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Epigenetics: Methylation, Acetylation, and ncRNA

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Methylation epigenetic

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nietzsche essay 2 On the Genealogy of Morals. A Polemical Tract. [This document, which has been prepared by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College, Nanaimo, BC, is in the public domain and may be used by anyone, in whole or in part, without permission and without charge, provided the epigenetic source is acknowledged. Editorial comments and themes translations in square brackets and italics are by Ian Johnston; comments in normal brackets are from Nietzsche's text] Guilt, Bad Conscience and Related Matters. To breed an animal that is entitled to make promisessurely that is the essence of the paradoxical task nature has set itself where human beings are concerned? Isn't that the real problem of methylation human beings? The fact that this problem has largely been resolved must seem all the more astonishing to of a party, a person who knows how to epigenetic, appreciate fully the power which works against this promise-making, namely forgetfulness. Forgetfulness is not merely a vis interiae [a force of the effects of the black death inertia] , as superficial people think.

Is it much rather an active capability to repress, something positive in the strongest sense. We can ascribe to forgetfulness the fact what while we are digesting what we live through and experience and then absorb (we might call the process mental ingestion [Einverseeling] ), we are conscious of what is going on methylation as little as we are with the thousand-fold process which our bodily nourishment goes through (so-called physical ingestion [Einverleibung] ). The doors and windows of consciousness are shut from time to time, so that it stays undisturbed from the noise and struggle with which the underworld of themes our functional organs keeps them working for and against one anothera small quiet place, a little tabula rasa [blank slate] of the consciousness, so that there will again be room for something new, above all, for the nobler functions and officials, for methylation epigenetic, ruling, thinking ahead, determining what to do (our organism is arranged as an oligarchy)that is, as I said, the use of active forgetfulness, like some porter at the door, a maintainer of psychic order, quiet, and etiquette. From that we can see at once how, if forgetfulness were not present, there could be no happiness, no cheerfulness, no hoping, no pride, no present. The man in whom this repression apparatus is on The of Digital Photography, harmed and not working properly we can compare to a dyspeptic (and not just compare)he is finished with nothing. Now this necessarily forgetful animal in which forgetfulness is present as a force, as a form of strong health, has had an opposing capability bred into it, a memory, with the help of which, in certain cases, its forgetfulness will cease to functionthat is, for those cases where promises are to be made. This is in no way a merely passive inability ever to be rid of an impression once it's been etched into the mind, nor is it merely indigestion over a word one has pledged at a particular time.

No, it's an methylation epigenetic active wish not to be free of the matter, a continuing desire for what one willed at a particular time, a real memory of one's will, so that between the original I will or I will do and the actual discharge of the will, its real action, without thinking about Methods of Teaching Essay it, a world of strange new things, circumstances, even acts of the will can intervene, without breaking this long chain of the epigenetic will. But consider what that presupposes! In order to organize the future in black death, this manner, human beings must have first learned to separate necessary events from chance events, to think in terms of cause and effect, to see distant events as if they were present, to anticipate them, to set goals and the means to reach them safely, to develop a capability for figures and calculations in generaland for methylation epigenetic, that to occur, a human being must necessarily have first become something one could predict, something bound by regular rules, even in the way he imagined himself to himself, so that finally he is able to act like someone who makes promiseswho makes himself into a pledge for the future! Precisely that development is the history of the Essay on The of Digital origin of responsibility. The task of breeding an animal with a right to make promises contains within it, as we have already grasped, as a condition and methylation epigenetic prerequisite, the more urgent prior task of making a human being necessarily uniform to some extent, one among many other like him, regular and consequently predictable. The immense task in what I have called the morality of custom (cf. Daybreak , p. 7, 13, 16), the essential work of a man on his own self in the longest-lasting age of the human race, his entire pre-historical work, derives its meaning, its grand justification, from the following point, no matter how much hardship, tyranny, monotony and a wrinkle themes idiocy it also manifested: with the help of the morality of custom and the social strait jacket, the methylation human being was rendered truly predictable. Now, let's position ourselves, by contrast, at the end of this immense process, in the place where the tree finally yields its fruit, where society and the morality of custom finally bring to political, light the methylation epigenetic end for which they were simply the Different Essay means. We findas the ripest fruit on that treethe sovereign individual, something which resembles only itself, which has broken loose again from the morality of customthe autonomous individual beyond morality (for autonomous and moral are mutually exclusive terms)in short, the human being who possesses his own independent and enduring will, who is entitled to make promisesand in him a proud consciousness, quivering in every muscle, of what has finally been achieved and given living embodiment in him: a real consciousness of power and freedom, a feeling of completion for methylation, human beings generally. This man who has become free, who really has the right to Different, make promises, this master of free will, this sovereignhow can he not realize the superiority he enjoys over everyone who does not have the methylation right to make a promise and make pledges on his own behalf, knowing how much trust, how much fear, and how much respect he creates (he is worthy of all three) and how, with this mastery over himself, he has necessarily been given in addition mastery over death his circumstances, over nature, and over all creatures with a shorter and less reliable will?

The free man, the owner of an enduring unbreakable will, by possessing this, also acquires his own standard of value: he looks out from himself at others and confers respect or withholds it. And just as it will be necessary for him to honour those like him, the strong and dependable (who are entitled to make promises), in other words everyone who makes promises like a sovereign, seriously, rarely, and slowly, who is sparing with his trust, who honours another when he does trust, who gives his word as something reliable, because he knows he is strong enough to remain upright when opposed by misfortune, even when opposed by fate, so it will be necessary for him to keep his foot ready to kick the scrawny unreliable men, who make promises without being entitled to, and hold his cane ready to punish the methylation epigenetic liar who breaks his word in the very moment it comes out of Essay Photography his mouth. The proud knowledge of the extraordinary privilege of responsibility, the consciousness of this rare freedom, this power over oneself and methylation epigenetic destiny have become internalized into the deepest parts of him and grown instinctual, have now become a dominating instinct. Titus? What will he call it, this dominating instinct, given that he finds he needs a word for epigenetic, it? There's no doubt about this question: this sovereign man calls this instinct his conscience. His conscience? To being with, we can conjecture that the idea of conscience, which we are encountering here in its highest, almost perplexing form, already had a long history and developmental process behind it.

To be entitled to pledge one's word, to do it with pride, and Different of Teaching also to say yes to oneselfthat right is a ripe fruit, as I have mentioned, but it is also a late fruit. Methylation? For what a long stretch of time this fruit must have hung tart and sour on the tree! And for an even longer time it was impossible to see any such fruit. Julie Taymor? It would appear that no one would have been entitled to make promises, even if everything about the tree was getting ready for it and epigenetic was growing right in that direction. How does one create a memory for the human animal? How does one stamp something like that into his partly dull, partly idiotic momentary understanding, this living embodiment of forgetfulness, so that it stays there? This ancient problem, as you can imagine, was not resolved right away with tender answers and methods. Perhaps there is nothing more fearful and more terrible in the entire pre-history of human beings than the technique for developing his memory.

We burn something in a wrinkle in time themes, so that it remains in the memory. Only something which never ceases to cause pain stays in the memorythat is a leading principle of the most ancient (and unfortunately the methylation most recent) psychology on earth. We might even say that everywhere on earth nowadays where there is still solemnity, seriousness, mystery, gloomy colours in the lives of men and Different Methods people, something of methylation that terror is Invention of Digital, still at work, the fear with which in earlier times on earth people made promises, pledged their word, or praised something. The past, the methylation longest, deepest, most severe past, breathes on us and surfaces in us when we become solemn. When the human being considered it necessary to make a memory for himself, it never happened without blood, martyrs, and the effects death sacrificesthe most terrible sacrifices and pledges (among them the sacrifice of the first born), the methylation epigenetic most repulsive self-mutilations (for example castration), the cruellest forms of ritual in all the religious cults (and all religions are at bottom systems of of Teaching Essay cruelty)all that originates in that instinct which discovered that pain was the most powerful means of helping to develop the memory. In a certain sense all asceticism belongs here: a couple of ideas need to be made indissoluble, omnipresent, unforgettable, fixed, in methylation epigenetic, order to hypnotize the entire nervous and intellectual system through these fixed ideasand the ascetic procedures and a wrinkle themes forms of epigenetic life are the of Teaching means whereby these ideas are freed from jostling around with all the methylation other ideas, in order to make them unforgettable. The worse the human's memory was, the more terrible his customs have always appeared.

The harshness of the political party laws of punishment provide a special standard for measuring how much trouble people went to in order to triumph over forgetfulness and to maintain the awareness of a few primitive demands of social living together for this slave of momentary feelings and desires. We Germans certainly do not think of ourselves as a particularly cruel and hard-hearted people, even less as particularly careless people who live only in the present. But have a look at our old penal code in methylation, order to understand how much trouble it took on of Teaching Essay this earth to breed a People of Thinkers (by that I mean the peoples of Europe, among whom today we still find a maximum of methylation epigenetic trust, seriousness, tastelessness, and practicality, and who with these characteristics have a right to breed all sorts of European mandarins). On The Photography? These Germans have used terrible means to make themselves a memory in order to attain mastery over their vulgar and brutally crude basic instincts. Methylation? Think of the old German punishments, for example, stoning (even the Different Methods legend lets the mill stone fall on the head of the guilty person), breaking on the wheel (the unique invention and specialty of the German genius in the area of methylation punishment!), impaling on a stake, ripping people apart or stamping them to death with horses (quartering), boiling the criminal in oil or wine (still done in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries), the well-loved practice of flaying (cutting flesh off in the effects of the black death, strips), carving flesh out methylation, of the chest, along with, of course, covering the offender with honey and leaving him to the flies in the burning sun.

With the help of such images and procedures people finally retained five or six I will not's in their memory, and so far as these precepts were concerned they gave their word in Essay Invention of Digital Photography, order to live with the advantages of societyand that was that! With the assistance of this sort of methylation memory people finally came to reason! Ah, reason, seriousness, mastery over of a party emotions, the whole gloomy business called reflection, all these privileges and ceremonies of human beingshow expensive they were! How much blood and epigenetic horror is the basis for all good things. But then how did that other gloomy business, the consciousness of guilt, the whole bad conscience come into julie the world? With this we turn back to our genealogists of epigenetic morality. I'll say it once moreor perhaps I haven't said it at all yetthey are useless. With their own purely modern experience extending only through five periods, with no knowledge of or any desire to know the past, and even less historical insight, a second perspectivesomething so necessary at in time this pointthey nonetheless pursue the history of morality. That must inevitably produce results which have a less than tenuous relationship to the truth. Have these genealogists of morality up to this point allowed themselves to dream, even remotely, that, for methylation epigenetic, instance, the major moral principle guilt [Schuld] derives its origin from the ww1 definition very materialistic idea debt [Schulden] or that punishment developed entirely as repayment, without reference to any assumption about the epigenetic freedom or lack of freedom of the willand did so to the point where it first required a high degree of human development [Vermenschlichung] so that the on The animal man began to make those much more primitive distinctions between intentional, negligent, accidental, of sound mind, and their opposites and bring them to bear when handing out punishment?

That unavoidable idea, nowadays so trite and apparently natural, which has really had to serve as the explanation how the feeling of justice in general came into existence on earthThe criminal deserves punishment because he could have acted otherwisethis idea, in fact, is an epigenetic extremely late achievement, indeed, a sophisticated form of human judgment and decision making. Anyone who moves this idea back to the very beginnings is sticking his coarse fingers inappropriately into the psychology of primitive humanity. For the most extensive period of human history punishment was not meted out functions of a political, because people held the instigator of methylation evil responsible for Essay on The Invention of Digital Photography, his actions, nor was it assumed that only the guilty party should be punished. It was much more the case, as it still is now when parents punish their children, of anger over some harm which people have suffered, anger vented on the perpetrator. But this anger was restrained and modified through the idea that every injury had some equivalent and that compensation for it could, in fact, be paid out, even if that was through the pain of the perpetrator. Where did this primitive, deeply rooted, and perhaps by now ineradicable idea derive its power, the idea of an equivalence between punishment and pain?

I have already given away the answer: in the contractual relationship between creditor and debtor, which is as ancient as the idea of someone subject to law and which, in methylation, itself, refers back to the basic forms of Different Methods of Teaching Essay buying, selling, bartering, trading, and exchanging goods. It's true that recalling this contractual relationship arouses, as we might expect from what I have observed above, all sorts of suspicion of and methylation epigenetic opposition to primitive humanity which established or allowed it. It's precisely at this point that people make promises. Functions Of A Political? Here the pertinent issue is that the methylation person who makes a promise has to have a memory created for him, so that precisely at this point, we can surmise, there exists a site for what is hard, cruel, and painful. Themes? In order to inspire trust in epigenetic, his promise to pay back, in order to Different Methods, give his promise a guarantee of its seriousness and sanctity, in order to impress on methylation his own conscience the functions political idea of paying back as a duty, an methylation epigenetic obligation, the debtor, by virtue of the functions party contract, pledges to the creditor, in the event that he does not pay, something that he still owns, something over which he still exercises power, for example, his body or his wife or his freedom or even his life (or, under certain religious conditions, even his blessedness, the salvation of his soul, or finally his peace in the grave, as was the case in Egypt, where the dead body of the debtor even in epigenetic, the grave found no peace from the creditorand it's certain that with the titus julie Egyptians such peace was particularly important). That means that the creditor could inflict all kinds of methylation epigenetic ignominy and torture on titus julie taymor the body of the debtorfor instance, slicing off the body as much as seemed appropriate for the size of the debt. And this point of view early on and everywhere gave rise to precise, horrific estimates going into finer and finer details, legally established estimates, about individual limbs and body parts. I consider it already a step forward, as evidence of a freer conception of the law, something which calculates more grandly, something more Roman, when Rome's Twelve Tables of Laws decreed it was all the same, no matter how much or how little the creditor cut off in epigenetic, such cases: si plus minusve secuerunt, ne fraude esto [let it not be thought a crime if they cut off more or less].

Let's clarify the taymor logic of this whole method of compensationit is weird enough. The equivalency is given in this way: instead of an advantage making up directly for methylation epigenetic, the harm (hence, instead of compensation in titus taymor, gold, land, possessions of methylation some sort or another), the creditor is given a kind of pleasure as repayment and compensationthe pleasure of being allowed to discharge his power on a powerless person without having to think about it, the delight in de fair le mal pour le plaisir de le faire [doing wrong for the pleasure of doing it] , the enjoyment of of Digital Photography violation. This enjoyment is more highly prized the lower and methylation baser the debtor stands in the social order, and it can easily seem to the creditor a delicious mouthful, even a foretaste of a higher rank. Ww1 Definition? By means of the punishment of the debtor, the creditor participates in a right belonging to the masters. Finally he himself for once comes to methylation epigenetic, the lofty feeling of despising a being as someone below himself, as someone he is entitled to mistreator at Different Methods of Teaching Essay least, in the event that the real force of punishment, of methylation inflicting punishment, has already been transferred to the authorities, the feeling of seeing the debtor despised and mistreated. The compensation thus consist of a permission for the effects black death, and right to cruelty. In this area, that is, in the laws of obligation, the world of moral concepts guilt, conscience, and sanctity of obligations was conceived. Its beginnings, just like the beginnings of everything great on earth, were watered thoroughly and for epigenetic, a long time with blood. And can we not add that this world deep down has never again been completely free of a certain smell of blood and in time themes torture(not even with old Kant whose categorical imperative stinks of cruelty . . . ). In addition, here the weird knot linking the ideas of guilt and epigenetic suffering, which perhaps has become impossible to undo, was first knit together. Let me pose the question once more: to what extent can suffering be a compensation for debts? To the extent that making someone suffer provides the highest degree of pleasure, to the extent that the person hurt by the debt, in exchange for the injury and for the distress caused by the injury, got an offsetting pleasuremaking someone suffera real feast, something that, as I've said, was valued all the more, the julie taymor greater the difference between him and the rank and social position of the methylation creditor.

I have been speculating here, for it's difficult to see such subterranean things from the surface, quite apart from the fact that it's an titus embarrassing subject. Anyone who crudely throws into the middle of all this the methylation epigenetic idea of revenge has merely buried and dimmed his insights rather than illuminated them (revenge itself takes us back to the very same problem How can making someone suffer give us a feeling of satisfaction?). It seems to me that the delicacy and even more the hypocrisy of tame house pets (I mean modern man, I mean us) resist a really powerful understanding of just how much cruelty contributes to the great celebratory joy of primitive humanity, as an ingredient mixed into almost all their enjoyments and, from another perspective, how nave and of Teaching innocent their need for cruelty appears, how they basically accept disinterested malice (or to use Spinoza's words, the epigenetic sympathia malevolens [malevolent sympathy] ) as a normal human characteristic, and militarism ww1 definition hence as something to which their conscience says a heartfelt Yes! A more deeply penetrating eye might still notice, even today, enough of this most ancient and most basic celebratory human joy. Methylation Epigenetic? In Beyond Good and Evil , p. 117 ff. A Wrinkle In Time Themes? (even earlier in Daybreak , p. 17, 68, 102), I pointed a cautious finger at the constantly growing spiritualization and deification of cruelty, which runs through the entire history of higher culture (and, in a significant sense, even constitutes that culture). In any case, it's not so long ago that people wouldn't think of an aristocratic wedding and folk festival in a grand style without executions, tortures, or something like an auto-da-f [ burning at the stake ], and no noble household lacked creatures on whom people could vent their malice and cruel taunts without a second thought (remember Don Quixote at methylation epigenetic the court of the duchess). Today we read all of Don Quixote with a bitter taste on the tongueit's almost an ordeal. In so doing, we become very foreign, very obscure to the author and his contemporaries. They read it with a fully clear conscience as the most cheerful of books. Titus? They almost died laughing at methylation epigenetic it.

Watching suffering makes people feel good, making someone suffer makes them feel even betterthat is a harsh principle, but an ww1 definition old, powerful, and methylation epigenetic human, all-too-human major principle, which, by the way, even the Essay on The Invention apes might agree with. Methylation? For people say that, in thinking up bizarre cruelties, the militarism apes already anticipate a great many human actions and, as it were, act them out. Without cruelty there is no celebration: that's what the oldest and longest era of human history teaches usand with punishment, too, there is so much celebration! With these ideas, by the way, I have no desire whatsoever to give our pessimists grist for their discordant mills grating with the weariness of methylation epigenetic life. On the contrary, I want to state very clearly that in that period when human beings had not yet become ashamed of their cruelty, life on of Teaching Essay earth was happier than it is now, now that we have our pessimists. The darkening of heaven over men's heads always increased quickly in methylation epigenetic, proportion to the growth of human beings' shame at Methods of Teaching Essay human beings. The tired pessimistic look, the mistrust of the riddle of epigenetic life, the icy denial stemming from on The of Digital disgust with lifethese are not the signs of the wickedest eras in the history of human beings. It's more the case that they first come to light as the swamp plants they are when the swamp to which they belong is methylation, thereI mean the political sickly mollycoddling and moralizing, thanks to which the animal man finally learns to feel shame about methylation epigenetic all his instincts. On his way to becoming an Essay Invention Photography angel (not to use a harsher word here), man developed an epigenetic upset stomach and a furry tongue which made him not only of a party fight against the joy and innocence of the animal but even lose his taste for life, so that now and then he stands there, holds his nose, and with Pope Innocent III disapproves of himself and makes a catalogue of his nastiness (conceived in filth, disgustingly nourished in his mother's body, developed out of epigenetic evil material stuff, stinking horribly, discharging spit, urine, and Methods excrement). Now, when suffering always has to march out as the first argument against epigenetic existence, as its most serious question mark, it's good for us to remember the times when people saw things the other way around, because they couldn't do without making people suffer and saw a first-class magic in it, a really tempting enticement for living.

Perhaps, let me say this as a consolation for the delicate, at of Teaching that time pain didn't hurt as much as it does nowadays. Methylation? At least that could be the Methods of Teaching conclusion of a doctor who had treated a Negro (taking the latter as a representative of pre-historical man) for a bad case of inner inflammation, which drives the European with the best constitution to despair but which doesn't have the same effect on the Negro. (The graph of the human capacity for pain seems in methylation epigenetic, fact to sink down remarkably and almost immediately after the the effects of the black first ten thousand or ten million of the top members of the higher culture. And I personally have no doubt that, in comparison with one painful night of a single hysterical well-educated female, the methylation epigenetic total suffering of all animals which up to now have been interrogated by the knife of science is really insignificant). Perhaps it is even permissible to concede the possibility that the pleasure in cruelty does not really need to die out. Since today pain does more harm, the relevant pleasure needed only to be sublimated and made more subtlein other words, it had to appear translated into the imaginative and spiritual and militarism ww1 definition embellished with nothing but names so unobjectionable that they arouse no suspicion in even the most delicate hypocritical conscience (tragic pity is one such name; another is les nostalgies de la croix [nostalgia for the cross] ). Epigenetic? What really enrages people about suffering is not the suffering itself, but the meaninglessness of suffering. But neither for the Christian, who sees in ww1 definition, suffering an entire secret machinery for salvation, nor for epigenetic, the nave men of older times, who understood how to interpret all suffering in relation to the spectator or to themes, the person inflicting the suffering, was there generally any such meaningless suffering. In order for epigenetic, the hidden, undiscovered, unwitnessed suffering to be removed from the world and for the effects of the death, people to be able to deny it honestly, they were then almost compelled to invent gods and intermediate beings at methylation epigenetic all levels, high and lowbriefly put, something that also roamed in hidden places, that also looked into the darkness, and that would not readily permit an interesting painful spectacle to a wrinkle in time themes, escape its attention.

Hence, with the epigenetic help of such inventions life then understood and has always understood how to the effects death, justify itself by a trick, how to methylation epigenetic, justify its evil. Nowadays perhaps it requires other helpful inventions (for example, life as riddle, life as a problem of the effects of the knowledge). Every evil which is epigenetic, uplifting in the eyes of God is Essay on The Invention Photography, justified: that's how the methylation pre-historical logic of feeling rang outand was that really confined to pre-history? The gods conceived of as friends of cruel spectacleoh, how far this primitive idea rises up over the development of a wrinkle our European humanity! We might well seek advice from Calvin and Luther on this point. At any rate it is methylation epigenetic, certain that even the Greeks knew of no more acceptable snack to offer their gods for their happiness that the joys of cruelty. With what sort of expression, do you think, did Homer allow his gods to look down on the fate of men?

What final sense was there essentially in the Trojan War and similar frightful tragedies? We cannot entertain the slightest doubts about titus taymor this: they were intended as celebrations for the godsand, to methylation epigenetic, the extent that the poet is in these matters more godlike than other men, as festivals for functions of a political party, the poets as well. Later the Greek moral philosophers in the same way imagined the eyes of god looking down on the moral struggles, on heroism and the self-mutilation of the virtuous: the Hercules of duty was on stage, and he knew he was there. Without someone watching, virtue for methylation epigenetic, this race of titus taymor actors was something entirely inconceivable. Surely that daring and fateful philosophical invention, first made for Europe at that time, the free will, the epigenetic absolutely spontaneous nature of human beings in matters of good and evil, was created above all to justify the themes idea that the interest of gods in men and in human virtue could never run out? On this earthly stage there was never to be any lack of really new things, really unheard of suspense, complication, catastrophe. A world conceived of as perfectly deterministic would have been predictable and therefore also soon boring for methylation, the gods. That was reason enough for these friends of the gods, the philosophers, not to of a party, ascribe such a deterministic world to their gods! All of ancient humanity is full of methylation epigenetic sensitive consideration for the spectator, for a truly public, truly visible world, which did not know how to militarism, imagine happiness without dramatic performances and festivals.

And, as I have already said, in the great punishments there is also so much celebration! To resume the path of our enquiry, the feeling of epigenetic guilt, of personal obligation has, as we saw, its origin in the oldest and most primitive personal relationship there is and political has beenin the relationship between seller and buyer, creditor and debtor. Methylation Epigenetic? Here for the first time one person encountered another person and measured himself against him. We have not yet found a civilization at Different Methods of Teaching Essay such a low level that something of this relationship is not already perceptible. To set prices, measure values, think up equivalencies, to methylation, exchange thingsthat preoccupied man's very first thinking to such a degree that in a certain sense it's what thinking is. The very oldest form of astuteness was bred herehere, too, we can assume are the first beginnings of human pride, his feeling of pre-eminence in relation to other animals. Perhaps our word man [ Mensch ] ( manas ) continues to express directly something of this feeling of the self: the human being describes himself as a being which assesses values, which values and measures, as the calculating animal as such. Selling and buying, together with their psychological attributes, are even older than the beginnings of any form of social organization and grouping. Julie? It is much rather the case that out of the most rudimentary form of methylation epigenetic personal legal right the budding feeling of exchange, contract, guilt, law, duty, compensation were first transferred to the crudest and earliest social structures (in their relationships with similar social structures), along with the titus julie taymor habit of comparing power with power, of measuring, of calculating. The eye was now at any rate adjusted to this perspective, and with that awkward consistency characteristic of the epigenetic thinking in ancient human beings, hard to get started but then inexorably moving forward in the same direction, people soon reached the great generalization Everything has its price, everything can be paid offthe oldest and most nave moral principle of justice, the beginning of all good nature, all fairness, all good will, all objectivity on earth. Justice at this first stage is good will among those approximately equal in power to the effects death, come to terms with each other, to understand each other again by compensationand in epigenetic, relation to those less powerful, to compel them to militarism, arrive at some settlement among themselves.

Still measuring by the standard of pre-history (a pre-history which, by the way, is present at all times or is capable of returning), the community also stands in relation to its members in that important basic relationship of the creditor to his debtors. People live in epigenetic, a community. They enjoy the advantages of a community (and what fine advantages they are! Nowadays we sometimes underestimate them)they live protected, cared for, in peace and trust, without worries concerning certain injuries and on The Invention Photography enmities from methylation epigenetic which the man outside the community, the man without peace, is julie taymor, excludeda German understands what misery [ Elend ] or lend [ other country ] originally meantand how people pledge themselves to methylation, and enter into obligations with the community bearing in mind precisely these injuries and Methods of Teaching enmities. What will happen with an exception to this case? The community, the defrauded creditor, will see that it gets paid as well as it canon that people can rely. The issue here is least of all the immediate damage which the offender has caused.

Setting this to one side, the lawbreaker [ Verbrecher ] is methylation, above all a breaker [ Brecher ]a breaker of of the death contracts and a breaker of his word against methylation the totality, with respect to Different Methods of Teaching, all the good features and advantages of the communal life in which, up to methylation epigenetic, that point, he has had a share. The lawbreaker is a debtor who does not merely not pay back for the benefits and advances given to him, but who even attacks his creditor. So from of Teaching Essay this point on not only does he lose, as is reasonable, all these good things and benefits, but he is methylation epigenetic, also more pertinently reminded what these good things are all about. The anger of the Different Methods Essay injured creditor, the community, gives him back the wild condition, as free as a bird, from which he was earlier protected. It pushes him away from it, and now every form of hostility can vent itself on him. At this stage of cultural behaviour punishment is simply the copy, the mimus , of the methylation normal conduct towards the hated, disarmed enemy who has been thrown down, who has lost not only all rights and protection but also all mercyhence it is a case of the rights of war and black death the victory celebration of vae victis [ woe to methylation epigenetic, the conquered ] in all its ruthlessness and cruelty, which accounts for the fact that war itself (including the warlike cult of sacrifice) has given us all the ways in Essay Photography, which punishment has appeared in history. As it acquires more power, a community considers the crimes of methylation epigenetic a single individual less serious, because they no longer make him as dangerous and unsettling for the existence of the community as much as they did before. The wrong doer is no longer left without peace and thrown out, and in time themes the common anger can no longer vent itself on him without restraint to the same extent it did before. Methylation? It is rather the of a case that the methylation wrong doer from now on is carefully protected by functions of a party the community against this anger, particularly from that of the injured person, and is taken into protective custody.

The compromise with the anger of those most immediately affected by the wrong doing, and thus the effort to localize the case and to avert a wider or even a general participation and unrest, attempts to find equivalents and to settle the whole business (the compositio ), above all the desire, appearing with ever-increasing clarity, to consider every crime as, in some sense or other, capable of being paid off, and thus, at least to some extent, to methylation, separate the criminal and his crime from functions of a political each otherthose are the characteristics stamped more and more clearly on methylation the further development of criminal law. If the power and the self-confidence of a community keeps growing, the criminal law grows constantly milder. Every weakening and profound jeopardizing of the community brings the harsher forms of criminal law to light once more. The creditor always became proportionally more human as he became richer. Finally the amount of black his wealth itself establishes how much damage he can sustain without suffering from it. It would not be impossible to imagine a society with a consciousness of its own power which allowed itself the epigenetic most privileged luxury which it can haveletting its criminals go free without punishment. Why should I really bother about my parasites, it would then say. May they live and prosperfor that I am still sufficiently strong! . . . Justice, which started by stating Everything is capable of being paid for, everything must be paid off ends at that point, by covering its eyes and letting the person incapable of on The Invention payment go freeit ends, as every good thing on earth ends, by doing away with itself.

This self-negation of justicewe know what a beautiful name it call itselfmercy. It goes without saying that mercy remains the privilege of the most powerful man, or even better, his movement beyond the epigenetic law. Now a critical word about a recently published attempt to find the origin of justice in quite a different placethat is, in resentment. Death? But first let me speak a word in the ear of the epigenetic psychologists, provided that they have any desire to study resentment itself up close for once: this plant grows most beautifully nowadays among anarchists and anti-Semitesin addition, it blooms, as it always has, in hidden places, like the violet, although it has a different fragrance. And since like always has to emerge from like, it is not surprising to see attempts coming forward from just such circles (see above, p. 30 [ First Essay ]) to sanctify revenge under the name of of a justice, as if justice were basically simply a further development of a feeling of being injured [ Verletzt-seins ], and to bring belated respect to emotional reactions generally, all of them, using the idea of revenge. With this last point I personally take the least offence. It even seems to epigenetic, me a service, so far as the entire biological problem is concerned (in connection with which the titus taymor worth of these emotions has been underestimated up to methylation, now). The only thing I'm calling attention to is the fact that it is the very idea of resentment itself out of which this new emphasis on scientific fairness grows (which favours hate, envy, resentment, suspicion, rancour, and revenge).

This scientific fairness, that is, ceases immediately and gives way to tones of mortal enmity and prejudice as soon as it deals with another group of emotions which, it strikes me, have a much higher biological worth than those reactive ones and julie taymor which therefore have earned the right to be scientifically assessed and given a high valuenamely, the truly active emotions, like desire for epigenetic, mastery, acquisitiveness, and functions political so on (E. Dhring, The Value of Life: A Course in Philosophy , the whole book really). So much against this tendency in general. But in connection with Dhring's single principle that we must seek the homeland of justice in the land of the reactive feeling, we must, for love of the truth, rudely turn this around by setting out a different principle: the methylation last territory to be conquered by the spirit of justice is the land of the reactive emotions! If it is truly the case that the just man remains just even towards someone who has injured him (and not just cold, moderate, strange, indifferent: being just is always a positive attitude), if under the sudden attack of personal injury, ridicule, and suspicion, the gaze of the Methods lofty, clear, deep, and benevolent objectivity of the just and judging eye does not grow dark, well, that's a piece of perfection and the highest mastery on methylation epigenetic earth, even something that it would be wise for people not to the effects death, expect and certainly not to believe in too easily. It's certainly true that, on average, even among the most just people even a small dose of hostility, malice, and insinuation is enough to epigenetic, make them see red and Methods Essay chase fairness out of their eyes. The active, aggressive, over-reaching human being is always placed a hundred steps closer to justice than the reactive. For him it is not even necessary in methylation epigenetic, the slightest to Invention of Digital Photography, estimate an object falsely and with bias, the way the reactive man does and must do. Thus, as a matter of fact, at all times the aggressive human beingthe stronger, braver, more noble manhas always had on his side a better conscience as well as a more independent eye.

And by contrast, we can already guess who generally has the invention of bad conscience on his consciencethe man of resentment! Finally, let's look around in history: up to now in what area has the whole implementation of law in general as well as the essential need for law been at home? Could it be in the area of the reactive human beings? That is entirely wrong. It is much more the case that it's been at home with the methylation active, strong, spontaneous, and a wrinkle in time aggressive men. Historically considered, the law on earthlet me say this to the annoyance of the above-mentioned agitator (who himself once made the confession The doctrine of revenge runs through all my work and efforts as the red thread of justice)represents that very struggle against epigenetic the reactive feelings, the Essay war with them on the part of active and methylation aggressive powers, which have partly used up their strength to the effects of the death, put a halt to or restrain reactive pathos and to compel some settlement with it. Everywhere where justice is practised, where justice is upheld, we see a power stronger in relation to a weaker power standing beneath it (whether with groups or individuals) seeking a means to bring an methylation end among the latter to the senseless rage of resentment, partly by dragging the object of resentment out of the hands of revenge, partly by setting in the place of revenge a battle against the enemies of a wrinkle peace and order, partly by methylation coming up with compensation, proposing it, under certain circumstances making it compulsory, sometimes establishing certain equivalents for injuries as a norm, which from now on resentment has to deal with once and for all. The most decisive factor, however, which the highest power carries out and the effects of the death sets in place against the superior power of the feelings of hostility and animositysomething that power always does as soon as it feels itself strong enoughis to set up laws, the imperative explanation of epigenetic those things which, in its own eyes, are considered allowed and legal and which are considered forbidden and illegal.

In the process, after the establishment of the law, the authorities treat attacks and militarism arbitrary acts of individuals or entire groups as an epigenetic outrage against the law, as rebellion against the highest power itself, and Different of Teaching Essay they steer the feelings of methylation those beneath them away from the militarism ww1 definition immediate damage done by such outrages and thus, in the long run, achieve the reverse of what all revenge desires, which sees only the viewpoint of the injured party and methylation considers only that valid. From now on, the eye becomes trained to evaluate actions always impersonally, even the eye of the harmed party itself (although this would be the militarism very last thing to occur, as I have remarked earlier). Consequently, only with the methylation epigenetic setting up of the law is titus julie taymor, there a just and unjust (and not, as Dhring will have it, from the time of the methylation injurious action). To talk of just and unjust in themselves has no sense whatsoeverit's obvious that in themselves harming, oppressing, exploiting, destroying cannot be unjust, insofar as life essentially works that way, that is, in Essay Photography, its basic functions it harms, oppresses, exploits, and destroysand cannot be conceived at all without these characteristics. We must acknowledge something even more alarmingthe fact that from the highest biological standpoint, conditions of law must always be exceptional conditions, partial restrictions on the basic will to live, which is set on powerthey are subordinate to the total purpose of this will as its individual means, that is, as means to create a larger unit of methylation power. A legal system conceived of as sovereign and universal, not as a means in the struggle of power complexes, but as a means against all struggles in general, something along the lines of Dhring's communist clich in which each will must be considered as equal to every will, that would be a principle hostile to ww1 definition, life, a destroyer and dissolver of human beings, an assassination attempt on the future of methylation human beings, a sign of exhaustion, a secret path to nothingness.

Here another word concerning the origin and titus julie taymor purpose of punishmenttwo problems which are separate or should be separate. Unfortunately people normally throw them together. Methylation Epigenetic? How do the previous genealogists of morality deal with this problem? Naivelythe way they always work. They find some purpose or other for punishment, for example, revenge or deterrence, then in a simple way set this purpose at the beginning as the causa fiendi [ creative cause ] of on The Invention punishment and methylation then that's itthey're finished.

The purpose in law, however, is the very last idea we should use in the history of the emergence of of Teaching Essay law. It is much rather the case that for all forms of history there is methylation, no more important principle that the one which we reach with such difficulty but which we also really should reach, namely that what causes a particular thing to arise and the final utility of that thing, its actual use and arrangement in a system of purposes, are separate toto coelo [ by all the a wrinkle in time themes heavens, i.e., absolutely ], that something existing, which has somehow come to its present state, will again and again be interpreted by the higher powers over it from a new perspective, appropriated in a new way, reorganized for and redirected to new uses, that all events in the organic world involve overpowering, acquiring mastery and that, in turn, all overpowering and acquiring mastery involve a re-interpretation, a readjustment, in which the sense and purpose up to then must necessarily be obscured or entirely erased. No matter how well we have understood the usefulness of some physiological organ or other (or a legal institution, a social custom, a political practice, some style in art or in religious cults), we have not, in that process, grasped anything about its originno matter how uncomfortable and methylation epigenetic unpleasant this may sound in elderly ears. From time immemorial people have believed that in demonstrable purposes, the usefulness of a thing, a form, or an institution they could understand the reasons it came into existencethe eye as something made to see, the hand as something made to militarism ww1 definition, grasp. So people also imagined punishment as invented to punish. But all purposes, all uses, are only signs that a will to epigenetic, power has become master over something with less power and has stamped on a wrinkle in time themes it its own meaning of some function, and the entire history of epigenetic a thing, an organ, a practice can by this process be seen as a continuing chain of signs of constantly new interpretations and adjustments, whose causes need not be connected to each otherthey rather follow and take over from each other under merely contingent circumstances. Consequently, the development of a thing, a practice, or an organ has nothing to do with its progress towards a single goal, even less is it the on The Invention of Digital logical and methylation shortest progress reached with the least expenditure of power and resources, but rather the sequence of more or less profound, more or less mutually independent processes of overpowering which take place on that thing, together with the resistance which arises against of the black that overpowering each time, the transformations of form which have been attempted for the purpose of defence and reaction, the results of successful countermeasures.

Form is fluidthe meaning, however, is even more so . . . Even within each individual organism things are no different: with every essential growth in the totality, the meaning of an individual organ also shiftsin certain circumstances its partial destruction, a reduction of its numbers (for example, through the destruction of intermediate structures) can be a sign of growing power and methylation perfection. Let me say this: the partial loss of utility, decline, and degeneration, the loss of meaning, and purposelessness, in short, death, belong to the conditions of a real progress, which always appears in the form of a will and a way to greater power always establishing itself at the expense of a huge number of smaller powers. The size of a step forward can even be estimated by a measure of in time everything that had to be sacrificed to it. The mass of humanity sacrificed for the benefit of methylation a single stronger species of manthat would be a step forward . . Invention Photography? . I emphasize this major point of view about historical methodology all the more since it basically runs counter to the present ruling instinct and contemporary taste, which would rather go along with the absolute contingency, even the mechanical meaninglessness of all events rather than with the theory of a will to power playing itself out in everything that happens. The democratic idiosyncrasy of being hostile to everything which rules and wants to rule, the modern ruler-hatred [ Misarchismus ] (to make up a bad word for methylation epigenetic, a bad thing), has gradually transformed itself and dressed itself up in intellectual activity, the most intellectual activity, to such an extent that nowadays step by step it infiltrates the strictest, apparently most objective scientific research, and militarism ww1 definition is allowed to infiltrate it. Indeed, it seems to methylation epigenetic, me already to have attained mastery over all of physiology and the understanding of life, to their detriment, as is ww1 definition, obvious, because it has conjured away from them their fundamental conceptthat of real activity. By contrast, under the pressure of this idiosyncrasy we push adaptation into the foreground, that is, a second-order activity, a mere re-activityin fact, people have defined life itself as an always purposeful inner adaptation to external circumstances (Herbert Spencer). But that simply misjudges the essence of methylation life, its will to power. That overlooks the first priority of the taymor spontaneous, aggressive, over-reaching, re-interpreting, re-directing, and shaping powers, after whose effects the methylation epigenetic adaptation first follows. Thus, the governing role of the highest functions in an organism, ones in of a political party, which the methylation will for living appear active and creative, are denied.

People should remember the criticism Huxley directed at Spencer for Different Methods of Teaching, his administrative nihilism. But the issue here concerns much more than administration . . . Returning to the business at hand, that is, to punishment, we have to differentiate between two aspects of it: first its relative duration, the way it is carried out, the action, the drama, a certain strict sequence of procedures and, on the other hand, its fluidity, the methylation meaning, the purpose, the expectation linked to the implementation of such procedures. In this matter, we can here assume, without further comment, per analogium [ by titus julie taymor analogy ], in accordance with the major viewpoints about the historical method we have just established, that the procedure itself will be somewhat older and methylation earlier than its use as a punishment, that the latter was only injected and interpreted into the procedure (which had been present for a long time but was a tradition with a different meaning), in short, that it was not what our nave genealogists of morality and law up to now assumed, who collectively imagined that the procedure was invented for the purpose of punishment, just as people earlier thought that the a wrinkle in time themes hand was invented for the purpose of grasping. Now, so far as that other element in methylation, punishment is functions of a party, concerned, the fluid element, its meaning, in a very late cultural state (for example in contemporary Europe) the idea of punishment actually presents not simply one meaning but a whole synthesis of meanings. The history of punishment up to methylation, now, in general, the Different Methods of Teaching history of its use for methylation epigenetic, different purposes, finally crystallizes into a sort of unity, which is difficult to untangle, difficult to analyze, and, it must be stressed, totally incapable of definition. (Today it is impossible to functions party, say clearly why we really have punishmentall ideas in which an entire process is semiotically summarized elude definitiononly something which has no history is capable of being defined). At an earlier stage, by contrast, that synthesis of meanings appears much easier to untangle, as well as easier to methylation, adjust. We can still see how in every individual case the elements in the synthesis alter their valence and rearrange themselves to such an extent that soon this or that element steps forward and dominates at the expense of the restindeed, under certain circumstances one element (say, the purpose of deterrence) appears to rise above all the other elements. In order to give at least an idea of how uncertain, how belated, how accidental the meaning of punishment is and how one and the same procedure can be used, interpreted, or adjusted for fundamentally different purposes, let me offer here an example which presented itself to me on the basis of relatively small and random material: punishment as a way of rendering someone harmless, as a prevention from further harm; punishment as compensation for the damage to the person injured, in some form or other (also in the form of militarism ww1 definition emotional compensation); punishment as isolation of some upset to an even balance in order to avert a wider outbreak of the disturbance; punishment as way of bringing fear to those who determine and carry out punishment; punishment as a sort of compensation for the advantages which the epigenetic law breaker has enjoyed up until that time (for example, when he is ww1 definition, made useful as a slave working the mines); punishment as a cutting out of a degenerate element (in some circumstances an epigenetic entire branch, as in Chinese law, and thus a means to keep the race pure or to sustain a social type); punishment as festival, that is, as the violation and humiliation of some enemy one has finally thrown down; punishment as a way of making a conscience, whether for the man who suffers the punishmentso-called reformor whether for those who witness the of a political punishment being carried out; punishment as the payment of an honorarium, set as a condition by those in power, which protects the methylation epigenetic wrong doer from the excesses of Essay revenge; punishment as a compromise with the natural condition of epigenetic revenge, insofar as the on The Invention latter is still upheld and assumed as a privilege by powerful families; punishment as a declaration of war and a war measure against an enemy to peace, law, order, and authority, which people fight with the very measures war makes available, as something dangerous to the community, as a contract breaker with respect to its conditions, as a rebel, traitor, and breaker of the peace. Of course, this list is not complete.

Obviously punishment is overloaded with all sorts of useful purposesall the more reason why people infer from epigenetic it an alleged utility, which in the popular consciousness at least is considered the most essential one. Faith in punishment, which nowadays for several reasons is getting very shaky, always finds its most powerful support in precisely this: Punishment is supposed to be valuable in waking a feeling of guilt in the guilty party. In punishment people are looking for the actual instrument for Different Methods of Teaching, that psychic reaction called bad conscience and epigenetic pangs of militarism conscience. In doing this, people still apply reality and psychology incorrectly to present issuesand how much more incorrectly to epigenetic, the greater part of man's history, his prehistory! Real pangs of Essay of Digital Photography conscience are something extremely rare precisely among criminals and prisoners. Epigenetic? Prisons and penitentiaries are not breeding grounds in which this species of gnawing worm particularly thriveson that point all conscientious observers agree, in many cases delivering such a judgment with sufficient unwillingness, going against their own desires.

In general, punishment makes people hard and cold. It concentrates. It sharpens the feeling of estrangement and strengthens powers of resistance. If it comes about that punishment shatters a man's energy and brings on a wretched prostration and Essay Photography self-abasement, such a consequence is surely even less pleasant than the ordinary results of punishmentcharacteristically a dry and gloomy seriousness. However, if we consider the millennia before the history of humanity, without a second thought we can conclude that the very development of epigenetic a feeling of guilt was most powerfully hindered by titus punishment, at least with respect to the victims onto whom this force of punishment was vented. For let us not underestimate just how much the epigenetic criminal is prevented by the sight of judicial and executive processes from on The sensing the methylation epigenetic nature of his action as something reprehensible in itself, for titus julie taymor, he sees exactly the same kind of actions undertaken in the service of justice, applauded and practised in good conscience, like espionage, lying, bribery, entrapment, the methylation whole tricky and sly art of the of the black police and prosecution, as it develops in the various kinds of punishmentthe robbery, oppression, abuse, imprisonment, torture, murder (all done as a matter of principle, without any emotional involvement as an excuse).

Such actions are in no way rejected or condemned in themselves by methylation epigenetic his judges, but only in particular respects when used for certain purposes. Bad conscience, this most creepy and interesting plant among our earthly vegetation, did not grow in this soil. In fact, for the longest period in the past no notion of dealing with a guilty party penetrated the consciousness of judges or even those doing the punishing.. Different Of Teaching? They were dealing with someone who had caused harm, with an methylation epigenetic irresponsible piece of fate. And the man on whom punishment later fell, once again like a piece of fate, experienced in that no inner pain, other than what came from the sudden arrival of something unpredictable, a terrible natural event, a falling, crushing boulder against which there is no way to fight. At one point Spinoza became aware of this point (something which irritates his interpreters, like Kuno Fischer, who really go to great lengths to misunderstand him on this issue), when one afternoon, confronted by of a political party some memory or other (who knows what?), he pondered the question about what, as far as he was concerned, was left of the celebrated morsus conscientiae [ the bite of conscience ]for he had expelled good and evil into methylation the human imagination and militarism ww1 definition had irascibly defended the honour of his free God against those blasphemers who claimed that in everything God worked sub ratione boni [ with good reason ] (but that means that God would be subordinate to methylation epigenetic, Fate, a claim which, if true, would be the greatest of all contradictions). For Spinoza the world had gone back again into that state of innocence in a wrinkle, which it existed before the fabrication of the idea of epigenetic a bad conscience. So what, then, had happened to the morsus conscientiae ? The opposite of gaudium [ joy ], Spinoza finally told himself is sorrow, accompanied by Different Methods the image of something over and done with which happened contrary to all expectation ( Ethics III, Proposition XVIII, Schol. I. Methylation Epigenetic? II).

Just like Spinoza, those instigating evil who incurred punishment have for thousands of years felt in connection with their crime Something has unexpectedly gone awry here, not I should not have done that. They submitted to their punishment as people submit to a sickness or some bad luck or death, with that brave fatalism free of functions of a party revolt which, for example, gives the Russians an advantage over us westerners in coping with life. If back then there was some criticism of the act, such criticism came from prudence: without question we must seek the essential effect of punishment above all in an increase of prudence, in a extension of memory, in a will to epigenetic, go to work from in time themes now on methylation more carefully, mistrustfully, and secretly, with the awareness that we are in many things too weak, in a kind of improved ability to judge ourselves. In general, what can be achieved through punishment, in human beings and animals, is an increase in ww1 definition, fear, a honing of epigenetic prudence, control over titus desires. In the process, punishment tames human beings, but it does not make them better. People might be more justified in asserting the opposite (Popular wisdom says Injury makes people prudent, but to the extent that it makes them prudent it also makes them bad. Fortunately, often enough it makes people stupid.) At this point, I can no longer avoid setting out, in an initial, provisional statement, my own hypothesis about the origin of bad conscience.

It is not easy to get people to attend to it, and it requires them to consider it at length, to guard it, and to sleep on it. I consider bad conscience the profound illness which human beings had to come down with, under the pressure of the methylation epigenetic most fundamental of the effects of the black death all the changes which they experiencedthat change when they found themselves locked within the confines of society and peace. Just like the epigenetic things water animals must have gone though when they were forced either to become land animals or to of Teaching Essay, die off, so events must have played themselves out epigenetic, with this half-beast so happily adapted to the wilderness, war, wandering around, adventuresuddenly all its instincts were devalued and disengaged. From this point on, these animals were to go on foot and julie taymor carry themselves; whereas previously they had been supported by the water. A terrible heaviness weighed them down. In performing the simplest things they felt ungainly. In dealing with this new unknown world they no longer had their old leader, the ruling unconscious drives which guided them safely. These unfortunate creatures were reduced to thinking, inferring, calculating, bringing together cause and effect, reduced to their consciousness, their most impoverished and error-prone organ! I believe that on earth there has never been such a feeling of methylation epigenetic misery, such a leaden discomfortwhile at the same time those old instincts had not all at once stopped imposing their demands! Only it was difficult and seldom possible to do their bidding. A Wrinkle In Time? For the most part they had to find new and, as it were, underground satisfactions for them.

All instincts which are not discharged to the outside are turned back inside. This is what I call the internalization of man. From this first grows in man what people later call his soul. The entire inner world, originally as thin as if stretched between two layers of skin, expanded and extended itself, acquired depth, width, and height to the extent that the discharge of human instinct out into the world was obstructed. Methylation? Those frightening fortifications with which the of Teaching Essay organization of the state protected itself against the old instincts for freedompunishment belongs above all to these fortificationsmade all those instincts of the wild, free, roaming man turn backwards, against man himself. Enmity, cruelty, joy in pursuit, in epigenetic, attack, in change, in destructionall those turned themselves against the possessors of such instincts. That is the Essay on The Invention of Digital origin of bad conscience. The man who lacked external enemies and epigenetic opposition and was forced into an oppressive narrowness and regularity of custom, impatiently tore himself apart, persecuted himself, gnawed away at himself, grew upset, and did himself damagethis animal which scraped itself raw against the bars of its cage, which people want to tame, this impoverished creature, consumed with longing for the wild, had to create in itself an adventure, a torture chamber, an uncertain and dangerous wilderness, this fool, this yearning and puzzled prisoner, was the inventor of bad conscience. Different? With him was introduced the greatest and epigenetic weirdest illness, from ww1 definition which human beings today have not recovered, the suffering of man from his humanness, from himself, a consequence of the forcible separation from methylation epigenetic his animal past, a leap and, so to speak, a fall into new situations and living conditions, a declaration of war against the old instincts, on which, up to Essay on The Invention of Digital Photography, that point, his power, joy, and ability to methylation, inspire fear had been based. Let us at once add that, on the other hand, the fact that there was now an ww1 definition animal soul turned against itself, taking sides against itself, provided this earth with something so new, profound, unheard of, enigmatic, contradictory, and portentous [ Zukunftsvolles ], that the picture of the earth was fundamentally changed.

In fact, it required divine spectators to approve the dramatic performance which then began and whose conclusion is not yet in sight, a spectacle too fine, too wonderful, too paradoxical, to be allowed to play itself out senselessly and unobserved on some ridiculous star or other. Since then man has been included among the methylation epigenetic most unexpected and most thrilling lucky rolls of the titus julie dice in the game played by Heraclitus' great child, whether he's called Zeus or chance. Methylation Epigenetic? In himself he arouses a certain interest, tension, hope, almost a certainty, as if something is announcing itself in him, is preparing itself, as if the human being were not the militarism goal but only the epigenetic way, an episode, a great promise . . . Inherent in militarism, this hypothesis about the origin of bad conscience is, firstly, the assumption that this change was not gradual or voluntary and did not manifest an methylation organic growth into new conditions, but was a break, a leap, something forced, an irrefutable disaster, against which there was no struggle nor any resentment. Secondly, it assumes that the adaptation of a populace which had hitherto been unchecked and shapeless into a fixed form was initiated by militarism an act of violence and was carried to methylation epigenetic, its conclusion by nothing but sheer acts of violence, that consequently the very oldest State emerged as a terrible tyranny, as an oppressive and inconsiderate machinery and continued working until such a raw materials of people and half-animals finally were not only thoroughly kneaded and submissive but also given a shape. I used the julie word Stateit is self-evident who is meant by methylation that termsome pack of Different Methods blond predatory animals, a race of conquerors and methylation epigenetic masters, which, organized for war and with the power to organize, without thinking about it, sets its terrifying paws on a subordinate population which may perhaps be vast in militarism, numbers but is still without any shape, is still wandering about. That's surely the way the State begins on earth. I believe that that fantasy has been done away with which sees the beginning of the state in some contract. Epigenetic? The man who can command, who is naturally a master, who comes forward with violence in his actions and titus julie taymor gestureswhat has a man like that to do with making contracts! We cannot negotiate with such beings.

They come like fate, without cause, reason, consideration, or pretext. They are present as lightning is present, too fearsome, too sudden, too convincing, too different even to become hated. Their work is the instinctive creation of forms, the methylation imposition of forms. In Time Themes? They are the most involuntary and unconscious artists in existence. Where they appear something new is soon present, a living power structure, something in methylation, which the parts and functions are demarcated and coordinated, in which there is, in general, no place for anything which does not first derive its meaning from its relationship to the totality.

These men, these born organizers, have no idea what guilt, responsibility, and consideration are. Titus? In them that fearsome egotism of the artist is in charge, which stares out like bronze and knows how to justify itself for all time in the work, just like a mother with her child. They are not the epigenetic ones in whom bad conscience grewthat point is obvious. But this hateful plant would not have grown without them. It would have failed if an immense amount of freedom had not been driven from the of Digital Photography world under the pressure of their hammer blowsor at least driven from sight and, as it were, had become latent. This powerful instinct for freedom, once made latent (we already understand how), this instinct driven back, repressed, imprisoned inside, and finally able to discharge and direct itself only against itselfthat and that alone is what bad conscience is in its beginnings. We need to be careful not to entertain a low opinion of this entire phenomenon simply because it is from the outset hateful and painful.

Basically it is the same active force which is at work on methylation epigenetic a grander scale in those artists of power and a wrinkle themes organization and methylation which builds states. Here it is inner, smaller, more mean spirited, directing itself backwards, into the labyrinth of the breast, to use Goethe's words, and it builds bad conscience and negative ideals for itself, that very instinct for freedom (to use my own language, the will to Methods, power). But the epigenetic material on which the shaping and violating nature of this force directs itself is man himself, all his old animal self, and not, as in that greater and more striking phenomenon, on another man or on other men. This furtive violation of the self, this artistic cruelty, this pleasure in of the black death, giving a shape to oneself as if to a tough, resisting, suffering material, to burn into epigenetic it a will, a critique, a contradiction, a contempt, a denialthis weird and horribly pleasurable work of a soul voluntarily divided against itself, which makes itself suffer for the pleasure of creating suffering, all this active bad conscience, as the womb of ideal and imaginative events, finally brought to lightwe have already guessedalso an on The Photography abundance of strange new beauty and affirmation, perhaps for the first time the idea of the beautiful. . . Epigenetic? . For what would be beautiful, if its opposite of the, had not yet come to an awareness of itself, if ugliness had not already said to itself, I am ugly . . . At least, after this hint one paradox will be less puzzlinghow contradictory ideas, like selflessness, self-denial, and methylation self-sacrifice, can connote an ideal, something beautiful. And beyond that, one thing we do knowI have no doubt about itnamely, the nature of the pleasure which the selfless, self-denying, self-sacrificing person experiences from the start: this pleasure belongs to cruelty. So much for the moment on of a political party the origin of the unegoistic as something of moral worth and on the demarcation of the methylation soil out of which this value has grown: only bad conscience, only the will to abuse the self, provides the condition for the value of the unegoistic. Bad conscience is a sicknessthere's no doubt about thatbut a sickness as pregnancy is a sickness.

Let's look for the conditions in which this illness has arrived at its most terrible and most sublime peak. Ww1 Definition? In this way we'll see what really first brought about its entry into the world. But that requires a lot of enduranceand we must first go back to an earlier point. The relationship in civil law between the debtor and the creditor, which I have reviewed extensively already, has been reinterpreted once again in epigenetic, an extremely remarkable and dubious historical manner into a relationship which we modern men are perhaps least capable of understanding, namely, into the relationship between those people presently alive and the effects death their ancestors. Within the original tribal cooperativeswe're talking about primeval timesthe living generation always acknowledged a legal obligation to the previous generations, and especially to the earliest one which had founded the tribe (and this was in no way merely a sentimental obligationthe latter is something we could reasonably claim was absent for the longest period of the human race). Methylation? Here the reigning conviction was that the tribe exists only because of the sacrifices and achievements of their ancestors, and in time that people must pay them back with sacrifices and achievements. In this people recognize a debt which keeps steadily growing because these ancestors in methylation, their continuing existence as powerful spirits do not stop giving the tribe new advantages and lending them their power. Militarism Ww1 Definition? Do they do this gratuitously? But there is no gratuitously for these raw and spiritually destitute ages.

What can people give back to them? Sacrifices (at first as nourishment understood very crudely), festivals, chapels, signs of honour, and, above all, obediencefor all customs, as work of one's ancestors, are also their statutes and commands. Methylation? Do people ever give them enough? This suspicion remains and grows. From time to time it forcefully requires wholesale redemption, something huge as a payment back to the creditor (the notorious sacrifice of the first born, for example, blood, human blood in any case). Fear of ancestors and titus taymor their power, the awareness of one's debt to methylation, them, according to functions of a, this kind of logic, necessarily increases directly in proportion to the increase in the power of the epigenetic tribe itself, as the tribe finds itself constantly more victorious, more independent, more honoured, and more feared. It's not the Different Methods Essay other way around! Every step towards the decline of the tribe, all conditions of misery, all indications of degeneration, of dissolution, always lead to a diminution in the fear of the spirit of its founder and give a constantly smaller image of his wisdom, providence, and methylation epigenetic present power. If we think this crude logic through to its conclusion, then the ancestors of the most powerful tribes must, because of the fantasy of increasing fear, finally have grown into something immense and have been pushed into the darkness of a divine mystery, something beyond the titus taymor powers of imagination, so the ancestor is necessarily transfigured into a god.

Here perhaps lies even the origin of the gods, thus an origin out of fear! . . Methylation? . And the man to whom it seems obligatory to add But also out of party piety could hardly claim to be right for the longest period of human history, for his pre-history. Of course, he would be all the more correct for the middle period in which the noble tribes developed, those who in fact paid back their founders, their ancestors (heroes, gods), with interest, all the characteristics which in methylation, the meantime had become manifest in themselves, the noble qualities. Later we will have another look at the process by which the gods were ennobled and exalted (which is naturally not at all the same thing as their becoming holy). Different Methods Of Teaching? But now, for the moment, let's follow the path of this whole development of the consciousness of guilt to its conclusion. As history teaches us, the consciousness of being in debt to the gods did not in any way come to an end after the downfall of communities organized on the basis of blood relationships. Methylation Epigenetic? Just as humanity inherited the ideas of good and bad from the nobility of the tribe (together with its fundamental psychological tendency to set up orders of rank), so people also inherited, as well as the divinities of the tribe and extended family, the Different Methods pressure of methylation as yet unpaid debts and titus julie taymor the desire to methylation epigenetic, be relieved of Essay them. (The transition is methylation, made with those numerous slave and indentured populations which adapted themselves to of the, the divine cults of their masters, whether through compulsion or through obsequiousness and mimicry; from them this inheritance overflowed in all directions). Methylation Epigenetic? The feeling of being indebted to the gods did not stop growing for several thousands of yearsalways, in fact, in direct proportion to the extent to taymor, which the idea of god and the feeling for god grew and were carried to methylation, the heights. (The entire history of ethnic fighting, victory, reconciliation, mergerseverything which comes before the final rank ordering of all the elements of party a people in that great racial synthesisis mirrored in the tangled genealogies of methylation epigenetic its gods, in the sagas of their fights, victories, and reconciliations. The progress towards universal kingdoms is at the same time always also the of Teaching progress toward universal divinities.

In addition, despotism, with its overthrow of the independent nobles always builds the way to some variety of monotheism). The arrival of the Christian god, as the greatest god which has yet been reached, thus brought a manifestation of the epigenetic greatest feeling of indebtedness on earth. Assuming that we have gradually set out in the reverse direction, we can infer with no small probability that, given the inexorable decline of faith in the Christian god, even now there already may be a considerable decline in the human consciousness of guilt. The Effects Of The Black? Indeed, we cannot dismiss the idea that the complete and final victory of atheism could release humanity from this entire feeling of being indebted to its origins, its causa prima [ prime cause ]. Epigenetic? Atheism and a kind of second innocence belong together. So much for a brief and rough preface concerning the connection between the ideas guilt and obligation with religious assumptions. Up to functions of a party, this point I have deliberately set aside the actual moralizing of these ideas (the repression of epigenetic them into the conscience, or more precisely, the complex interaction between a bad conscience and the idea of god). At the end of the previous section I even talked as if there was no such thing as this moralizing and thus as if now these ideas had necessarily come to an end after the collapse of their presuppositions, the faith in our creditor, in God.

But to a terrible extent the militarism facts indicate something different. The moralizing of the ideas of debt and duty, with their repression into bad conscience, actually gave rise to the attempt to methylation epigenetic, reverse the direction of the development I have just described, or at least to of the, bring its motion to epigenetic, a halt. Now, in a fit of pessimism, the prospect of a final installment must once and for all be denied. Now, our gaze is to bounce off and ricochet back despairingly off an iron impossibility, now those ideas of functions of a political party debt and duty are supposed to turn back. But against whom? There can be no doubt: first of all against the debtor, in whom from this point on bad conscience, firmly set in him, eating into him and spreading out like a polyp, grows wide and deep, until finally, with the methylation epigenetic impossibility of discharging the debt, people think up the idea of the impossibility of removing the penance, the idea that the debt cannot be paid off (eternal punishment). Finally however, those ideas of debt and duty turn back even against the creditor. A Wrinkle In Time Themes? People should, in this matter, now think about the causa prima [first cause] of humanity, about the beginning of the human race, about their ancestor who from now on is loaded down with a curse (Adam, original sin, no freedom for the will,) or about methylation epigenetic nature from whose womb human beings arose and into titus whom from now on the principle of evil is methylation epigenetic, inserted (the demonizing of nature) or about existence in general, which remains something without value in itself (nihilistic turning away from functions of a political existence, longing for nothingness, or a desire for its opposite, in an alternate state of being, Buddhism and things like that)until all of methylation a sudden we confront the Different Methods of Teaching paradoxical and horrifying expedient with which a martyred humanity found temporary relief, that stroke of genius of ChristianityGod's sacrifice of himself for epigenetic, the guilt of human beings, God paying himself back with himself, God as the only one who can redeem man from what for human beings has become impossible to redeemthe creditor sacrifices himself for the debtor, out of love (can people believe that?), out of love for his debtor! . . . You will already have guessed what went on with all this and behind all this: that will to self-torment, that repressed cruelty of animal man pushed inward and forced back into himself, imprisoned in the state to functions political party, make him tame, who invented bad conscience in order to methylation, lacerate himself, after the more natural discharge of this will to inflict pain had been blocked, this man with a bad conscience seized upon religious assumptions to drive his self-torment into something most horrifyinghard and political sharp. Guilt towards God: this idea becomes his instrument of torture.

He sees in God the ultimate contrast he is capable of discovering to his real and indissoluble animal instincts. He interprets these very animal instincts as a crime against God (as enmity, rebellion, revolt, against the master, the father, the original ancestor and beginning of the world). He grows tense with the contradiction of methylation God and ww1 definition devil, from himself he hurls every denial which he says to himself, his nature, his naturalness, the reality of his being as an affirmative yes, as something existing, as living, as real, as God, as the blessedness of God, as God the Judge, as God the Hangman, as something beyond him, as eternity, as perpetual torment, as hell, as punishment and guilt beyond all measure. In this mental cruelty there is a kind of insanity of the epigenetic will, which simply has no equal: the human will finding him so guilty and militarism reprehensible that there is no atonement, his will to imagine himself punished but in such a way that the punishment can never be adequate for his crime, his will to infect and poison the most fundamental basis of things with the methylation problem of punishment and a wrinkle themes guilt in order to cut himself off once and for all from any exit out of this labyrinth of methylation epigenetic fixed ideas, his will to erect an ideal (that of the holy God) in order to be tangibly certain of his own absolute worthlessness when confronted with it. Oh this insane, sad beast man! What ideas he has, what unnaturalness, what paroxysms of nonsense, what bestiality of thought breaks from him as soon as he is prevented, if only a little, from being a beast in deed! . Militarism Ww1 Definition? . . All this is excessively interesting, but there's also a black, gloomy, unnerving sadness about methylation it, so that man must forcefully hold himself back from gazing too long into these abysses. Here we have an illnessno doubt about thatthe most terrifying illness that has raged in in time themes, human beings up to now. And anyone who can still hear (but nowadays people no longer have the ears for this) how in this night of torment and insanity the cry of love has resounded, the cry of the epigenetic most yearning delight, of redemption through love, turns away, seized by political an invincible horror. . . In human beings there is so much that is terrible! . Epigenetic? . Militarism? . For too long the methylation world has been a lunatic asylum! . . . These remarks should be sufficient, once and for all, for the origin of the holy God.

The fact that conceiving gods does not necessarily, in itself, lead to a degraded imaginationthat's something we have to consider for of the black death, a moment, the point that there are more uplifting ways to methylation epigenetic, use the political invention of the epigenetic gods than for this human self-crucifixion and self-laceration in ww1 definition, which Europe in the last millennia has become an methylation expert. Fortunately that something we can infer if we take a look at the Greek gods, these reflections of nobler men, more rulers of themselves, in whom the animal in man felt himself deified and did not tear himself apart, did not rage against himself! These Greeks for the longest time used their gods for the very purpose of keeping that bad conscience at a distance, in order to be able to continue to enjoy their psychic freedom. Hence, their understanding was the opposite of how Christianity used its God. Functions Of A Political Party? In this matter the Greeks went a long way, these splendid and methylation epigenetic lion-hearted Greeks, with their child-like minds. And no lesser authority than that of Methods of Teaching Essay Homer's Zeus himself now and then tells them that they are making things too easy for themselves.

It's strange, he says at one point in relation to the case of Aegisthus, a very bad case It's strange how these mortal creatures complain about the gods! Evil comes only from us, they claim, but they themselves. Stupidly make themselves miserable, even contrary to fate. But at the same time we hear and see that even this Olympian spectator and methylation judge is far from being irritated or thinking of them as evil because of this: How foolish they are he thinks in relation to the effects black death, the bad deeds of mortal men. And the Greeks of the strongest and bravest times conceded that much about themselvesthe foolishness, stupidity, a little disturbance in the head were as far as the methylation epigenetic basis for many bad and fateful things are concernedfoolishness, not sin! Do you understand that? . . In Time Themes? . Epigenetic? But even this disturbance in the head was a problem, Indeed, how is titus, this even possible? Where could this have really come from in heads like the ones we have, we men of noble descent, happy, successful, from the methylation epigenetic best society, noble, and virtuous? For hundreds of years the noble Greek posed this question to himself in relation to any incomprehensible horror or outrage which had defiled one of on The Photography his peers.

Some god must have deluded him, he finally said, shaking his head . Methylation Epigenetic? . Functions Of A Political? . This solution is typical of the Greeks . . . In this way, the gods then served to justify men to epigenetic, a certain extent, even in Essay, bad things. They served as the origin of evilat that time the methylation epigenetic gods took upon themselves, not punishment, but, what is nobler, the guilt. I'll conclude with three question marksthat's clear enough. You may perhaps ask me, Is an ideal being built up here or shattered? . . . But have you ever really asked yourself how high a price has been paid on earth for the construction of every ideal? How much reality had to be constantly vilified and misunderstood, how many lies had to be consecrated, how many consciences corrupted, how much god had to be sacrificed every time? That is the lawshow me the case where it has not been fulfilled! . . . We modern men, we are the inheritors of the vivisection of the conscience and on The Invention the self-inflicted animal torture of the past millennia. That's what we have had the most practice doing, that is perhaps our artistryin any case it is something we have refined to spoil our taste. For too long man has looked at his natural inclinations with an evil eye, so that finally in him they have become twinned with bad conscience. An attempt to reverse this might be possible, but who is strong enough for that, that is, to interrelate with bad conscience the unnatural inclinations, all those aspirations for what lies beyond us, which goes against our senses, our instincts, nature, animalsin short, the earlier ideals, all the methylation ideals which are anti-life and have vilified the world. To whom can we turn to functions party, today with such hopes and demands? . . . We would have precisely the good men against us, as well, of course, as the comfortable, the complacent, the vain, the enthusiastic, the tired . . . But what is more offensive, what cuts us off more fundamentally from these others, than letting them take some note of the severity and loftiness with which we deal with ourselves. And by contrast how obliging, how friendly all the world is in epigenetic, relation to us, as soon as we act as all the functions of a political world does and let ourselves go just like everyone else! . . . To attain the goal I'm talking about requires a different sort of methylation spirit that those which really exist at this time: spirits empowered by war and victory, for of the death, whom conquest, adventure, danger, and even pain have even become a need.

That would require getting acclimatized to keen, high air, winter wanderings, to methylation epigenetic, ice and mountains in every sense. That would require even a kind of sublime maliciousness, an ultimate self-conscious willfulness of black knowledge, which comes with great health. Briefly put, that would unfortunately require this great health! . . Methylation Epigenetic? . Is this even possible today? . . . But at some time or other, in on The Invention Photography, a more powerful time than this mouldy, self-doubting present, he must nonetheless come to us, the redeeming man of great love and contempt, the methylation creative spirit, constantly pushed away from the sidelines or from the beyond by his own driving power, whose isolation is misunderstood by people as if it were a flight from reality, whereas it is his immersion, burial, and absorption into nothing but reality, so that once he comes out of it into the light again, he brings back the redemption of this reality, its redemption from the curse which the previous ideal had laid upon it. This man of the militarism ww1 definition future, who will release us from that earlier ideal and, in methylation epigenetic, so doing, from those things which had to grow from it, from the great loathing, from the will to nothingness, from nihilismthat stroke of ww1 definition noon and of the great decision which makes the methylation epigenetic will free once again, who gives back to the earth its purpose and to human beings their hope, this anti-Christ and Anti-nihilist, this conqueror of God and of nothingnessat some point he must come . . . But what am I talking about here? Enough, enough!

At this stage there's only one thing appropriate for me to do: keep quiet. Otherwise, I'll make the mistake of titus julie arrogating to myself something which only someone younger is epigenetic, free to do, someone with a greater future, someone more powerful than Isomething which only Zarathustra is Invention of Digital, free to do, Zarathustra the Godless. Methylation Epigenetic? . .

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Sample student AP Exam Free Response-question essays. The passage below is from The Horizontal World, Debra Marquarts 2006 memoir about growing up in North Dakota. Read the passage carefully. Then, in a well-written essay, analyze the methylation epigenetic, strategies Marquart uses to characterize the Essay, upper Midwest. Driving west from Fargo on I94, the freeway that cuts through the state of North Dakota, youll encounter a road so lonely, treeless, and epigenetic, devoid of. rises and Essay on The Invention, curves in places that it will feel like one 5 long-held pedal steel guitar note. Methylation Epigenetic? If your tires are in proper alignment, youll only need to Essay Invention of Digital Photography tap your. steering wheel to keep your car on a straight-ahead path. Now you are driving deep into the square states. This is the way I recently heard a comedian describe the column of states that holds down the center of the methylation epigenetic, countrythe Dakotas, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahomaa region that spawns both tornadoes and Republicans.

TV news anchors often hail from this part of the world, as do the on The Invention of Digital Photography, most innocent female characters in movies and prime-time TV dramas. Being blond, fresh-faced, and midwestern makes their descent into ruthless behavior in places like Los Angeles and New York all the more tragic. We are the folks presidents talk to when times require, Sylvia Griffith Wheeler wrote in her poem Earthlings. Networks make up women to look like us who will not trade their bleaches, soaps for anything. This is a region that contains both Garrison Keillors Lake Wobegon (where all the women are strong, all the men are good-looking, and all the children are above average) and the Coen Brothers Fargo,the macabre land of methylation epigenetic, murder-by-woodchipper. Aside from this myth making, the Midwest is a wrinkle in time a place thats been considered devoid of methylation epigenetic, stories, a flyover region one must endure to get to more interesting places.

Despite its easy inclines and farmable plains, the region was equally unimpressive to its earliest assessors. In the Essay of Digital Photography, 1820s, Edwin James, the official chronicler of epigenetic, Major Stephen Longs survey, declared the region a dreary plain, wholly unfit for cultivation, and, of course, uninhabitable by a people depending upon themes agriculture for methylation epigenetic, subsistence. It was Edwin James who dubbed the area between the functions of a, Mississippi and the Rockies the Great American Desert, an indignity from which the region has struggled to recover ever since. This is the Heartland, the place where Jeffersons idea of a rectangular cadastral survey, the land grid system outlined in the Land Ordinance of 1785, found its most perfect confluence of methylation, longitude, latitude, and countryside so well behaved that it laid itself down in neat, even squares for the surveyors instruments. Soon enough, as the surveying expedition moved west, the neatness of the grid was foiled by steep valleys, rivers, foothills, and mountains, but here in the monotonous square states, the survey subdivided the land easily into square upon square, each measuring six miles by six miles. What followed, Richard Manning observed in Different Essay Grassland , was a war on roots: The place was a mess, and it became a young nations job to fix it with geometry, democracy, seeds, steam, steel, and water. Such is the situation all of methylation epigenetic, my great-grandparents and grandparents encountered when they arrived between the years of 1885 and 1911. They traveled to 65 the Midwest by train to Different of Teaching what was then the end of the methylation, lineEureka, South Dakota. Eurekafrom the Greek word heureka, meaning I have found itis reported to have been the word that Archimedes cried when he found a way to test the purity of Hieros crown. My grandparents wouldnt have known the etymology of the word, but they would have felt it, the anticipation, as they waited along with the other immigrants from Russia to receive their allotments of the effects of the black death, land. Sample student essays with commentary from the graders.

In this passage, Debra Marquart conveys her profound love for the upper Midwest region, even as it was dubbed an uninhabitable and methylation, plain location for many who first approached it. Through her thorough use of allusions and diction to characterize the early region as unimpressive, she is able to convince her reader of unique qualities of the region that cannot be found anywhere else. In her writing Marguart constantly refers to writers and surveyors alike in order to describe the special qualities of the region. For example, she refers to in time Sylvia Griffith Wheeler when she writes, we are the methylation epigenetic, folks presidents talk to when times require. Marquart uses of allusion here to characterize her people as of natural heritage and important to America because presidents themselves find significance in their opinions. Also, she highlights the notion that citizens that hail from this region are among those that are integral to of the death the nation, showing her strong respect for the nation. However, the epigenetic, favorable qualities of the people are juxtaposed to the barren features of the region, especially when she quotes Major Steven Long as saying that it was a region uninhabitable for people depending on agriculture for subsistence. By juxtaposing the people from the environment with the of a political party, environment itself, she slights those early assessors who believed that the upper Midwest was a region devoid of any favorable characteristics.

Also, by introducing the idea that the region was first thought to be uninhabitable, she highlights her evident pride for those able to develop lifestyles there. Marquart also uses diction to label the region first seen by surveyors and methylation epigenetic, later by of a party, her own ancestors. For example, when discussing men like Long who had visited the region, she states that they declared it unimpressive and a dreary plain, wholly unfit for cultivation. Here, she sets up the views of harsh critics of the region for comparison with her own feelings for the region itself. Marquart goes on to introduce a story about her grandparents, who felt anticipation when waiting to methylation epigenetic receive their land. By juxtaposing the ww1 definition, unfavorable aspects of the land judged by methylation, surveyors with her grandparents anticipation, she shows the reader how the land represented a new beginning for many American who disregarded the of a political, criticism of earlier assessors. She once again portrays her respect for the people of the upper Midwest showing their ability to cultivate a previously labeled unimpressive land. This response effectively analyzes the strategies Marquart uses to characterize the upper Midwest. The response opens with a statement of the central idea (Debra Marquet [sic] conveys her profound love for the upper Midwest region), followed by a statement of intent to analyze diction and allusions in Marquarts characterization of the region as one having unique qualities that could not be found anywhere else. The development of evidence and explanations is appropriate and epigenetic, convincing. The second paragraph focuses on allusion with the Invention, opening comment: Marquet [sic] constantly alludes to writers and surveyors alike in order to describe special qualities of the region. The student provides examples and convincing commentary: By juxtaposing the people that the environment produced with the environment itself, she slights those early assessors who believed that the methylation, upper Mid-West was a region devoid of any favorable characteristics. The following paragraph focuses on the effects of Marquarts diction: Marquet [sic] goes on to introduce a story about her grandparents, who felt anticipation when waiting to receive their land. The response concludes with an Different Methods of Teaching Essay insightful comment: She once again portrays her respect for the people of the upper Midwest by showing their ability to cultivate a previously labeled unimpressive land. The student refers to the passage explicitly, and the language of the analysis is methylation controlled and Methods, consistently effective. Marquart characterizes the upper Midwest as an entity whose landscape is bland and dull yet very ordered and structured. She employs juxtaposition, diction and epigenetic, reference to black historical figures impressions to relay her characterization.

Marquart utilizes juxtaposition to illustrate how the upper Midwest is bland, orderly and methylation, neat. She states, as the taymor, expedition moved west, the methylation, neatness of the grid was foiled by steep rivers, valleys, foothills and mountains, but here in the monotonous square states . . . The juxtaposition of party, these two elements creates a stark contrast between the orderly and flat Midwest and methylation epigenetic, the jagged and valley-filled states to the west. By creating such a stark contrast, she emphasizes the upper Midwests flat and almost treeless landscape. The Effects Black? Her juxtaposition conjures images of flat squares compared to mountainous and majestic landscapes. She also juxtaposes how it was easy to subdivide the epigenetic, Midwestern states for the land ordinance of 1785, whereas the expedition was foiled by the difficult terrain of other states. This juxtaposition once again illustrates the neatness and structure of the upper Midwestern states.

It is a land which is very readily and easily carved up compared to its western neighbors. Marquart also employs varied diction to functions party depict the upper Midwests bland landscape. She utilizes words such as lonely, treeless and devoid of rises and curves, square states, flyover region that one must endure, easy inclines, and farmable plains. Such words and phrases invoke in the reader an image of the monotonous landscape of the upper Midwest. Her description characterizes the landscape as plain and dull, yet at the same time her diction depicts a landscape which is serene and methylation, very undaunting. Different Methods Of Teaching Essay? The upper Midwest has easy inclines and farmable plains. Its a place attractive to those who are farming, like her grandparents.

She combines those different descriptions to characterize the methylation, upper Midwest as a land which many find uninteresting and a wrinkle themes, unremarkable. She notes how the Midwest assessors such as James declared the region a dreary plain. This conjures images of an uninviting and dull region whose landscape is almost depressing. While Marquart does acknowledge that the epigenetic, landscape is bland, she also shows how it is structured and political, orderly by making reference to the land ordinance of methylation, 1785. Of The Black Death? She notes how the upper Midwest was the heartland, the epigenetic, place where Jeffersons idea of a rectangular cadastral survey found its most perfect confluence of longitude, latitude, etc. This characterization illuminates the militarism ww1 definition, landscapes evenness and epigenetic, neatness. Marquart characterizes the upper Midwests landscape as one which is bland and dull yet neat and orderly, and at the same time through use of juxtaposition, _ _ _ diction and reference to others opinions. This response adequately analyzes the strategies Marquart uses to characterize the upper Midwest. The evidence for analysis clearly focuses on three strategies and describes Marquarts purpose: juxtaposition to illustrate how the upper midwest is bland, orderly, and neat, diction to depict the upper midwests bland landscape, and references to other peoples impressions to characterize the upper midwest as a land which many find uninteresting and unremarkable. The explanations are appropriate and convincing, though at times repetitive. In the second paragraph the student notes and sufficiently explains how Marquarts use of juxtaposition conjures images of flat squares compared to mountainous and party, majestic landscapes and illustrates the neatness and methylation, structure of the upper midwestern states. The third and militarism ww1 definition, fourth paragraphs continue with an adequate analysis of diction and of references.

Although not as effective an analysis as those found in higher-scoring essays, the response indicates a better understanding of the complexity of the passage than did lower-scoring responses, and the prose is generally clear. Benjamin Banneker, the methylation, son of former slaves, was a farmer, astronomer, mathematician, surveyor, and author. In 1791 he wrote to of the black Thomas Jefferson, framer of the Declaration of epigenetic, Independence and on The Invention, secretary of state to President George Washington. Read the following excerpt from the letter and write an essay that analyzes how Banneker uses rhetorical strategies to argue against methylation slavery. Sir, suffer me to recall to your mind that time in which the arms and a wrinkle themes, tyranny of the British Crown were exerted with every powerful effort in order to reduce you to a State of Servitude, look back I entreat you on the variety of dangers to which you were exposed; reflect on that time in which every human aid appeared unavailable, and in which even hope and fortitude wore the aspect of inability to the conflict and you cannot but be led to a serious and grateful sense of your miraculous and providential reservation; you cannot but acknowledge that the present freedom and tranquility which you enjoy you have mercifully received and methylation epigenetic, that it is the pecular blessing of Heaven.

This sir, was a time in which you clearly saw into the injustice of militarism, a state of slavery and in epigenetic which you had just apprehensions of the horrors of its condition, it was now, sir, that your abhorrence thereof was so excited, that you publickly held forth this true and valuable doctrine, which is worthy to be recorded and ww1 definition, remembered in all succeeding ages. Epigenetic? We hold these truths to Essay Invention Photography be self-evident, that all men are created equal, and that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. Here, sir, was a time in which your tender feelings for yourselves had engaged you thus to epigenetic declare, you were then impressed with proper ideas of the great allow valuation of liberty and the free possession of those blessings to which you were entitled by nature; but, sir, how pitiable is it to a wrinkle themes reflect that although you were so fully convinced of the methylation, benevolence of the the effects of the black, Father of mankind and of his equal and impartial distribution of those rights and privileges which he had conferred upon them, that you should at the same time counteract his mercies in epigenetic detaining by fraud and violence so numerous a part of my brethren under groaning captivity and cruel oppression, that you should at the same time be found guilty of that most criminal act which you professedly detested in others with respect to yourselves. Sir, I suppose that your knowledge of the situation of my brethren is the effects of the death too extensive to need a recital here; neither shall I presume to prescribe methods by which they may be relieved, otherwise than by recommending to you and methylation epigenetic, all others to wean yourselves from those narrow prejudices which you have imbibed with respect to them and as Job proposed to his friends, put your souls in the effects black their souls stead, thus shall your hearts be enlarged with kindness and benevolence towards them, and thus shall you need neither the direction of methylation epigenetic, myself or others, in what manner to proceed herein. Sample student essays with commentary from the graders. Whether we like to think about it or not slavery is associated with our countrys history. There have been several opinions on its constitutional fairness but nevertheless it happened and Essay Invention of Digital Photography, eradicating it from this nation was a struggle. During this struggle Benjamin Banneker took a huge step and wrote Thomas Jefferson about his negative feelings on the issue of methylation, slavery in which he implemented several religious appeals, repetition, and an array of emotional diction. Banneker makes several religious appeals that attack Jeffersons pro-slavery stance.

He states that while Jefferson is fully convinced of the benevolence of the Methods Essay, father to all mankind, he counteracts his mercies by allowing slavery to continue. Methylation Epigenetic? This skilled religious appeal serves a dual purpose, the first of which bonds Banneker and Jefferson under a common God. This serves to show Jefferson that he and Banneker have a mutual understanding. But while the in time themes, aforementioned quote ties the two men together it also scorns Jefferson. Banneker chooses to attack Jefferson under the eyes of God so that he can maintain a polite air while also reprimanding Jefferson. The reprimanding carries so much more weight because it is not the son of former slaves passing judgment but rather a religious follower illustrating Jeffersons sins. In accordance with maintaining that polite disposition Banneker continually refers to Jefferson as Sir. Banneker opens his letter with Sir and repeats it six times before concluding it, saying it at least once in every paragraph. This serves to show that while Banneker does not condone Jeffersons practices he still has the utmost respect for him and the position he holds. He does not want to antagonize Jefferson but rather reason with him and state his opinion. Methylation? Continually repeating Sir shows Jefferson that he is Methods a dignified person which destroys the possible notion that race makes people inferior.

It also serves as a concession and makes it hard for methylation epigenetic, Jefferson to become enraged when Banneker is continually stroking Jeffersons ego and showing him the utmost respect. Banneker also utilizes emotional diction in his argument against titus julie taymor slavery. He refers to epigenetic slavery as groaning captivity and cruel oppression as well as speaking of its injustice. Different Methods Of Teaching? All of these words were specifically chosen to represent the plight of the methylation, slave as well as depicting the horrendous life they must endure. The harsh words are more personal when he states that they affect [his] brethren. Now the slaves in question are not just figures in the distance but are people with feelings and connections to other people.

They are human beings, which, sadly, is something Jefferson may not have realized. Banneker vividly depicts what Jeffersons actions are doing to real live people which is intended to instill some much-needed guilt as well as calling for a radical and instrumental change. The response effectively analyzes how Banneker uses rhetorical strategies to argue against slavery. Essay? It presents a specific introduction with clear intent: During this struggle Benjamin Banneker took a huge step and epigenetic, wrote Thomas Jefferson about his negative feelings on the issue of titus julie taymor, slavery in methylation which he implemented several religious appeals, repetition, and an array of emotional diction. The second paragraph focuses on religious appeals that attack Jeffersons pro-slavery stance. The third paragraph considers the effects of the repetition of the word sir. The fourth paragraph discusses the effects of Bannekers emotional diction. The analysis is developed with evidence and explanations that are appropriate and convincing, and the student refers explicitly to the passage throughout the essay. The response effectively concludes: Banneker vividly depicts what Jeffersons actions are doing to real life people which is intended to instil [sic] some much needed guilt as well as calling for a radical and instrumental change. Although the response contains minor mechanical flaws, it is nevertheless a controlled and perceptive analysis of Bannekers rhetorical strategies.

Benjamin Banneker uses many rhetorical strategies to black death argue against slavery. One important strategy he used was to relate the time in which the methylation epigenetic, tyranny of the British Crown ruled America to a state of slavery in his first two paragraphs. Since the injustice of the in time themes, state of epigenetic, slavery is what Banneker is ultimately arguing for, he uses this terminology to logically appeal to death Jefferson. Another strategy Banneker used was to use diction with a dark oppressive connotation in the third paragraph. Epigenetic? He uses phrases such as counteract his mercies in Invention of Digital Photography detaining by fraud and violence, groaning captivity and cruel oppression and criminal act which you professedly detested to place blame on Jefferson and show how wrong slavery and unequal treatment of human being really is. This strategy was used to convince Jefferson of his wrongful ideas and actions. Banneker uses understatement in methylation the first sentence of the fourth paragraph as another rhetorical strategy. A Wrinkle In Time Themes? He states that, Sir, I suppose that your knowledge of the epigenetic, situation of my brethren is too extensive to need a recital here . Essay On The Invention Of Digital? . . This statement purposefully makes readers think about the awful situations that slaves endure as a result of the institution without outright stating those situations and making a big deal about it. By using this rhetorical strategy, Banneker has placed an emphasis on the awful situations of the slaves, which emotionally appeals to methylation epigenetic readers.

Banneker uses hyperbole at the end of this first paragraph to the effects black death emphasize just how wonderful it is to methylation have freedoms in Essay on The of Digital America. Of course our freedoms are due to the documents written by our founding fathers, not due to Heaven. This hyperbole emphasizes the fact that it is a blessing to have freedoms, and therefore those blessings should be passed on to current slaves. Banneker also uses logical appeal to argue against slavery. Rather than using sources that are not reputable, he uses two very important and reputable sources: the methylation epigenetic, Declaration of Independence (ironically written by Jefferson himself) and the Bible. The use of these important sources and the effects of the death, only these sources helps Banneker logically appeal to his audience and convince them that slavery is bad. These rhetorical strategies used throughout Bannekers letter help logically and emotionally appeal to Jefferson and help show how awful slavery really is. This response demonstrates an understanding of Bannekers letter but offers an inconsistent analysis of the rhetorical strategies employed. The essay focuses on devices more than meaning, and it is organized in terms of devices.

The third paragraph begins with an unclear claim about understatement but then presents a quotation and adequately comments on methylation, the text: This statement purposefully makes readers think about the in time, awful situations that slaves endure as a result of the institution without outright stating those situations and making a big deal out of it. In the fifth paragraph the response recognizes Bannekers use of important and reputable sources: the Declaration of Independence and the Bible to present the logical appeal. However, the analysis in the fourth paragraph of Bannekers use of hyperbole is less convincing: Of course our freedoms in America are due to the documents written by our founding fathers, not due to Heaven. With uneven evidence and explanations, the response is epigenetic developed minimally but is nevertheless sufficient and on The of Digital Photography, usually conveys the students ideas.

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chs ap world essay AP W o r ld His t ory : S yllabus 2011-2012. Course T ext and other Reading: Main T ext: Bentley and Ziegler . 2 0 1 0. Traditions and Encounters , 5t h ed. Epigenetic? United States. P r imary Sources: Students will read and analyze select e d p rimary sources (d o cumen t s, ima g es, and.

Andrea, A . and julie taymor, Overfield, J . 2 00 0 . The Human Record: Sources of epigenetic, Global History , vols I II . Julie? Houghton Mifflin College Division . Methylation? and. Spo d ek . 2 0 0 0 . The W orld s History , 2 n d edition . Titus Taymor? Prentice-Hal l . Students will analyze quantitat i ve sources through stu d y and interpreta t io n of graphs, c ha r ts and tables. S t earns . 2 0 08 . W orld Civilizations: The Global Experience . Epigenetic? Pea r son . from Docume n t Based Questions released by the College Board. Christian, D, 2008, This Fleeting World. Standage, T .2005. A History of Different Methods Essay, World in 6 Glasses. Quinn, David. 1992 Ishmael.

Rothchild, A . 1999. King Leopolds Ghosts. Rather, D. 2002. What We Saw. . Methylation Epigenetic? Bowker, J. 1997. Of A Political Party? World Religions. **PLEASE NOTE ALL OF THESE BOOKS WILL BE PROVIDED THROUGH PDF ON THIS WEBSITE UNDER BOOKS*** All this information can be found on ( Themes and epigenetic, AP W o r ld His t ory: Students in this course must learn to of a, view history thematicall y . Methylation? The AP W orld History course.

is organized around fi ve overarching themes that serve as unifying threads throughout the. cou r se, helping students to relate what is particular about each time period or society t o a. big pictur e of histor y . The themes also provide a way to organize comparisons and analy z e. change and continuity over political party time . Methylation Epigenetic? Consequentl y , vi r tually all study of history in this class will. be tied back to these themes by utilizing a SP IC E acronym . Social--De v elopment and a wrinkle, t r ans f o r mation of social st r uc t u r es. Gender roles and epigenetic, relations. F amily and kinship. Racial and ethnic constructions. Social and militarism ww1 definition, economic classes. P olitical--Sta t e-building , expansion , and conflict.

Political structures and forms of governance. Nations and nationalism. R evolts and methylation, re v olutions. Regional, trans-regional, and global structures and organizations. Interaction between humans a n d the Essay on The of Digital Photography, enviro n ment.

Demography and methylation epigenetic, disease. P a t terns of se t tlement. Cultural--Development and in ww1 definition, t e r action of cul t u r es. Beli e f sys t ems, phil o sophies, and ideologies. S cience and te c hnology. The arts and architecture.

Economic--C r eation , expansion , and in t e r action of epigenetic, economic sys t ems. Agricultural and pastoral prod u ction. T rade and a wrinkle, commerce. In d ustrialization. Capitalism a nd socialism. Unit 1 T o 600 BCE : T e c hnological and epigenetic, E n vi r onmental T r ans f o r mations. Big Geograp h y and the P eopling of the Ea r th.

Neolithic Revolution and militarism, Early Agricultural Societies. Development and Interactions of methylation, Early Agricultural, Pastoral, and julie, Urban Societies. T opics for epigenetic, Overview include: From Foraging to Agricultural and Pastoral Societies. Early Civilizations: Middle East, South Asia, East Asia, the of Teaching Essay, Americas, Africa, and Oceania. Issues Regarding the Use of the Concept of C i viliz a tion. Ac t i vities Skill Development. Students will identify and analyze the methylation epigenetic, causes a nd conseq u ences o f the Neolithic. Revolution in the major river valleys as well as in Sub-Saharan Africa and Papua New. How were gender roles changed by the Neolithic Revolution?

Collaborat i ve Group-Jigsaw. Students will analyze how geography affected the julie taymor, development of political, social, economic, and epigenetic, belie f systems in of Teaching Essay, t he earliest c i vilizations in: Each group will examine a different c i vilization then compare findings with a ne w gro u p. where each student examined a different civilization . Parallel Reading--Students will read Ch . 1 -2 of The Human W eb and Children of the Sun Ch. 1-2. evaluate the a u th o rs pe r spect i ve on the exis t ence o f a very loose knit global web. during this early period. Unit 2 600 BCE-600 CE: Organization and Reorganization of Human Societies. Development and epigenetic, Codification of Religious and Cultural T raditions.

Development of States an functions of a party, d Empires. Emergence of T ransregional Networks of methylation epigenetic, Communication and Methods Essay, Ex c hange. T opics for epigenetic, Overview include: Classical C i vilizations. Major Belief Systems: Religion and Philosophy. Early T rading Networks. W orld Religions. Animism focusing on Australasia and the effects of the black death, Sub-Saharan Africa.

Judaism and epigenetic, Christianity. Hinduism a n d Budd h ism. Daoism and Confucianism. Developments in Mesoamerica and Andean South America: Moche and Maya. Bantu Migration and ww1 definition, its Impact in Sub-Saharan Africa. Transregional Trade: the Silk Road and the Indian Ocean.

Developments in Chinadevelopmen t of imperial structure a n d Confucian society. Ac t i vities Skill Development: Writing a Comparison Essay Methods of epigenetic, political control in the Classical period, student choice of two Han China, Mauryan/Gupta India, Imperial Rome, Persian Empire. Writing a Change and militarism, Continuity over Time Essay Political and Cultural Changes. in the Late Classical Period, students choose China, India, or Rome. Students will evaluate the causes and conseq u ences o f the decline of the epigenetic, Han, Roman, and Gupta empires. Students will map the changes and continuities in long-distance trade networks in the.

Eastern Hemisphere: Eurasian Silk Roads, Trans-Saharan caravan routes, Indian Ocean. sea lanes, and Essay Invention Photography, Mediterranean sea lanes. Each group will research and present a major world religion/belief system examining: beliefs and prac t ices. A f ter r eading excerpts fr om A F orest of K i ngs by David F riede l a n d L inda S c hele an d. students will ass e ss the imp a c t. s ee i ng the PBS N o va p r ogram Cra c king the Ma ya Code , that archaeology and epigenetic, iconography have had on julie taymor the study of history. Parallel Reading--Students will read Ch . Methylation? 3 of The Human W eb and Ch. 2 Children of the functions political, Sun. Trace the development of civilization in each region utilizing a linear thematic. organizer for note-taking and a circular organizer for the big picture. evaluate the methylation, periodiza t io n in Ch.3i.e . the use of a wrinkle themes, 2 0 0 CE as a break as opposed to. the periodization of the cou r se curriculum. Unit 3 600-1450: Regional and T ransregional Interactions.

Expansion and methylation, Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks. Continuity and Innovation of in time, State Forms and Their Interactions. Increased Economic Product i ve Capacity and Its Conseq u ences. T opics for epigenetic, Overview include: Byzantine Empire, Dar-al Islam, Germanic Europe. Sui, T ang, Song, and the effects of the black death, Ming empires.

Delhi Sultan a te. The T urkish Empires. Kingdoms Empires in Africa. The Mongol Khanates. T rading Networks in the P ost-Classical W orld. Islam and the establishmen t of empire.

Empires in the Americas: Aztecs and epigenetic, Inca. Expansion of T rade in functions of a, the Indian Oceanthe Swahili Coast of East Africa. Ac t i vities Skill Development: Writing a Comparison Essay. Comparing the level of technological achievement including production of goods. Student choice: Middle East, South Asia, East Asia, Eastern Europe. Students will evaluate the methylation epigenetic, causes a nd conseq u ences o f the spread of death, Islamic empires. Students will compare the Polynesian and methylation epigenetic, Viking migrations. Writing a Comparison Essay. Effects of themes, Mongol conquest and rule, students choose two: Russia, China, Middle. TopicWere the economic causes of the methylation epigenetic, voyages of the Different of Teaching, Ming navy in the first half. of the 15 t h cent u ry the main reas o n for methylation, th e ir limited use?

TopicWere the tributary and labor obligations in the Aztec and Inca empires more. effective than similar obligations in the Eastern Hemisphere? Writing a Change and Continuity over Time Essay. Changes and Continuities in patterns of of the, interactions along the Silk Roa d s 2 0 0 BCE- Parallel Reading--Students will read Ch . Methylation Epigenetic? 4 5 of functions of a political party, The Human W eb and Ch. 3 and 4 of methylation epigenetic, Trade that World Created.

Trace the themes, development of civilization in epigenetic, each region utilizing a linear thematic. organizer for of Digital, note-taking and a circular organizer for the big picture. evaluate the periodiza t io n in the book com p ared to that of the methylation, periodization in th e. course cu r riculum. Why 2 0 0-1 00 0 CE and 1 00 0-15 0 0 CE instead of 6 0 0-1450? In what regions does ea c h work best? Why?

In what areas does each present a problem? Why? Unit 4 : 1450- 1 750 : Global In t e r actions. Globalizing Networks of Communication and a wrinkle, Exchange. New Forms of epigenetic, Social Organization and Modes of Production. State Consolidation an d Imperial Expansion. T opics for Overview include: Bringing the Eastern and the effects black, Western Hemispheres T ogether into One W eb. Ming and Qing Rule in China. The Trading Networks of the Indian Ocean.

Effects of the Continued Spread of epigenetic, Belief Systems. Three Islamic Empires: Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal. Cross-Cultural Interaction: the Columbian Exchange. The Atlantic Slave T rade. Changes in W estern Europeroots of the Rise of the W est Ac t i vities Skill Development. S t udents will evaluate the causes a nd conseq u ences o f E u r o pean maritime e x pansion. including t he developme n t of armed t rade usi n g g uns and cannons.

stu d en t project. Each student will apply techniques used by art historians to examine visual displays. of power in one of the a wrinkle themes, land or sea based empires that developed in this time peri o d. Writing a Comparison Essay. Processes of methylation epigenetic, empire building, students compar e Spanish Empire t o either the. Ottoman or Russian empires. Writing a Change and Continuity over Time Essay. Changes and Co n tinuities i n trade and commerce in the In d ia n Ocean B a sin 6 0 0 - Parallel Reading--Students will read Ch . Functions Political? 6 of epigenetic, The Human W eb and. Trace the Essay on The of Digital, development of civilization in each region utilizing a linear thematic.

organizer for note-taking and a circular organizer for the big picture. Consider the question of periodization: 1750 or 18 0 0? Unit 5 1750-19 0 0: Industrializati o n and methylation epigenetic, Global Integration. In d ustrialization and Global Capi t alism. Imperialism and militarism, Nation-State Formation. Nationalism, Revolution and Reform. T opics for Overview include: The Age of Revolutions: English Revolutions, Scientific Revolution Enlightenment, American Revolution, French Revolution and methylation epigenetic, its fallout in Europe, Haitian Latin American Revolutions. Global T ransformations: Demographic Changes, the End of the Atlantic Slave Trade, Industrial Revolution. and Its Impact, Rise of Nationalism, Imperialism and its Impact on of the the W orld. Decline of methylation epigenetic, Imperial China and the Rise of Different Methods, Imperial Japan.

1 9th Century Imperialism: Sub- S aharan Africa, S outh and S outheast Asia. Comparing the Fren c h and methylation, Latin American Revolutions. Changes in Production in julie taymor, Europe and the Global Impact o f t h ose Changes. Ac t i vities incl u de: Writing a Comparison Essay. Comparing the roles of W omen from 1750 to 1 900East Asia, W estern Europe, South Asia, Middle East. Students will write a change and continuity over time essay evaluating changes in. production of goods from 1 0 0 0 to 19 0 0 in methylation, the Eastern Hemisphere. Parallel Reading--Students will read Ch . Invention Of Digital? 7 of epigenetic, The Human W eb and Ch.

9 10 Children of the Sun. Trace the development of civilization in each region utilizing a linear thematic. organizer for note-taking and a circular organizer for the big picture. Consider the question of periodization: 1900 or 1914? Students will analyze fi ve political cartoons about Europ e an imperial e x pansion i n. Asia and Africa to identify how nationalism and the Industrial Revolution served as. m o t i vating facto r s in julie taymor, empire b u ilding in methylation, t his t ime period. Students will analyze tables showing increased urbanization in various parts of the. AP W orld History : Slouha 2011-2012.

world to consider connections between urbanization an d industrialization. Titus Julie? (Urban Game) Students will identify and evaluate d i ve r se historic a l i n terpretati o ns regarding the methylation, ris e of. the W est utilizing Kenneth Pomeranz s The Trade That World Created. Utilizing a series of documents, maps and charts in themes, the released DBQ about epigenetic indentured. servitude on in the 19th and the effects black death, 20th centuries, students will assess the methylation epigenetic, connec t io n s. between abolition of plantation slavery and increased migrations from Essay on The Photography Asian countries. to the Americas.

Unit 6 1900-present: Accelerating Global Change and methylation epigenetic, Realignments. Science and the E n vironment. Global Conflicts and Their Consequences. New Conceptualizations of Global Economy and Culture. T opics for Essay on The Invention Photography, Overview include: Crisis and Co n flict in t he Early 2 0 th Cent u ry: Anti-Imperial Movements, W orld W ar I, Russian, Chinese and Mexican R e v olutions,

Depression, Rise of Militaristic and Fascist Societies, W orld W ar II. Decolonization, the Cold War World, International Organizations, the epigenetic, Post-Cold War. World War I and World War II: Global Causes and Consequences. Ac t i vitySkill Development. Students will identify and functions party, analyze the methylation epigenetic, causes a nd conseq u ences o f the global. economic crisis in the 1930s.

Development of Essay on The Invention Photography, Communism in China, Russia, and C u ba. R esponses to W estern I n v olvement in Sub- S aharan Africa: Imperialism, the Cold W a r , and International Organizations. Ac t i vities incl u de: Writing a Comparison Essay Comparing the political goals and social effects of. revolution in: China, Russia, Mexico: Students choose two. Writing a Change and Continuity over Time Essay: Changes and Continuities in the. formation of national identities 19 0 0-present . Students choose from among the following. regions: Middle East, South Asia, or Latin America. Students debate the epigenetic, benefits and negat i ve consequences of the rapid advances in. science during the on The Invention of Digital Photography, 20th and early 21st centuries. S t udents trace the developme n t o f o n e form o f popular culture in the 20th century and.

present a graphic or visual display of their research to the class. Parallel Reading--Students will read Ch.8 of The Human Web and. Consider the following: Why does this chapter reach back to 1890? Throughout the course students will be required to write essays in class demonstrating their. mastery of methylation, content as well a s their abilit y to militarism, develop coherent written arguments that have. a thesis supported by relevant historical evidence . During first semester the focus will be on.

the dev e lo p m e nt of essay writing skills via time spent on methylation essay writing worksho p s u t ilizing. the following format in essay devel o pmen t : Introductory Paragraph3 to 4 sentences, ending with thesis statement. Thesis Statement-w h at does it ne e d to i n clu d e? the answer to the prompt. O r g anization of B ody P a r ag r aphs Topic Sentencethis can be general since the thesis contains specificity. General Assertionidentifies one aspect of ww1 definition, thesis (i.e . Methylation Epigenetic? a c hange, a di f ference, etc.) Analysis-explain cause and/or e f fect. General Assertionidentifies one aspect of thesis (i.e . a c hange, a di f ference, etc.) Analysis-explain cause and/or e f fect. Repeat format as necessary.

Concluding P a r ag r aph. Start by restating (a rephrased ) thesis in its entirety. Essay writing workshops will include group discussion utilizing exam p le essay, self- evaluation, an d peer e v al u ation. P r imary Source Document Notebook Assignment. Throughout the fi r st semester stude n ts w ill have the opportunity to Different Methods of Teaching, de v el o p and en h ance. their skills at interpreting, summarizing, a n d analyzing primary source material incl u di n g. documents, maps, charts graphs, and methylation epigenetic, visuals . The ability to Different Essay, comprehend and analyze. primary sources w ill fi r st be prac t ice d in large group and small gro u p discussion then in.

ind i vidual primary source assignments t h at methylation students will summarize and analyze and place. in a P rimary S ource Notebook whi c h will be turned in party, once ea c h 6-week grading period . Di r ections f o r P r imary Sou r ce W r i t e-ups : READ the document or STUDY the data or visual . The n write a summary ( t he MAIN poin t. or poin t s) of the document . This summary sh o ul d be brief para g raph a n d should hi g hlight. the main g ist o f the source in t h e st u dents o w n words . T h e analysis of the source will be. con t ai n ed in a separate paragra p h and should include: Historical Context--where the source fits in the framework of history. AP t h emes that the so u rce addresses . Stu d en t s will be required t o ide n tify where and. explain h ow the source addresses that theme . Students will identify as many themes as. the y can find but then evaluate t hose t h emes and only include w ha t they consider to methylation epigenetic, be. the two most p r o mine n t themes . Point of Viewhere students must consider.

point of view of the author, the type of document and/or tone of the source. purpose and/or intended audience. This skill will be developed throughout much of fi r st semes t er using class discussion an of the death, d. partner discussions with the end goal that a ll students will unde r stand how to analyze the. overall point of epigenetic, view of Essay of Digital, a source and be able to discuss how that point of view may a f fect the. source by the end of first semester . Some of the epigenetic, sources used for these exercises include: T acitus from Germania. Female figure from Catalhuyuk (visual) Graphworld population 3 00 0 BCE -15 0 0 CE. The Code of Hammurabi. The Writings of Han F ei. Asoka, Rock and Pillar Edicts.

Pericles Funeral Oration. Shi Huangdi s T erraco t ta Army (visual) Fu Xuan, How Sad it is to be a W oman. L i ve, History o f Rome. Procopius from On the Buildings and The Secret History. Shield Jaguar and themes, lady Xoc: A Royal Couple of Y axchilan (visual) Xuanzang, Record of the methylation epigenetic, Western Region. Einhard, The Life of Charlemagne. Ibn Ba t tuta, T ravels in Asia and Africa. Kitabatake Chikafusa, The Chronicle of the Different Methods Essay, Direct Descent of Gods and Sovereigns. The Chronicle of methylation, Novgorod. William of Essay on The of Digital Photography, Rubruck, Journey to the Land of the Mongols.

World Population Growth 1 0 0 0-2 00 0 (graph) Jahangi r , Memoirs. S t udents will conti n ue to epigenetic, practice t heir skills at i n terpreting and a wrinkle in time, analyzing primary so u rces. by using them to synthesize i n formati o n in DBQ essays . After introducing the epigenetic, concep t of. the DBQ t o the stud e nts via rou n dt a ble d iscussion and ww1 definition, prac t ice writing o f thesis s t atements. and individual body paragraphs, students will write 4-6 DBQ essays that include wri t ten and. visual sources as well as map, charts, and graphs .