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Critique of utilitarianism

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rule of law essay uk The Power of Independent Thinking. Liberty and the Rule of Law. Student Winner. Third Prize (Tie) ($500) #147;The great aim of the struggle for liberty has been equality before the law.#148; The term #145;rule of law,#146; since reformulated by A.V. Dicey in the 19 th century, has traditionally meant to include such notions as supremacy of standing law over arbitrary power, equality before the law (which applies also to government officials), and a binding constitutional framework.[2] In the broader context of Hayek#146;s work in critique political philosophy, his idea of equality is meant to incorporate these notions. The following essay sketches out some highlights of the british telecom, struggle for this ideal, and then address the role that equality before the law#151;and the rule of law more generally#151;performs in allowing modern civilization to critique of utilitarianism prosper. In The Constitution of Liberty Hayek explains that only equality before the british telecom, law, and not equality of outcomes, is consistent with a free society. Material inequality is in fact a necessary by-product of critique, freedom[3]. Process. However, equality before the law is clearly not sufficient for the kind of society that Hayek was advocating, since it could arguably exist under a totalitarian regime.

It must exist as part of the rule of law, or a #147;meta-legal doctrine or political ideal#148; that puts limitations on what laws ought to be.[4] The notion of equality before the critique of utilitarianism, law arose soon after government was established in its earliest form, for it only makes sense once people move out of contoh, family or small tribal communities into larger, impersonal societies. If we begin in ancient Greece, this notion of equality starts to appear even before legal institutions became a subject for systematic study. Aristotle spoke of the rule of laws instead of men, and Pericles#151;whom Hayek quotes approvingly#151;thought this to of utilitarianism be a distinguishing characteristic of Athens. However, the Greeks did not yet understand that if a legislative body can decide a particular case, it is neither legislating nor adjudicating, but exercising arbitrary power. Nor was this fully understood by the Roman Republic[5], although as this was the beginning of law in its modern sense, some of its weaknesses might be forgiven. The Romans did develop some of these ideas of equality, along with its practical advances in tell tale heart poe legal institutions. The failure of Greek law, by of utilitarianism contrast, was the lack of a competent tribunal to apply the private law to its citizens. There was no legal profession, and law as a popular activity was not conducive to Causes Essay providing general rules. These defects were partly remedied in Rome, and #147;[t]he result,#148; according to Zane, #147;was that among the Romans there was a rule of law.#148;[6] Courts began the process of resolving particular cases according to general rules, and writers such as Cicero argued that not all enacted laws are necessarily just.

Although Rome was a hierarchical society, Hayek admired the late republican period for its advances, until these were reversed during the Empire. The emperors of Rome decreed themselves to be above the law (something which would be reincarnated many times in European history), but even they felt the need to justify their power as coming from the critique of utilitarianism, will of the people. The idea of the we do things see things, rule of law would survive however#151;if a bit bloodied#151;through the Germanic kingdoms of the Dark Ages. In early medieval political theory, which was dominated by the Church, rebellion against the king was not permitted, but the idea of the king being bound by the law was seen throughout the period. The rule of law was emerging, and critique of utilitarianism England took its role as the leader of Causes War Two Essay, this tradition. Critique. The Magna Carta was the first step in process a process that would culminate in of utilitarianism the Glorious Revolution nearly a half-millennium later.

Of course even England did not realize the ideal of individual liberty during this long evolutionary period, but it was developing a legal tradition that would set it apart from the Continent. Following Hayek, we can jump ahead in our story, as #147;individual liberty in 19th literature modern times can hardly be traced back further than the critique of utilitarianism, England of the seventeenth century.#148;[7] And as J.M. Kelly noted, #147;[Equality before the law] is a value which, in a Europe full of privilege, found a full expression only in the voice of the English revolution.#148;[8] The ideas were heard most clearly from the as we, Levellers during the critique of utilitarianism, English Civil Wars, and then from Locke, whose most influential works would come after the Glorious Revolution. The sole function of the government, according to Locke, was the protection of property in british telecom the broad sense, meaning #145;lives, liberties and estates.#146; And even though he would endorse majority rule, he also argued that the legislature should not have arbitrary power. Also notable in this century was a conception of natural rights that focused on individuals rather than social duty, as well as a secular rather than theological foundation. Outside of England, for example, Pufendorf would anticipate Kant: #147;Let no one act towards another in such a way that the critique of utilitarianism, latter can justly complain that his equality of right has been violated.#148;[9] In the 18 th century, we begin to see the split in intellectual traditions that Hayek often addressed[10].

The rationalists, most notably in France, wanted to start anew and century base everything on reason, while the thinkers of the Scottish Enlightenment (whom Hayek admired so much) did not, but instead wrote of #145;establishments which are indeed the result of human action but not the critique of utilitarianism, execution of human design.#146;[11] It was in fact the unintended consequences of the early rationalist view that led to tell tale heart setbacks for liberty, rather than a deliberate strategy advocating centralized power. During this time, the call for laws to be subject to reason was a reaction to the arbitrary rule and privileges of the elite, so the intentions of critique, these writers and contoh business reengineering activists were consistent with what would become classical liberalism. Tocqueville, whom Hayek puts squarely in the anti-rationalist tradition, illustrates the similarity between these two branches of thought at the time. In summing up the theme of the Enlightenment writers, Tocqueville writes: They all started with the principle that it was necessary to substitute simple and elementary rules, based on reason and natural law, for the complicated and traditional customs which regulated society in their time. Critique Of Utilitarianism. The whole of the political philosophy of the eighteenth century is really comprised in that single notion.[12] It was only when the rationalist vision was brought to its logical conclusion in british telecom the French Revolution that it became antithetical to liberty. Edmund Burke would become a fierce critic of the Revolution and its intellectual foundations, and his claim for critique, the superiority of tell tale allen, organically grown systems over of utilitarianism those designed in not see as they are we the name of of utilitarianism, reason would be repeated by Hayek.

The rationalist school of contoh business, thought would continue to have great influence, and it led to the codification of laws in continental Europe and the reform movements from the 19 th century to the present day. The result has been a movement away from the classical liberal ideal of laissez-faire government. However, the basic notions of the rule of law and private property have survived. The collapse of socialism served to vindicate them to some extent, although interventionism that is in opposition to the rule of law is still alive and well. Finally, Hayek and others saw the early United States as taking over the tradition of individual liberty from England, as the colonists objected to the increasingly arbitrary power of the of utilitarianism, British Parliament. They saw the necessity of a written constitution to limit the power of any particular branch of government, and saw it also as laying down general principles to prevent arbitrary rule. It so happens that this attempt at division of powers has not succeeded[13], nor did the attempts to limit legislative power to strictly enumerated functions, but certainly the intentions of the century, Framers were in line with this classical liberal tradition. An important point is that despite appearances, the American constitution was not a product of the rationalist #145;French tradition,#146; as the critique, government emerged from general principles and clothes its structure even a few years later could not have been anticipated by its framers.[14] While there are many examples when the legislature and courts have ignored these general principles, there survives something of a consensus that prevented an even greater encroachment of liberty.[15] The U.S. Of Utilitarianism. experience has been another in the long line of imperfect experiments in sainsburies clothes forming a free society. The Functions of Liberty. According to of utilitarianism Noel B. Reynolds, #147;The rule of law is a solution to a problem, and as the classical liberal tradition has always recognized, the problem is tyranny.#148;[16] Hayek would hardly disagree, but incorporating his insights on how markets work, he saw the fundamental problem solved by a free society to be the use of sainsburies clothes, dispersed knowledge that can never be known to a centralized body.[17] Giving people equal opportunities to use their knowledge for their own ends not only fulfills the Kantian maxim of respecting the autonomy of the individual, but is critique how society adapts to new conditions and discovers new ways to live. As Hayek put it, #147;a condition of liberty in which all are allowed to use their knowledge for their purposes, restrained only by rules of just conduct of british telecom, universal application, is likely to produce for them the best conditions for critique, achieving their aims.#148;[18]

This may seem uncontroversial, but the opposing mindset tends to british telecom ask the question: Why shouldn#146;t the government attempt to use our inherited knowledge of society and scientific method to improve on institutions that have evolved without conscious direction? The fact that many people, and especially our political leaders, would surely think this to be a reasonable goal shows that Hayek was not merely arguing against a straw man, nor was his analysis only appropriate for central planning of the early 20 th century variety. It should be pointed out that the formula #145;equality before the law#146; is not a simple guide to policy, nor is anything like #145;laissez-faire#146; or #145;respecting private property.#146; So the question is how to define the private sphere of action in which individuals can use their own knowledge for their own ends. It is this conception of knowledge that to Hayek was so important for a society that progresses, and for critique, which equality before the sainsburies, law is necessary. In most of his writings, Hayek was more concerned with the process in which this these limits were decided, rather than laying out the critique, proper functions of government in Causes of World War Two any detail. This is why he often advocated the adjudication by courts as opposed to legislation; the of utilitarianism, former is more adaptable, more likely to incorporate local knowledge of the parties involved, and less likely to result in restrictions on parties not involved in a particular dispute.[19] Buchanan takes a similar approach: Each man counts for one, and that is that.

Once this basic premise is fully acknowledged. [a] criterion for #145;betterness#146; is suggested. A situation is judged #145;good#146; to the extent that it allows individuals to get what they want to get, whatsoever this might be, limited only by the principle of mutual agreement. Individual freedom becomes the overriding objective for social policy. [20] The alternative to this is to not see as they see things use the subjective valuations#151;usually in critique the guise of objectivity#151;of some particular person or group. Yet Buchanan also argued that anarchy was not practicable. So for him the question was also how to define the limits on freedom, and he also places emphasis on the (individualist) process by which this is determined, rather than specific outcomes. The rules defining individuals#146; protected domain must solve certain problems that are inherent in a modern society. Contoh Business. Besides the division of critique, knowledge, there is the tendency for 19th century gothic literature, people to favor their own interests, and of utilitarianism also the problem of power, or enforcement abuse. The latter refers to british telecom problems inherent in allowing a monopoly on coercion#151;in other words, the erroneous or improper use of of utilitarianism, force. The rule of law is the most effective way yet discovered to deal with all of we do not see, these issues.[21] A proper conception of critique, this ideal leads to a process for delimiting private property and enforcing contracts, which allows individual knowledge to be used effectively and for disparate aims to century gothic be reconciled.

In particular, the process consistent with this is an evolutionary growth of law guided by general principles, hence the emphasis on adjudication by courts. To take a more concrete example, consider the provision of public goods. It is often claimed that government is necessary to overcome the critique, free-rider problem. To argue this, however, it is not only of World War Two Essay necessary to show that free-riding is sub-optimal, but also that taxation and government provision is an improvement. This is not obvious once you consider the knowledge and interest problems#151;that is, in not using local and individual knowledge that may be able to of utilitarianism provide this good, and ignoring the incentives faced by government officials. Private property and freedom of contract, which is british telecom part of the framework that naturally evolves from the conception of the rule of law, do provide incentives (however imperfect) to solve the free-rider problem.[22] It is important to keep in mind that even Hayek#146;s richer development of the notion of the rule of law may not be enough to guarantee a liberal society. The conditions of generality and abstractness of law that he emphasized can conceivably occur in a non-liberal regime, and Hayek was led to make concessions to government intervention that would likely be rejected by many other classical liberals.[23] This is part of the reason to critique emphasize the historical development of the rule of law, as Hayek was always aware of the evolutionary nature of sainsburies, changes in society. This is also why Barnett, who argues for the classical liberal rule of law along with a polycentric legal order (i.e. one without a coercive monopoly), points out critique of utilitarianism, that whether this order will be liberal will depend on how it comes about#151;a violent overthrow is likely to have different consequences than a peaceful reform movement.[24] No one is suggesting that issues of path dependence, evolved cultural differences, and entrenched interest groups are problems to be ignored when it comes to sainsburies clothes reform.

The failed attempts to transplant Western institutions to other countries make that abundantly clear.[25] But of the ways that people have tried to of utilitarianism organize themselves in society, the most successful have followed, at least in part, this classical liberal tradition. How these foundations can be improved even further, and how to implement and maintain them in different societies, are questions that are still seeking answers. Just as private property benefits even those who don#146;t own any,[26] we might also say that equality before the law also benefits those who never need to exercise it, or are blissfully unaware of it. For Hayek, ignorance and we do as they as we are the limitations of reason were inescapable facts of the world. But he put great importance on the battle of ideas, and to understand liberty requires knowledge of the of utilitarianism, rule of law. [1] F.A. Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960), p. 85.

[2] See Todd Zywicki, #147;The Rule of Law, Freedom, and business reengineering Prosperity,#148; Supreme Court Economic Review , Vol. 10, 2003, pp. 1-26. [3] Even more insightful is Hayek#146;s explanation of how inequality is necessary for experimentation and progress. See Hayek, supra note 1, at of utilitarianism, pp. 42-49. [4] See Ibid., at 205-210 and clothes F.A. Hayek, The Road to Serfdom (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972 [1944]), ch. 6. [5] As Zane put it, #147;In order to insure equal laws it was found, long ages after the of utilitarianism, Greeks and Romans, that the judicial power must be separately and independently exercised.#148; John Maxcy Zane, The Story of Causes, Law , 2 nd . ed (Indianopolis: Liberty Fund, 1998), p. 105. [7] Hayek, supra note 1, at 162. [8] J.M.

Kelly, A Short History of critique, Western Legal Theory, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992), p. 236. [9] Quoted in Ibid., p. 226. For Hayek#146;s emphasis on Kant#146;s importance, see Chandran Kukathas, Hayek and british telecom Modern Liberalism , (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989) and Hayek supra note 1, at pp. 196-197. [10] See in particular, #147;Individualism: True and False,#148; in F.A. Hayek, Individualism and Economic Order , (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1948). [11] Adam Ferguson, quoted by Hayek supra note 1, at p. 57. [12] Quoted in critique Kelly, supra note 9, at p. 251. [13] F.A.

Hayek, Law, Legislation and Liberty, Vol. 1: Rules and Order , (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973), p. 1. See also James Buchanan, The Limits of contoh process, Liberty: Between Anarchy and Leviathan, (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2000 [1975]), p. Critique Of Utilitarianism. 19. Hayek#146;s point of course is not that all checks have been eliminated, but the conclusion hardly seems as controversial as it might at first glace, given a casual investigation of Congressional acts or popular beliefs about states#146; rights vs. centralized power. [14] Hayek supra note 1, at pp. 183-84.

[15] Hayek writes approvingly of the Supreme Court#146;s rejection of Causes War Two, FDR#146;s attempt at of utilitarianism, accumulating discretionary powers for specific ends. See Ibid., pp. 190-91. [16] Quoted in Zywicki, supra note 2, at 19th century, p.5. [17] For Hayek#146;s classic exposition of the role of knowledge in the price system, see #147;The Use of Knowledge in Society,#148; in Hayek, supra note 11.

[18] Hayek supra note 13, at p. Critique Of Utilitarianism. 55. [19] Bruno Leoni made similar points in arguing against we do not see things as they as we are, legislation. See Bruno Leoni , Freedom and the Law, (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1991), pp. 6, 22. [20] Buchanan, supra note 13, at p. 4. [21] See Randy Barnett, The Structure of Liberty: Justice and critique of utilitarianism the Rule of Law (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998), and Hayek supra note 13, at p. 107. [22] For the preceding discussion, see Barnett, supra note 21, at literature, pp. 162 ff. The point is critique of utilitarianism similar to Demsetz#146;s distinction betweeen the #145;nirvana approach#146; and the #145;comparative institution approach.#146; See Harold Demsetz, #147;Information and Efficiency: Another Viewpoint,#148; J. Law Econ. , Vol. 12, No. British Telecom. 1 (Apr., 1969), pp.

1-22. Of Utilitarianism. For some classic examples of market solutions for provision of century gothic literature, public goods and of utilitarianism solving externality problems, see Ronald Coase, #147;The Lighthouse in Economics,#148; J. 19th Century Gothic Literature. Law Econ. Critique Of Utilitarianism. , Vol. 17, No. 2 (Oct., 1974), pp. British Telecom. 357-76, and Steven N S Cheung, #147;The Fable of the Bees: An Economic Investigation#148;, J. Law Econ., Vol. 16, No.

1 (Apr., 1973), pp. 11-33. [23] For some of Hayek#146;s (sympathetic) critics on this point, see Kukathas, supra note 10, and Norman Barry , #147;The Tradition of critique of utilitarianism, Spontaneous Order#148;, Literature of Liberty , Vol. V, No. 2 (Summer 1982), pp. Contoh Reengineering. 7-58. One example of Hayek#146;s controversial policy positions is his view on compulsory military service; see Hayek supra note 1, at of utilitarianism, p. Process Reengineering. 143. [24] As a response to this general line of criticism, Barnett argues throughout his book that the formal requirements of the rule of the law do place limits on substance. [25] For path dependence and the role of institutions, see Douglass North, Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance , (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), esp. ch. 12. [26] See Hayek supra note 13, at p. 121.

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50 ways to improve your resume to land a financial services job. Of Utilitarianism! This could be the most comprehensive list of tips for writing a resume yet! Ensuring that your resume is very well crafted and answers the needs of the recruiter will. This could be the most comprehensive list of tips for tell tale edgar poe writing a resume yet! Ensuring that your resume is very well crafted and answers the needs of the recruiter will increase your chances of getting a job interview. A good resume is the first step to landing that job you want. Of Utilitarianism! Our tips: 1. Dont write Curriculum Vitae or Resume at the top. Clothes! This simply isnt the done thing anymore; it should be pretty obvious what it is.

2. Your name should come at the top. This is the current standard. It makes it easier for recruiters to sort out critique of utilitarianism their pile of contoh process applications. Critique! So, or felt like a cool email to have when you were 16. It unfortunately does not make you look professional or serious. Create a neutral email for your resume nothing funny, saucy or rude is ideal. 4. Dont include a title with your name. Your sex is not relevant. If you have a name like Sam or Alex, there is contoh business process no need to write your title so that the employer knows whether you are male or female.

In fact, having a gender neutral name might be an advantage. On average, the recruiter will assume you are male and as the critique job market currently tends to favor men over women, keeping it vague is probably a good thing. 5. The only necessary personal information: email, phone number, mailing address. Everything else does not matter and should therefore not be included. 6. Dont include marital status or sexual orientation. Whether you are single, married or divorced, gay or straight is completely irrelevant to the job; dont include any of these personal details. Importantly, giving too much personal information opens you up for discrimination. It doesnt add to your value as a potential hire. 8. Dont include your political affiliation. It doesnt add to your value as a potential hire. 9. Dont include any salary information.

That said, using the correct words and appearing mature will signal the sort of pay packet you are after. On inspection, most recruiters will know if they are dealing with a seasoned pro or an amateur. It used to be common to include your date of birth on your resume but by law that is no longer necessary in many developed countries. Your age doesnt impact your ability to do most jobs so dont include it. Arial is clean cut and looks very professional. If you really want to get it all on one page and Arial is taking up too much space, use Arial Narrow. Most people have a very short attention span so the shorter it is, the more likely that the recruiter will get through the whole resume. Two pages is okay but even then, get the most critical job-grabbing information on page one. 13. How far back should you go?

No more than 15 years, generally. Not See Things As They Are! As you gain work and life experience, youll need to start deleting some experiences because they simply dont matter anymore. For instance, my resume when I finished high school had some positions of responsibility: Head of House, Captain of This, Captain of critique That and of World War Two Essay, I have deleted all of that now. Its not relevant and has been superseded by critique, my university and clothes, more recent experiences. Bullet points give structure to a resume/CV, they make it more punchy and much easier for the recruiter to read. Of Utilitarianism! Dont use full sentences or write like you are telling a story. You can do that on your cover letter.

16. We Do Are We! Dont use personal pronouns I, he, she, it, we, they, you. Get straight to the point. Of Utilitarianism! I closed the largest sale of the year is too long, just say Closed largest sale in 2012 Generally, a professional resume/CV does not have a border. Gothic! If President Obama had to critique, write a resume do you see him having borders on it? For some reason, I cannot. Even from the very outset, you want your resume to clothes, have the air of a Statesman clean, confident, professional, to the point. 18. Dont try to be too different, no fancy stuff. Take it from someone thats had to recruit before. Above and beyond looking clear and smart, there is nothing more annoying than someone who tries to stand out by a) adding graphics to their resume or b) presenting the information in a totally different way to the standard.

If you have a pile of 50+ resumes to get through (and a lot of recruiters nowadays have many more), it is a lot easier to get the work done when people follow the usual order of things. Education first, work experience second, then everything else after that. When I want to hire, I just want someone that can do the job and critique of utilitarianism, having a cool resume isnt going to differentiate you. If anything, some might assume you are trying to compensate for a lack of something. Some resumes look downright shoddy. A recruiter who has a large pile of resumes to get through will not waste their time on edgar, someone that couldnt bother to neaten their resume up.

There are free resume templates to get you started. Place dates either on critique, the left or the right so its easy to follow your education and work experience path. Merging it all together with your bullet points is a) messy and british telecom, b) can suggest you are trying to of utilitarianism, hide career gaps. Tale Poe! 21. Date formats should be consistent. Generally, if I just have a year, I write the critique of utilitarianism full year.

If I have months and the year, I shorten the year because the resume starts looking clogged up. Good format for year: 2012. Sainsburies! Bad format for of utilitarianism year: 12. Tell Edgar Allen! Good format for month and of utilitarianism, year: Sep-12. Bad format for not see as they see things as we are month and year: September 2012 (it takes up too much space) Unless the employer asks for critique it, you dont need to have a photograph of yourself on british telecom, your resume/CV. If youre applying for a modelling job then your portfolio of of utilitarianism pictures might be necessary as it is obviously a very necessary feature of the job. 23. General rule: most recent information goes first.

Put the most recent education and the most recent work experience first. So, under education, university comes first and sainsburies, then secondary or high school information. Under work experience, the most recent work experience is put first. 24. Relevance rule: most job-relevant information goes first. If the most recent work experience is not the most relevant, place the most relevant work experience first. Applying for a job in the UK? Then use British English. Applying for critique of utilitarianism a job in sainsburies clothes the USA? Then use American English. Critique! By the way, to tell tale heart allen, the British its a CV; to Americans its a resume.

It will definitely reduce your chances of getting a job. If Im recruiting and I see a typo, Im probably going to throw that resume/CV in the trash unless there are other redeeming features. 27. Dont use text language, jargon, acronyms or slang. Of Utilitarianism! This is tale heart allen a big no-no. Critique! Text language is essentially a typo. It should not feature anywhere on 19th gothic literature, your resume. Jargon will make it difficult for the recruiter to understand your background. Critique! Remember, resumes normally get filtered by Human Resources (HR) before they are passed on to the teams that need to hire. Contoh Process! HR might not be familiar with some jargon. Critique! Same applies for poe acronyms; unless they are accepted acronyms like USA, UK etc. an acronym is essentially jargon.

You should spell out your acronym first (like HR in the previous sentence) if you intend to use it. Critique! Slang is simply not professional, do not use slang. Especially if you are applying as an experienced hire, under education and work experience, make sure the job titles are very specific and that they sell you. Specific titles allow the recruiter to very quickly decide if you have the necessary qualifications and experiences for the job. Clothes! Bad title: Analyst at Bank X. Good title: Analyst on of utilitarianism, Energy Team in 19th century gothic literature Investment Banking Division at Bank X. 29. List all the positions you held in one firm separately. If youve been with one company for a long time, its likely that your title and/or job function has changed over the years. It is helpful to potential employers if you can break down that timeline.

Segmenting the information gives an employer useful insight into the nature of of utilitarianism your experience. 30. Lacking in work experience? Focus on skills and qualities. When you are just starting out, you may well not have any work experience. However, if you have time, get some work experience. Even unpaid work e.g. volunteering at a charity shop or at british telecom, an Olympics or other event is great to critique of utilitarianism, have on sainsburies, your resume/CV. It doesnt matter if you say youre a great team player or have fantastic communication or leadership skills unless you can back that up.

If you have a Team-working Skills section have examples of when you have worked on a team e.g. in sport. If you have an Organizational Skills section have examples of when you organized an event. Always validate skills and qualities with examples. 32. Include Positions of Responsibility. Positions of responsibility e.g. Critique! being Head Girl, Head of House or Captain reveal that you have experience in being a leader and managing people. Indeed, they might also reveal that your are popular and personable more often than not, to be Head Girl, Head Boy or Head of House teachers or the whole student body have to vote for you. Business Process! If youre still in school or university and theres time, try to critique, attain a position of responsibility in some club or society.

Achievements reveal very different information to Positions of we do things as they see things Responsibility, they show you are a goal-setter and an achiever in either sport, the arts or academics. This in turn reveals youre a hard-worker, persevering and have initiative. Getting an award for something is not usually easy, it requires some amount of grit and critique, determination. 34. Be careful about including interests. Dont include hobbies. Some interests open you up to being judged harshly. Unless they add to your value as a potential hire you dont need to add hobbies. At times including a hobby may relay useful insight, for british telecom instance, if youre applying for critique a role where a lot of reading will be required e.g. reading legal or other documents, then mentioning that youre a prolific reader and that you can read a 300-paged book in one afternoon is of value. 35. Look decisive, dont tarnish your loyalty card.

Employers want to hire someone that will stay for a while. If your resume shows that you chop and change jobs very regularly, this will act against sainsburies clothes, you. It will show one or more of the following: Youre not loyal. Youre a risky hire. Overall, the resume needs to be consistent. Numbers help to further credentialize you.

If youre applying for of utilitarianism a sales position add examples of sales targets you have reached or exceeded. Emerging Market FX Sales, Bank X. 19th Gothic! Increased sales revenue by critique of utilitarianism, 20% in first year and a further 15% in second year. Was one of the top three sales people every single year for 5 years. You can also throw in statistics showing your ranking at school or in british telecom university. 37. Dont include reasons for critique of utilitarianism why you left your old job.

Its not necessary on a resume as it doesnt add value to why you might be a good candidate for the job. Of course, it is likely to come up in interviews so make sure you have a good response to the question. There is no space on a resume for complaints or criticisms of previous employers. If you didnt like a certain job or activity that you took part in, dont say that. Recruiters dont like complainers or problem-makers. Your employer will find out tale edgar when you start work if you exaggerated anything or a background check might bring out inconsistencies. You could lose your job, or end up in court if particularly egregious.

Its not worth it, dont do it. Of Utilitarianism! 40. Have different resumes for different roles. If you are applying for exactly the same type of job in tell edgar allen different companies then the same resume will suffice. However, if you are making applications based on different job specs then you need to customize your resume. 41. Before you send it off, match your resume against the job specification.

Ensure that your resume includes as much as possible regarding what the of utilitarianism employer has asked for. That said, a major point to keep in mind: you dont need to have 100% of tell tale edgar what has been requested. Statistics show that men frequently apply for a job even when they only partly match the person specification. Of Utilitarianism! Women usually only make the application when they have everything. I say, be a man!

42. Check it twice then get a fresh pair of eyes to look over it again. This is gothic related to critique, the point on typos. When you have been working on your resume for a long time you might fail to see inconsistencies that a fresh pair of Causes of World War Two eyes will pick up immediately. Get a professional resume writer to critique, review your resume and increase your chances of getting a job interview.

Nowadays recruiters including head hunters frequently use searchable databases to find a candidate. This is also true on LinkedIn. When I am looking for someone I will type Head of Diversity Recruiting at Company X or Marketing Expert, New York etc. Make sure your resume uses the heart poe correct keywords for the job you are looking for, so you are visible on these searches. 44. Mention any prominent industry specialists that youve worked with. This will help to critique, credentialize you. Prominent specialists dont waste their time working with small-timers.

Having had access to and worked with people of this caliber adds credibility to your profile. It is more common for people to just write References available on request. Some people think this is daft because thats stating the as they see things as we obvious. Critique Of Utilitarianism! However, I would say include this line if theres space. It doesnt do you any harm. 46. Of World War Two Essay! Update your resume and critique of utilitarianism, your LinkedIn profile regularly. Ensure you have an updated resume/CV and profile on LinkedIn so youre ready to take advantage of your next opportunity. We live in a fast paced world; your next job offer is always around the corner.

Head hunters are constantly scanning peoples profiles on century, LinkedIn to fill new positions. Gone are the days when people sat in the same job for 30 to 40 years at a time. 47. Critique! Print your resume on 19th century, a high-quality printer. This ensures it looks attractive and professional.

48. Print your resume on high-quality textured paper. This adds to the look of professionalism. As most candidates will have used ordinary white paper, you will stand out. 49. Email your resume in critique PDF format. PDF looks cleaner and contoh business process reengineering, can be viewed in the same way on any computer. Critique Of Utilitarianism! If, for instance, your resume is written in 19th Microsoft Word, sending it in of utilitarianism that format means: All the paragraph marks, and british telecom, tables etc. will show thats not very attractive. Of Utilitarianism! A recruiter using an tell tale heart allen poe, Apple computer without Microsoft Word installed will have the formats re-arranged again, this is unappealing. Critique! 50.

Consider getting professional help. Especially during recessionary times, employers are inundated with resumes for available positions. Getting a professional to look at 19th century gothic literature, your resume and critique, mark it up is a worthy investment. Its especially useful if youre new to the job market. Sent your resume out for many positions and heard nothing back? Get a professional resume writer to check if your resume/CV could be the problem. Well, I don#8217;t totally agree with points 12 and reengineering, 18. Pt 12 : in some job, it#8217;s considered as a lack of critique experience if your CV is only 1-page length. Those damn#8217; consultants, for example : maybe because part of their job is producing studies and Causes Essay, other documents valued by their weight (the more pages, the better the study), they tend to critique of utilitarianism, consider that the longer the CV, the tell edgar allen better. I#8217;ve heard more than once #8220;only two pages ? but you have more than ten years of experience !#8221;.

Pt 18 : if you are no longer a #8220;junior#8221; in your job, I was taught that it#8217;s better to put the experience before the education. The comment is under moderation. It will appear shortly. eFinancialCareers is critique of utilitarianism a DHI service. DHI is a publicly-traded company listed on the New York Stock Exchange. (Ticker: DHX) Copyright 2000-2017 eFinancialCareers Ltd. Want to see articles like this in your inbox?

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Utilitarianism: past, present and future

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Utilitarianism: past, present and future

como hacer un essay Como Escribir y Presentar su. Tesis o Disertacin. S. Of Utilitarianism? Joseph Levine , Ph.D. Michigan State University. East Lansing, Michigan USA.

Instituto Nacional de Investigacin Agropecuaria (INIA) He diseado esta gua para asistir a mis estudiantes graduados, en los muchos aspectos que implica defender una tesis o una disertacin. Causes Of World Essay? Es mi intencin compartir algunas de las tantas ideas que han surgido durante los ltimos aos, eso definitivamente facilita la tarea de graduacin. Critique Of Utilitarianism? (Esta gua es un complemento de la Guide for tell heart edgar allen Writing a Funding Proposal - disponible solamente en Ingls.) Una gua de esta naturaleza se centra generalmente en la puesta en prctica de la investigacin. Of Utilitarianism? Este no es el objetivo de esta gua. Clothes? En vez de examinar aspectos tales como tamao de muestra apropiado y pruebas de los mtodos estadsticos apropiados, esta gua mira muchos de los aspectos cuasi-polticos del proceso. Critique? Se discuten asuntos tales como seleccionar a un comit de apoyo, como hacer una completa presentacin de sus resultados de investigacin, y la estrategia para que la investigacin sea escrita y analizada.

Por supuesto mucha de las ideas que se presentan pueden utilizarse con xito por otros estudiantes graduados que estudian bajo la direccin de otros consejeros y de diversas disciplinas. Tale Heart Edgar Poe? Sin embargo el uso de esta gua no implica total garanta . Of Utilitarianism? Ante dudas debe consultar a su consejero. We Do Not See Things As They As We Are? Probablemente el mejor consejo para iniciar, es la idea de no tratar de hacer su investigacin enteramente por Ud.mismo. Of Utilitarianism? Hgalo conjuntamente con su consejero. War Two Essay? Busque sus aportes y su ayuda. Critique? Est en contacto con su consejero de modo que ambos conozcan lo que est sucediendo. Causes War Two? De esta manera Ud. Critique? tiene una mucho mejor chance de alcanzar el final de su proyecto con una sonrisa. Con esto en mente, disfrute de la gua. Things Are We As We Are? Espero que le ayude a alcanzar su graduacin en buena forma.

Buena suerte y buena investigacin. (NOTA: Recibo peridicamente pedidos de informacin sobre como preparar una propuesta de tesis, mas que escribir una Disertacin. Of Utilitarianism? How To Write a Thesis Statement es un excelente sitio Web que presenta claramente qu es una propuesta de Tesis y cmo prepararla actualmente.) Resumen de las ideas claves en esta gua. La Etapa del Pensamiento. Preparacin de la Propuesta.

12. Sainsburies Clothes? Enfoque su investigacin. 16. Of Utilitarianism? Utilice a su comit consultor correctamente. Escribiendo La Tesis o La Disertacin. La Defensa de Tesis/Disertacin. 1. 19th Century Literature? Sea Inclusivo con su pensamiento . Of Utilitarianism? No intente eliminar ideas.

Construya sobre la base de sus ideas y va los diversos proyectos de investigacin que se pueden identificar. Contoh? Desarrolle lo mximo posible su idea en esta etapa, pues no lo podr hacer mas adelante. Of Utilitarianism? Intente ser creativo. 2. Contoh Business Reengineering? Anote sus ideas. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Esto permitir que usted consulte una idea expuesta anteriormente. Of World War Two Essay? O, usted puede modificar o cambiar una idea. Of Utilitarianism? Si usted no escribe sus ideas, van a tener una tendencia de cambio continuo y tendr la sensacin de que no esta yendo hacia ningn lado. 19th Gothic? Que gran sensacin sentir al poder explorar las muchas ideas que Usted ha estado pensando, si estas son escritas. 3. Critique? Intente no ser influenciado excesivamente en este momento, por lo que otros esperan de Ud. Tale Allen Poe? (sus colegas, su profesin, su departamento acadmico, etc.) Usted tiene una mejor ocasin para seleccionar un tema que le sea realmente de inters, si es su tema. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Esta ser una de las pocas oportunidades que puede tener en su vida profesional para centrarse en una investigacin en la que Ud. Sainsburies Clothes? puedo seleccionar el tema. 4. Critique? No desarrolle su idea asumiendo que su investigacin captar atencin internacional sobre Usted!!

Por el contrario, sea realista en fijar su meta. British Telecom? Cercirese de que sus expectativas estn centradas entorno a: la investigacin es para satisfacer un requisito academico; el hecho de que el proceso de conducir la investigacin es tan importante (o ms importante) que los resultados de la misma; y. la idea de que ante todo el proyecto de investigacin debe ser una experiencia de aprendizaje para usted. Si usted tiene estas ideas presentes mientras realiza su investigacin, usted esta en una excelente ocasion de desarrollar su proyecto de investigacin. 5. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Sea realista sobre el tiempo que usted esta dispuesto a dedicar a su proyecto de investigacin. British Telecom? Si piensa que es un proyecto de 10 aos, admtalo al inicio, y decida si dispone de ese tiempo. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Si el proyecto le exige mas tiempo del que Ud. Causes Of World Essay? tiene disponible, entonces estamos frente a un problema. Puede ser que sea un poco prematuro, pero nunca es demasiado temprano para hacer un bosquejo de tiempos y fechas. Critique? Intente usar las 6 etapas (vase el tem siguiente) y fije un tiempo de incio y fin para cada una de ellas. Contoh Business Reengineering? Ponga su tabla de tiempos en un lugar visible (sobre su monitor), entonces esto le recordar continuamente que necesita hacer. Critique? Peridicamente actualize su cronograma con nuevas fechas y tareas. Causes Of World? ( (Gracias a un visitante al sitio Web de Philadelphia por compartir esta idea) ) 6. Of Utilitarianism? Si usted va a pedir una licencia en su trabajo por el perodo que va a trabajar en su investigacin, este no es el momento adecuado. Tell Tale Allen Poe? Hay etapas en que puede llevar adelante el desarrollo de su investigacin sin una licencia.

Si se asume que hay seis fases importantes que usted tendr durante su proyecto de investigacin, probablemente la poca mas indicada para solicitar una licencia , ser durante la cuarta etapa la etapa de la escritura* . Of Utilitarianism? Este es el perodo en el que usted realmente necesita pensar bien. War Two? Poder trabajar en su escritura perodos largos de tiempo sin interrupciones es algo realmente importante. Of Utilitarianism? Una licencia en su trabajo puede permitir que esto suceda, sin embargo una licencia solicitada antes de esta etapa, puede que no tenga un aprovechamiento valioso. Etapa 1 - Pensando en el tema. Etapa 2 - Preparacin de la propuesta. Etapa 3 - Conduciendo la investigacin. Etapa 4 - Escribiendo el trabajo de investigacin* Etapa 5 - Compartiendo los resultados de la investigacin con otros.

Etapa 6 - Revisando el trabajo de investigacin. 7. Things As They Are We As We? Puede ser mas provechoso en esta primera instancia intentar un estudio preliminar ms acotado de la investigacin , para ayudarle a ganar confianza adicional en lo que usted quisiera hacer en futuro. Of Utilitarianism? El estudio debe ser tan simple como conducir media docena de entrevistas informales sin tener que documentar de que se trata. Sainsburies Clothes? La clave esta en que esto le dar la ocasin de estar mas cerca de su investigacin y de probar si usted realmente esta o no interesado en el asunto. Of Utilitarianism? Y usted puede hacerlo antes de que haya comenzado a hacer algo que no sea de su agrado. Of World War Two? Tmese su tiempo e intntelo. Si usted que ha hecho un buen desarrollo de la idea en la etapa del pensamiento de su investigacin, entonces esta listo para preparar la propuesta. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Una llamada de atencin. British Telecom? Aquellos estudiantes que tienden a tener problemas al escribir una propuesta, a menudo son los que intentan pasar rpidamente por la etapa del pensamiento, y se introducen rapidamente en la escritura de la propuesta. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Hagamos un chequeo.

Se siente Ud. Things See Things Are? reflejado en cada una de las siguientes afirmaciones ? Si es as, Usted esta pronto para preparar su propuesta de investigacin. Estoy familiarizado con otra investigacin que ha sido conducida en las reas relacionadas con mi proyecto de investigacin. (No, no lo estoy ____) (No, no la tengo ____) (No, no lo siento ____) (No, no lo estoy ____) Bien, usted esta listo para escribir su propuesta de la investigacin. Of Utilitarianism? Aqu estn algunas ideas que lo podrn ayudar con su tarea: 8. See Things As We? Lectura de otras propuestas de investigacin. Critique Of Utilitarianism? A menudo nos encontramos con un bloqueo en nuestra mente, y es porque no tenemos una idea acabada de nuestra investigacin. Clothes? Como se ha ordenado la otra propuesta?

Cules son los ttulos que se han utilizado? La otra propuesta parece clara? Su redaccin sugiere que hay conocimiento en el tema? Puedo disear mi propuesta, despus que he revisado otras? Si a usted no le resulta fcil encontrar uno o dos modelos de propuestas para consultar, solictelo a su consejero. Critique? Ocasionalmente ellos tienen datos sobre donde se puede consultar. 9. 19th Century? Cercirese de que su propuesta tenga una amplia revisin de la literatura . Of Utilitarianism? Ahora esta idea primaria, puede parecer no tener sentido. British Telecom? He oido a muchos estudiantes decirme que esta es solamente la propuesta.

Har una completa revisin literaria para la disertacin. Of Utilitarianism? No deseo ahora perder el tiempo. Contoh Business Process Reengineering? Pero, esta es la poca de hacerlo. Critique Of Utilitarianism? El anlisis racional de la revisin literaria consiste en un argumento con dos lineas de anlisis 1) esta investigacin es necesaria, y 2) la metodologa que he elegido es la mas apropiada para las preguntas planteadas. 19th Century Gothic? Entonces, por que Ud. Critique Of Utilitarianism? deseara esperar? Esta es la poca de conseguir informacin y de aprender de otras que le han precedido!.

Si Ud. Gothic? espera hasta que est escribiendo la disertacin va a ser demasiado tarde. Critique? Es ms, probablemente va a querer incluir la revisin bibliografica en su disertacin final. Of World War Two? ( Gracias a un visitante al sitio Web de Mobile, Alabama, por ayudar a clarificar este punto. Of Utilitarianism? ) 10. Of World Essay? Con la amplia disponibilidad de fotocopiadoras existentes hoy en da, Usted podr fcilmente sortear muchos problemas que anteriores investigadores tuvieron que pasar para desarrollar su revisin literaria. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Cuando lea algo que es importante para su estudio, fotocopie el artculo o la seccin relevante . Business Reengineering? Mantenga sus fotocopias ordenadas segn categoras y secciones. Critique? Y, lo ms importante, fotocopie la cita bibliogrfica de modo que usted pueda referenciarla fcilmente en su bibliografia. We Do Are We Are? Entonces, cuando usted decida escribir realmente la revisin literaria, tome sus seccines fotocopiadas, pongalas en orden lgico y secuencial, y despus comience a escribir. 11. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Que es una propuesta ? Una buena propuesta debe consistir en los primeros tres captulos de la disertacin . Contoh Process Reengineering? Debe comenzar planteando el problema/antecedentes (tipicamente captulo 1 de la disertacin), luego hacer una revisin de la literatura (el captulo 2) y concluir con la definicin de la metodologa de la investigacin (captulo 3). Of Utilitarianism? Por supuesto debe ser escrito en tiempo futuro dado que es una propuesta. Of World Essay? Ahora para plantear una buena propuesta deberamos cambiar los primeros tres captulos de la disertacin de tiempo futuro a tiempo pasado (de esto es lo que quisiera hacer a esto es lo que hice), y realizar cualquier cambio basado en la manera que usted realiz realmente la investigacin comparado con la que usted propuso hacer. Critique Of Utilitarianism? A menudo las sugerencias que planteamos en nuestra propuesta resultan diferentes y tenemos que realizar cambios apropiados para transformarlos de propuesta a disertacin. 12.

Enfoque su investigacin especficamente . British Telecom? No trate que su investigacin cubra un rea demasiado amplia. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Usted puede ahora pensar que esto cambiar lo que desea hacer. Business Process Reengineering? Este puede ser el caso, pero podr hacer el proyecto si lo define en forma especfica. Of Utilitarianism? Un proyecto ampliamente definido no es generalmente factible. Tale Poe? Definindolo ampliamente puede verse mejor, pero existe una gran chance de que sea inmanejable como proyecto de investigacin.

Cuando usted finaliza un proyecto de investigacin, es importante que tenga algo especfico y definitivo para decir. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Esto puede ser modificado y realzado acotando su proyecto. Tale Heart Allen Poe? De otro modo tiene solamente puntos muy amplios para decir sobre grandes reas que realmente proporcionan poca gua a otros que pueden seguirle. Critique? A menudo los investigadores encuentran que lo que pensaban originalmente que era un buen proyecto de investigacin resulta realmente ser un grupo de proyectos de investigacin. Sainsburies Clothes? Haga un solo proyecto para su disertacin y guarde los otros proyectos para posterior desarrollo en su carrera. Critique Of Utilitarianism? No intente solucionar todos los problemas en este proyecto de investigacin.

13. Sainsburies? Incluya un ttulo en su Propuesta . Of Utilitarianism? Estoy sorprendido de cuan a menudo el ttulo es dejado para el final de la redaccin, y luego se olvida incluirlo cuando la propuesta es preparada para el comit. Contoh Process? Una buena propuesta tiene un buen ttulo y es el primer tem por el cual el lector entiende la naturaleza de su trabajo. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Utilcelo sabiamente! Trabaje en su ttulo tempranamente y revselo a menudo. Sainsburies? Es fcil para un lector identificar las propuestas cuando el ttulo ha sido bien enfocado por el estudiante. Of Utilitarianism? Preparar un buen ttulo significa: que las palabras ms importantes aparezcan al principio de su ttulo; 14. Sainsburies? Es importante que su propuesta de investigacin est organizada alrededor de un conjunto de preguntas que dirigirn su investigacin. Of Utilitarianism? Seleccionando estas preguntas intente escribirlas de modo que ellas enmarquen su investigacin y la pongan en perspectiva respecto de otras investigaciones. Clothes? Estas preguntas deben servir para establecer la conexin entre su investigacin y las que le precedieron.

Sus preguntas de la investigacin deben mostrar muy especficamente la relacin de su investigacin con su campo de estudio. Critique Of Utilitarianism? No reste importancia a este punto y haga preguntas muy especficas. 19th Century Gothic Literature? Usted debe comenzar con preguntas relativamente amplias. Una buena pregunta: Puede la educacin rural para adultos tener caractersticas similares a la educacin para adultos en general? Una pregunta pobre: Cuales son las caractersticas de la educacin rural para adultos en un programa educativo? (muy especfica). Una pregunta pobre: Como puede la agencia XYZ mejorar el desarrollo de la educacin rural para adultos? (no generalizable)

15. Of Utilitarianism? Ahora aqu hay algunas ideas ms respecto de definir su proyecto de investigacin desde la base de su propuesta. a. Heart Edgar? Cercirese de que est beneficiando a aquellos que participan en su investigacin . Critique? No vea a los sujetos solamente como fuente de informacin para que usted pueda analizar. British Telecom? Cercirese de tratarlos como participantes en la investigacin. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Tienen el derecho de entender lo que usted esta haciendo y usted tiene la responsabilidad de compartir los resultados con ellos. Not See Things As They See Things As We? Su investigacin no solamente debe fortalecerlo a Usted con nuevos conocimientos, sino que tambin debe fortalecer a los que estn participando con usted. b. Of Utilitarianism? Elija su metodologa sabiamente . Contoh Reengineering? No descarte rpidamente el uso de metodologas cuantitativas porque usted teme el uso de la estadstica. Of Utilitarianism? Un acercamiento cualitativo a la investigacin puede resultar en nuevos y emocionantes conocimientos, pero no ser tenida en cuenta porque no tiene una investigacin cuantitativa. Clothes? Una investigacin cuantitativa bien diseada puede a menudo lograrse de manera mas clara y concisa. Of Utilitarianism? Un estudio similar pero de naturaleza cualitativa requerir generalmente de ms tiempo y dedicacin! c. Tell Allen Poe? Una metodologa combinada tiene a veces ms sentido.

Puede combinar un estudio preliminar cualitativo (definir a su poblacin ms claramente, desarrollar su instrumentacin ms especficamente o para establecer las hiptesis para la investigacin) con un estudio principal cuantitativo para que resulte en un buen proyecto de investigacin. d. Critique? Decidir donde usted va a conducir su investigacin es una decisin importante. War Two Essay? Si usted es de otra rea del pas o de un pas diferente existe a menudo la expectativa de retornar a su casa para conducir la investigacin. Of Utilitarianism? Esto puede rendir resultados mas significativos, pero tambin crear muy probablemente una situacin , por la que se espera que usted cumpla otras obligaciones mientras esta en su lugar. We Do Not See Things Are We As We Are? Para muchos estudiantes la oportunidad de conducir un proyecto de investigacin lejos del hogar es importante puesto que pueden controlar muchas variables que no pueden controlar en su pas. Of Utilitarianism? Piense cuidadosamente con respecto a su propia situacin antes de tomar su decisin.

e. British Telecom? De tener la oportunidad para conducir su investigacin conjuntamente con otra agencia o proyecto que trabaje en reas relacionadas. Critique? Debe usted hacerlo? Esto funciona bien en ciertas ocasiones. Tale Edgar? La mayora de las veces el investigador principal da libertad para conducir el proyecto de investigacin conjuntamente con alguien ms, en este caso cercirese de que las compensaciones estn a su favor. Of Utilitarianism? Puede ser muy desastroso que el otro proyecto de la agencia este retrasado en su agenda y por lo tanto encontrar que su propio proyecto de investigacin se ver retrasado temporalmente. Contoh Business? O, usted triplic el tamao de su muestra dado que la agencia estaba dispuesta a pagar el costo de franqueo. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Pagaron el franqueo para el pre-cuestionario y no pueden ahora asistirlo con el franqueo para el post-cuestionario. Sainsburies Clothes? Que le sucede entonces a su investigacin? Encuentro generalmente que el costo de la investigacin no es prohibitivo y las compensaciones de trabajar conjuntamente con otra agencia no estn a favor suyo. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Piense dos veces antes de alterar su proyecto para incluir a algn otro. 19th Century Gothic Literature? Disfrute del poder y de la libertad de incurrir en sus propias decisiones (y equivocaciones!) - as es como aprendemos!.

16. Critique Of Utilitarianism? La seleccin y preparacin de su comit consultivo para que revisen su propuesta no se debe tomar ligeramente. We Do Things Are We As We Are? Si usted hace una buena preparacin, su comit consultivo puede serle provechoso . Of Utilitarianism? Intente estas ideas: a. Century Gothic? Si le dan la oportunidad de seleccionar a su comit hgalo sabiamente. Critique Of Utilitarianism? No se centre solamente en expertos. Contoh Process? Cercirese de haber seleccionado miembros que lo avalen a Ud y estn dispuestos a asistirle con xito a terminar su investigacin.

Usted desea a un comit al que pueda pedir ayuda y saber que se la proporcionar. Critique? No olvide que usted puede tener acceso a expertos que no estn en su comit en cualquier momento durante su proyecto de investigacin. b. British Telecom? Su profesor Consultor/Director es su aliado. Critique? Cuando usted va al comit a buscar respuesta , cercirese de que su consultor lo apoye completamente . Essay? Dedquele tiempo antes de la reunin de modo que sus planes estn claros y usted sepa que tiene apoyo total. Critique Of Utilitarianism? La reunin de anlisis de la propuesta debe considerarse como una oportunidad para usted y su profesor principal de buscar el consejo del comit. Not See Are We? No vaya a la reunin con la sensacin que es usted contra ellos! c. Of Utilitarianism? Provea a los miembros del comit de una propuesta bien escrita antes de la reunin. Things Are We? Cercirese de que tengan tiempo suficiente para leer la propuesta.

d. Critique? Planee bien la reunin de presentacin de la propuesta . British Telecom? Si requiere presentaciones grficas para ayudar al comit a entender, cercirese de prepararlos para eso. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Una reunin bien prevista ayudar a su comit a entender que usted esta preparado para seguir adelante con su investigacin. 19th Gothic? Su estilo de presentacin en la reunin no debe menospreciar a los miembros del comit (haga que suene, como que usted sabe que ellos han ledo su oferta), pero este seguro de no presumir demasiado ( presente cada uno de los detalles pensando en el hecho de que tal vez algn miembro del comit no haya ledo alguna seccin). ESCRIBIENDO LA TESIS O LA DISERTACIN. Ahora, esta es la parte que hemos estado esperando. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Debo asumir que usted ha encontrado una buena idea para su investigacin, su propuesta ha sido aprobada, ha recogido los datos, ha conducido sus anlisis y ahora usted esta por comenzar a escribir su Tesis o Disertacin. Century Literature? Si usted ha hecho la primer parte bien, esta parte no debera darle problemas. 17. Critique Of Utilitarianism? El principal mito al escribir una disertacin es que debe comenzar en el captulo uno y acabar su escritura en el captulo cinco.

Raramente esto es lo habitual. Sainsburies Clothes? La forma mas productiva de escribir la Tesis es comenzar a escribir esas partes con las que usted se siente mas cmodo . Of Utilitarianism? Luego muvase en su escritura, completando varias secciones segn su pensamiento. Sainsburies Clothes? En determinado momento usted se encontrar frente a que todas las secciones de su Tesis han sido escritas. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Ahora podr ordenarlas de la mejor manera y ver cual falta agregarle. Not See As They See Things As We Are? Esta manera parece tener ms sentido y basa su construccin en aquellos aspectos de su estudio que son mas interesantes para usted. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Piense en lo que a usted le interesa, empiece a escribir sobre esos puntos y luego construya sobre ellos. 18. British Telecom? Si Usted prepar una propuesta detallada, ahora se ver recompensado. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Tome la propuesta y comience por controlar su metodologa de investigacin. Tell Poe? Cambie sus frases de tiempo futuro a tiempo pasado y despus realice los agregados o cambios necesarios de modo que la metodologa refleje verdaderamente lo que usted hizo.

Usted ha podido ahora cambiar secciones de la propuesta a secciones para la disertacin o tesis . Critique Of Utilitarianism? Muvase hacia el planteo del problema y la revisin de la literatura de manera semejante. 19. Sainsburies Clothes? Debo asumir que usted esta utilizando cierta forma de procesamiento de textos en computadora, para escribir su disertacin, (si usted no lo esta haciendo, perdi una parte muy importante de la preparacin de su doctorado). Critique Of Utilitarianism? Si su trabajo tiene nombres especficos de personas, instituciones y lugares que deben ser cambiados para proveer anonimato ro no lo haga demasiado temprano. Reengineering? Siga adelante y escriba su disertacin usando los nombres reales . Critique Of Utilitarianism? Luego al final del proceso de escritura usted puede fcilmente hacer que el computador realice todas las substituciones apropiadas.

Si hace estas substituciones demasiado temprano, puede confundir realmente su trabajo. 20. British Telecom? Desde que usted se ha involucrado en la escritura de su disertacin, encontrar que la preocupacin por conservar el documento original se desvanece sucesivamente.Tan pronto como usted imprma un borrador de un captulo, aparecer una gran variedad de necesarios cambios, y antes de que se de cuenta otro borrador ser impreso. Critique? Y, parecer casi imposible desechar algn borrador. 19th? Despus de un tiempo se tornar extremadamente difcil recordar que borrador de su captulo esta mirandor. Of Utilitarianism? Imprma cada borrador de su disertacin en un papel de color diferente . Clothes? Con los diferentes colores del papel ser fcil ver cual es el ltimo borrador y podr entonces ver rapidamente cual borrador el comit debe leer. Critique Of Utilitarianism? ( Gracias a Michelle O'Malley de University of reengineering, Florida por compartir esta idea. Critique? ) 21. Contoh Business? La unica rea en la cual debe tener cuidado en usar procesadores de textos, es en la creacin de elaboradas grficas o tablas. Critique? He visto a muchos estudiantes pasar muchas horas intentando utilizar su procesador de textos para crear un grfico que se habra podido hacer a mano en 15 minutos. Sainsburies Clothes? Use el dibujo a mano para elaborar grficas y tablas para el borrador de su disertacin . Critique? Est seguro que su comit pueda entender claramente sus grficos, pero no desperdicie tiempo tratando de perfeccionarlo.

Despus de que defienda su tesis es tiempo de preparar el perfecto diseo de sus grficas y tablas. 22. Sainsburies Clothes? El estilo de escritura de la disertacin no esta diseado para ser entretenido. Of Utilitarianism? La disertacin escrita debe ser clara e inambigua . We Do Not See As We Are? Para hacer esto bien usted debe elaborar una lista de las palabras claves que son importantes para su investigacin y entonces su escritura deber utilizar este conjunto de las palabras claves en todas partes. Critique? No hay nada que frustre tanto a un lector como un manuscrito que use palabras alternativas para decir la misma cosa. As They? Si usted ha decidido que una frase dominante para su investigacin es taller educativo, despus no intente substituir otras frases como programa en servicio, taller de aprendizaje, instituto educativo, o programa educativo. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Permanezca siempre con la misma frase taller educativo. Of World War Two? Estar muy claro para el lector a que se esta refiriendo exactamente. 23. Of Utilitarianism? Revse dos o tres disertaciones bien organizadas y presentadas . Tell Allen? Examine el uso de ttulos, el estilo total, la tipografa y la organizacin. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Utilcelos como modelo para la preparacin de su propia disertacin.

De esta manera usted tendr una idea, al principio de como su disertacin acabada se ver. We Do Not See Things As They Are We As We Are? Es una perspectiva muy provechosa! 24. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Una simple regla - si usted esta presentando informacin en forma de tablas o grficas est seguro de introducir la tabla o el grfico en su texto . British Telecom? Y entonces, siguiendo la insercin de Tabla/Grfico cercirese de discutirlo. Critique? Si no hay nada a discutir acerca de esa tabla o grfico pregntese entonces si realmente es interesante incluirlo. 25.

Otra regla simple - si usted tiene una gran serie de tablas muy similares, trate de usar palabras parecidas para describir cada uno . Not See See Things? No intente ser creativo y entretenido con su escritura. Of Utilitarianism? Si en cada introduccin y discusin de las tablas similares utiliza la misma fraseologa, entonces el lector puede ver fcilmente las diferencias en cada tabla. 26. As They See Things? Estamos todos familiarizados con lo til que es la tabla de contenido para un lector. Critique? A veces no nos percatamos de cuan valiosa es tambin para el escritor. Causes Of World Essay? Use la tabla de contenido para ayudarle a mejorar su manuscrito . Critique Of Utilitarianism? Utilcelo para ver si usted ha dejado algo fuera, si usted esta presentando sus secciones en el orden mas lgico, o si usted necesita tornar su fraseologa un poco ms clara. We Do Not See Are We Are? Gracias al milagro de la informtica, puede fcilmente copiar y pegar cada uno de sus ttulos desde su texto, hacia la tabla de contenido.

Luego vea si la tabla de contenido es clara y tiene buen sentido para el lector. Critique? Le ser fcil ver que reas necesitan mas atencin. 19th Century Gothic? No espere hasta el final para hacer su tabla de contenido. Of Utilitarianism? Hgalo tempranamente, entonces, se beneficiar de la informacin. 27. Tale Edgar? Si esta incluyendo una seccin de Conclusiones en su disertacin este seguro de presentar realmente conclusiones y deducciones . Critique? El escritor utiliza a menudo la seccin de conclusiones para exponer simplemente los resultados de la investigacin en forma modificada. Are We See Things Are? No desperdicie mi tiempo.

He ledo ya los resultados y ahora, en la seccin de Conclusiones, quisiera que me ayudara a entender todo lo que ello significa. Of Utilitarianism? Esta es la seccin clave de la disertacin y muchas veces mejor realizada, luego que usted haya dejado pasar algunos das y haya puesto a su investigacin en perspectiva. Business Process Reengineering? Si hace esto, usted sin duda ser capaz de sealar una cantidad de hechos que le ayudarn a conectar su investigacin con otras reas. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Pienso generalmente en conclusiones/implicancias como planteos del estilo entonces que. Allen? En otras palabras cuales son las ideas claves que podemos trazar desde su estudio para aplicarlos en mis reas de conocimiento. 28.

Potencialmente la parte ms tonta de la disertacin, son las sugerencias para futuras investigaciones. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Esta seccin se escribe generalmente en el final de su proyecto y poca energa queda para hacerlo realmente significativo. Sainsburies Clothes? El problema ms grande con esta seccin es que las sugerencias son a menudo las que se podran hacer antes de que usted condujera su investigacin. Of Utilitarianism? Lea y relea esta seccin hasta que este seguro de que ha hecho las sugerencias que emanan de sus experiencias , de conducir la investigacin y de los resultados que ha encontrado. Sainsburies Clothes? Cercirese de que sus sugerencias para futuras investigaciones sirvan de vnculo entre su proyecto y otros proyectos futuros, y que provean oportunidades para que el lector pueda entender mejor lo que usted ha hecho. 29. Critique? Ahora es hora de escribir el ltimo captulo. British Telecom? Pero cual es el ltimo captulo? Mi percepcin es que el ltimo captulo debe ser el primer captulo . Critique? Realmente no creo que esto deba ser tomado en sentido literal. British Telecom? Usted escribi ciertamente el captulo uno al principio de este proceso.

Ahora, en el final es hora de reescribir el captulo uno. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Despus de que usted haya tenido la chance de escribir su disertacin, relea el captulo uno cuidadosamente con la certeza de que ha completado el captulo cinco. Edgar Allen Poe? El captulo uno ayuda claramente al lector a moverse en direccin al captulo cinco? Los conceptos importantes que sern necesarios para entendimiento del captulo cinco se presentan en el captulo uno? Que nombre terrible - una defensa de Tesis . Critique Of Utilitarianism? Sugiere una cierta clase de guerra que usted esta intentando ganar. We Do Not See As They Are We See Things As We Are? Y, por supuesto, con cuatro o cinco de ellos enfrentados solamente a usted. Of Utilitarianism? Esto suena como que ellos pueden ganar la guerra antes de luchar la primera batalla. Clothes? Deseara que la hubieran llamado Seminario o Simposio profesional. Of Utilitarianism? Pienso que estos nombres hubieran presentado un panorama mucho mejor de que se debe esperar de esta reunin. Sin importar como es llamada la reunin, intente recordar que el propsito es que usted muestre a cada uno cuan bien ha conducido su estudio de la investigacin y la preparacin de su disertacin. Clothes? Adems debe haber una atmsfera de seminario donde el intercambio de ideas es valorado.

Usted es claramente la persona mejor informada en esta reunin cuando de su tema se trata. Of Utilitarianism? Y, los miembros de su comit estn all para oir y ayudarle a mejor entender la investigacin en la que usted ha invertido tanto de si las ltimas semanas. Tell Tale? El propsito es ayudarle a acabar con sus requisitos de graduacin. Of Utilitarianism? Por supuesto otros temas aparecen silenciosamente a menudo. Of World War Two Essay? Si sucede eso, intente permanecer en curso y volver a dirigir la reunin a su agenda. Las siguientes ideas deben ayudarle a mantener la reunin en su agenda. 30.

La sugerencia ms obvia es la que raramente se sigue. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Intente asistir a una o mas defensas antes de la suya . Not See Things As They See Things As We Are? Descbra que otros estudiantes estn defendiendo su investigacin y asista a su defensa. Critique? En muchos departamentos esto se espera de todos los estudiantes graduados. Tell? Si este no es su caso, hable con su consejero para asegurarse que usted sea invitado a asistir algunas defensas. En la defensa intente y preste atencin en las interacciones que ocurren. Critique Of Utilitarianism? El estudiante parece relajado?

Qu estrategias utiliza el estudiante para mantenerse relajado? Como el estudiante interacciona con los miembros del comit? El estudiante parece poder contestar bien las preguntas? Qu hara para que la situacin fuera mejor? Qu cosa debe evitar?

Usted puede aprender mucho de asistir a tales reuniones. 31. Tale Edgar Allen Poe? Encuentre oportunidades para discutir su investigacin con sus amigos y colegas . Critique? Escuche cuidadosamente sus preguntas. Century Literature? Va si usted puede presentar su investigacin de una manera clara y coherente. Of Utilitarianism? Hay aspectos de su investigacin que son confusos y necesitan explicacin adicional? Hay cosas que usted olvid decir? Podra usted cambiar el orden de la informacin presentada y llegar a tener una mejor comprensin? 32. Sainsburies? Espero que no intente circular los captulos de la disertacin a los miembros del comit mientras los esta escribiendo . Critique? Encuentro que esta practica es de lo ms molesta y crea considerables problemas para el estudiante. Century Gothic Literature? Usted debe trabajar codo a codo con su director de tesis. Critique? El es la persona que usted desea satisfacer.

Desarrolle una estrategia con el director de su proyecto con respecto como y cuando su escrito debe ser compartido. As They See Things Are? Solamente despus que su director aprueba lo que usted ha hecho debe procurar compartirlo con el resto del comit. Critique? Y para entonces es hora para la defensa. Contoh Business Reengineering? Si usted comparte prematuramente secciones de su escrito con los miembros del comit, se encontrar probablemente en una situacin donde un miembro del comit le dice hacer una cosa y otro miembro le diga de hacer otra. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Qu debe hacer?

La mejor respuesta es no meterse en tal lo. British Telecom? La reunin de comit (la defensa) permite que las preocupaciones de los miembros del comit emerjan en una atmsfera de dilogo donde las opiniones de oposicin pueden ser discutidas y resueltas. 33. Critique? Es importante que usted tenga la sensacin al ingresar en su defensa, de que no lo esta haciendo solo. Not See Are We See Things? Como fue mencionado anteriormente, su profesor principal debe ser visto como aliado suyo, en su rincn en la defensa. Of Utilitarianism? No se olvide que si usted se desconcierta en la defensa, tambin estar desconcertando su director.

As pues, asegure a ambos las garantas para no pasar verguenza. 19th Gothic? Entonces renase en tiempo con su director y discuta la estrategia que debe utilizar en la defensa. Critique? Identifique cualquier posible problema que pueda ocurrir y la manera en que debe ser tratado. Causes Of World War Two Essay? Intente y haga de la defensa un esfuerzo del equipo . 34. Critique? No sea defensivo en su defensa (suena confuso!). Gothic Literature? Esto es fcil de decir pero no de realizar. Of Utilitarianism? Usted acaba de pasar una cantidad de tiempo considerable con su investigacin y hay una fuerte tendencia de que usted desee defender todo lo que ha hecho.

Sin embargo, los miembros del comit traen una nueva perspectiva y pueden tener algunos pensamientos muy buenos para compartir. British Telecom? Probablemente la manera ms fcil de encarar la nueva opinin es decir algo como muchas gracias por su idea. Of Utilitarianism? Le tendr amplia consideracin. Contoh Process Reengineering? All, usted se ha manejado desvaneciendo una situacin potencialmente explosiva y usted no ha retrocedido , ni el miembro del comit ha debido hacerlo. Critique? Mas, usted no ha prometido nada. Tell Heart? Intente y sea polticamente astuto en este momento. Critique Of Utilitarianism? No se olvide de que su ltima meta es terminar con xito su graduacin. 35. Things Are We Are? Probablemente la defensa ms desorganizada a la que he asistido es en la que el director de la Tesis comenz la reunin diciendo, ustedes ya han ledo toda la tesis.

Qu preguntas tienen para el estudiante? Que lo. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Las preguntas comienzan a ser hechas lanzando al estudiante de una parte de la disertacin a otra. War Two? No hubo orden y la reunin casi perdi el control debido a la carencia de organizacin. Critique? En ese momento hice votos de proteger a mis estudiantes de caer en tal problema, ayudndoles en ordenar la defensa en el estilo de una presentacin educativa . Esto es lo que hacemos: Pido al estudiante que prepare una presentacin minuciosa de 20 - 25 minutos que repase el estudio en su totalidad. British Telecom? Esto se hace con la ayuda de una serie de 10 a 12 trozos grandes de papel, hojas de cartulina, que se han fijado secuencialmente alrededor de las paredes del cuarto.

Cada trozo de papel contiene las palabras claves con respecto a cada uno de los diversos aspectos del estudio. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Algunos trozos de papel contienen la informacin sobre los planteos, las preguntas y la metodologa del estudio. Business? Otras hojas presentan resultados y finalmente otras presentan las conclusiones. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Preparando estas hojas en la pared preeviamente el estudiante puede estar relajado durante la presentacin y utilizar los trozos de papel como si fueran un mapa de ruta hacia la meta. Essay? No importa cuan nervioso sea usted, siempre puede dejar que las hojas que estn en la pared dirijan su presentacin.

El trazo se hace con un marcador oscuro y las notas adicionales se incluyen con caligrafa muy pequea en lpiz (para que nadie pueda realmente ver). Critique? Tambin lo hemos intentado proyectando transparencias, pero no trabajan tan bien. 19th Century? Las transparencias se van de nuestra vista despus de algunos segundos. Critique? Las hojas de cartulina permanecen puestas en la pared para que cada uno las contemple y mantenga la atencin. Siguiendo esta estructura de la presentacin el comit comienza a hacer preguntas, pero como puede esperar las preguntas siguen el orden de las hojas de la pared y la discusin entera procede de una manera ordenada. Gothic? Si surgen imprevistos en la defensa, esta forma de presentacin, tambin ayuda a seguir adelante y a entender exactamente que ha sucedido durante la investigacin. 36. Critique? Considere la grabacin de su defensa . Heart Edgar Poe? Con un grabador porttil pequeo, registre su presentacin, las preguntas y los comentarios de los miembros del comit. Critique? Esto ayuda de dos maneras. British Telecom? Primero, el estudiante tiene documentacin para asistirse al hacer cambios y correcciones sugeridas en la disertacin. Critique? El estudiante puede relajarse mas y escuchar que esta siendo dicho por los miembros del comit.

El grabador esta tomando notas! En segundo lugar, el estudiante tiene un permanente registro de su presentacin del estudio. Sainsburies? Guardar las hojas escritas y la cinta juntas, pueden serle tiles para repasar la investigacin en aos futuros, cuando sea hecha una peticin para una presentacin. Of Utilitarianism? (Tome la cinta y las hojas la noche antes de su presentacin y puede escucharse usted mismo haciendo la presentacin. Business? Que buena manera de repasar!) Siguiendo las sugerencias y las ideas antedichas, espero le sea posible terminar su programa de graduacin de la manera mas oportuna y agradable. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Mirando con anticipacin los diversos aspectos de esta parte final de su estudio de grado, queda claro que usted puede hacer un sinnmero de cosas para asegurar su xito. British Telecom? Buena suerte!! 37. Critique Of Utilitarianism? Oh, casi me olvidaba.

Hay una ltima cosa. War Two? Siga ocupado y prepare un artculo o un reporte que comparta los resultados de su investigacin . Critique Of Utilitarianism? No habr tiempo mejor para hacer esto que ahora. Causes Of World War Two Essay? Directamente despus de su defensa es cuando usted tiene los conocimientos de su estudio ms frescos, y estar en la mejor posicin para poner sus conocimientos en el papel. Of Utilitarianism? Si usted no contempl esta tarea, probablemente nunca ser hecha. Causes? Capitalice toda la inversin que ha hecho en su investigacin y coseche una cierta ventaja adicional - comience a escribir.