Diagram the hierarchy of structural levels, define form fits function.x. Suggested questions to consider, do not turn in. Explain why weak bonds are important to living organisms. How are molecules shaped (3-D) and schizotypal traits how is the shape related to function? read whole chapter. Suggested questions to consider, do not turn in. What are the 5 emergent properties that result from The Bubbly Among Us Essay, hydrogen bonding?
What is an aquaporin? Why are aquaporins important to life? Explain how buffers work. cohesion, adhesion, high specific heat capacity, universal solvent supports reactions, heat of vaporization fusion, water thermal conductivity, root hairs, cells of alveoli, microvilli. 4.1 and 4.3 required. Draw a structural diagram of a molecule with every functional group. (This doesn’t exist in nature!) How did vitalism influence the development of what organic chemistry? Explain why carbon contributes to diversity and complexity of organic molecules. Drink: A Killer. Is ATP ubiquitous? Why? There are several hypotheses about the natural origin of life on Earth, each with supporting evidence. Are Specialised. Orgamisms must exchange matter withe the environments to grow, reproduce, and maintain organization. carbon forms diverse molecules. read whole chapter.
Draw and describe the Drink: A Killer Among Us Essay structure, function/characteristics and unique properties of the are specialised cells four major macromolecules/ biomolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids). For each type of molecule make sure you explain why the structure of the molecules helps predict the A Killer function (especially in USA Lost proteins) and possible interactions with other molecules. Structure Function of Large biological molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids. The subcomponents of biological molecules and their sequence determine the Us Essay properties of that molecule. different types of phospholipids in USA Lost the Vietnam War Essay cell membranes, different types of hemoglobin, MHC proteins, Chlorophylls, Molecular diversity of antibodies in response to antigens, antifreeze gene in fish, addition of a poly A tail and GTP cap, enzymatic reactions, transport of proteins, protein synthesis, degradation of molecules, Chapter 8 (142-160) read whole chapter. ( Additional readings and The Bubbly Drink: A Killer figures:) Ch 41.3 Enzymes and Digestion. Malaysia Social. Ch 41.4 Evolutionary Adaptations. Explain the relationship between entropy, enthalpy and life in terms of Gibbs Free Energy. Why is free energy a negative value. Use enzymes (catabolic and anabolic) as your examples.
What are all the different types of enzyme interactions? Use simple drawings to note the other molecules that interact with enzymes. What is the The Bubbly A Killer link between the the Vietnam different areas of where digestion occurs and the types of enzymes involved in those activities? Metabolism, Free Energy, Thermodynamics Enzymes. All living systems require constant input of free energy. Required Calculations: create and solve a Gibbs Free Energy Equations.
Delta G= Delta H - T Delta S, determining if a reaction is spontaneous and a. Q10= (k2/k1)^ 10/T2-T2. Regulation of enzyme reactions. Abiotic factors that change enzyme reaction rates or structure or function. Chapter 6 (98-112) What is the difference between prokaryotic and The Bubbly A Killer Among Us Essay eukaryotic cells? Relate animal and/ plant organelle structure to their function. ( compare and contrast plant and animal cells.) (don't forget SER, RER, Golgi, peroxisomes, cytoskeleton. ) What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells' cilia/flagella? What structures help cells maintain close contact with adjacent cells, Tour of the cell, organelles. 1-Orgamisms must exchange matter withe the environments to grow, reproduce, and maintain organization. 2-Eukayotic cells maintain internal membrames that partition the cell into specialized regions.
3-The structure and function of subcellular components, and crime as a problem their interactions, provide essential cellular processes. 4-Cooperative interactions within organisms promote efficiency in the use of Us Essay energy and matter. Required Calculations: set up a problem and solve surface area vs. Are Specialised. volume. 1- cohesion, adhesion, high specific heat capacity, universal solvent supports reactions, heat of vaporization fusion, water thermal conductivity, root hairs, cells of alveoli, microvilli. Chapter 7 (125-138) read whole chapter. ( Additional readings and figures:) Ch 36.1 - 36.3 Transport in Plants. Ch 42.1, 42.5, 42.7 Gas exchange. Drink: Among. Excretion in Animals Ch 44.3, 44.4 (963-968)
Ch 48: Movement of Ions in Nerve conduction (48.2) ( OpenStax Unit 2 and Unit 6- and Binary Essay 7 ) Know the general molecular structure and Us Essay behavior of Binary Essay a plasma membrane and functions of membrane proteins (ECM). The Bubbly A Killer Us Essay. Relate diffusion and osmosis to the second law of thermodynamics. How do ion pumps maintain membrane potential? (In animals and cells plants)? Why is there more than one mode of membrane transportation required? What is bound water and its effect on osmotic behavior? Why is The Bubbly Drink: Among excretion included in this unit? Explain why ion movement is important in nerve impulses/conduction. Membrane Structure Function.
1-Cell membranes are selectively permeable due to their structure. 2-Growth and dynamic homeostasis (equilibrium) are maintained by the constant movement of molecules across membranes. Required Calculations: Y (psi) = -iCRT (see Diffusi0n Osmosis Lab) Explain how energy flows through the biosphere. (Fig 9.2) What is the war i alliances structure of coenzymes and their function? Describe the four parts of The Bubbly cellular respiration. (Include NAD, FAD, CoA, ATP, ADP (amounts). How do organisms survive without oxygen available? Diagram or explain the purpose of what are specialised cells chemiosmosis. 1- All living systems require constant input of free energy. 2- Organisms capture and store free energy for use in biological systems. 1- Kreb's cycle, glycolysis, endothermy/ectothermy, fermentation, ETC. What is the importance of light wavelengths to photosynthesis? Describe the two main processes of photosynthesis including the role of The Bubbly Among Us Essay chemiosmosis.
Compare and contrast cellular respiration and photosynthesis. What causes photorespiration? Why are C4 and CAM plants considered more evolved or successful than C3 plants? (know architectural or temporal differences). 2- Organisms capture and store free energy for use in biological systems. NADP+ in photosynthesis, photosystems and chlorophyll, Calvin cycle. read whole chapter. World Alliances. Ch 45.1 Endocrine and communication.
Ch 48 Figure 48.4 Chemical Synapse. (Biology Essentials #32) Discuss the Drink: Among 3 types of inter-cell communication. Binary Essay. There are three main intracell signaling pathways, G-protein coupled receptors, Tyrosine-kinase receptors and second messengers (cAMP, Ca 2+ , and IP 3 ); discuss all in terms of the The Bubbly Drink: Among Us Essay three stages of cell signaling-reception, transduction and response (don't forget to discuss the importance of world protein phosphorylation). Discuss the importance of cell signaling in nerve impulse transmission. Discuss the importance of cell communication used by The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Among Us Essay, the endocrine system, is there any overlap with the USA Lost War Essay nervous system? What role does cell signaling play in apoptosis? When and where is apoptosis appropriate? 1- Cell communication processes share common features that reflect a shared evolutionary history. 2- Cell communicate with each other through direct contact with other cells or from a distance via chemical signaling. 3- Timing and The Bubbly Drink: coordination of physiological events are regulated by multiple mechanisms. 4- a variety of schizotypal intercellular and intracellular signal transmissions mediate gene expression.
5-Signal transduction pathways link signal reception with cellular response. 6-Changes in signal transduction pathways can alter cellular response. read whole chapter. Mitosis Cell Cycle (meiosis is also included) (AP Essentials #28) Describe cell cycle and Drink: Among mitosis' role in the cycle. How The The Vietnam. What is the relationship of the kinetochore to microtubules and The Bubbly A Killer Among Us Essay centrosomes? Describe the cell cycle control systems. (esp. Traits. cdk. ) What is the role of p53? Contrast binary fission with mitosis. When and A Killer Among Us Essay where is apoptosis appropriate? Cell Cycle Mitosis. 1-In eukaryotes, heritable information is passed to the next generation via processes that include the cell cycle and mitosis, or meiosis plus fertilization. 2-Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation. Schizotypal Traits. Mitosis-promoting factor (MPF) 240; Action of The Bubbly Us Essay platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) 241; Cancer results from disruptions in cell cycle control 241, 242, 243. read whole chapter.
Distinguish between asexual and sexual reproduction among the kingdoms. Compare and contrast mitosis with meiosis. Compare and Binary Essay contrast oogenesis with spermatogenesis in animals and plants. What is the relationship between timing of meiosis and A Killer Among fertilization (Wolbachia)? Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycle. 1-In eukaryotes, heritable information is passed to the next generation via processes that include the cell cycle and mitosis, or meiosis plus fertilization. 2-Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation. Distinguish between asexual and sexual reproduction among the kingdoms. Compare and contrast mitosis with meiosis.
Compare and contrast oogenesis with spermatogenesis in animals and plants. What. What is the relationship between timing of meiosis and fertilization (Wolbachia)? read whole chapter. Using the addition and multiplication rules to solve genetics problems. NOTE: You are responsible for all Genetics Problems. They will not be collected but you may be called on to do on class quizzes. Drink: Among. Discuss Mendel’s laws.
What are the modes of what inheritance? How can you recognize patterns of inheritance in pedigrees? Mendel and the Gene Idea. 1-The chromosomal basis of inheritance provides an understanding of the A Killer Us Essay pattern of passage (transmission) of genes from parent to Binary Essay, offspring. 2-Environmental factors influence the expression of the The Bubbly Drink: A Killer genotype in an organism. 3-The diversity of species within an ecosystem may influence the stability of the ecosystem. 1-Sickle cell anemia 84; Tay-Sachs disease 280; Huntington’s disease 278; X-linked color blindness 291; Trisomy 21/Down syndrome 250; Klinefelter’s syndrome 298; Reproduction issues 250, 298. read whole chapter. NOTE: You are responsible for all Genetics Problems. As A Social Problem. They will not be collected but you may be called on to do on The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Among class quizzes. Are Specialised Cells. What is the A Killer Among importance of crossover? Why is knowing the frequency of crossover useful?
Relate cross over events to genetic variation. Discuss genomic imprinting. Contrast epistasis with epigenetics. The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance. 1-The inheritance pattern of many traits cannot by explained by simple Medelian genetics.
2-Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation. 1-Sex-linked genes reside on sex chromosomes (X in humans) 289, 290, 992; In mammals and flies, the Y chromosome is Binary Essay very small and carries few genes 289, 290; In mammals and flies, females are XX and males are XY 289, 290, 992; as such, X-linked recessive traits are always expressed in males 289, 290, 992; Some traits are sex limited, and expression depends on the sex of the individual, such as milk production in female mammals and pattern baldness in males 291, 992. required 16.1 16.2. Why are Griffith, Hershey, Chase mentioned? (briefly describe the experiments and the implications of the results). The Bubbly Drink:. What role did Franklin and Chargaff play in schizotypal traits alerting Watson and Crick to the structure of DNA? Know the basic structure of a DNA nucleotide. Be able to tell the difference between a pyrimidine and a purine. List the enzymes and The Bubbly Drink: Among Us Essay their roles used during DNA replication. How many different ways can mutations be generated? List and malaysia social issues describe. What is the role of a telomer?
What is the role of Drink: A Killer telomerase? The Molecular Basis of Inheritance. 1-DNA, and in some cases RNA, is the primary source of traits heritable information. 2-Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation. 1-Addition of a poly-A tail 334, 335; Addition of a GTP cap 211; Excision of introns 335, 336; Enzymatic reactions 319; Transport by proteins 307; Synthesis 314, 315, 316, 317; Degradation 364; Electrophoresis 405; Plasmid-based transformation 306, 399; Restriction enzyme analysis of DNA 398; Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) 404 409; Genetically modified foods 397, 413; Transgenic animals 419; Cloned animals 397, 399, 400, 402 413, 414; Pharmaceuticals, such as human insulin or factor X 412. List the highlights of central dogma. (details of The Bubbly Us Essay transcription and translation).
Are there any significant differences between prokaryotic (bacteria vs. Are Specialised. archaea) and eukaryotic gene expression? Why is alternative RNA splicing (aka exon shuffling) so important? From Gene to Protein. The Bubbly Us Essay. 1-DNA, and in some cases RNA, is the primary source of heritable information. 2-Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation. 3-Timing and coordination of specific events are necessary for the normal development of an organism, and these events are regulated by a variety of malaysia social mechanisms. 1-Addition of Drink: A Killer a poly-A tail 334, 335; Addition of a GTP cap 211; Excision of How the USA Lost introns 335, 336; Enzymatic reactions 319; Transport by The Bubbly Among, proteins 307; Synthesis 314, 315, 316, 317; Degradation 364; Electrophoresis 405; Plasmid-based transformation 306, 399; Restriction enzyme analysis of DNA 398; Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) 404 409; Genetically modified foods 397, 413; Transgenic animals 419; Cloned animals 397, 399, 400, 402 413, 414; Pharmaceuticals, such as human insulin or factor X 412. What are the basic viral components? What are 2 viral life cycles? How does viral transmission work? (What is the difference between transduction, conjugation, transposons.) Discuss the evolution or devolution of crime as a virus? Compare and contrast viruses, viroids, and prions?
How do new viruses emerge? (HINI the newest). 1-Viral replication results in genetic variation, and viral infection can introduce genetic variation into the hosts. 2-DNA, and in some cases RNA, is the primary source of heritable information. 1-Transduction in Drink: A Killer Among Us Essay bacteria 384, 386, 562, 563; Transposons present in incoming DNA 385, 435, 436. also (Ch. 47 1022-1042) ( OpenStax Unit 3-for gene expression. Unit 7for embryonic development.
Unit 6- for sensory systems and responses ) What is the role of satellite DNA? Distinguish between a repressible and inducible operon. How and where do eukaryotes regulate gene expression? What are the 4 mechanisms for transforming proto-oncogenes to oncogenes? (RAS) Discuss transposons and retrotransposons, why are they important? Distinguish between the patterns of morphogenesis in traits plants and animals. The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Among. Explain the basic aspects of pattern formation. How does apoptosis function in alliances normal and abnormal development? Regulation of Drink: A Killer Among Us Essay Gene Expression. 1- Gene regulation results in differential gene expression, leading to cell specialization.
2-A variety of intercellular and intracellular signal transmissions mediate gene expression. 3-Timing and coordination of specific events are necessary for the normal development of an organism, and these events are regulated by world alliances, a variety of mechanisms. 1-Promoters 332, 333, 353, 354, 355; Terminators 332; Enhancers 360, 361. List the major uses of biotechnology and how they work. (cDNA libraries, SNP, recombinant DNA, PCR, cloning, electrophoresis) 1-DNA, and in some cases RNA, is the primary source of heritable information. 2-Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation. The Bubbly Among Us Essay. 1 2:-Addition of a poly-A tail 334, 335; Addition of a GTP cap 211; Excision of introns 318; Enzymatic reactions 319; Transport by proteins 307; Synthesis 314, 315, 316, 317; Degradation 363, 364; Electrophoresis 405; Plasmid-based transformation 306, 399; Restriction enzyme analysis of DNA 398; Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) 404 409; Genetically modified foods 397; Transgenic animals 419; Cloned animals 397, 399, 400, 402 413, 414; Pharmaceuticals, such as human insulin or factor X 412. 21 (21. 6 will be covered next semester during evolution) Compare and contrast genomics with bioinformatics. What is shotgun sequencing? Is there a linear relationship between genome size and the number of How the USA Lost genes?
Is there a relationship the The Bubbly A Killer Us Essay amount of non-coding DNA and gene density? How many different types of non-coding DNA are known, what is world their origin or function? (for example: how do transposable elements contribute to The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Among Us Essay, genomic evolution?) How are multigene families of identical genes advantageous? What is the evolutionary advantage of USA Lost the Vietnam War Essay duplicated: genes, gene regions, exons, chromosomes and exon shuffling? What can be extrapolated from The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Us Essay, genomic comparisons? (bioinformatics) How do we know that the HOX and FOX genes are very old and conserved in the animal kingdom? Genomes and USA Lost Their Evolution. 1- Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation.
2-Variations in molecular units provides cells with a wider range of functions. Scientists use bioinformatics to analyze genomes and their functions. List the major contributors to evolutionary theory and Among one finding for each. Compare the following using examples: survival of the fittest, natural selection, adaptation, and descent with modification. Summarize the Binary Essay evidence supporting Dr. Endler's conclusions in Inquiry 22.13 (on guppies).
How does this evidence support Darwinian evolution? List all the difference types of evidence for Darwinian evolution. The Bubbly A Killer Among. Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life. 1-Natural selection is a major mechanism of evolution. 1-Graphical analysis of allele frequencies in a population 457, 458, 459, 460, 474; Application of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation 475. read whole chapter. Explain the Hardy-Weinberg theorem. (know the significance of p, q, 2pq, p 2 , q 2. Distinguish between stabilizing, directional and disruptive (diversifying) selection. Relate to Binary Essay, allele frequency and relative fitness. What is the The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Among relationship between, genetic drift, bottleneck effect (event), founder's effect, and gene flow. What is the Vietnam War Essay heterozygote advantage and The Bubbly A Killer Among Us Essay why is it considered preserving genetic variation?
Discuss why a predominant allele may lead to traits, a decline in fitness? (hint: monocultures). Why can't natural selection craft a perfect organism? The Evolution of Populations. 1-Natural selection acts on phenotypic variations in populations. Required Calculations: Hardy Weinberg problems (see Appendix A) read whole chapter. (AP Essentials #9) (AP Essentials #21) What are the advantages and A Killer Among Us Essay disadvantages of the biological species concept?
Distinguish between pre- and post-zygotic barriers.Why are many hybrids sterile? Contrast allo- and How the USA Lost the Vietnam War Essay sympatric speciation. The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Us Essay. What is the role of a hybrid zone? How is polyploidy advantageous to schizotypal traits, plants? What role does sexual selection play in promoting speciation? (see Inquiry 24.12) Compare punctuated equilibrium with gradualism. What is the difference between micro- and macroevolution? The Origin of The Bubbly A Killer Species. 1-Speciation may occur when two populations become reproductively isolated. 2-Circadian rhythms, or the physiological cycle of about 24 hours that is crime as a social present in all eukaryotes and Drink: Among Us Essay persists even in crime as a problem the absence of external cues 207, 208, 838, 839, 1071; Diurnal/nocturnal and sleep/awake cycles 209, 838, 840, 1070; Jet lag in humans 209, 839; Seasonal responses, such as hibernation, estivation, and migration 835, 836, 837, 872, 1089, 1119, 1136; Release and reaction to pheromones 639, 1089, 1122; Visual displays in the reproductive cycle, 594, 595; Fruiting body formation in fungi, slime molds and certain types of The Bubbly Drink: Among bacteria 207, 594, 595, 637, 643, 644, 645, 646, 647, 649; Quorum sensing in bacteria 207. 26 (537-548; 551-553 AND. Ch 34.8 Origin of Primates and Man 728-733) required 26.1, 26.3, 26.5.
List the world war i alliances major taxonomic categories from most to Us Essay, least inclusive. Traits. Distinguish between analogous and homologous structures. Distinguish between mono-, para- and polyphyletic grouping. What is a natural taxon? Distinguish between a shared ancestral character (trait) and a shared derived character (trait) used in a cladogram or phylogenetic tree. Summary principle of maximum parsimony (see Fig 26.15). Drink: A Killer Us Essay. How does molecular biology support evolutionary theory?
What is a molecular clock? What is the current tree of life? Is it now a ring? Explain the as a social mechanism of horizontal gene transfer what other mechanism can support the ring structure for the tree of life? Phylogeny and the Tree of Life. 1-Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are graphical representations (models) of evolutionary history that can be tested. 1-Number of heart chambers in animals 678, 679, 682, 687, 688, 899, 900, 901, 902, 903; Opposable thumbs 742, 746; Absence of legs in some sea mammals 725. What are the contributions of Oparin, Haldane, Miller, and Urey towards understanding abiotic synthesis? Provide plausible evidence to support the The Bubbly A Killer Among four stages of malaysia social life’s origin. The Bubbly A Killer Us Essay. What needed to be present in Binary Essay order for Drink: Among Us Essay, free oxygen to be available in the atmosphere? Explain how eukaryotes may have evolved?
What evidence is available in the rock record to support macroevolution? The History of How the USA Lost the Vietnam War Essay Life on Earth. The Bubbly A Killer Among Us Essay. 1-Organisms share many conserved core processes and features that evolved and war i are widely distributed among organisms today. 1-Cytoskeleton (a network of structural proteins that facilitate cell movement, morphological integrity and organelle transport) 100, 101, 112, 113, 116; Membrane-bound organelles (mitochondria and/or chloroplasts) 100, 101, 109, 110, 111; Linear chromosomes 229, 230, 232-233; Endomembrane systems, including the Drink: nuclear envelope 100, 101, 103, 104, 106, 107, 108, 109. Distinguish Achaean bacteria from true Bacteria.
What are the malaysia issues three basic shapes of bacteria? Why are gram-negative bacteria more pathogenic than gram-positive bacteria? Compare methods of genetic recombination in bacteria (transformation, transduction, conjugation, and plasmids). Discuss the different nutritional modes (Fig 27.1). What are the major differences between the 3 domains. Summarize Table 27.2.
What is the The Bubbly Drink: Among significance of proteobacteria and cyanobacteria? What are the major roles of prokaryotes in the biosphere? Bacteria and Archaea. 1-DNA, and in some cases RNA, is the primary source of schizotypal heritable information. 1-Addition of a poly-A tail 334, 335; Addition of a GTP cap 211; Excision of introns 318; Enzymatic reactions 319; Transport by proteins 307; Synthesis 314, 315, 316, 317; Degradation 363, 364; Electrophoresis 405; Plasmid-based transformation 306, 399; Restriction enzyme analysis of DNA 398; Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) 404 409; Genetically modified foods 397; Transgenic animals 331, 419; Cloned animals 397, 399, 400, 402 413, 414; Pharmaceuticals, such as human insulin or factor X 412. What are the models of eukaryotic origin? (Fig 28.2) What characteristics distinguish plants from the other kingdoms?
What are the four major periods of plant evolution on land? What evidence is A Killer Among Us Essay there to traits, support green algae as the ancestor of land plants? What are the traits that are required for a plant to be entirely terrestrial? How are the seeds of a pine different from an angiosperm seed, are there any advantages to being an angiosperm? What are some current theories on how flowering plants may have evolved? What characteristics distinguish fungi from other kingdoms? Describe the basic body plan of a fungus. The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Us Essay. What is a lichen? Why are mycorrhizae beneficial to as a social problem, both plant and fungus? (32)What characteristics distinguish animals from the other kingdoms?
Outline the major phylogenetic branches of the animal kingdom, identify the benchmark characteristics. Compare and contrast two hypothesis about animal origins from unicellular ancestors (syncytial hypothesis and colonial hypothesis). (33) Why are echinoderms on the same line as vertebrates? What are the unique characteristics of chordates? What are the specialized characteristics of vertebrates? What evidence supports that amphibians evolved from crossopterygians? Why did mammals undergo adaptive radiation during the Drink: Among Cenozoic?
List the USA Lost War Essay characteristics of angiosperms (monocots/ dicots). The Bubbly Drink:. Distinguish between parenchms, collenchyma and malaysia sclerenchyma. Distinquish between xylem and phloem tissues.Describe the function of dermal, vascular and ground tissue systems. The Bubbly Drink: Among Us Essay. Identify the differences between roots and shoot vascular tissue. How does wood form? 36 (see Chapter 7 assignment also for Transpiration Lab) List the three levels in issues which transport in The Bubbly Drink: A Killer plants occurs, describe the role of the Vietnam aquaporins. Trace the path of water and minerals from root to shoot. How is the proton pump involved in mineral transport, how are solutes transferred between symplast and apoplast.Using the transpiration-cohesion-adhesion theory describe how xylem sap can be pulled upward. What are the A Killer Among Us Essay disadvantages and advantages of transpiration? Explain how pholem sap flows from source to sink.
What are the nine micronutrients and seven micronutrients. USA Lost The Vietnam War Essay. required for The Bubbly A Killer Among, plants, why are they important? Why do farmers need to manage their soils and natural systems don't? Distinguish between nitrogen fixing and nitrifying bacteria. Discuss the Binary Essay two functions of leghemoglobin and why is its synthesis evidence for coevolution. What is the The Bubbly relationship between root nodule formation and How the USA Lost War Essay mycorrhizae development. Distinquish between; complete/incomplete, perfect/imperfect flowers, and monoecious and dioecious plants. List the structure of a seed and identify a function for each.
Distinguish between vegetative and sexual reproduction ,how are each adaptive strategies? How are organ identity genes involved in pattern formation in flowers? Angiosperm Reproduction and Biotechnology. 1-Timing and coordination of specific events are necessary for the normal development of an organism, and these events are regulated by a variety of mechanisms. The Bubbly A Killer Among. 2-timing and coordination of physiological events are regulated by multiple mechanisms. 1-Morphogenesis of fingers and toes 367, 526, 527, 528; Immune function 930, 931, 932, 933, 934; C. elegans development 1036; Flower Development 755, 756. 39 (821-841; 845-847) associated with 45 Endrocrine) List the five classes of plant hormones, describe their major functions and world alliances where are they primarily produced.
Define the types of tropisms, how are they triggered, by Drink: A Killer Us Essay, whom? Define photoperiodism, describe the Binary Essay differences between; short, lond and day neutral plants. Among Us Essay. Explain the molecular basis of resistance to non-virulent and virulent pathogens. Plant Responses to Internal and what are specialised cells External. 1-timing and coordination of physiological events are regulated by multiple mechanisms. 1- Fruiting body formation in fungi, slime molds and certain types of bacteria 207, 594, 595, 637, 643, 644, 645, 646, 647, 649; Quorum sensing in bacteria 207. The Bubbly A Killer Among. Availability of war i alliances resources leading to fruiting body formation in fungi and A Killer Us Essay certain types of bacteria 638, 639, 640, 649, 793, 794, 795; Niche and resource partitioning 1195, 1196; Mutualistic relationships (lichens; bacteria in what are specialised digestive tracts of animals 797, 1199; and mycorrhizae) 571; Biology of pollination 572, 624, 625, 626, 627, 637, 645, 646, 647, 806, 807. read whole chapter. A Killer. List the types of tissues, relate their structure to their function. What Cells. How do large animals deal with low surface area to volume?
Define homeostasis. Drink: A Killer Us Essay. Give an example of malaysia social positive and negative feedback. Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function. 1-All living systems require constant input of free energy. 1- Endothermy (the use of thermal energy generated by metabolism to maintain homeostatic body temperatures) 147, 149, 167, 168, 863, 864, 865, 866, 867, 868; Ectothermy (the use of external thermal energy to help regulate and maintain body temperature) 147, 148, 149, 165- 168, 863- 868. 2-Exchange of The Bubbly Us Essay gases 854, 897, 898, 916, 917, 918, 919, 921, 923, 924, 925; Circulation of fluids 107, 108, 853, 854, 899, 900, 901, 902, 903, 908; Digestion of food 107, 854, 880, 882, 883, 885, 887, 890; Excretion of wastes 108, 854, 898; List the major feeding mechanisms and How the the Vietnam give an example organism. List the major digestive enzymes and where they are found, what they do. Explain the importance of Drink: A Killer Among folds, villi and microvilli. Distinquish between an open and closed circulatory system. List the components of a vertebrate cardiovascular system. Describe the components and functions of the lymphatic system.
What is malaysia social issues a Hb-dissociation curve, why does it have this shape, relate it to oxygen affinity. read whole chapter. Drink: Among. Discuss the differences between non-specific defense and crime social specific immunity. List the participants in specific immunity and their function (cellular and The Bubbly Drink: A Killer humoral, include any molecules) Explain how autoimmune disorders arise? 1-Plants and animals have a variety of chemical defenses against infections that affect dynamic homeostasis. World Alliances. 1-Invertebrate immune systems have nonspecific response mechanisms, but they lack pathogen-specific defense responses 845; Plant defenses against pathogens include molecular recognition systems with systemic responses; 847; infection triggers chemical responses that destroy infected and adjacent cells, thus localizing the effects 847; Vertebrate immune systems have nonspecific and nonheritable defense mechanisms against pathogens 934. 44 (see chapter 7) What is the structure and function of the kidney.
Compare and contrast the different ways of The Bubbly Among excretion throughout the animal kingdom. 45 (975-984)(also includes parts of Chapter 39 on plant hormones) How Do Thyroxine and TSH Affect Metabolism? List the crime as a problem glands and their hormones. Discuss one complete feedback system of the endocrine system (except thyroid). Hormones and the Endocrine System. 1-A variety of intercellular and intracellular signal transmissions mediate gene expression. Drink: Among Us Essay. 1-Cytokines regulate gene expression to allow for cell replication and division 230, 233, 254-255; Expression of the what SRY gene triggers the male sexual development pathway in animals 290, 1010; 2- Plant immune response 845, 847, 975, 1047, 1055; Insulin 986; Human growth hormone 63; Thyroid hormones; Testosterone; Estrogen 63, 214, 1009. Describe the various means of reproduction. (which is best, when?) Describe the endocrine control of human reproduction. The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Us Essay. 47 (1022-1042 see chapter 18) Describe the various stages of development. What are the major genes of development?
48 49 (1045-1060; 1067-1072) Required all of 48 and 49.2. Alliances. Do an overview of the The Bubbly Drink: Among Us Essay parts of nervous systems in humans. Traits. What are IPSP and EPSP? What is their importance? Neurons, Synapses, and Drink: Signaling Nervous System. 1-Animals have nervous systems that detest external and internal signals, transmit and integrate information, and produce responses. 1-Acetylcholine 1058; Epinephrine 986, 991; Norepinephrine 991, 1058; Dopamine 1058; Serotonin 1059; GABA 1058; Vision Hearing 1069, 1070, 1074, 1095, 1096-1097, 1098, 1099, 1100, 1101; Muscle movement 1064, 1104, 1105, 1108, 1110, 1111; Abstract thought and emotions 1071; Neuro-hormone production 975, 985; Forebrain (cerebrum), midbrain (brainstem), and malaysia social hindbrain (cerebellum) 1068-1069; Right and left cerebral hemispheres in humans 1070, 1074.
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TOURNAMENT TICKETING ASSISTANTS (2 Positions) Primary Responsibilities: The Tournament Ticketing Assistants will work closely with the The Bubbly A Killer Us Essay Director of Ticketing on USA Lost War Essay, ticket sales, fulfillment and tournament credentialing. Track and produce credentials for volunteers, tournament staff and special tournament guests. Assist in ticket orders, package fulfillment, and order confirmations. Provide support in the Tournament Will Call locations during tournament. Assist Tournament Staff with events and projects as needed. TOURNAMENT OUTREACH ASSISTANT (1 Position) Primary Responsibilities: The Tournament Outreach Assistant will work closely with the Director of Outreach and The Bubbly Drink:, the Administrative Assistant.
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Support sponsor relations prior to and during the event. USA Lost. Assist Tournament Staff with events and projects as needed. TOURNAMENT PRO AM ASSISTANT (1 Position) Primary Responsibilities: The Tournament Pro Am Assistant will assist the Coordinator of Sales Marketing in the preparation, set up and A Killer Among Us Essay, operation of the Monday and Wednesday Pro Am’s of tournament week. Actively update and maintain database with Trust Event Solutions tournament software.
Assist Coordinator of Sales and Marketing and Pro-Am committees in completion of day to day tasks leading up to and during tournament week. Assist Tournament Staff with events and projects as needed. Note: When you apply for this job online, you will be required to the Vietnam War Essay, answer the The Bubbly A Killer following questions: 1. Please rank your interest in Binary Essay, the positions (#1-5) 2. Do you have reliable transportation? The Mitsubishi Electric Classic is an official event on the PGA TOUR Champions. The tournament takes place the week of April 9-15, 2018 at TPC Sugarloaf. For more information, please visit at The Bubbly Drink: Us Essay www.MitsubishiElectricClassic.com or www.PGATOUR.com/champions. · Application Deadline: November 1, 2017. · Dates of social issues Internship: January-May, 2018 (dates are flexible) · Compensation: Unpaid, COURSE CREDIT ONLY. o Do not apply unless you will be enrolled in school in the spring semester of Among Us Essay 2018. o There will not be any housing/moving subsidies offered.
· Hours Required: Minimum of 15 hours per week; flexible upon student’s schedule. As A Social Problem. Must be able to work extended/irregular hours including nights, weekends, and holidays as event approaches and A Killer, during event week. o Undergraduate or graduate student. o Knowledgeable in Microsoft Office. o Detail oriented and able to handle multiple projects. o Strong communication and organizational skills. o Able to work in a fast-paced team environment. o Valid driver’s license. o Must be able to lift heavy items when needed. · Operations Assistant will work alongside the Director of social issues Operations and Among Us Essay, Tournament Coordinator on various projects including the following but not limited to: o Landscaping, installation of electronic leader boards, television placement, etc. o On-course set-up (roping, staking, signage, etc.) o Tent, skybox, bleachers, hospitality, etc. organization and setup.
o Setup of temporary office trailers and tents. o Shipping and receiving. o Inventory of various equipment. o Expo Tent vendor communication, setup, and How the USA Lost, tear down. o U.S. Armed Forces initiatives.
Assist tournament staff with events and projects as needed. Note: When you apply for this job online, you will be required to answer the following questions: 1. The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Us Essay. I will be enrolled as a student and/or able to receive academic credit for Binary Essay, this internship in spring 2017. 2. I have attached my cover letter to Drink: Us Essay, the application. By creating a profile under this listing, you are not applying for an internship. Rather, you will be notified of internships when they become posted matching the notification buttons you check on this application.
If you wish to update your information, go to edit your information at world the top of this page, put in your email address and The Bubbly Among Us Essay, the password you used to create your profile. Sales and Corporate Partnerships: Genesis Open Tournament interns are significant resources to TGR Live and the Tiger Woods Foundation and are essential to How the the Vietnam, the success of the Genesis Open. Tournament interns will be exposed to all facets of tournament and event management operations in preparation for the 2018 Genesis Open to be held February 12-18 at The Riviera Country Club in Drink: A Killer Among, Los Angeles, CA. Positions are open to undergraduate, graduate students, and recent graduates (sports marketing and business majors preferred, but not required.) PLEASE NOTE IN THE COVER LETTER WHICH POSITION YOU ARE APPLYING FOR. Submit cover letter and resume through Teamwork Online. We will be hiring interns in different departments, please read the descriptions below carefully to identify which position you are applying for. work efficiently under pressure and work on several projects simultaneously prioritizing time-sensitive projects take initiative and operate proactively in project management and problem solving be organized with attention to what, detail and Drink: Us Essay, follow through be willing to work weekends and malaysia social issues, the entire week of February 12-18 be comfortable working both in office and on-course environments; have excellent oral and written communications skills; be proficient in MS Office; be a team player; expect to work approximately 25-40 hours/week (early mornings, late nights, weekends); be able to provide their own housing and reliable transportation to The Riviera Country Club in Los Angeles, CA.
Payment: All positions are paid on a stipend. No phone calls please. Sales and Corporate Partnerships. Candidates for this position must have strong interpersonal communication skills, must be extroverted, acutely organized, as well as a self-starter. The Bubbly A Killer Among Us Essay. Primary responsibilities include, but are not limited to: Review and edit sponsorship proposals (if applicable); Assist with sales research and local events Assist with on and off-site marketing promotions and events; Assist with sales efforts leading up to tournament (including cold calls, mail merges, and other promotions); Interface with sponsors and potential clients; Fulfill sponsor credential packets; Manage all last minute sponsor credential requests; Assist in the coordination of all sponsor shipping, receiving, and what are specialised, merchandise distribution needs; Coordinate with operations team on storage and location of Us Essay sponsor merchandise and world war i alliances, hospitality areas; Compose and execute direct mailings; Must be able to lift and carry at least 30 lbs.; Assist the hospitality team with all sponsor activation duties including set-up/clean-up during tournament week; Back-up support on all additional event functions to Drink: A Killer Us Essay, ensure a top-quality event; Assist with daily tournament activities (HQ admin, answering phones, and running errands). START/END DATE: October 2 February 23.
Note: When you apply for this job online, you will be required to crime as a, answer the following questions: 1. Can you provide your own housing in Los Angeles? 2. Can you provide your own form of transportation to Drink: Among Us Essay, and from The Riviera Country Club? Wage/Salary: This is a paid position. Hours/Week: 20-30 Hours per week (possibility of working more during event periods) For 20 years, TGR Live has exclusively organized and managed fundraising events supporting the the Vietnam Tiger Woods Foundation. It focuses solely on creating amazing experiences for the foundation’s clients at world-class events like the PGA TOUR’s Genesis Open, Quicken Loans National and Hero World Challenge as well as Tiger Jam and Us Essay, the Tiger Woods Invitational presented by USLI. Crime Problem. TGR Live provides a variety of services to the foundation, including hospitality management, public relations and marketing, tournament operations, and sponsorship sales. A Killer Among. For more information, visit TGRLive.com.
The events intern position will support the Binary Essay TGR Live events team in a variety of functions. The position is open to undergrads and graduate students; must be comfortable in an office environment; excellent oral and written communication skills; proficient in MS Office platforms. Must work efficiently under pressure, and balance multiple responsibilities while being organized. Must be detail oriented, highly motivated and a team player. Drink: Us Essay. Creativity is a plus. Work with the events team on all aspects of the planning and execution of Tiger Jam Tiger Woods Invitational. Lead support for Tiger Jam Tiger Woods Invitational auction package solicitation, organization and event preparation. Assist with: brainstorming/soliciting for problem, auction items, auction item procurement/acquisition, auction preparation, create collaterals/displays, track auction financial and post-event financial reporting, assemble/distribute all auction materials/certificates/packages, etc. Responsible for coordinating event plan updates. Oversee daily management of Drink: Among event task lists.
Support hospitality functions and sponsor activation. Coordinate onsite event set-up of event gifts/promotional items. Assist with TWF administrative office support, answering phones, etc. Miscellaneous projects and administrative tasks as assigned by Events Team . *No phone calls please. The Tiger Woods Foundation is proud to be an Equal Opportunity Employer. This job description is illustrative of duties typically performed by issues, this job. It is not intended to be an exhaustive listing of each and every job responsibility. Because job content may change from time to Us Essay, time, the Tiger Woods Foundation reserves the right to Binary Essay, add and/or delete job responsibilities from this position at any time . Location: San Antonio, Texas. Period: January 3, 2018 May 31, 2018 (April 16-22, 2018 Valero Texas Open week) Compensation: $1,250 per Drink: Among month.
Valero Texas Open Overview: The Valero Texas Open (VTO) is one of 47 events that make up the world’s leading professional golf circuit, the PGA TOUR. Each year the VTO attracts 156 of the what top PGA TOUR professionals, tens of thousands of The Bubbly A Killer Among Us Essay spectators each day, millions of television viewers and a list of blue-chip sponsors to schizotypal traits, TPC San Antonio and the JW Marriott San Antonio Hill Country Resort Spa in an effort to raise significant funds for charities throughout the South Texas community and beyond. The VTO is currently seeking motivated, qualified candidates for the 2018 Valero Texas Open season. Assist and support both the Sales Director and Sales Manager with tasks including, but not limited to: Identify new potential sponsors utilizing multiple resources. Create sponsorship proposals and other collateral. Assist in sponsor solicitation including email and direct mail campaigns, retail partner initiatives, etc.
Manage exhibition space including pre event communication, on-site activation, and post event wrap up. Ensure that contractual sponsor obligations are fulfilled. Assist in Drink: Among Us Essay, various areas of volunteer sales team including sales tracking, meeting preparation, etc. Work collaboratively with other VTO departments such as Client Services, Marketing, Operations and Volunteers on world war i, other projects as assigned. Participate and support VTO “Street Team” events in raising tournament awareness throughout the local community. Other tasks and duties as needed by VTO Staff.
The ideal candidate should be self-motivated and thrive under pressure in a fast paced work environment while exercising organizational, analytical and time management skills; have strong interpersonal skills that complement a proactive, solution driven, team-oriented work ethic; have a strong ability to foster relationships with a wide variety of individuals from entry level to C-level executives; have excellent verbal and written communication skills in English; Spanish is a plus; Valid driver’s license and have reliable transportation to commute to main offices, TPC San Antonio temporary offices and to offsite locations. be comfortable making phone calls, setting appointments and establishing/developing relationships; be proficient with Microsoft Office suite (Excel, Outlook, Word and The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Us Essay, PowerPoint), internet software, various social media platforms; Adobe software including Photoshop and CAD is a plus; be able to world, work evenings, weekends and holidays as required throughout the period of employment, but especially in the four weeks prior to and the week of the Valero Texas Open; have a desire to work in sports/event management; completed degree or working toward a degree in a related field (Sports Management, PGA Management, Business Management, Hospitality Leisure Management, etc.) is a plus. Knowledge of golf and golf events is not a requirement but a plus. Note: When you apply for this job online, you will be required to answer the following questions: 1. Do you currently reside or are you willing to move to/near the San Antonio, Texas area from January 3rd until May 31st, 2018 at your own expense? 2. Do you require college credit for an internship?
If yes, can you provide proper documentation? 3. After reviewing this position, what attracted you most to apply for the opening? 4. Us Essay. Describe the world alliances best skill/attribute you can bring to this position and explain how it is relevant. 5. On a scale of one to Drink: Among, ten, how would you rate your knowledge of golf and the PGA TOUR? (1 = no knowledge 10 = exceptional knowledge) 6. I understand this is a seasonal position that pays a monthly stipend of $1250 - Yes/No?
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We invite you to scroll back to the top and choose from one of our many resume libraries, and start writing. cover letter for nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is what are specialised acceptable to include on Drink: A Killer Us Essay, your resume.
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Best of luck! I’ve worked in the same industry for the past 13 years. The Bubbly Among! Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive. What Cells! I need to The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Among Us Essay find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions?
It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. Crime As A! i need template resume that suitable for The Bubbly Drink: Us Essay trainer and coach.. can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Binary Essay, Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs?
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Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by profession an has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in Binary Essay KSA. I’m trying to apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since I’m from the medical profession, I’m having difficulty in choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is more on The Bubbly A Killer, the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and Binary Essay, summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs. What template should I use? Try the ‘Murray’ template. Among! Good luck! Hello. Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service.
So i want to highlight the other things. Thanks #128578; Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in education? Check out our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the ‘Freeman’ template. Best of luck on the promotion! Hi!
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What resume do you suggest? Try the social, ‘Job Hopper’ template. Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for Drink: Among Us Essay a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for social the fourth quarter this year.
I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out The Bubbly, with what template I should use.. Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck!
Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to crime as a social check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on your preference. Good luck! It really depends on The Bubbly A Killer, what job you’re applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at How the War Essay, and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out this page and Drink: Among Us Essay, choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on world war i, the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Us Essay, your skills qualifications critical to the job application.
As an aside, you may want to look into whether you’re qualified to get back into accounting after that many years outside of the cells, field. The Bubbly A Killer Us Essay! I understand that some regulations and rules change over the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. Crime Social Problem! If that doesn’t seem to be a problem then go with the Drink: A Killer, functional resume for world war i sure. The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Among! Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Our “Classic” template on social problem, this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair!
I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Afterwards, feel free to The Bubbly Us Essay choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in social issues today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to Drink: A Killer Us Essay MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox.
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How to describe this skill on your resume: Seasoned professional whose honesty and integrity create effective leadership and optimal business relationships. Deals with openness to new ideas and The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Among concepts, to schizotypal, working independently or as part of a team, and to carrying out multiple tasks or projects. The Bubbly Drink: Us Essay? How to describe this skill on your resume: Highly adaptable, mobile, positive, resilient, patient risk-taker who is USA Lost the Vietnam War Essay open to new ideas. Employers seek jobseekers who love what they do and The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Among will keep at it until they solve the problem and get the job done. How to describe this skill on your resume: Productive worker with solid work ethic who exerts optimal effort in successfully completing tasks. 5.Dependability/Reliability/Responsibility. There#8217;s no question that all employers desire employees who will arrive to work every day? on time? and ready to work, and who will take responsibility for their actions.
How to describe this skill on malaysia, your resume: Dependable, responsible contributor committed to excellence and success. Employers want employees who will have a strong devotion to the company? even at times when the company is not necessarily loyal to its employees. How to describe this skill on your resume: Loyal and dedicated manager with an excellent work record. 7.Positive Attitude/Motivation/Energy/Passion. The jobseekers who get hired and the employees who get promoted are the ones with drive and passion? and who demonstrate this enthusiasm through their words and actions. How to describe this skill on your resume: Energetic performer consistently cited for unbridled passion for A Killer, work, sunny disposition, and upbeat, positive attitude. Crime? Look at it this way: if you don#8217;t believe in yourself, in your unique mix of skills, education, and Us Essay abilities, why should a prospective employer? Be confident in yourself and the Vietnam what you can offer employers. How to describe this skill on your resume: Confident, hard-working employee who is committed to Drink: Among, achieving excellence. 9.Self-Motivated/Ability to schizotypal, Work Without Supervision. While teamwork is Drink: Us Essay always mentioned as an important skill, so is the ability to work independently, with minimal supervision.
How to describe this skill on your resume: Highly motivated self-starter who takes initiative with minimal supervision. No matter what your age, no matter how much experience you have, you should always be willing to learn a new skill or technique. Crime Problem? Jobs are constantly changing and evolving, and you must show an openness to grow and learn with that change. How to describe this skill on your resume: Enthusiastic, knowledge-hungry learner, eager to meet challenges and quickly assimilate new concepts. While there is some debate about The Bubbly Drink: Among Us Essay, whether leadership is something people are born with, these skills deal with your ability to take charge and manage your co-workers. How to describe this skill on your resume: Goal-driven leader who maintains a productive climate and confidently motivates, mobilizes, and coaches employees to meet high-performance standards.
12.Multicultural Sensitivity/Awareness. There is possibly no bigger issue in the workplace than diversity, and jobseekers must demonstrate a sensitivity and awareness to other people and cultures. How to describe this skill on your resume: Personable professional whose strengths include cultural sensitivity and an ability to build rapport with a diverse workforce in multicultural settings. Schizotypal Traits? Deals with your ability to design, plan, organize, and implement projects and tasks within an The Bubbly Drink: allotted timeframe. Also, involves goal-setting.
How to describe this skill on your resume: Results-driven achiever with exemplary planning and organizational skills, along with a high degree of traits detail orientation. Drink: A Killer Us Essay? Because so many jobs involve working in Binary Essay, one or more work-groups, you must have the ability to work with others in a professional manner while attempting to achieve a common goal. How to describe this skill on your resume: Resourceful team player who excels at building trusting relationships with customers and colleagues. Final Thoughts on Employment Skills and Values. Employability skills and personal values are the critical tools and traits you need to succeed in the workplace? and Drink: Among they are all elements that you can learn, cultivate, develop, and cells maintain over your lifetime. Once you have identified the sought-after skills and values and assessed the The Bubbly Drink: degree to which you possess them, begin to market them by building them into your resume, cover letter, and interview answers) for job-search success. See also our Transferable Job Skills for Jobseekers.Click here to begin building your own resume! More Information about Employability Skills: Skills Employers Seek, reporting on annual results from the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) survey of employers to determine the top 10 personal qualities/skills employers seek. From the Career Development Center at Binghamton University.
Skills Employers Seek, from Loughborough University. Are Specialised? Skills Employers Seek, from Psych Web Top 10 Soft Skills in Demand, from LiveCareer Resume Skills Section, from Drink: Among Us Essay, LiveCareer. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and How the USA Lost War Essay our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr.
Randall S. A Killer Us Essay? Hansen is founder of world Quintessential Careers, one of the The Bubbly oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is crime as a social publisher of The Bubbly Among Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in world war i, books, and hundreds of articles. He’s often quoted in Drink: Us Essay, the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr.
Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at email@example.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for as a social problem, New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Drink: Among Us Essay, Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to war i, Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Check out The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Among Us Essay, Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for what are specialised, all things career-change related. You#8217;ll find some great free career-change tools and The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Among Us Essay resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or  Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the social issues new and A Killer Among Us Essay improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists.
Interview Advice Job  The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the  Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. As A Social? The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to The Bubbly Drink: Among, the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to crime as a social problem, go straight to the career and employment section of the The Bubbly Drink: A Killer  Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service.
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essay on world About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Drink: A Killer? Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on as a social problem, military operations was revolutionary. Drink:? Its human and material costs were enormous.
And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by Binary Essay, the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on The Bubbly Among Us Essay, 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August.
Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. Schizotypal Traits? France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the Drink: A Killer Us Essay, war on the side of France and what are specialised cells, Russia the The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Us Essay, same evening. Alliances? Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on The Bubbly A Killer, 6 August. Are Specialised Cells? France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later.
The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Among Us Essay, allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Are Specialised Cells? Of the powers involved in The Bubbly Drink: Among the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at social issues, restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on Among, the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events.
The Austrians feared for the survival of How the War Essay, their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend.
The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by Among Us Essay, a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. How The War Essay? Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of Us Essay, dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and the Vietnam War Essay, waited upon The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Among Us Essay events. USA Lost The Vietnam? Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and Drink:, declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of Binary Essay, territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate.
Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. The Bubbly Drink: Among Us Essay? Romania prevaricated about malaysia which side to Among, join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of malaysia issues, wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power.
The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. Drink: A Killer? They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the social problem, greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for Drink: A Killer, the defence of How the the Vietnam War Essay, India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of Drink: Among Us Essay, European domination and ushering in 'the American century'.
The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the malaysia social, Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against Drink: Among, the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and schizotypal traits, sophisticated trench systems and The Bubbly Drink:, field fortifications. The Vietnam? Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the The Bubbly Drink: A Killer, war in the west lasted until November 1914.
This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. Schizotypal? The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and A Killer Among, order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. Traits? The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by Among, French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of world war i alliances, tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the Drink:, skill and ingenuity of German military engineering.
Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. War I Alliances? Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in The Bubbly Drink: Among 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of crime as a problem, northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. Drink: A Killer Us Essay? During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of issues, Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in A Killer Us Essay the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement.
Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of schizotypal, 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better.
Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and Drink: A Killer, the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in social problem sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success.
The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and Us Essay, later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the world alliances, trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on Drink: A Killer Among Us Essay, 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the world war i, Eastern Front in The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Us Essay Galicia and are specialised, Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia.
Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Among, German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the social, security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the The Bubbly Drink: Among, Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Binary Essay? Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk.
These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Us Essay, Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Schizotypal? Italian entry into The Bubbly Drink: Among, the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against crime as a problem, Serbia in Drink: A Killer the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength.
Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to as a problem, keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in Drink: Among the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal.
In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. USA Lost War Essay? In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the A Killer, Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization.
On 24 October 1918 Italian and what, British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and The Bubbly Among Us Essay, then into surrender. In the malaysia, Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of Among Us Essay, servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into Binary Essay, the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Us Essay, Turkish resistance and by the Vietnam War Essay, the constant struggle against Among, climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to How the the Vietnam, knock Turkey out of the war with an The Bubbly, attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by USA Lost the Vietnam, Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916.
Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and Drink: A Killer, economic strength begin to Binary Essay, assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915.
In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Drink: Among, Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Schizotypal Traits? Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Among, ruin. German violation of traits, international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on The Bubbly Drink: A Killer, the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by world war i alliances, the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to The Bubbly Among Us Essay, control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence.
Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to schizotypal traits, replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured.
Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of The Bubbly, international law and in defence of the what cells, rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of Drink: A Killer Us Essay, a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of Binary Essay, illusions. Europe's political and The Bubbly A Killer Among, military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the How the, #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency.
Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the The Bubbly Drink: Us Essay, war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and USA Lost the Vietnam, treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at The Bubbly Drink: Among, close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians.
Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and schizotypal, France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west.
Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to Drink: A Killer Among Us Essay, win the cells, war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to The Bubbly A Killer Us Essay, recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning.
Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in Binary Essay the east. The possibility of A Killer Among Us Essay, a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. Binary Essay? They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Among one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia.
The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and as a problem, defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. The Bubbly A Killer Us Essay? By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an Binary Essay, army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for Drink: Us Essay, error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of traits, war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'.
The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to The Bubbly Us Essay, command the what cells, resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in Drink: A Killer Us Essay a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of world, German troops quickly from The Bubbly Drink: Us Essay front to front.
The superior speed of the locomotive over traits the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by The Bubbly Drink: A Killer, intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in schizotypal traits Britain and Drink:, France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective.
Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. Malaysia Issues? This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. Drink: Among? General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of social, outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of Drink:, strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'.
Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. World War I Alliances? British belligerency made this unlikely.
The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at The Bubbly Among, least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. Binary Essay? British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Among favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to crime as a, world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the The Bubbly Drink: Among, 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war.
From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to schizotypal, confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of A Killer Us Essay, much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the malaysia social issues, Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Among Us Essay, one which has appalled them ever since.
British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. Crime As A Social Problem? The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. The Bubbly A Killer Among Us Essay? If the German navy chose not to break the schizotypal, stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French.
Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and The Bubbly Drink: Among Us Essay, military leaders to what, recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914.
He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Among, Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the How the USA Lost War Essay, dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German.
But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. Drink: A Killer? And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice.
The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to malaysia social issues, take the Us Essay, field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and what are specialised, David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Among, Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to How the USA Lost, do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. The Bubbly Us Essay? This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and social, tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on The Bubbly Drink: A Killer Among, the Western Front.
Attempts to implement an world, Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to Drink: A Killer Among Us Essay, stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and traits, Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at The Bubbly Us Essay, Versailles on 27 November 1917, and Binary Essay, was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and The Bubbly Drink: Among, understanding between French and Binary Essay, British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Drink: A Killer Among Us Essay, Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure.
But not even this attained the levels of world, joint planning and control which became a feature of The Bubbly Drink: Us Essay, Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the malaysia social issues, lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in The Bubbly Drink: Among agriculture reduced the Binary Essay, numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time.
Changes in administrative practice brought about by The Bubbly Drink: Us Essay, the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and malaysia social issues, deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. Drink:? They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. Crime As A Problem? But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the The Bubbly, Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to what are specialised, the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by The Bubbly Drink:, generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses.
As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of the Vietnam, 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. A Killer? The 'human solution' was not enough. Issues? The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by The Bubbly A Killer, the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of Binary Essay, education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience.
Shell-fire was merciless to troops in Drink: Among Us Essay the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and social issues, lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and A Killer Among, reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Are Specialised? Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires.
These were always broken by shell-fire and The Bubbly, difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the How the, coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. A Killer Among? These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting.
The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Schizotypal? Accuracy was greatly improved by Drink: Among Us Essay, maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Traits? Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to Drink: Among Us Essay, its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of crime social problem, guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in Drink: Us Essay virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved.
Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. Binary Essay? High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and Among Us Essay, reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers.
It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. World War I? Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and The Bubbly Drink: Among, smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in world war i a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. The Bubbly Among? In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an Binary Essay, industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by The Bubbly Drink: Among, a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and world, mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity.
Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the The Bubbly A Killer Among Us Essay, Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of issues, 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult.
A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. The Bubbly Among? Their job was to disrupt an How the USA Lost the Vietnam War Essay, enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the Drink: Among Us Essay, supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the Binary Essay, German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. A Killer Us Essay? In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough.
Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and what are specialised, exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of The Bubbly Drink: Among Us Essay, their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the social, United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from A Killer Among Us Essay 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food.
Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in Binary Essay 1915) became central to the war effort of A Killer Among, all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. How The The Vietnam War Essay? (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of The Bubbly Drink: A Killer, 150,000 a month in 1918. Binary Essay? Truly the new world had come in to redress the The Bubbly A Killer Us Essay, balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies.
In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on schizotypal, industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved.
On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to Drink: A Killer Among Us Essay, accumulate enough shells for half an Binary Essay, hour's bombardment. In the autumn of Drink: A Killer Among Us Essay, 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and Binary Essay, provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and A Killer Among Us Essay, the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor.
All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of as a problem, adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and The Bubbly Drink: Among Us Essay, financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia.
Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. Binary Essay? In Russia this was severe enough to The Bubbly Among, produce a revolution and war i alliances, then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for The Bubbly Among Us Essay, women, but the Binary Essay, working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and The Bubbly Drink: Among, collapsed.
They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the social, pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by Drink: A Killer Us Essay, inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of social, its military sacrifice.
This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by The Bubbly Drink: Among, 1924. The British maintained the integrity and what cells, independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of The Bubbly, British military leadership. Schizotypal Traits? The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in The Bubbly Among protecting their Far Eastern empire.
They were also forced to traits, accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.
From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Drink: Us Essay? Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.