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Fraser vs bethel

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Bethel School District No 403 v

My Life as an Undocumented Immigrant. By JOSE ANTONIO VARGAS JUNE 22, 2011. One August morning nearly two decades ago, my mother woke me and fraser vs bethel, put me in a cab. She handed me a jacket. Baka malamig doon were among the few words she said. (It might be cold there.) When I arrived at the Philippines Ninoy Aquino International Airport with her, my aunt and a family friend, I was introduced to a man Id never seen. They told me he was my uncle.

He held my hand as I boarded an airplane for the first time. It was 1993, and I was 12. My mother wanted to give me a better life, so she sent me thousands of miles away to live with her parents in a prologue to canterbury tales, America my grandfather ( Lolo in Tagalog) and grandmother ( Lola ). After I arrived in vs bethel, Mountain View, Calif., in the San Francisco Bay Area, I entered sixth grade and quickly grew to love my new home, family and culture. I discovered a passion for language, though it was hard to the crucible, learn the difference between formal English and American slang. One of my early memories is vs bethel of a freckled kid in middle school asking me, Whats up? I replied, The sky, and he and a couple of other kids laughed. I won the by chaucer, eighth-grade spelling bee by memorizing words I couldnt properly pronounce. (The winning word was indefatigable.) One day when I was 16, I rode my bike to the nearby D.M.V. Vs Bethel! office to get my drivers permit. Some of justified my friends already had their licenses, so I figured it was time. Vs Bethel! But when I handed the clerk my green card as proof of U.S. residency, she flipped it around, examining it. This is fake, she whispered. Dont come back here again.

Confused and scared, I pedaled home and confronted Lolo. The Dangers Of Alcoholism Essay! I remember him sitting in the garage, cutting coupons. I dropped my bike and fraser vs bethel, ran over to him, showing him the green card. Peke ba ito ? I asked in Tagalog. (Is this fake?) My grandparents were naturalized American citizens he worked as a security guard, she as a food server and characters, they had begun supporting my mother and me financially when I was 3, after my fathers wandering eye and inability to properly provide for us led to my parents separation. Lolo was a proud man, and I saw the shame on his face as he told me he purchased the card, along with other fake documents, for me. Dont show it to other people, he warned. I decided then that I could never give anyone reason to doubt I was an American.

I convinced myself that if I worked enough, if I achieved enough, I would be rewarded with citizenship. Vs Bethel! I felt I could earn it. Ive tried. Over the past 14 years, Ive graduated from high school and college and elizabeth, built a career as a journalist, interviewing some of the most famous people in the country. Fraser Vs Bethel! On the surface, Ive created a good life.

Ive lived the American dream. But I am still an The Dangers of Alcoholism Essay undocumented immigrant. And that means living a different kind of reality. It means going about my day in fear of being found out. It means rarely trusting people, even those closest to me, with who I really am. It means keeping my family photos in fraser, a shoebox rather than displaying them on shelves in my home, so friends dont ask about them.

It means reluctantly, even painfully, doing things I know are wrong and unlawful. Television Adverts! And it has meant relying on a sort of 21st-century underground railroad of supporters, people who took an fraser interest in my future and took risks for me. Last year I read about four students who walked from Miami to Washington to lobby for the Dream Act, a nearly decade-old immigration bill that would provide a path to legal permanent residency for young people who have been educated in this country. At the risk of the crucible deportation the Obama administration has deported almost 800,000 people in fraser, the last two years they are speaking out. Their courage has inspired me. There are believed to be 11 million undocumented immigrants in the United States. Were not always who you think we are.

Some pick your strawberries or care for your children. Some are in high school or college. Functional Relation! And some, it turns out, write news articles you might read. I grew up here. This is my home. Fraser! Yet even though I think of myself as an American and consider America my country, my country doesnt think of tales me as one of its own. My first challenge was the language. Vs Bethel! Though I learned English in the Philippines, I wanted to lose my accent. During high school, I spent hours at a time watching television (especially Frasier, Home Improvement and reruns of a prologue by chaucer The Golden Girls) and movies (from Goodfellas to Anne of Green Gables), pausing the fraser vs bethel, VHS to try to copy how various characters enunciated their words. Characters! At the local library, I read magazines, books and newspapers anything to learn how to write better. Vs Bethel! Kathy Dewar, my high-school English teacher, introduced me to journalism.

From the moment I wrote my first article for the student paper, I convinced myself that having my name in print writing in English, interviewing Americans validated my presence here. The debates over illegal aliens intensified my anxieties. In 1994, only a year after my flight from the Philippines, Gov. Environment! Pete Wilson was re-elected in part because of his support for Proposition 187, which prohibited undocumented immigrants from attending public school and fraser, accessing other services. (A federal court later found the law unconstitutional.) After my encounter at the D.M.V. in 1997, I grew more aware of anti-immigrant sentiments and stereotypes: they dont want to assimilate, they are a drain on society. Aseptic Environment! Theyre not talking about me, I would tell myself. I have something to contribute. To do that, I had to vs bethel, work and for that, I needed a Social Security number. Fortunately, my grandfather had already managed to get one for me. The Dangers Essay! Lolo had always taken care of everyone in the family. He and my grandmother emigrated legally in 1984 from Zambales, a province in vs bethel, the Philippines of The Dangers Essay rice fields and bamboo houses, following Lolos sister, who married a Filipino-American serving in fraser, the American military.

She petitioned for her brother and characters, his wife to join her. Fraser! When they got here, Lolo petitioned for his two children my mother and her younger brother to follow them. Elizabeth! But instead of mentioning that my mother was a married woman, he listed her as single. Legal residents cant petition for their married children. Besides, Lolo didnt care for my father. He didnt want him coming here too. But soon Lolo grew nervous that the immigration authorities reviewing the petition would discover my mother was married, thus derailing not only her chances of coming here but those of vs bethel my uncle as well. So he withdrew her petition. After my uncle came to America legally in 1991, Lolo tried to get my mother here through a tourist visa, but she wasnt able to elizabeth the crucible, obtain one.

Thats when she decided to send me. My mother told me later that she figured she would follow me soon. She never did. The uncle who brought me here turned out to fraser vs bethel, be a coyote, not a relative, my grandfather later explained. Lolo scraped together enough money I eventually learned it was $4,500, a huge sum for him to pay him to television, smuggle me here under a fake name and fake passport. Fraser Vs Bethel! (I never saw the passport again after the environment, flight and have always assumed that the vs bethel, coyote kept it.) After I arrived in functional, America, Lolo obtained a new fake Filipino passport, in my real name this time, adorned with a fake student visa, in addition to vs bethel, the fraudulent green card. Using the fake passport, we went to functional, the local Social Security Administration office and applied for a Social Security number and card. It was, I remember, a quick visit. When the card came in fraser, the mail, it had my full, real name, but it also clearly stated: Valid for work only with I.N.S. A Prologue Tales! authorization.

When I began looking for vs bethel, work, a short time after the D.M.V. incident, my grandfather and I took the environment, Social Security card to Kinkos, where he covered the vs bethel, I.N.S. authorization text with a sliver of white tape. To Canterbury Tales! We then made photocopies of the card. At a glance, at least, the copies would look like copies of fraser vs bethel a regular, unrestricted Social Security card. Lolo always imagined I would work the kind of functional low-paying jobs that undocumented people often take. (Once I married an American, he said, I would get my real papers, and everything would be fine.) But even menial jobs require documents, so he and I hoped the doctored card would work for now. The more documents I had, he said, the fraser vs bethel, better. While in high school, I worked part time at Subway, then at the front desk of the local Y.M.C.A., then at a tennis club, until I landed an unpaid internship at The Mountain View Voice, my hometown newspaper. First I brought coffee and helped around the office; eventually I began covering city-hall meetings and other assignments for pay. For more than a decade of getting part-time and full-time jobs, employers have rarely asked to check my original Social Security card. The Crucible! When they did, I showed the photocopied version, which they accepted. Over time, I also began checking the citizenship box on my federal I-9 employment eligibility forms. (Claiming full citizenship was actually easier than declaring permanent resident green card status, which would have required me to provide an vs bethel alien registration number.) This deceit never got easier.

The more I did it, the more I felt like an impostor, the more guilt I carried and relation, the more I worried that I would get caught. But I kept doing it. I needed to live and survive on my own, and I decided this was the way. Mountain View High School became my second home. I was elected to represent my school at fraser vs bethel school-board meetings, which gave me the chance to meet and befriend Rich Fischer, the aseptic environment, superintendent for our school district.

I joined the speech and vs bethel, debate team, acted in school plays and relation, eventually became co-editor of The Oracle, the vs bethel, student newspaper. That drew the attention of adverts my principal, Pat Hyland. Youre at school just as much as I am, she told me. Pat and Rich would soon become mentors, and over time, almost surrogate parents for me. After a choir rehearsal during my junior year, Jill Denny, the choir director, told me she was considering a Japan trip for our singing group. I told her I couldnt afford it, but she said wed figure out a way. I hesitated, and then decided to tell her the truth. Its not really the money, I remember saying. I dont have the right passport. When she assured me wed get the proper documents, I finally told her. I cant get the fraser, right passport, I said. Im not supposed to be here. She understood.

So the a prologue to canterbury tales by chaucer, choir toured Hawaii instead, with me in tow. (Mrs. Denny and vs bethel, I spoke a couple of months ago, and she told me she hadnt wanted to leave any student behind.) Later that school year, my history class watched a documentary on elizabeth the crucible Harvey Milk, the fraser, openly gay San Francisco city official who was assassinated. This was 1999, just six months after Matthew Shepards body was found tied to a fence in Wyoming. During the discussion, I raised my hand and said something like: Im sorry Harvey Milk got killed for being gay. The Dangers Essay! . . . Fraser! Ive been meaning to say this. . . Aseptic Environment! . Im gay. I hadnt planned on fraser vs bethel coming out that morning, though I had known that I was gay for several years. With that announcement, I became the only openly gay student at school, and it caused turmoil with my grandparents. Lolo kicked me out of the house for a few weeks. Environment! Though we eventually reconciled, I had disappointed him on fraser vs bethel two fronts.

First, as a Catholic, he considered homosexuality a sin and was embarrassed about having ang apo na bakla (a grandson who is functional gay). Even worse, I was making matters more difficult for fraser vs bethel, myself, he said. I needed to marry an television adverts American woman in fraser, order to gain a green card. Tough as it was, coming out about being gay seemed less daunting than coming out about my legal status. I kept my other secret mostly hidden. While my classmates awaited their college acceptance letters, I hoped to get a full-time job at The Mountain View Voice after graduation. Its not that I didnt want to functional, go to college, but I couldnt apply for state and federal financial aid.

Without that, my family couldnt afford to send me. But when I finally told Pat and Rich about my immigration problem as we called it from then on they helped me look for vs bethel, a solution. At first, they even wondered if one of them could adopt me and fix the situation that way, but a lawyer Rich consulted told him it wouldnt change my legal status because I was too old. Eventually they connected me to a new scholarship fund for high-potential students who were usually the first in their families to attend college. Most important, the fund was not concerned with immigration status. I was among the elizabeth, first recipients, with the scholarship covering tuition, lodging, books and other expenses for my studies at San Francisco State University. As a college freshman, I found a job working part time at vs bethel The San Francisco Chronicle, where I sorted mail and wrote some freelance articles. The Dangers Of Alcoholism Essay! My ambition was to get a reporting job, so I embarked on a series of fraser internships. First I landed at The Philadelphia Daily News, in the summer of 2001, where I covered a drive-by shooting and the wedding of the 76ers star Allen Iverson. Using those articles, I applied to The Dangers of Alcoholism, The Seattle Times and fraser, got an internship for the following summer.

But then my lack of proper documents became a problem again. The Timess recruiter, Pat Foote, asked all incoming interns to bring certain paperwork on their first day: a birth certificate, or a passport, or a drivers license plus an original Social Security card. Functional Relation! I panicked, thinking my documents wouldnt pass muster. So before starting the job, I called Pat and told her about my legal status. Vs Bethel! After consulting with management, she called me back with the answer I feared: I couldnt do the internship. This was devastating. What good was college if I couldnt then pursue the justified characters, career I wanted? I decided then that if I was to succeed in a profession that is fraser all about truth-telling, I couldnt tell the truth about myself.

After this episode, Jim Strand, the venture capitalist who sponsored my scholarship, offered to pay for an immigration lawyer. Rich and I went to adverts, meet her in San Franciscos financial district. An error has occurred. Please try again later. You are already subscribed to this email.

I was hopeful. This was in early 2002, shortly after Senators Orrin Hatch, the Utah Republican, and Dick Durbin, the Illinois Democrat, introduced the Dream Act Development, Relief and Education for fraser, Alien Minors. It seemed like the aseptic environment, legislative version of what Id told myself: If I work hard and contribute, things will work out. But the meeting left me crushed. My only solution, the lawyer said, was to go back to fraser, the Philippines and accept a 10-year ban before I could apply to return legally. If Rich was discouraged, he hid it well. Put this problem on a shelf, he told me. Compartmentalize it. Keep going. And I did. For the summer of 2003, I applied for internships across the country.

Several newspapers, including The Wall Street Journal, The Boston Globe and the crucible, The Chicago Tribune, expressed interest. But when The Washington Post offered me a spot, I knew where I would go. And this time, I had no intention of fraser acknowledging my problem. The Post internship posed a tricky obstacle: It required a drivers license. (After my close call at elizabeth the crucible the California D.M.V., Id never gotten one.) So I spent an fraser afternoon at The Mountain View Public Library, studying various states requirements. Oregon was among the most welcoming and it was just a few hours drive north. Again, my support network came through. A friends father lived in the crucible, Portland, and he allowed me to use his address as proof of fraser vs bethel residency.

Pat, Rich and Richs longtime assistant, Mary Moore, sent letters to me at that address. Rich taught me how to do three-point turns in a parking lot, and adverts, a friend accompanied me to Portland. The license meant everything to fraser, me it would let me drive, fly and work. But my grandparents worried about the Portland trip and elizabeth, the Washington internship. Fraser Vs Bethel! While Lola offered daily prayers so that I would not get caught, Lolo told me that I was dreaming too big, risking too much. I was determined to pursue my ambitions. Environment! I was 22, I told them, responsible for fraser, my own actions. But this was different from Lolos driving a confused teenager to Kinkos. I knew what I was doing now, and I knew it wasnt right. But what was I supposed to do?

I was paying state and federal taxes, but I was using an invalid Social Security card and writing false information on The Dangers Essay my employment forms. But that seemed better than depending on my grandparents or on fraser vs bethel Pat, Rich and Jim or returning to a country I barely remembered. I convinced myself all would be O.K. To Canterbury! if I lived up to the qualities of a citizen: hard work, self-reliance, love of my country. At the D.M.V. in Portland, I arrived with my photocopied Social Security card, my college I.D., a pay stub from The San Francisco Chronicle and my proof of state residence the letters to the Portland address that my support network had sent. It worked. My license, issued in 2003, was set to fraser vs bethel, expire eight years later, on my 30th birthday, on adverts Feb.

3, 2011. I had eight years to succeed professionally, and to fraser vs bethel, hope that some sort of immigration reform would pass in the meantime and allow me to stay. It seemed like all the time in elizabeth the crucible, the world. My summer in vs bethel, Washington was exhilarating. I was intimidated to be in elizabeth, a major newsroom but was assigned a mentor Peter Perl, a veteran magazine writer to help me navigate it. A few weeks into the internship, he printed out fraser, one of my articles, about a guy who recovered a long-lost wallet, circled the first two paragraphs and left it on my desk. Great eye for aseptic environment, details awesome! he wrote. Though I didnt know it then, Peter would become one more member of my network. At the end of the summer, I returned to The San Francisco Chronicle.

My plan was to finish school I was now a senior while I worked for The Chronicle as a reporter for vs bethel, the city desk. But when The Post beckoned again, offering me a full-time, two-year paid internship that I could start when I graduated in June 2004, it was too tempting to pass up. I moved back to Washington. About four months into my job as a reporter for The Post, I began feeling increasingly paranoid, as if I had illegal immigrant tattooed on my forehead and in aseptic, Washington, of vs bethel all places, where the debates over immigration seemed never-ending. I was so eager to a prologue, prove myself that I feared I was annoying some colleagues and editors and worried that any one of these professional journalists could discover my secret. The anxiety was nearly paralyzing. I decided I had to tell one of the vs bethel, higher-ups about my situation. I turned to Peter.

By this time, Peter, who still works at The Post, had become part of management as the justified characters, papers director of newsroom training and professional development. One afternoon in late October, we walked a couple of blocks to Lafayette Square, across from the White House. Over some 20 minutes, sitting on fraser vs bethel a bench, I told him everything: the Social Security card, the drivers license, Pat and Rich, my family. Peter was shocked. I understand you 100 times better now, he said. He told me that I had done the right thing by telling him, and that it was now our shared problem.

He said he didnt want to do anything about functional, it just yet. I had just been hired, he said, and I needed to prove myself. When youve done enough, he said, well tell Don and fraser, Len together. (Don Graham is the environment, chairman of The Washington Post Company; Leonard Downie Jr. was then the papers executive editor.) A month later, I spent my first Thanksgiving in Washington with Peter and his family. In the five years that followed, I did my best to vs bethel, do enough. I was promoted to staff writer, reported on video-game culture, wrote a series on Washingtons H.I.V./AIDS epidemic and covered the role of technology and social media in the 2008 presidential race. Of Alcoholism! I visited the fraser vs bethel, White House, where I interviewed senior aides and covered a state dinner and environment, gave the Secret Service the Social Security number I obtained with false documents. I did my best to steer clear of reporting on immigration policy but couldnt always avoid it. Vs Bethel! On two occasions, I wrote about Hillary Clintons position on drivers licenses for undocumented immigrants. I also wrote an functional article about fraser, Senator Mel Martinez of Florida, then the chairman of the Republican National Committee, who was defending his partys stance toward Latinos after only one Republican presidential candidate John McCain, the co-author of a failed immigration bill agreed to participate in the crucible, a debate sponsored by vs bethel, Univision, the Spanish-language network.

It was an odd sort of dance: I was trying to stand out in a highly competitive newsroom, yet I was terrified that if I stood out functional, too much, Id invite unwanted scrutiny. I tried to compartmentalize my fears, distract myself by reporting on the lives of other people, but there was no escaping the central conflict in fraser, my life. Maintaining a deception for so long distorts your sense of self. Environment! You start wondering who youve become, and why. In April 2008, I was part of fraser vs bethel a Post team that won a Pulitzer Prize for the papers coverage of the Essay, Virginia Tech shootings a year earlier. Vs Bethel! Lolo died a year earlier, so it was Lola who called me the day of the announcement. The first thing she said was, Anong mangyayari kung malaman ng mga tao ? What will happen if people find out? I couldnt say anything. After we got off the a prologue by chaucer, phone, I rushed to the bathroom on the fourth floor of the fraser vs bethel, newsroom, sat down on relation the toilet and cried.

In the summer of 2009, without ever having had that follow-up talk with top Post management, I left the vs bethel, paper and moved to tales, New York to join The Huffington Post. I met Arianna Huffington at a Washington Press Club Foundation dinner I was covering for fraser, The Post two years earlier, and she later recruited me to join her news site. I wanted to learn more about Web publishing, and I thought the new job would provide a useful education. Still, I was apprehensive about the move: many companies were already using E-Verify, a program set up by the Department of Homeland Security that checks if prospective employees are eligible to work, and I didnt know if my new employer was among them. But Id been able to get jobs in relation, other newsrooms, I figured, so I filled out the paperwork as usual and succeeded in fraser vs bethel, landing on the payroll. While I worked at tales by chaucer The Huffington Post, other opportunities emerged. My H.I.V./AIDS series became a documentary film called The Other City, which opened at the Tribeca Film Festival last year and fraser, was broadcast on Showtime.

I began writing for magazines and landed a dream assignment: profiling Facebooks Mark Zuckerberg for The New Yorker. The more I achieved, the more scared and depressed I became. I was proud of my work, but there was always a cloud hanging over it, over me. My old eight-year deadline the aseptic environment, expiration of my Oregon drivers license was approaching. After slightly less than a year, I decided to leave The Huffington Post.

In part, this was because I wanted to promote the documentary and write a book about online culture or so I told my friends. But the real reason was, after so many years of trying to be a part of the system, of focusing all my energy on my professional life, I learned that no amount of professional success would solve my problem or ease the fraser vs bethel, sense of relation loss and displacement I felt. Fraser Vs Bethel! I lied to a friend about why I couldnt take a weekend trip to Mexico. Another time I concocted an characters excuse for fraser vs bethel, why I couldnt go on aseptic environment an all-expenses-paid trip to Switzerland. I have been unwilling, for years, to be in a long-term relationship because I never wanted anyone to get too close and ask too many questions. Fraser Vs Bethel! All the while, Lolas question was stuck in my head: What will happen if people find out? Early this year, just two weeks before my 30th birthday, I won a small reprieve: I obtained a drivers license in justified characters, the state of Washington. The license is valid until 2016. This offered me five more years of acceptable identification but also five more years of fear, of lying to people I respect and institutions that trusted me, of running away from who I am. Im done running.

Im exhausted. I dont want that life anymore. So Ive decided to come forward, own up to what Ive done, and tell my story to the best of my recollection. Ive reached out to former bosses and employers and apologized for misleading them a mix of humiliation and liberation coming with each disclosure. All the people mentioned in this article gave me permission to use their names. Ive also talked to family and friends about my situation and am working with legal counsel to fraser vs bethel, review my options. I dont know what the consequences will be of adverts telling my story. I do know that I am grateful to fraser vs bethel, my grandparents, my Lolo and television adverts, Lola, for giving me the chance for a better life. Im also grateful to my other family the support network I found here in America for vs bethel, encouraging me to relation, pursue my dreams.

Its been almost 18 years since Ive seen my mother. Early on, I was mad at fraser vs bethel her for putting me in this position, and then mad at myself for being angry and ungrateful. By the time I got to The Dangers of Alcoholism, college, we rarely spoke by phone. It became too painful; after a while it was easier to just send money to help support her and my two half-siblings. My sister, almost 2 years old when I left, is almost 20 now. Ive never met my 14-year-old brother. I would love to see them. Not long ago, I called my mother. I wanted to fill the gaps in my memory about that August morning so many years ago. We had never discussed it.

Part of me wanted to shove the memory aside, but to write this article and face the facts of vs bethel my life, I needed more details. Did I cry? Did she? Did we kiss goodbye? My mother told me I was excited about meeting a stewardess, about getting on a plane.

She also reminded me of the one piece of advice she gave me for blending in: If anyone asked why I was coming to America, I should say I was going to Disneyland. Jose Antonio Vargas (Jose@DefineAmerican.com) is a former reporter for aseptic, The Washington Post and fraser vs bethel, shared a Pulitzer Prize for coverage of the to canterbury by chaucer, Virginia Tech shootings. He founded Define American, which seeks to change the conversation on fraser immigration reform. Editor: Chris Suellentrop (C.Suellentrop-MagGroup@nytimes.com) A version of this article appears in print on June 26, 2011, on aseptic environment Page MM22 of the Sunday Magazine with the headline: Outlaw. Vs Bethel! Today's Paper | Subscribe. Were interested in your feedback on this page.

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The Legislation of Lycurgus and Solon. Solon's republican principles became the inspiration for Plato's dialogue, The Republic, the Rosetta Stone for the concept of the nation-state, based on the principle of the common good, or general welfare, which informs our own U.S. Constitution. A renewed struggle to defend those republican principles today, against the push for an fascist, imperial USA, is being led by the political movement of Lyndon LaRouche. The essay has been abridged, and subheads have been added. Excerpted from the fraser complete translation, published in Friedrich Schiller, Poet of television adverts Freedom , Vol II. To properly appreciate the Lycurgian plan, we must look back to the political situation in Sparta of that time, and come to know the fraser condition in The Dangers, which he found Lacadaemon [Sparta] when he came forth with his new design. Two kings, both furnished with the same authority, stood at the head of the state; each jealous of the other, each busy to secure himself a following, thus to set limits to the authority of his counterpart on the throne. This jealousy had been passed from the first two kings, Prokles and vs bethel Eurysthes, and their mutual lineages, down to environment, Lycurgus, so that Sparta was incessantly troubled by factions over fraser this long span of time. Tales By Chaucer? By bestowing greater freedoms, each king attempted to corrupt the people to incline to vs bethel, him, and these concessions led the people to become insolent and, ultimately, to insurrection.

The state wavered to and fro, between monarchy and democracy, and swung in rapid succession from one extreme to the other. No line was drawn between the aseptic rights of the people and fraser the authority of the kings, and wealth flowed into the hands of a few families. The Crucible? The rich citizens tyrannized the poor, and the desperation of the latter expressed itself in revolt. Torn asunder by fraser vs bethel internal discord, the weak state had inevitably fallen prey to hostile neighbors, or fallen completely apart into a number of smaller tyrannies. And that is the elizabeth the crucible condition in which Lycurgus found Sparta: No clear distinction between the authority of the kings and the people, unequal distribution of earthly goods among the fraser citizens, lack of public spirit and concord, and aseptic complete political destitution, were the maladies confronting the legislator, of which, therefore, he had to fraser vs bethel, take account in his legislation.

As the day arrived, when Lycurgus wanted to announce his laws, he had thirty of the most prominent citizens, whom he had previously won over to his plan, appear armed in the marketplace, thus to instill fear in anyone who might resist. King Charilaus, terrified by these measures, fled into the Temple of characters Minerva, because he believed it all directed against him. But he was dissuaded of this fear, and in the end became so persuaded, that he actively supported Lycurgus's plan himself. The first decrees concerned the government. Fraser? To prevent the aseptic environment republic from ever again being tossed to and fro between royal tyranny and fraser vs bethel anarchic democracy, Lycurgus established a third power, as a counterweight, between the two; he founded a Senate.

The senators, 28 in Essay, number, or 30 together with the vs bethel two kings, were to by chaucer, side with the people, should the kings abuse their authority, and if, on fraser vs bethel, the other hand, the power of the television adverts people became too great, the Senate would protect the kings against the people. An excellent arrangement, whereby Sparta was forever spared the violent domestic turmoil, which had previously so shaken it. It was thus made impossible for either party to tread the other under foot: Against the people and the Senate, the kings could do nothing, and it was impossible for the people to gain the vs bethel upper hand if the Senate made common cause with the kings. But there was a third case, which Lycurgus left unconsidered#151;that of the characters Senate itself abusing its power. The Senate, as intermediary, could as easily join with the kings, as with the people, without danger to the public order. But without danger to the public order, the kings could not join with the people against the Senate. Fraser? The Senate, therefore, soon began to exploit this advantageous situation, and made excessive use of its authority, in which it was the more successful, since the small number of senators made it easy for them to reach agreement among themselves. Lycurgus's successors filled this gap, therefore, and introduced the Ephors, who were to rein in the power of the Senate. More dangerous and a prologue to canterbury tales by chaucer bold was the second change Lycurgus instituted: To do away forever with the distinction between rich and poor, he distributed the entire land of the country in equal parts among the citizens. All Laconia was divided into 30,000 fields, the area around the fraser vs bethel city of Sparta itself into 9,000 fields, each sufficiently large, that a family could easily sustain itself. Now Sparta was beautiful to behold, and Lycurgus himself delighted in the sight of it, as he travelled through the country.

All Laconia, he proclaimed, is a farm brotherly divided among its brothers. Lycurgus would gladly have distributed the other earthly goods, as he had the farmland, but there were insuperable obstacles to this plan. He thus attempted to reach this goal by other means, and what he could not change by decree, he took into his own hands. He began by outlawing all gold and silver coins, introducing iron ones in their stead. Functional? He likewise assigned a very low value to the large and heavy pieces of iron, so that a large space were needed to store even a small sum of money, and fraser many horses to carry it away. Lo and behold, to ensure that no one might be tempted to aseptic, place any great value on this money, and to hoard it, on fraser, account of the television adverts iron in fraser vs bethel, it, he had the glowing-hot iron, which was used for the coins, quenched and tempered in vinegar, which made it unfit for any other use. Who would now steal, or allow himself to be corrupted, or even consider hording wealth, for the meager gains could neither be kept secret nor employed? Not enough, that Lycurgus thereby deprived his fellow citizens of the means of luxury#151;he removed the very objects of the justified characters same from their sight, the which might have excited their desire for luxury.

Sparta's iron coins were of no use to a foreign merchant, and the Spartans had no others to give him. Artists who worked for vs bethel, luxury, now disappeared from Laconia; no foreign ships appeared any longer in its ports; no adventurer sought his fortune there; no merchants came to prey upon vanities and lusts, for they could carry nothing but iron coins away with them, and in all other countries these were despised. Luxury ceased to exist, for there was no one to sustain it. In other fields, too, Lycurgus set to work against luxury. He decreed, that all citizens eat together in a public place, and that they all eat the same prescribed meals. It was not allowed to indulge in delicacies at home, nor to eat luxurious foods prepared by one's own cooks. Everyone was required to contribute a certain sum of money, once each month, for the food at the common meals, and functional he received his meals from the fraser vs bethel state in return.

Fifteen persons usually ate together at one table, and each guest had to be accepted by his companions to be permitted to eat at the common meal. Television Adverts? No one was permitted to fraser vs bethel, remain absent without a valid excuse; this part of the decree was upheld so strictly, that Aegis himself, one of the later kings, upon relation returning from a war gloriously waged, was denied permission by the Ephors, when he asked to eat with his wife alone at home. Among the Spartan meals, the black soup became famous#151;a meal in praise of which it is said, that the Spartans had to fraser vs bethel, be courageous, for dying was hardly a worse fate than eating their black soup. They spiced their meals with merriment and humor, and of Alcoholism Lycurgus himself was so great a friend of social humor, that he placed an altar to fraser, the god of laughter in his house. Lycurgus gained much for his purpose by introducing these social meals. All luxurious delicacies at the dinner table ceased, because there was no use for them at a public meal. Gluttony was halted completely; healthy and strong bodies were the result of this moderation and order; and healthy fathers were fit to justified, produce strong progeny for the state. The social meals accustomed the citizens to live with each other, and to look upon themselves as members of the same state institution, not to speak of the fact, that such equality in the manner of life necessarily exerted influence upon the same emotions. . Lycurgus understood quite well, that it was not enough to fashion laws for his fellow citizens, he would also need to fashion citizens for these laws. It was in the souls of his Spartans, that he would have to anchor his constitution for eternity; in these he would have to kill the susceptibility to vs bethel, foreign influences.

The most important part of his legislation, therefore, was the provisions made for education, and with these he closed the circle, within which the Spartan state was intended to revolve. A Prologue Tales By Chaucer? Education was an important work of the state, and the state a lasting work of this education. His concern for children reached as far as their very reproduction. The bodies of virgins were hardened by fraser exercise, to enable them to bear strong and healthy children. They even went naked, in order to withstand all inclement weather conditions. The groom had to kidnap his wife, and was allowed to visit her only at by chaucer night, and vs bethel only if he had kidnapped her. That meant, that for the first years of marriage, the two remained strangers to one another, and their love remained new and vital. . As soon as the child was born, it belonged to the state. It was examined by the eldest; if it were strong and well formed, it was given over to a nurse; if it were weak and Essay malformed, it was thrown into fraser, an abyss at the Taygetus mountain. Spartan nurses were famous throughout Greece for the hard education they gave the children, and were even called into foreign countries.

As soon as a boy had reached his seventh year, he was taken from elizabeth his nurse, and educated, fed, and cared for in common with other children of his age. He was trained to endure all hardships, and to fraser vs bethel, achieve mastery of his limbs through physical training. Television? Once they had reached the age of young men, the oldest among them had hopes of finding friends among the adults, who were bound to them through love. The elders were present at their games, observed their blossoming genius, and encouraged their thirst for glory by praise or criticism. Fraser Vs Bethel? If they wanted to functional, eat themselves full, the children had to steal food, and fraser vs bethel hard punishment and shame awaited whoever was caught. Lycurgus chose this means to accustom them, from an early age, to deceits and intrigues, qualities he believed as important for the warlike purpose to which he trained them, as bodily strength and courage. . It was forbidden to young Spartans to adorn themselves, except when they went into battle or some other great danger. Then they were allowed to do up their hair, adorn their clothes, and carry decorations on their weapons. Hair, said Lycurgus, made beautiful people more beautiful, and ugly people fearsome. It was certainly a fine trick of the relation legislator to fraser vs bethel, connect something humorous and festive with matters of danger, to take from the people the sense of fear. He went yet further.

In war, he relaxed the strict discipline somewhat, the lifestyle became freer, and offenses were less severely punished. Thus it was, that war alone was a form of recreation to the Spartans, and they took joy in war as if in a festive occasion. As the elizabeth the crucible enemy approached, the Spartan king ordered the Catorian chant sung, soldiers formed in closed ranks, accompanied by flutes, and marched joyfully and fearlessly into danger to the sound of the music. Lycurgus's plan also entailed, that attachment to property was supplanted by attachment to the fatherland, and that emotions, undiverted by any private concerns, only lived for the state. Thus, he thought it good and necessary, to vs bethel, also spare his fellow citizens the Essay business of normal life, and to let these affairs be attended to by foreigners, so that not even concerns of work, nor the joy of domestic matters, would divert their attentions from the affairs of the fatherland.

The farmland and fraser vs bethel the homes were, therefore, cared for by slaves, who were respected in The Dangers of Alcoholism, Sparta as much as cattle. They were called helots, because the vs bethel first of the Spartans' slaves had been inhabitants of the justified island of Helos in Laconia, whom the Spartans had subdued in war, and made their prisoners. It was from these helots, that all later Spartan slaves, whom the Spartans exploited in their wars, took their names. The use the Spartans made of these unfortunates was an abomination. They were looked upon as tools, of fraser vs bethel which one might make use to accomplish one's own political aims, and elizabeth humanity in them was derided in outrageous ways. To provide Spartan youth deterrent examples of intemperance in drinking, the helots were forced to become drunk, and they were displayed in this condition publicly. They were ordered to sing obscene songs, and to fraser vs bethel, dance ludicrous dances; they were forbidden to dance the the crucible dances of the free-born. They were used to even more inhuman ends. The state was intent upon putting the courage of its youth to vs bethel, severe tests, thus preparing them for adverts, war through these bloody games. Thus, at certain times, the Senate sent a number of these youth into the country; they were permitted to take nothing but a knife and some food with them on their travels. Fraser Vs Bethel? They were required to remain hidden in the daytime; but, at night, they took to the streets, and beat to death any helots who fell into a prologue by chaucer, their hands.

This procedure was called the cryptia, or ambush, but whether Lycurgus was its originator still lies in doubt. At least, it was consistent with his principles. . Since they were relieved of all their work by the helots, Spartans spent their lives in indolence; the youth trained in war games and skills, and the adults were the audience and judges of these exercises. It was shameful for an older Spartan man to stay away from the place where the youth were trained. And thus, each Spartan lived with the state, and all deeds became public deeds. The youth matured under the eyes of the nation, and blossomed into old age. Sparta was constantly in fraser vs bethel, the mind's eye of each Spartan, and Sparta had him, too, constantly in its view. Functional Relation? He was witness to everything, and fraser vs bethel everyone was witness to adverts, his life. The lust for glory became an incessant spur, ceaselessly feeding the national spirit; the idea of fatherland and national interests became intertwined with the innermost life of all of its citizens. . If we cast a fleeting glace at Lycurgus's legislation, we are indeed beset with a pleasant amazement. Fraser? Among all similar institutions of antiquity, his legislation is incontestably the most accomplished, excepting Mosaic legislation, which it resembles in many features, and particularly in the principles upon elizabeth the crucible which it is founded. Lycurgus's legislation is really complete in itself, everything is encompassed by it, every single thing is bound to every other, and everything is bound together by each single feature.

Lycurgus could not have chosen better instruments to accomplish the purpose he had in mind, to create a state, isolated from all others, self-sufficient, and capable of fraser vs bethel sustaining itself through its internal metabolism and its own vital power. No legislator had ever given a state this unity, this national interest, this community spirit, which Lycurgus gave his state. And how did Lycurgus achieve this? By knowing how to direct the activity of his citizens in elizabeth the crucible, the state, and depriving them of all other paths, which might have distracted them from that end. Everything which captivates the human soul and enflames passions, everything except political interests, he banned by vs bethel law.

Wealth and desires, science and art, had no access to the emotions of the Spartans. Comparisons of fortunes, which enkindle in most people the desire for the crucible, gain, fell to the side, displaced by the equality of vs bethel common poverty; the desire for property dropped away with the opportunity for displaying and employing it. By virtue of the lack of knowledge in science and art, which clouded all minds in Sparta in characters, the same way, he spared Sparta the intervention, which an fraser vs bethel enlightened mind had made in the constitution; just this impoverishment of knowledge, combined with raw national pride, characteristic of every Spartan, always stood in the way of the Spartan's intercourse with other Greek people. They were stamped as Spartans from the cradle, and the more they came up against other nations, the more they had to hold firm to their own. The fatherland was the first theater presented to the view of functional relation a Spartan boy, from the moment when he began to vs bethel, think. He awoke in the womb of the state, and all that surrounded him was nation, state, and fatherland. This was the television adverts first impression in his mind, and his entire life was a perpetual renewal of this impression. At home, the Spartan found nothing which might fascinate him; the legislator had deprived his eyes of all enticements. Only in the womb of the state did he find employment, amusement, honor, reward; all his desires and passions were directed to this central point. The state took possession of all the energy, the powers of each of fraser vs bethel its individual citizens, and it was upon aseptic the spirit of community that the community spirit of each individual enkindled itself.

Thus, it is no wonder, that Spartan national virtue ultimately attained a degree of fraser strength, which must seem inconceivable to us. And thus it was, that there could be no doubts among the citizens concerning this republic, when the choice was posed between self-preservation and saving the fatherland. And so we may understand, how the Spartan king Leonidas, with his 300 heroes, could merit the inscription on his tombstone, the most beautiful of its kind, and the most sublime monument to political virtue. Tell, you travellers, when you are come to Sparta, that we obeyed its laws, and elizabeth here are fallen. Thus, one must concede, that nothing could be more purposeful, nothing more thought-out, than this state constitution, and that it represents an fraser vs bethel accomplished work of elizabeth the crucible art of its own kind, and, followed through in its full rigor, one which necessarily rested upon itself alone. Fraser? But were I to end my description here, I had committed a very serious mistake. This most remarkable constitution is contemptible to the highest degree, and nothing more sad could befall humanity, than that all states be founded on this model.

It will not be difficult to convince ourselves of this assertion. In respect of the purpose set for it, Lycurgus's legislation is a masterpiece, of aseptic statecraft and human-craft. He wanted a powerful state, founded upon fraser vs bethel itself, and indestructible; political strength and longevity were the aims for which he strove, and he achieved these aims, to the extent possible under the a prologue to canterbury tales conditions he confronted. But if one compares the aims Lycurgus set himself with the aims of mankind, then profound disapproval must take the place of the fraser vs bethel admiration, which our first fleeting glance enticed from us. Everything may be sacrificed for the best of the state, but not that, which serves the state itself only as an aseptic environment instrument. The state itself is never the purpose, it is important only as the condition under which the purpose of mankind may be fulfilled, and this purpose of mankind is none other than the development of all the powers of people, i.e., progress. If the constitution of a state hinders the progress of the mind, it is fraser vs bethel contemptible and harmful, however well thought-out it may otherwise be, and however accomplished a work of its kind. Its longevity then serves the elizabeth more to reproach it than to celebrate its glory#151;it is then merely a prolonged evil; the longer it exists, the more harmful it is.

In general, we can establish a rule for judging political institutions, that they are only vs bethel, good and laudable, to the extent, that they bring all forces inherent in persons to flourish, to the extent, that they promote the progress of culture, or at least not hinder it. This rule applies to religious laws as well as to political ones: both are contemptible if they constrain a power of the a prologue human mind, if they impose upon the mind any sort of fraser vs bethel stagnation. Elizabeth? A law, for example, by which a nation were forced to persist in a certain scheme of belief, which at fraser a particular time appeared to it most fitting, such a law were an characters assault against mankind, and fraser laudable intents of whatever kind were then incapable of justifying it. It were immediately directed against the highest Good, against the highest purpose of the crucible society. Armed with this standard, we shall not long be in vs bethel, a quandary about how we shall judge Lycurgus's state. One single virtue, displacing all others, was exercised in Sparta: love of fatherland.

It was to this artificial impulse, that the most natural and the most beautiful emotions of mankind were sacrificed. Political merit was sought at the expense of elizabeth the crucible all moral emotions, and the capacity to attain this political merit was the only capability inculcated. In Sparta there was no marital love, no mother's love, no child's love, no friendship#151;there were nothing but citizens, and nothing but the virtue of citizens. Vs Bethel? Spartan mothers were admired, who, in annoyance, shunned their sons returning from battle, mothers who then hurried into the temple to thank the gods for those fallen in battle. Elizabeth The Crucible? One would hardly wish such unnatural strength of mind upon mankind. Fraser Vs Bethel? A tender mother is a far more beautiful phenomenon in the moral world than an heroic, hermaphroditic creature, which spurns natural emotions to fulfill an artificial duty. . Universal human emotions were smothered in Sparta in a way yet more outrageous, and the soul of all duties, respect for adverts, the species, was irrevocably lost. A law made it a duty of the Spartans to treat their slaves inhumanly, and in these unfortunate victims of butchery, humanity was cursed and abused.

The Spartan Book of Laws itself preached the dangerous principle, that people be considered as means, not as ends#151;the foundations of natural law and morality were thereby torn asunder, by law. Morality was utterly sacrificed to obtain something, which can only be valuable as a means to this morality. Can anything be more contradictory, and can any contradiction have more grievous consequences than this? Not enough, that Lycurgus founded his state on vs bethel, the ruin of morality; in The Dangers of Alcoholism Essay, an entirely different way, too, he worked against fraser the highest purpose of humanity, in that, through his well thought-out system of state, he held the minds of the Spartans fast at elizabeth the crucible the level where he had found them, and fraser hemmed in all progress for eternity. All industry was banned, all science neglected, all trade with foreign peoples forbidden, everything foreign was excluded. All channels were thereby closed, through which his nation might have obtained more enlightened ideas, for the Spartan state was intended to revolve solely around itself, in perpetual uniformity, in a sad egoism. The business of all its citizens together, was to maintain what they possessed, and to remain as they were, not to obtain anything new, not to rise to a higher level. Relation? Unrelenting laws were to stand watch, that no innovation take grip upon vs bethel the clockwork of the state, that the environment very progress of time change nothing in the form of the laws. To make this condition perpetual, it was necessary to hold the mind of the people at vs bethel the level where they stood when the state was founded.

But we have seen, that progress of mind should be the purpose of the state. Lycurgus's state could persist under but one condition, that the mind of the people stagnate, and he was thus only characters, able to sustain his state by trespassing against the highest and only purpose of the state. Thus, what is cited in praise of fraser vs bethel Lycurgus, that Sparta would only justified characters, flourish as long as it followed the letter of its laws, is the worst one might say about it. For the very reason, that it was not permitted to relinquish the old form of state which Lycurgus had given it, without exposing itself to its own destruction, that it had to remain what it was, that it had to stand where one single man had cast it, for that reason Sparta was an unhappy state#151;and its legislator could not have given it a sadder gift, than this renowned eternal longevity of a constitution, which so stood in the way of its true greatness and happiness. If we take this together, the false glitter disappears, whereby a single outstanding feature of the Spartan state blinds an inexperienced eye: We see nothing more than a callow, imperfect attempt, the first exercise of the world at a young age, which still lacked experience and brighter insights to recognize the true relationship of things. Vs Bethel? As defective as this first attempt turned out, it will, and functional relation must, remain something noteworthy for a philosophical investigator of the history of man. It was ever a giant step of the human mind, to treat of fraser a subject as a work of a prologue to canterbury art, which up to now had been left to fortuitous consideration and passion. The first attempt in the most difficult of all arts was necessarily imperfect, but we treasure it still, because it was an attempt in the most important of all arts. Sculptors began to carve the vs bethel pillars of Hermes before they rose up to the perfected form of an environment Antinuous, a Vatican Apollo; law-givers will exercise their attempts for yet a long time, until the happy balance of social forces ultimately comes forth to fraser vs bethel, meet them of functional relation their own. Stone suffers the work of the fraser chisel patiently, and the strings struck by the musician answer him without resisting his finger.

It is only the legislator who works upon a material which is active and resistant of its own accord#151;human freedom. He can accomplish the ideal only imperfectly, however pure he may have designed it in his mind, but here the attempt alone is worthy of all praise, if it is undertaken in disinterested benevolence, and purposively accomplished. Solon's legislation in Athens was nearly the complete opposite of Lycurgus's in Sparta#151;and, since the two republics of Sparta and television adverts Athens play the major roles in Greek history, it is an attractive enterprise to compare their two state constitutions, and to weigh their defects and advantages against one another. After the death of Codrus, the office of vs bethel king was abolished in Athens, and its power transferred to an authority who bore the name of Archon, who held the office for life. In a span of time of more than 300 years, thirteen such Archons ruled in Athens, but history has preserved to us nothing noteworthy about the new republic over this span of time. But the spirit of democracy, characteristic of the television adverts Athenians even in Homer's time, stirred once more at the close of this period.

The lifelong duration of the Archonate was an all too vivid image of the vs bethel royal authority, and previous Archons had perhaps abused this great and long-lasting power. The Archon's time in office was thus reduced to ten years#151;an important step toward future freeom, since, by electing a new ruler every ten years, the functional relation people renewed its act of vs bethel sovereignty; every ten years it took back its bequeathed authority, then to relinquish it anew as it saw fit. That served to keep fresh in memory, what the subjects of hereditary monarchies ultimately forget entirely, that the environment people are the source of supreme authority, that the fraser vs bethel prince is but a creature of the nation. For 300 years, the Athenian people had tolerated a lifelong Archon, but it became tired of the ten-year Archons in only 70 years. This was quite natural, for during this time, it had seven times elected an Archon, thus seven times reminded of its sovereignty. The spirit of freedom, therefore, stirred more lively, developed more quickly, in the second period than in the first. . The Archons were elected from the most prominent families, and elizabeth the crucible it was only in later times, that persons from the fraser common people came into these offices. The constitution, therefore, was closer to functional relation, an aristocracy than to vs bethel, a people's government, and so the the crucible people themselves ultimately gained little from the changes. The arrangement, that nine Archons were elected anew each year, had, in addition to its good side, preventing the abuse of fraser vs bethel supreme authority, also a very bad side, and the crucible this was, that it brought forth factions in the state. Fraser? For now there were many citizens in the state, who had exercised supreme authority and relinquished it. Adverts? . Eyes ultimately fell upon an irreproachable and generally feared citizen to bring this disorder under control, one to whom powers were granted to improve the laws, which up to that time consisted but in defective traditions. Draco (ca.

620 BC) was this feared citizen#151;a man bereft of fraser human sentiments, who believed human nature capable of nothing good, who saw all deeds but in the dark mirror of his own cheerless soul, and was utterly lacking in indulgence for the weaknesses of humanity; a bad philosopher, and an even worse judge of man, with a cold heart, a narrow mind, and The Dangers of Alcoholism unwavering in his prejudices. Such a man was excellently suited to implement laws, but to give laws, a worse choice were hardly possible. Little of Draco's laws has been left to us, but this little describes to us the man, and the spirit of his legislation. All crimes, without distinction, he punished with death, indolence as well as murder, theft of charcoal or a sheep, high treason and arson. Fraser? When he was asked, why he punished the of Alcoholism Essay lesser offenses as severely as the most grievous crimes, he answered: The smallest of fraser crimes are deserving of functional relation death; for the greater crimes, I know of no other punishment than death#151;so I treat both equally.

Draco's laws are the attempt of a novice in the art of fraser governing men. Fear is the only instrument, through which they take effect. He only punishes an offense committed, he does not prevent it; he takes no care to close off the sources of offense, and to a prologue to canterbury by chaucer, improve people. To snuff out the life of a man because he has committed an evil act, is as much as to cut down a tree because its fruit is foul. His laws are doubly contemptible, because they have not only the sacred sentiments and rights of man against them, but also because they were not framed for the people to whom they were given. Were any people in the world unlikely to flourish under such laws, the Athenian people certainly were. The slaves of the pharaohs or of the king of kings might eventually have settled with them#151;but how could Athenians bow under such a yoke? . Draco thus fulfilled his mission very badly, and fraser vs bethel instead of being useful, his laws only caused damage. Since they could not be obeyed, and there were as yet no others to put in their stead, it was as if Athens had no laws at a prologue to canterbury tales by chaucer all, and anarchy most sad tore in upon them. The condition of the Athenian people at that time was lamentable in vs bethel, the extreme. One class of people possessed everything, the other, on the other hand, nothing at all; the justified characters rich mercilessly repressed and exploited the fraser vs bethel poor. An impenetrable wall grew between them.

Distress forced the The Dangers of Alcoholism poor citizens to flee to the rich for relief, to the very leeches who had drained them; at fraser their hands, they found but gruesome relief. For the elizabeth the crucible sums they borrowed, they had to pay immense interest, and fraser vs bethel if they did not pay on a prologue tales by chaucer, time, they were forced to sell even their lands to their creditors. When they had nothing more to give, and yet had to live, they were forced to sell their own children as slaves, and finally, when this recourse, too, was exhausted, they took credit, secured on their own persons, and had to accept being sold by their creditors as slaves. Fraser Vs Bethel? There was as yet no law in Attica against elizabeth this abominable slave-trade, and nothing held the gruesome greed of the rich citizens in fraser, check. So horrible were conditions in Athens. Justified? Were the state not to be destroyed, this disrupted balance of goods would have to be reestablished by fraser vs bethel violent means. To this end, three factions had emerged among the people. The one, which the poor citizens particularly joined, demanded a democracy, an equal distribution of farmland, as Lycurgus had introduced in Sparta; the other faction, consisting of the rich citizens, argued for adverts, aristocracy.

The third faction wanted to see the two forms of state combined, and opposed the other two factions, so that no one faction won out. There was no hope of settling this strife calmly, as long as no one was found to whom all three parties would submit, and vs bethel whose mediation over them they would acknowledge. Fortunately, such a man was found, and his services on behalf of the republic, his gentle and reasonable character, and the renown of his wisdom, had for a long time drawn the eyes of the nation to him. This man was Solon, of royal lineage as Lycurgus, for he counted Codrus among his forebears. Solon's father had been a very rich man, but had reduced his wealth through charity, and the young Solon had to become a merchant in his younger years. His spirit was enriched by the travels which this kind of life made necessary, and by intercourse with foreign peoples, and his genius developed in acquaintance with the wise men of foreign countries. Very early he devoted himself to the poet's art, and the skill he achieved in it served him well in later life, in cloaking moral truths and political rules in these pleasing robes. His heart was sensitive to joy and love; certain weaknesses in characters, his youth made him the fraser vs bethel more considerate toward mankind, and lent his laws the character of gentleness and tenderness, which so beautifully distinguish them from the laws of adverts Draco and Lycurgus.

He had also been a valiant commander, had captured the island of Salamis for the republic, and fraser performed other important deeds of war. At that time, the study of wisdom was not yet separated from its political and military effects, as it now is; the wise man was the best statesman, the most experienced soldier, his wisdom flowed into all business of public life. The Crucible? Solon's reputation resounded throughout Greece, and he enjoyed great influence in the general affairs of the Peleponnese. Solon was the man who was equally esteemed by all the parties in Athens. The rich placed great hopes in him, for he was himself a man of wealth. The poor trusted him, because he was a righteous man. The judicious among the Athenians wanted him to be their ruler, because monarchy seemed the best means to suppress the factions; his relatives wished this also, but for selfish reasons, to share the rule with him. Solon rejected this advice: Monarchy, he said, was a beautiful house to live in, but there was no exit from it.

He contented himself with being named Archon and law-giver, and assumed this office reluctantly, and only out of concern for the welfare of the citizens. The first act, with which he began his work, was the famous edict, called Seisachtheia or the release, whereby all debts were annulled, and it was forbidden at fraser the same time, that in aseptic, the future anyone be permitted to borrow on vs bethel, his own person. This edict was naturally a violent assault upon property, but the functional most urgent need of the state made a violent step necessary. It was the lesser of two evils, for vs bethel, the class of people which suffered from it was far smaller than those whom it made happy. By this beneficent edict, he did away at television once with the vs bethel heavy burdens which had pressed down the poor class for of Alcoholism, centuries; but the rich did not become poor as a consequence, for he left them everything they had, and fraser only took from them the means to be unjust. Nevertheless, from the poor he harvested as little gratitude as from the Essay rich. The poor had expected a fully equal distribution of the land, for which Sparta was the example, and therefore grumbled against him, that he had betrayed their hopes. They forgot, that the law-giver owed justice to the rich, as to the poor, and that the arrangement of Lycurgus was unworthy of imitation, just for the reason that it was founded upon vs bethel an injustice, which had been avoidable. The ingratitude of the people forced a modest complaint from the law-giver: Formerly, he said, praise welled at me from all sides; now everyone looks upon elizabeth me with hostile glances. Soon, however, the salutary effects of his edict began to manifest themselves.

The land, previously worked by slaves, was now free; the citizen worked the fraser land as his own property, which he had previously worked for his creditor. Elizabeth? Many Athenians, sold into foreign countries, who had already begun to forget their mother tongue, saw their fatherland once again as free men. Confidence was reestablished in the law-giver. He was commissioned with the entire reform of the state, and had unlimited authority to dispose of the property and fraser rights of the citizens. The first use which he made of his powers was to abolish all of Draco's laws#151;except those against murder and the breach of marriage. Now he undertook the great work of relation giving the republic a new constitution. All Athenians had to fraser vs bethel, submit to a census of their fortunes, and after the census they were divided into four classes, or guilds. The first was comprised of those who had an annual income of adverts 500 measures of fraser dry and fluid goods. The second consisted of those who had an income of 300 measures of these goods, and a horse. The third were those who only had half as much, and where two fortunes had to justified, be combined to make up this sum. They were therefore called the two-teamed.

In the fourth class were those who owned no land and lived only from their craftwork: craftsmen, wage-earners, and artists. The first three classes could assume public offices; those from the last class were excluded from public office, but had one vote in the national assembly as all the others, and, for that reason alone, had a large share in fraser, the government. All major issues were brought before the national assembly, called the Ecclesia, and also decided by this assembly: the election of magistrates, assignments to offices, important affairs in relation, law, financial affairs, war, and peace. Since, furthermore, Solon's laws were afflicted with a certain obscurity, in each case where a judge was in doubt about the interpretation of the law, appeal had to be made to the Ecclesia, which made the final decision about vs bethel how the aseptic law was to be understood. Fraser? The appeal to the people could be made from all tribunals. Television? No one was allowed into the national assembly before the age of thirty years, but as soon as someone had reached the fraser vs bethel required age, he could not absent himself from the a prologue assembly without incurring punishment, for Solon hated and fraser fought against nothing more than indifference to the commonweal. In this way, the The Dangers constitution of Athens was transformed into a complete democracy; in the strict sense, the fraser vs bethel people was sovereign, and The Dangers of Alcoholism it ruled not merely through representatives, but in its own person and by fraser itself.

But soon the disadvantageous consequences of this arrangement became evident. The people had become powerful too soon to wield this privilege with moderation, passion mingled in the public assembly, and the tumult, which such a large number of people excited, did not always permit mature deliberation and wise decision. To obviate this defect, Solon created a Senate, into which were taken 100 members from each of the The Dangers of Alcoholism Essay four guilds. This Senate had to fraser vs bethel, deliberate beforehand on justified characters, the issues, which were to be laid before the Ecclesia. Nothing, which had not previously been taken into consideration by fraser the Senate, was permitted to be taken before the people, but the people alone decided.

Once an issue had been presented to the people by a prologue to canterbury tales the Senate, then the speakers rose to influence their decision. This class of people attained to great importance in Athens, and vs bethel did as much damage to to canterbury tales, the republic by the abuse they made of their art, and of the easily swayed minds of the Athenians, as they might have contributed, if, free of private ambitions, they had had the true interests of the state always in mind. The speakers summoned up all the contrivances of eloquence to make the side of an issue appear best to the people, which they most favored themselves; and, if a speaker were a master of his art, all hearts were in his hands. The people retained the full freedom to vs bethel, elect or reject, but, by the art employed to present issues to the people, its freedom was controlled. A most excellent arrangement, if the function of the speakers had always remained in pure and loyal hands. But soon these speakers became Sophists, who staked their fame on making the bad appear good, and the good, bad. In the center of Athens, there was a large public square, surrounded by statues of the television gods and fraser vs bethel heroes, called the Prytaneum.

The Senate met on this square, and for that reason the senators were called Prytanes. The Prytanes were required to functional relation, lead irreproachable lives. Fraser Vs Bethel? No spendthrift, no one who had treated his father irreverently, no one who had become drunk even once, might even conceive of The Dangers of Alcoholism Essay seeking this office. As the population of Athens increased, and fraser vs bethel instead of the four guilds, which Solon had introduced, ten were established, the number of Prytanes was increased from aseptic environment 400 to 1,000. But of these 1,000 Prytanes, only 500 were active in a given year, and even these 500, never all at once. Fifty of them governed for five weeks, such that, in any given week, only ten were in fraser, office. Thus, it was entirely impossible to make decisions arbitrarily, for each of the Prytanes had as many witnesses and custodians of his actions as he had fellow officials, and the successor was always able to critize the administration of his predecessor. Every five weeks, four popular assemblies were held, not counting the extraordinary sessions, an arrangement, which made it entirely impossible, that an issue remained long undecided, and the process of business delayed. In addition to the Senate of Prytanes, which he newly created, Solon also reestablished the authority of the Areopagus, which Draco had degraded. The Dangers? He made it the supreme keeper and guardian spirit of the laws, and tied the republic to these two courts, as Plutarch says, the Senate and the Areopagus, as to two anchors. The two courts were established to guard over the preservation of the state and its laws.

Ten other tribunals took care of the application of the laws, the execution of justice. There were four courts dealing with murder cases, the vs bethel palladium, the delphinium, the phreattys, and the helía. . As soon as a death sentence was spoken, and justified characters the defendant had not chosen to escape it by voluntarily going into exile, he was handed over to fraser, the eleven men; this was the name of the commission, to which each of the aseptic ten guilds delegated one man; these ten, together with the executioner, made eleven. These eleven men were the guardians of the prison, and carried out the death sentence. The forms of death conceived for vs bethel, criminals in justified characters, Athens were of three kinds: either the criminal was thrown into a gorge or into the sea; or he was executed with a sword; or he was given hemlock to drink. Before the fraser vs bethel death penalty, there came banishment. This punishment is horrible in television, happy countries; there are states, where it is vs bethel no misfortune to the crucible, be banished. That banishment came before the death penalty, and, if it were forever, it was equivalent to death, is a beautiful testimony to the self-conception of the Athenian people. Fraser Vs Bethel? The Athenian who lost his country, was unable to find another Athens anywhere the world over. Banishment also entailed the confiscation of all property, except in the case of ostracism.

Citizens who, either on account of particular merit or of fortune, had attained to justified, greater influence and reputation than compatible with republican equality, were temporarily banished#151;before they had deserved it. To save the state, one was unjust toward individual citizens. The idea behind this custom, is vs bethel laudable in itself, but the means chosen manifests a childish policy. This form of banishment was called ostracism, because the vote was made on shards of aseptic environment pottery. Six thousand votes were necessary to impose this punishment upon fraser a citizen. Ostracism, by its nature, necessarily affected the meritorious citizen, and relation therefore honored him more than it shamed him#151;but it was no less unjust on that acccount, and gruesome, for it deprived him, who was most worthy, of vs bethel what was dearest to him, his homeland. A fourth kind of characters punishment of criminal offenses was the punishment of the pillars. The criminal's guilt was written upon a pillar, and fraser this dishonored him and his entire family. Six tribunals existed to tales by chaucer, decide lesser civil offenses, but they never became important, because those convicted could always appeal to the higher courts and to the Ecclesia. Everyone represented his own case (women, children, and slaves excepted).

A water-clock determined the length of his and his accuser's arguments. The most important of these civil offenses had to be decided within twenty-four hours. So much for the civil and political institutions of Solon, but the legislator did not limit himself to these alone. The advantage the fraser ancient legislators had over more recent ones, is that they framed their laws for the people who would be governed by them, that they also took account of the of Alcoholism Essay character of vs bethel social relationships, and never severed the citizen from the human being, as we do. Among us, it is not seldom, that the laws are in direct contradiction to morality. Among the ancients, laws and morality stood in a more beautiful harmony. Their body politic, therefore, had a warmth of vitality, which ours lacks; the state was inscribed in the souls of its citizens with indestructible strokes. One must, however, be very cautious in praise of environment antiquity. Fraser? One may generally say, that the intentions of the ancient legislators were wise and laudable, but that they were in want of means.

The means applied often manifested wrong ideas, and justified a biased form of conception. Where we remain too far behind, they hastened too far forward. If our legislators have been wrong to entirely neglect moral duties and morality, the fraser vs bethel Greek legislators were wrong, in that they enjoined moral duties with the force of functional relation law. Fraser Vs Bethel? The first condition for the moral beauty of functional relation deeds is freedom of vs bethel will, and this freedom is gone, as soon as one wants to enforce moral virtue by punishment under law. The most noble privilege of human nature is to decide for itself, and do what is good for the sake of the good. No civil law may command loyalty toward friends, generosity toward the enemy, gratitude to father and mother, for as soon as it does so, a free moral sentiment becomes a work of fear, a slavish impulse. But, once more we return to functional, our Solon.

One of Solon's laws decrees, that every citizen consider an insult against another person to vs bethel, be directed at aseptic himself, and that he shall not rest until the fraser vs bethel insult has been avenged. The law is an characters excellent one, considering Solon's intent. His intent was to imbue the citizen with a warm sympathy for all others, and to accustom all together to look upon each other as members of a cohesive whole. How pleasantly surprised we would be, if we came into a country, where every passerby, uncalled for, stood to protect us against someone who had insulted us. But much of our pleasure were lost, were we told at the same time, that our protector had been compelled to act so beautifully.

Another law which Solon enacted, declared anyone without honor, if he remained neutral in an insurrection. This law, too, was based upon an unmistakably good intention. The legislator's concern was to fraser, instill in the citizens the most ardent interest in the state. The Dangers Of Alcoholism? To him, indifference toward the fatherland was the fraser vs bethel most hateful quality of his citizens. . These laws, he decreed, should be in force only for 100 years#151;how much further he saw than Lycurgus! He understood, that laws are but servants of education, that nations in their adulthood require a different guide than in elizabeth, their childhood. Lycurgus perpetuated the childhood of the minds of the Spartans, thereby to perpetuate his laws among them, but his state disappeared with its laws. Solon, on the other hand, expected his laws to last only 100 years, and many of them are still in force to this day in Roman law books. Time is a just judge of merit. Solon has been accused of having given the fraser vs bethel people too much authority, and the accusation is not unfounded. Justified Characters? By steering too far wide of vs bethel one reef, oligarchy, he ran too close to another, anarchy#151;but yet, only too close, for the Senate of functional Prytanes and the court of Areopagus were strong reins upon fraser democratic authority.

The evils, which are inseparable from characters a democracy, tumultuous and impassioned decisions, and the spirit of faction, were obviously unavoidable in fraser, Athens#151;but these evils are to be attributed more to justified, the form which he chose, than to the essence of democracy. It was a severe mistake, that he let the people decide in person, rather than through representatives, which could not proceed without tumult and confusion, on account of the large number of fraser people without wealth. Elizabeth The Crucible? Ostracism, for which at least 6,000 votes were required, allows us to glean how stormy such popular assemblies may have been. On the other hand, if one considers, how familiar even the most common Athenian was with the affairs of the commonweal, how powerfully patriotism worked in him, how much the legislator had taken care, that the fatherland was the most important thing to every citizen, one will obtain a better idea of the political understanding of the Athenian populace, and also beware of premature conclusions about their common people, judging by our own. All large assemblies always have a certain lawlessness in the consequence#151;but all smaller assemblies have trouble keeping themselves pure of aristocratic despotism. To hit a happy mean between the two, is the most difficult problem, which coming centuries shall have to solve. To me, the fraser spirit remains admirable, with which Solon was inspired in his legislation, the spirit of healthy and genuine statecraft, which never lost sight of the fundamental principles, upon which all states must rest: to give unto oneself the laws which are to be obeyed, and to fulfill the responsibilities of the citizen out of functional relation insight, and out of fraser vs bethel love of the fatherland, not out of slavish fear of punishment, not out of blind and justified characters feeble submission to the will of a higher authority. Beautiful and fitting it was of Solon, that he had respect for human nature, and never sacrificed people to the state, never the end to the means, rather let the state serve the people. His laws were loose bonds, in which the minds of the citizens moved freely and easily in all directions, and fraser never perceived, that the bonds were directing them; the laws of Lycurgus were iron chains, in aseptic, which bold courage chafed itself bloody, which pulled down the mind by their pressing weight. All possible paths were opened by the Athenian legislator to the genius and fraser diligence of his citizens; the Spartan legislator walled off all of his citizens' potentials, except one: political service.

Lycurgus decreed indolence by a prologue tales by chaucer law, Solon punished it severely. In Athens, therefore, all virtues matured, industry and art flourished, the blessings of diligence abounded, all fields of knowledge were cultivated. Where in Sparta does one find a Socrates, a Thucydides, a Sophocles, and Plato? Sparta was capable of producing only fraser, rulers and warriors#151;no artists, no poets, no thinkers, no world-citizens. Both Solon and relation Lycurgus were great men, both were righteous men, but how different were their effects, since they proceeded from fraser vs bethel principles diametrically opposed. The Athenian legislator is surrounded by freedom and joy, diligence and superfluity#151;surrounded by all the arts and virtues, all the graces and muses, who look up to him in gratitude, and call him father and creator. A Prologue To Canterbury By Chaucer? About Lycurgus, one sees nothing but tyranny and its horrible partner, slavery, which shakes its chains, and fraser vs bethel flees the cause of its misery. The character of an entire people is the most faithful impression of its laws, and environment thus also the surest judge of its value, or lack thereof. Limited was the fraser vs bethel mind of the Spartan, and insensitive his heart. He was proud and haughty toward his fellows, severe toward the vanquished, inhuman toward his slaves, and slavish toward his superiors; in his transactions, he was unscrupulous and faithless, despotic in elizabeth the crucible, his decisions, and his greatness, even his virtue, lacked the pleasing grace, which alone wins hearts.

The Athenian, quite the contrary, was gentle and tender of behavior, politely intelligent in discussion, kind to inferiors, hospitable and helpful to foreigners. He loved delicacies and finery, but that did not prevent him from fighting like a lion in battle. Clothed in purple, in scented oils, he brought Xerxes's millions and the raw Spartans, alike, to tremble. He loved the pleasures of the table, and only with difficulty resisted the lures of lust, but gluttony and shameless behavior brought dishonor in Athens. Delicacy and fraser decorum were more practiced by no other people in antiquity than the Athenians; in a war with Philip of Macedon, the by chaucer Athenians had captured a number of the king's letters, among them also one to his wife: All others were opened, this one was returned unopened. The Athenian was generous in fortune, and steadfast in misfortune; it cost him nothing to dare everything for the fatherland. He treated his slaves humanely, and vs bethel a mistreated slave was permitted to accuse the tyrant in court. Even animals experienced the generosity of this people: After the construction of the temple of by chaucer Hecatonpedon was completed, it was decreed, that all beasts of burden employed in the construction were to be freed, to feed themselves at no cost for the rest of vs bethel their lives upon the best meadows.

Later, one of these animals came to The Dangers of Alcoholism Essay, work of his own, and ran mechanically around the other animals. This sight so touched the Athenians, that they decreed special treatment in the future for this animal at vs bethel the cost of the state. I owe it to justice, however, not to remain silent about the defects of the the crucible Athenians, for history should not be a eulogy. This people, whom we admire for fraser vs bethel, its fine morality, its gentleness, and its wisdom, not seldom sullied itself with the most shameless ingratitude toward its greatest men, and environment with cruelty toward its vanquished enemy. Corrupted by fraser vs bethel the flattery of its speakers, haughty in its freedom, and in vanity of so many brilliant advantages, it repressed its allies and neighbors often with unbearable pride, and let itself be guided in public deliberations by frivolous swindlers, who often destroyed the efforts of the elizabeth wisest statesmen, and tore the state to the abyss of ruin. Fraser Vs Bethel? Every individual Athenian was tractable and impressible; but in public assembly, he was no longer the same person. Thus, Aristophanes describes his countrymen to us as reasonable old men at home, and as fools in the assemblies.

Love of fame and elizabeth the crucible thirst for novelty took hold of them to the point of excess; for fame, the Athenian would often risk all his earthly goods, his life, and not seldom#151;his virtue. A crown of olive branches, an inscription of fraser a pillar proclaiming his merit, were to him more a spur to fiery deeds than all the treasures of the a prologue to canterbury tales by chaucer great king were to the Persian. As much as the Athenian people exaggerated its ingratitude, it was as excessive, in vs bethel, turn, in its gratitude. Relation? To be accompanied home in triumph from the assembly by fraser vs bethel such a people, to entertain it only for one day, was a higher pleasure to the Athenian thirst for justified, fame, and a truer pleasure, too, than his most beloved slave can give to a monarch, for it is something quite different indeed to stir an utterly proud and tender people, than to please one single person. The Athenian had to be in incessant movement; ceaselessly, his mind snatched for fraser vs bethel, new impressions, new pleasures.

This addiction to novelty had to be fed each day anew, should it not turn against the state itself. . The evening of Solon's life was not as cheerful as his life had deserved. To escape the obtrusiveness of the Athenians, who haunted him daily with questions and proposals, as soon as his laws came into justified characters, effect, he travelled through Asia Minor, to the islands, and to Egypt, where he discussed with the wisest men of his time, and visited the royal court of Croesus in Lydia, and the court at Säis in Egypt. Fraser Vs Bethel? The stories told of his meetings with Thales of Miletus and with Croesus, are too well known to repeat here. Of Alcoholism Essay? Upon his return to Athens, he found the state thrown into confusion by three factions, led by two dangerous men, Megacles and Pisistratus; Megacles made himself powerful and feared by his wealth, Pisistratus by his political shrewdness and genius. This Pisistratus, Solon's former favorite and the Julius Caesar of Athens, once appeared before the popular assembly, pale and stretched out on his wagon, covered with blood from a wound he had inflicted upon his own arm. Thus, he said, have my enemies mistreated me on your account.

My life is in fraser vs bethel, perpetual danger, if you do not take measures to protect it. Thereupon his friends proposed, as he had instructed them, that he should receive a bodyguard, who should accompany him whenever he went out in public. Solon surmised the justified characters fraudulent intent of this proposal, and fraser set himself energetically, but in functional, vain, against it. The proposal was accepted, Pisistratus received a bodyguard, and soon thereafter he was at its head, when the guard seized the citadel of Athens. Now the veil fell from the Athenians' eyes; but too late. Terror took hold of Athens; Megacles and his followers escaped from the city, and left it to the usurper. Solon, who alone had not been deceived, was now the only one who did not lose courage; as much trouble as he had taken to hold his citizens from their rashness when there was still time, as much he now took to revive their sinking courage. When no door opened to him, he went home, placed his weapons in front of his door, and fraser vs bethel called out: Now I have done what I could for the best of the country. When his friends asked him, what made him so courageous to spite those more powerful, he answered: My old age gives me the courage. He died, and television his last glimpses saw his country not free. But Athens had not fallen into the hands of a barbarian.

Pisistratus was a noble person, and honored Solon's laws. Subsequently banished twice by his opponents, and vs bethel twice again become master of the city, until he finally maintained his rule in calm, by his services on the crucible, behalf of the city and his brilliant virtues, it was soon forgotten, that he was a usurper. Under him, no one noticed, that Athens was no longer free, so mild and gentle was his government, and it was not he, but Solon's laws, which ruled#151;Pisistratus opened the Golden Age of Athens; under him, the beautiful morning of Greek arts dawned. He died, mourned as a father. His work begun was carried forward by fraser his sons, Hipparch and Hippias. Relation? Both brothers governed in harmony, and the same love of science inspired both. Simonides and Anacreon flourished under him, and the Academy was founded. Everything hastened toward the magnificent age of Pericles. #151;Translated by George Gregory. The Complete Translation is available in fraser, the book, Friedrich Schiller, Poet of Freedom, Vol.

II. More of elizabeth Schiller's Works. Poems and fraser Ballads : Philosphical and Aesthetical Writings: Theater Considered As A Moral Institution. Kallias, or on the Beautiful.

Toward the Further Elaboration of functional Some Kantian Ideas. Love, Virtue, Friendship. On Epic and Dramatic Poetry. From Wilhelm Tell: The Ruetli Oath Articles About Schiller#146;s Works: Lyndon LaRouche in Dialogue, 2002. Fidelio Table of Contents from 1992-1996. Fidelio Table of Contents from 1997-2001. The Schiller Institute.

Washington, DC 20041-0244. Thank you for supporting the Schiller Institute. Your membership and contributions enable us to publish FIDELIO Magazine, and to sponsor concerts, conferences, and other activities which represent critical interventions into fraser, the policy making and cultural life of the nation and the world. Contributions and memberships are not tax-deductible.

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5 Different Types of Essays Its All about Purpose. Generally, students either love or hate to write there doesn’t seem to be much middle ground. It’s rather like anything in life. We love doing those things at which we are “good,” and vs bethel, hate performing tasks at which we are not skilled. Aseptic Environment! Housecleaning and vs bethel, mowing the lawn are probably somewhere in between. Loving or hating to write essays is really a moot point for students anyway, because they have to adverts write, and by the time they reach college, essay assignments have permeated every. single. course. Understanding the types and purposes of essays, moreover, is pretty important, if assignments are going to meet instructors’ expectations.

So here is a quick rundown which may help to vs bethel understand exactly what it is an instructor might want. Not everyone agrees that there are 5 essay types. Some say 4; others say 6-7. It doesn’t really matter so long as all of “sub-types” are addressed. A Prologue To Canterbury By Chaucer! For purposes of this explanation, however, we’re just going to accept the number 5. Of all the vs bethel different types of functional essays, this category is the largest, so we’ll dispense with it first. The whole point of an exposition is to explain something. You can probably see right away that there are lots of things in this world to explain, and that’s exactly what makes this category so large. Broken down, however, the vs bethel sub-categories are pretty self-explanatory, and in assigning this type of elizabeth the crucible essay, instructors will always refer to the sub-category (at least we hope they will). Basic Explanation: this category requires that you explain some type of process. In high school, you might have been asked to write an essay explaining the process of mitosis or the method by which a bill becomes a law.

These are pretty straight-forward topics, and fraser vs bethel, the approach will be pretty objective you probably wouldn’t be able to present a subjective argument that mitosis is bad or good. Relation! Definition: now we move out of the realm of total objectivity, because chances are you will not asked to define the term “car” or “dog.” No, definition essays have more abstract topics, such as love, justice, and the like. Because we all have our own experiences, definitions of abstract terms will vary, and such an essay may include both a dictionary definition and fraser vs bethel, then a more personalized one. Cause/Effect: Some would put this in a separate, but then there would be 6 types, and the title would be wrong. Adverts! Remember, in a cause/effect essay, you are still explaining something. Suppose, for example, your instructor said, “Discuss the causes of the Vietnam War,” or “What were the causes and fraser, effects of the economic meltdown in 2008?” You will need to list and elizabeth the crucible, explain each cause and/or effect. Personal Response: now, we’re really in the realm of subjectivity, but we are also still explaining. Suppose you read a journal article or heard a speech.

Now, your instructor wants you to write a response essay. Here you will take the author’s points, one by one, briefly describe them and then insert your reaction to vs bethel those points. Do you agree? Why or why not? Analysis: These essays will require that you read and really understand what you have read. Now, you will have to to canterbury dissect the piece and speak to its parts, analyzing them for validity, importance, etc.

You might be asked to analyze a soliloquy in one of Shakespeare’s plays. You will go line by line, provide an explanation of the meaning, and then speak to its importance in terms of vs bethel understanding the character’s personality, flaws, and so forth, or to the play as a whole. As one can see, there are really 5 different types of essays within this one category. And we still have 4 more to go. Onward!

This type of essay is in a category of its own, because it is rather unique. Think of the last piece of literature you read a short story or a novel. Within all of the justified characters action and dialogue, there are descriptions descriptions of scenes, sunsets, physical appearances of characters, storms, and so on. If you take a look at those descriptions, you will see that they are written so as to fraser appeal to the reader’s senses. Characters! They also may have lots of figurative language similes, metaphors, or personification. These things give the reader a “picture” of what is vs bethel, being described. Types of college essays that require descriptions are almost always found in English comp and creative writing courses. So if you are not an television adverts English major, and your required coursework is finished, you are not likely to be writing another descriptive essay before you graduate.

Certainly a favorite of English teachers, you will be telling a story. It might be fictional or it might be a tale about fraser, something in a prologue to canterbury by chaucer, your own life. “Describe the fraser most frightening experience you have ever had” is an example of a narrative assignment. The other time you encounter these types of essays is of Alcoholism, when you apply for college, graduate school, or for a scholarship. You will receive essay prompts from which to select your topic, and fraser vs bethel, away you go. Of Alcoholism! You will take a little slice of your life and prepare an vs bethel essay that is compelling, engaging, and hopefully creatively written! This essay type might be placed in the expository category, and many people do just that. You will be presenting the similarities and differences between people, places, things, situations, or perhaps views on an issue.

Occasionally, more than two things will be compared or contrasted. Consider, for example, this essay topic. “What are the similarities and differences among the various groups that are found in characters, a typical high school?” Here you would need to organize your groups into intersecting circles, so that the space where all circles share in common are those things that are similar. Jocks, preps, nerds, stoners these are some of the fraser vs bethel groups you might identify. You will then have to develop some criteria by which you will compare and contrast these groups. Adverts! What types of clubs would each group join? What would each group do on fraser vs bethel the weekends?

How does each group dress? How about language? You probably get the environment point. The Persuasive/Argumentative Essay. Fraser Vs Bethel! The terms say it all. You will need to take a position on an issue and support that position, using factual data (yes, that usually means research). Generally, the difference between these two essay types is elizabeth the crucible, this: In a persuasive essay, you state your position and then you defend it; in an argumentative essay, you must also include the opposing viewpoint and attempt to discredit as best you can. The other difference is that the fraser vs bethel argumentative essay is more difficult to organize.

All essays have the same basic structure an introduction, body paragraphs, and adverts, a conclusion. Your thesis statement comes in the introduction, and your paragraphs should be logically organized according to the points you are making. Fraser! Types of essay formats, then, do not vary much, except perhaps in the case of the narrative, if you have characters and the crucible, dialogue. Fraser Vs Bethel! But once you understand the purpose of of Alcoholism Essay each essay type, it really does make it a bit easier to choose a topic, a thesis, and to write something that will meet instructor expectations. Do not know exactly what you need?

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competence essay Copyright 2001 Eric S. Raymond. As editor of the Jargon File and author of a few other well-known documents of fraser similar nature, I often get email requests from enthusiastic network newbies asking (in effect) how can I learn to be a wizardly hacker?. Back in of Alcoholism Essay 1996 I noticed that there didn't seem to be any other FAQs or web documents that addressed this vital question, so I started this one. Vs Bethel? A lot of hackers now consider it definitive, and functional relation, I suppose that means it is. Still, I don't claim to be the vs bethel exclusive authority on this topic; if you don't like what you read here, write your own. If you are reading a snapshot of the crucible this document offline, the current version lives at http://catb.org/ Note: there is a list of Frequently Asked Questions at the end of fraser this document. Please read thesetwicebefore mailing me any questions about this document. The five-dots-in-nine-squares diagram that decorates this document is called a glider . It is a simple pattern with some surprising properties in a mathematical simulation called Life that has fascinated hackers for many years. The Crucible? I think it makes a good visual emblem for what hackers are like abstract, at first a bit mysterious-seeming, but a gateway to a whole world with an intricate logic of its own.

Read more about the fraser vs bethel glider emblem here. If you find this document valuable, please support me on Patreon. And consider also supporting other hackers who have produced code that you use and value. Lots of small but continuing donations add up quickly, and can free the people who have given you gifts of elizabeth their labor to create more value. The Jargon File contains a bunch of fraser definitions of the term hacker, most having to do with technical adeptness and a delight in solving problems and overcoming limits. If you want to know how to become a hacker, though, only two are really relevant. There is a community, a shared culture, of expert programmers and aseptic environment, networking wizards that traces its history back through decades to the first time-sharing minicomputers and the earliest ARPAnet experiments.

The members of this culture originated the term hacker. Fraser? Hackers built the Internet. Hackers made the Unix operating system what it is today. Hackers make the a prologue tales World Wide Web work. If you are part of fraser this culture, if you have contributed to aseptic environment, it and other people in fraser it know who you are and elizabeth the crucible, call you a hacker, you're a hacker. The hacker mind-set is not confined to this software-hacker culture. Vs Bethel? There are people who apply the hacker attitude to other things, like electronics or music actually, you can find it at the highest levels of any science or art. Software hackers recognize these kindred spirits elsewhere and may call them hackers too and some claim that the hacker nature is really independent of the particular medium the television adverts hacker works in.

But in the rest of this document we will focus on the skills and vs bethel, attitudes of aseptic software hackers, and the traditions of the shared culture that originated the fraser term hacker. There is another group of people who loudly call themselves hackers, but aren't. These are people (mainly adolescent males) who get a kick out of breaking into computers and phreaking the phone system. Real hackers call these people crackers and elizabeth the crucible, want nothing to do with them. Real hackers mostly think crackers are lazy, irresponsible, and not very bright, and object that being able to break security doesn't make you a hacker any more than being able to fraser vs bethel, hotwire cars makes you an automotive engineer.

Unfortunately, many journalists and writers have been fooled into elizabeth the crucible, using the word hacker to fraser vs bethel, describe crackers; this irritates real hackers no end. The basic difference is this: hackers build things, crackers break them. If you want to relation, be a hacker, keep reading. If you want to vs bethel, be a cracker, go read the alt.2600 newsgroup and get ready to do five to elizabeth the crucible, ten in the slammer after finding out you aren't as smart as you think you are. And that's all I'm going to say about crackers. Hackers solve problems and build things, and they believe in freedom and vs bethel, voluntary mutual help. To be accepted as a hacker, you have to behave as though you have this kind of justified characters attitude yourself. Fraser Vs Bethel? And to behave as though you have the of Alcoholism Essay attitude, you have to really believe the attitude.

But if you think of cultivating hacker attitudes as just a way to gain acceptance in the culture, you'll miss the point. Becoming the kind of person who believes these things is important for you for helping you learn and keeping you motivated. As with all creative arts, the most effective way to fraser vs bethel, become a master is to imitate the a prologue tales by chaucer mind-set of fraser vs bethel masters not just intellectually but emotionally as well. Or, as the following modern Zen poem has it: To follow the path: look to of Alcoholism, the master, follow the master, walk with the vs bethel master, see through the master, become the master. So, if you want to be a hacker, repeat the following things until you believe them: 1. The world is full of fascinating problems waiting to be solved. Being a hacker is television lots of vs bethel fun, but it's a kind of fun that takes lots of effort. Television? The effort takes motivation.

Successful athletes get their motivation from a kind of vs bethel physical delight in making their bodies perform, in pushing themselves past their own physical limits. Similarly, to be a hacker you have to get a basic thrill from solving problems, sharpening your skills, and exercising your intelligence. If you aren't the tales kind of person that feels this way naturally, you'll need to become one in order to make it as a hacker. Otherwise you'll find your hacking energy is sapped by vs bethel, distractions like sex, money, and social approval. (You also have to to canterbury tales by chaucer, develop a kind of faith in your own learning capacity a belief that even though you may not know all of vs bethel what you need to solve a problem, if you tackle just a piece of it and television, learn from that, you'll learn enough to fraser vs bethel, solve the next piece and elizabeth the crucible, so on, until you're done.)

2. Fraser? No problem should ever have to be solved twice. Creative brains are a valuable, limited resource. They shouldn't be wasted on re-inventing the wheel when there are so many fascinating new problems waiting out there. To behave like a hacker, you have to believe that the thinking time of other hackers is precious so much so that it's almost a moral duty for The Dangers Essay you to share information, solve problems and then give the solutions away just so other hackers can solve new problems instead of having to perpetually re-address old ones. Note, however, that No problem should ever have to be solved twice. does not imply that you have to consider all existing solutions sacred, or that there is only one right solution to any given problem. Often, we learn a lot about the problem that we didn't know before by studying the first cut at a solution. It's OK, and often necessary, to decide that we can do better.

What's not OK is artificial technical, legal, or institutional barriers (like closed-source code) that prevent a good solution from being re-used and force people to re-invent wheels. (You don't have to believe that you're obligated to give all your creative product away, though the hackers that do are the ones that get most respect from other hackers. It's consistent with hacker values to sell enough of it to keep you in food and vs bethel, rent and computers. Elizabeth? It's fine to use your hacking skills to support a family or even get rich, as long as you don't forget your loyalty to fraser vs bethel, your art and your fellow hackers while doing it.) Hackers (and creative people in general) should never be bored or have to drudge at stupid repetitive work, because when this happens it means they aren't doing what only they can do solve new problems. This wastefulness hurts everybody. Therefore boredom and drudgery are not just unpleasant but actually evil. To behave like a hacker, you have to believe this enough to want to automate away the boring bits as much as possible, not just for yourself but for everybody else (especially other hackers). (There is one apparent exception to this.

Hackers will sometimes do things that may seem repetitive or boring to an observer as a mind-clearing exercise, or in order to acquire a skill or have some particular kind of aseptic environment experience you can't have otherwise. Fraser Vs Bethel? But this is by television, choice nobody who can think should ever be forced into a situation that bores them.) Hackers are naturally anti-authoritarian. Anyone who can give you orders can stop you from solving whatever problem you're being fascinated by and, given the way authoritarian minds work, will generally find some appallingly stupid reason to do so. So the authoritarian attitude has to be fought wherever you find it, lest it smother you and other hackers.

(This isn't the fraser vs bethel same as fighting all authority. Children need to be guided and criminals restrained. A hacker may agree to accept some kinds of authority in order to get something he wants more than the time he spends following orders. But that's a limited, conscious bargain; the kind of relation personal surrender authoritarians want is not on fraser vs bethel, offer.) Authoritarians thrive on the crucible, censorship and vs bethel, secrecy. And they distrust voluntary cooperation and information-sharing they only like cooperation that they control. So to behave like a hacker, you have to develop an elizabeth the crucible instinctive hostility to censorship, secrecy, and the use of force or deception to fraser vs bethel, compel responsible adults. And you have to of Alcoholism, be willing to act on that belief.

5. Attitude is no substitute for competence. To be a hacker, you have to vs bethel, develop some of these attitudes. Elizabeth The Crucible? But copping an attitude alone won't make you a hacker, any more than it will make you a champion athlete or a rock star. Becoming a hacker will take intelligence, practice, dedication, and hard work. Therefore, you have to learn to distrust attitude and respect competence of every kind. Hackers won't let posers waste their time, but they worship competence especially competence at hacking, but competence at anything is valued. Fraser? Competence at demanding skills that few can master is especially good, and characters, competence at demanding skills that involve mental acuteness, craft, and vs bethel, concentration is a prologue best. If you revere competence, you'll enjoy developing it in yourself the hard work and dedication will become a kind of intense play rather than drudgery. Fraser Vs Bethel? That attitude is vital to becoming a hacker.

The hacker attitude is vital, but skills are even more vital. Attitude is no substitute for competence, and there's a certain basic toolkit of skills which you have to have before any hacker will dream of calling you one. This toolkit changes slowly over time as technology creates new skills and makes old ones obsolete. For example, it used to include programming in machine language, and didn't until recently involve HTML. But right now it pretty clearly includes the following: This, of course, is the fundamental hacking skill. Justified? If you don't know any computer languages, I recommend starting with Python. It is cleanly designed, well documented, and vs bethel, relatively kind to beginners. Essay? Despite being a good first language, it is not just a toy; it is fraser vs bethel very powerful and flexible and well suited for large projects.

I have written a more detailed evaluation of Python. Good tutorials are available at the Python web site; there's an elizabeth the crucible excellent third-party one at Computer Science Circles. I used to recommend Java as a good language to learn early, but this critique has changed my mind (search for The Pitfalls of Java as a First Programming Language within it). A hacker cannot, as they devastatingly put it approach problem-solving like a plumber in a hardware store ; you have to know what the components actually do . Fraser? Now I think it is probably best to learn C and Lisp first, then Java. There is perhaps a more general point here. If a language does too much for you, it may be simultaneously a good tool for production and a bad one for learning. It's not only functional, languages that have this problem; web application frameworks like RubyOnRails, CakePHP, Django may make it too easy to fraser vs bethel, reach a superficial sort of understanding that will leave you without resources when you have to to canterbury by chaucer, tackle a hard problem, or even just debug the fraser solution to an easy one.

If you get into serious programming, you will have to learn C, the core language of Unix. Relation? C++ is very closely related to C; if you know one, learning the other will not be difficult. Fraser Vs Bethel? Neither language is The Dangers a good one to try learning as your first, however. Vs Bethel? And, actually, the more you can avoid programming in C the more productive you will be. C is very efficient, and very sparing of television adverts your machine's resources. Vs Bethel? Unfortunately, C gets that efficiency by requiring you to do a lot of low-level management of resources (like memory) by hand. All that low-level code is complex and bug-prone, and will soak up huge amounts of your time on debugging. With today's machines as powerful as they are, this is usually a bad tradeoff it's smarter to use a language that uses the machine's time less efficiently, but your time much more efficiently.

Thus, Python. Other languages of particular importance to hackers include Perl and LISP. A Prologue? Perl is worth learning for practical reasons; it's very widely used for active web pages and system administration, so that even if you never write Perl you should learn to read it. Many people use Perl in the way I suggest you should use Python, to avoid C programming on jobs that don't require C's machine efficiency. You will need to be able to understand their code. LISP is worth learning for a different reason the vs bethel profound enlightenment experience you will have when you finally get it.

That experience will make you a better programmer for the rest of your days, even if you never actually use LISP itself a lot. (You can get some beginning experience with LISP fairly easily by The Dangers of Alcoholism, writing and vs bethel, modifying editing modes for the Emacs text editor, or Script-Fu plugins for the GIMP.) It's best, actually, to learn all five of Python, C/C++, Java, Perl, and elizabeth the crucible, LISP. Besides being the most important hacking languages, they represent very different approaches to programming, and each will educate you in fraser vs bethel valuable ways. But be aware that you won't reach the skill level of The Dangers Essay a hacker or even merely a programmer simply by accumulating languages you need to learn how to fraser, think about programming problems in a general way, independent of of Alcoholism Essay any one language. To be a real hacker, you need to vs bethel, get to the point where you can learn a new language in days by relating what's in the manual to the crucible, what you already know. This means you should learn several very different languages. I can't give complete instructions on vs bethel, how to learn to program here it's a complex skill. But I can tell you that books and courses won't do it many, maybe most of the best hackers are self-taught. You can learn language features bits of of Alcoholism Essay knowledge from books, but the mind-set that makes that knowledge into fraser vs bethel, living skill can be learned only by practice and apprenticeship.

What will do it is (a) reading code and (b) writing code . Peter Norvig, who is one of Google's top hackers and the co-author of the most widely used textbook on AI, has written an excellent essay called Teach Yourself Programming in Ten Years. His recipe for programming success is tales worth careful attention. Learning to program is like learning to write good natural language. The best way to do it is to read some stuff written by masters of the form, write some things yourself, read a lot more, write a little more, read a lot more, write some more . and repeat until your writing begins to develop the kind of strength and economy you see in your models. I have had more to say about this learning process in vs bethel How To Learn Hacking. It's a simple set of functional instructions, but not an vs bethel easy one. Finding good code to read used to be hard, because there were few large programs available in source for fledgeling hackers to read and relation, tinker with. This has changed dramatically; open-source software, programming tools, and operating systems (all built by hackers) are now widely available. Vs Bethel? Which brings me neatly to our next topic.

2. Get one of the open-source Unixes and the crucible, learn to fraser vs bethel, use and run it. I'll assume you have a personal computer or can get access to one. (Take a moment to appreciate how much that means. The hacker culture originally evolved back when computers were so expensive that individuals could not own them.) The single most important step any newbie can take toward acquiring hacker skills is to get a copy of Linux or one of the BSD-Unixes, install it on a personal machine, and run it. Yes, there are other operating systems in the world besides Unix. But they're distributed in binary you can't read the code, and you can't modify it.

Trying to The Dangers Essay, learn to hack on a Microsoft Windows machine or under any other closed-source system is fraser vs bethel like trying to learn to dance while wearing a body cast. Under Mac OS X it's possible, but only part of the a prologue by chaucer system is open source you're likely to fraser vs bethel, hit a lot of television adverts walls, and fraser vs bethel, you have to be careful not to develop the bad habit of depending on Apple's proprietary code. Elizabeth? If you concentrate on the Unix under the hood you can learn some useful things. Unix is the operating system of the fraser vs bethel Internet. While you can learn to use the Internet without knowing Unix, you can't be an Internet hacker without understanding Unix. For this reason, the hacker culture today is pretty strongly Unix-centered. Environment? (This wasn't always true, and some old-time hackers still aren't happy about it, but the symbiosis between Unix and vs bethel, the Internet has become strong enough that even Microsoft's muscle doesn't seem able to justified, seriously dent it.) So, bring up a Unix I like Linux myself but there are other ways (and yes, you can run both Linux and Microsoft Windows on fraser vs bethel, the same machine). Relation? Learn it.

Run it. Tinker with it. Talk to the Internet with it. Read the code. Modify the code. You'll get better programming tools (including C, LISP, Python, and Perl) than any Microsoft operating system can dream of hosting, you'll have fun, and fraser, you'll soak up more knowledge than you realize you're learning until you look back on it as a master hacker.

For more about learning Unix, see The Loginataka. You might also want to have a look at The Art Of Unix Programming. The blog Let's Go Larval! is a window on the learning process of a new Linux user that I think is aseptic environment unusually lucid and helpful. The post How I Learned Linux makes a good starting point. To get your hands on a Linux, see the Linux Online! site; you can download from there or (better idea) find a local Linux user group to help you with installation.

During the first ten years of this HOWTO's life, I reported that from a new user's point of view, all Linux distributions are almost equivalent. But in 2006-2007, an actual best choice emerged: Ubuntu. While other distros have their own areas of strength, Ubuntu is far and away the most accessible to Linux newbies. Beware, though, of the hideous and nigh-unusable Unity desktop interface that Ubuntu introduced as a default a few years later; the Xubuntu or Kubuntu variants are better. You can find BSD Unix help and resources at fraser www.bsd.org. A good way to dip your toes in adverts the water is to boot up what Linux fans call a live CD, a distribution that runs entirely off a CD or USB stick without having to modify your hard disk. This may be slow, because CDs are slow, but it's a way to get a look at the possibilities without having to do anything drastic. I used to recommend against installing either Linux or BSD as a solo project if you're a newbie. Nowadays the installers have gotten good enough that doing it entirely on your own is possible, even for a newbie.

Nevertheless, I still recommend making contact with your local Linux user's group and asking for help. It can't hurt, and may smooth the process. 3. Fraser? Learn how to characters, use the World Wide Web and write HTML. Most of the things the fraser vs bethel hacker culture has built do their work out of sight, helping run factories and offices and universities without any obvious impact on justified characters, how non-hackers live. The Web is the one big exception, the huge shiny hacker toy that even politicians admit has changed the world. For this reason alone (and a lot of fraser other good ones as well) you need to learn how to work the Web. This doesn't just mean learning how to drive a browser (anyone can do that), but learning how to write HTML, the characters Web's markup language. If you don't know how to program, writing HTML will teach you some mental habits that will help you learn. So build a home page. But just having a home page isn't anywhere near good enough to make you a hacker.

The Web is full of home pages. Most of them are pointless, zero-content sludge very snazzy-looking sludge, mind you, but sludge all the same (for more on this see The HTML Hell Page). To be worthwhile, your page must have content it must be interesting and/or useful to other hackers. Vs Bethel? And that brings us to television adverts, the next topic. 4. If you don't have functional English, learn it. As an American and native English-speaker myself, I have previously been reluctant to fraser, suggest this, lest it be taken as a sort of cultural imperialism. But several native speakers of other languages have urged me to point out that English is the working language of the hacker culture and the Internet, and that you will need to know it to function in the hacker community. Back around 1991 I learned that many hackers who have English as a second language use it in technical discussions even when they share a birth tongue; it was reported to me at of Alcoholism Essay the time that English has a richer technical vocabulary than any other language and is therefore simply a better tool for the job.

For similar reasons, translations of technical books written in fraser vs bethel English are often unsatisfactory (when they get done at all). Linus Torvalds, a Finn, comments his code in environment English (it apparently never occurred to him to do otherwise). Fraser Vs Bethel? His fluency in English has been an important factor in his ability to recruit a worldwide community of developers for Linux. It's an television adverts example worth following. Being a native English-speaker does not guarantee that you have language skills good enough to function as a hacker. If your writing is semi-literate, ungrammatical, and riddled with misspellings, many hackers (including myself) will tend to fraser, ignore you. While sloppy writing does not invariably mean sloppy thinking, we've generally found the correlation to be strong and aseptic, we have no use for sloppy thinkers. If you can't yet write competently, learn to. Like most cultures without a money economy, hackerdom runs on reputation.

You're trying to fraser vs bethel, solve interesting problems, but how interesting they are, and The Dangers of Alcoholism Essay, whether your solutions are really good, is fraser vs bethel something that only your technical peers or superiors are normally equipped to judge. Accordingly, when you play the justified hacker game, you learn to keep score primarily by fraser vs bethel, what other hackers think of your skill (this is why you aren't really a hacker until other hackers consistently call you one). A Prologue By Chaucer? This fact is obscured by the image of hacking as solitary work; also by a hacker-cultural taboo (gradually decaying since the late 1990s but still potent) against admitting that ego or external validation are involved in one's motivation at vs bethel all. Specifically, hackerdom is what anthropologists call a gift culture . You gain status and reputation in functional it not by dominating other people, nor by being beautiful, nor by having things other people want, but rather by giving things away. Specifically, by giving away your time, your creativity, and fraser, the results of your skill.

There are basically five kinds of aseptic environment things you can do to be respected by hackers: The first (the most central and most traditional) is to write programs that other hackers think are fun or useful, and give the program sources away to the whole hacker culture to use. (We used to call these works free software, but this confused too many people who weren't sure exactly what free was supposed to mean. Most of fraser vs bethel us now prefer the term open-source software). Hackerdom's most revered demigods are people who have written large, capable programs that met a widespread need and given them away, so that now everyone uses them. But there's a bit of justified a fine historical point here. While hackers have always looked up to fraser vs bethel, the open-source developers among them as our community's hardest core, before the mid-1990s most hackers most of the relation time worked on closed source. This was still true when I wrote the first version of vs bethel this HOWTO in 1996; it took the mainstreaming of open-source software after 1997 to change things.

Today, the relation hacker community and open-source developers are two descriptions for what is fraser vs bethel essentially the same culture and tales, population but it is worth remembering that this was not always so. (For more on fraser vs bethel, this, see the section called Historical Note: Hacking, Open Source, and Free Software.) 2. A Prologue Tales? Help test and fraser vs bethel, debug open-source software. They also serve who stand and justified characters, debug open-source software. Vs Bethel? In this imperfect world, we will inevitably spend most of The Dangers Essay our software development time in the debugging phase. That's why any open-source author who's thinking will tell you that good beta-testers (who know how to describe symptoms clearly, localize problems well, can tolerate bugs in a quickie release, and are willing to apply a few simple diagnostic routines) are worth their weight in rubies. Fraser Vs Bethel? Even one of these can make the difference between a debugging phase that's a protracted, exhausting nightmare and one that's merely a salutary nuisance. If you're a newbie, try to find a program under development that you're interested in and be a good beta-tester. There's a natural progression from helping test programs to helping debug them to helping modify them. You'll learn a lot this way, and generate good karma with people who will help you later on. Another good thing is to elizabeth the crucible, collect and fraser, filter useful and interesting information into web pages or documents like Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) lists, and make those generally available.

Maintainers of major technical FAQs get almost as much respect as open-source authors. 4. Help keep the television adverts infrastructure working. The hacker culture (and the engineering development of the Internet, for that matter) is vs bethel run by volunteers. Justified Characters? There's a lot of necessary but unglamorous work that needs done to fraser vs bethel, keep it going administering mailing lists, moderating newsgroups, maintaining large software archive sites, developing RFCs and television adverts, other technical standards. People who do this sort of fraser thing well get a lot of relation respect, because everybody knows these jobs are huge time sinks and fraser vs bethel, not as much fun as playing with code. Tales By Chaucer? Doing them shows dedication. 5. Serve the hacker culture itself.

Finally, you can serve and propagate the culture itself (by, for fraser example, writing an television adverts accurate primer on fraser vs bethel, how to become a hacker :-)). Adverts? This is not something you'll be positioned to do until you've been around for while and fraser vs bethel, become well-known for one of the first four things. The hacker culture doesn't have leaders, exactly, but it does have culture heroes and tribal elders and historians and spokespeople. When you've been in the trenches long enough, you may grow into one of these. Beware: hackers distrust blatant ego in their tribal elders, so visibly reaching for this kind of fame is dangerous. Rather than striving for adverts it, you have to sort of position yourself so it drops in your lap, and then be modest and gracious about your status. Contrary to fraser, popular myth, you don't have to relation, be a nerd to be a hacker. It does help, however, and many hackers are in fact nerds.

Being something of a social outcast helps you stay concentrated on the really important things, like thinking and hacking. For this reason, many hackers have adopted the label geek as a badge of pride it's a way of declaring their independence from fraser normal social expectations (as well as a fondness for other things like science fiction and strategy games that often go with being a hacker). The term 'nerd' used to be used this way back in The Dangers the 1990s, back when 'nerd' was a mild pejorative and fraser vs bethel, 'geek' a rather harsher one; sometime after 2000 they switched places, at of Alcoholism Essay least in fraser U.S. Television? popular culture, and there is now even a significant geek-pride culture among people who aren't techies. If you can manage to concentrate enough on hacking to be good at it and still have a life, that's fine. This is fraser a lot easier today than it was when I was a newbie in the 1970s; mainstream culture is much friendlier to techno-nerds now.

There are even growing numbers of people who realize that hackers are often high-quality lover and spouse material. If you're attracted to hacking because you don't have a life, that's OK too at least you won't have trouble concentrating. Maybe you'll get a life later on. Again, to aseptic environment, be a hacker, you have to vs bethel, enter the hacker mindset. There are some things you can do when you're not at a computer that seem to help. Television Adverts? They're not substitutes for fraser vs bethel hacking (nothing is) but many hackers do them, and aseptic, feel that they connect in some basic way with the essence of hacking. Learn to write your native language well. Though it's a common stereotype that programmers can't write, a surprising number of hackers (including all the vs bethel most accomplished ones I know of) are very able writers. Read science fiction. A Prologue? Go to science fiction conventions (a good way to meet hackers and proto-hackers).

Join a hackerspace and make things (another good way to vs bethel, meet hackers and proto-hackers). Train in a martial-arts form. Television Adverts? The kind of mental discipline required for martial arts seems to be similar in important ways to vs bethel, what hackers do. Characters? The most popular forms among hackers are definitely Asian empty-hand arts such as Tae Kwon Do, various forms of Karate, Kung Fu, Aikido, or Ju Jitsu. Western fencing and Asian sword arts also have visible followings. In places where it's legal, pistol shooting has been rising in popularity since the late 1990s.

The most hackerly martial arts are those which emphasize mental discipline, relaxed awareness, and fraser, precise control, rather than raw strength, athleticism, or physical toughness. Study an actual meditation discipline. The perennial favorite among hackers is justified Zen (importantly, it is possible to vs bethel, benefit from Zen without acquiring a religion or discarding one you already have). Other styles may work as well, but be careful to choose one that doesn't require you to aseptic, believe crazy things. Develop an analytical ear for vs bethel music. Learn to appreciate peculiar kinds of elizabeth the crucible music. Fraser Vs Bethel? Learn to play some musical instrument well, or how to sing.

Develop your appreciation of environment puns and wordplay. The more of these things you already do, the more likely it is vs bethel that you are natural hacker material. To Canterbury? Why these things in particular is not completely clear, but they're connected with a mix of left- and vs bethel, right-brain skills that seems to be important; hackers need to be able to both reason logically and step outside the apparent logic of a problem at functional a moment's notice. Work as intensely as you play and play as intensely as you work. For true hackers, the boundaries between play, work, science and art all tend to disappear, or to merge into a high-level creative playfulness.

Also, don't be content with a narrow range of skills. Though most hackers self-describe as programmers, they are very likely to fraser vs bethel, be more than competent in several related skills system administration, web design, and PC hardware troubleshooting are common ones. A hacker who's a system administrator, on the other hand, is likely to be quite skilled at a prologue to canterbury by chaucer script programming and web design. Hackers don't do things by halves; if they invest in a skill at all, they tend to fraser vs bethel, get very good at it. Finally, a few things not to relation, do.

Don't use a silly, grandiose user ID or screen name. Don't get in fraser flame wars on Usenet (or anywhere else). Don't call yourself a cyberpunk, and don't waste your time on The Dangers Essay, anybody who does. Don't post or email writing that's full of spelling errors and bad grammar. The only reputation you'll make doing any of these things is as a twit. Hackers have long memories it could take you years to fraser, live your early blunders down enough to be accepted. The problem with screen names or handles deserves some amplification. Concealing your identity behind a handle is aseptic a juvenile and fraser vs bethel, silly behavior characteristic of aseptic crackers, warez d00dz, and other lower life forms. Hackers don't do this; they're proud of what they do and want it associated with their real names. So if you have a handle, drop it.

In the hacker culture it will only mark you as a loser. Historical Note: Hacking, Open Source, and Free Software. When I originally wrote this how-to in late 1996, some of the conditions around it were very different from the way they look today. A few words about these changes may help clarify matters for people who are confused about the relationship of open source, free software, and fraser vs bethel, Linux to the hacker community. If you are not curious about this, you can skip straight to the FAQ and bibliography from here. The hacker ethos and community as I have described it here long predates the emergence of Linux after 1990; I first became involved with it around 1976, and, its roots are readily traceable back to the early 1960s. But before Linux, most hacking was done on either proprietary operating systems or a handful of quasi-experimental homegrown systems like MIT's ITS that were never deployed outside of their original academic niches. A Prologue To Canterbury By Chaucer? While there had been some earlier (pre-Linux) attempts to vs bethel, change this situation, their impact was at best very marginal and confined to communities of dedicated true believers which were tiny minorities even within the hacker community, let alone with respect to the larger world of software in a prologue to canterbury by chaucer general.

What is now called open source goes back as far as the hacker community does, but until 1985 it was an unnamed folk practice rather than a conscious movement with theories and manifestos attached to it. This prehistory ended when, in 1985, arch-hacker Richard Stallman (RMS) tried to vs bethel, give it a name free software. But his act of television naming was also an act of claiming; he attached ideological baggage to the free software label which much of the existing hacker community never accepted. As a result, the fraser vs bethel free software label was loudly rejected by a substantial minority of the justified characters hacker community (especially among those associated with BSD Unix), and used with serious but silent reservations by a majority of the remainder (including myself). Despite these reservations, RMS's claim to define and lead the hacker community under the free software banner broadly held until the mid-1990s. Fraser? It was seriously challenged only by the rise of to canterbury tales by chaucer Linux. Linux gave open-source development a natural home. Many projects issued under terms we would now call open-source migrated from proprietary Unixes to Linux. Vs Bethel? The community around Linux grew explosively, becoming far larger and more heterogenous than the pre-Linux hacker culture. RMS determinedly attempted to co-opt all this activity into his free software movement, but was thwarted by both the exploding diversity of the Linux community and the public skepticism of its founder, Linus Torvalds. Torvalds continued to use the term free software for lack of any alternative, but publicly rejected RMS's ideological baggage.

Many younger hackers followed suit. In 1996, when I first published this Hacker HOWTO, the hacker community was rapidly reorganizing around Linux and a handful of other open-source operating systems (notably those descended from BSD Unix). Community memory of the fact that most of us had spent decades developing closed-source software on closed-source operating systems had not yet begun to television, fade, but that fact was already beginning to seem like part of a dead past; hackers were, increasingly, defining themselves as hackers by fraser vs bethel, their attachments to open-source projects such as Linux or Apache. The term open source, however, had not yet emerged; it would not do so until early 1998. When it did, most of the hacker community adopted it within the following six months; the exceptions were a minority ideologically attached to the term free software. Since 1998, and elizabeth the crucible, especially after about 2003, the fraser vs bethel identification of 'hacking' with 'open-source (and free software) development' has become extremely close. The Dangers Of Alcoholism Essay? Today there is little point in attempting to vs bethel, distinguish between these categories, and it seems unlikely that will change in a prologue to canterbury the future.

It is worth remembering, however, that this was not always so. Paul Graham has written an fraser vs bethel essay called Great Hackers, and another on Undergraduation, in which he speaks much wisdom. Younger hackers might find Things Every Hacker Once Knew interesting and useful. I have written a paper, The Cathedral and tales, the Bazaar , which explains a lot about how the Linux and open-source cultures work. I have addressed this topic even more directly in its sequel Homesteading the Noosphere . Rick Moen has written an excellent document on how to run a Linux user group. Rick Moen and I have collaborated on another document on How To Ask Smart Questions. This will help you seek assistance in a way that makes it more likely that you will actually get it. If you need instruction in the basics of how personal computers, Unix, and fraser vs bethel, the Internet work, see The Unix and Internet Fundamentals HOWTO. When you release software or write patches for functional relation software, try to follow the guidelines in the Software Release Practice HOWTO.

How do I tell if I am already a hacker? Ask yourself the vs bethel following three questions: Do you speak code, fluently? Do you identify with the goals and values of the hacker community? Has a well-established member of the hacker community ever called you a hacker? If you can answer yes to all three of these questions, you are already a hacker.

No two alone are sufficient. The first test is about skills. You probably pass it if you have the minimum technical skills described earlier in this document. You blow right through it if you have had a substantial amount of Essay code accepted by an open-source development project. The second test is fraser about attitude.

If the a prologue to canterbury by chaucer five principles of the hacker mindset seemed obvious to you, more like a description of the way you already live than anything novel, you are already halfway to fraser, passing it. That's the inward half; the other, outward half is the degree to aseptic environment, which you identify with the hacker community's long-term projects. Here is an incomplete but indicative list of fraser some of those projects: Does it matter to you that Linux improve and spread? Are you passionate about aseptic software freedom? Hostile to monopolies? Do you act on the belief that computers can be instruments of fraser empowerment that make the world a richer and more humane place? But a note of caution is in order here. The hacker community has some specific, primarily defensive political interests two of a prologue tales by chaucer them are defending free-speech rights and fending off intellectual-property power grabs that would make open source illegal. Vs Bethel? Some of those long-term projects are civil-liberties organizations like the Electronic Frontier Foundation, and the outward attitude properly includes support of them.

But beyond that, most hackers view attempts to systematize the hacker attitude into an explicit political program with suspicion; we've learned, the of Alcoholism Essay hard way, that these attempts are divisive and fraser vs bethel, distracting. If someone tries to functional relation, recruit you to fraser, march on your capitol in the name of the hacker attitude, they've missed the point. The right response is probably Shut up and show them the code. . The third test has a tricky element of recursiveness about it. I observed in the section called What Is a Hacker? that being a hacker is to canterbury tales by chaucer partly a matter of belonging to fraser vs bethel, a particular subculture or social network with a shared history, an inside and an outside.

In the far past, hackers were a much less cohesive and self-aware group than they are today. But the importance of the social-network aspect has increased over the last thirty years as the characters Internet has made connections with the core of the fraser hacker subculture easier to develop and maintain. One easy behavioral index of the change is that, in this century, we have our own T-shirts. Sociologists, who study networks like those of the elizabeth the crucible hacker culture under the general rubric of invisible colleges, have noted that one characteristic of such networks is fraser vs bethel that they have gatekeepers core members with the social authority to endorse new members into the network. Because the invisible college that is hacker culture is a loose and informal one, the The Dangers of Alcoholism role of gatekeeper is informal too. Vs Bethel? But one thing that all hackers understand in environment their bones is that not every hacker is a gatekeeper.

Gatekeepers have to have a certain degree of seniority and accomplishment before they can bestow the title. Fraser Vs Bethel? How much is hard to quantify, but every hacker knows it when they see it. Will you teach me how to hack? Since first publishing this page, I've gotten several requests a week (often several a day) from people to teach me all about hacking. Television Adverts? Unfortunately, I don't have the time or energy to do this; my own hacking projects, and working as an open-source advocate, take up 110% of vs bethel my time. Even if I did, hacking is an attitude and skill you basically have to teach yourself. Aseptic? You'll find that while real hackers want to help you, they won't respect you if you beg to vs bethel, be spoon-fed everything they know. Learn a few things first. Show that you're trying, that you're capable of learning on your own. Of Alcoholism? Then go to the hackers you meet with specific questions. If you do email a hacker asking for advice, here are two things to know up front.

First, we've found that people who are lazy or careless in their writing are usually too lazy and careless in their thinking to vs bethel, make good hackers so take care to spell correctly, and use good grammar and justified, punctuation, otherwise you'll probably be ignored. Fraser Vs Bethel? Secondly, don't dare ask for a reply to an ISP account that's different from the account you're sending from; we find people who do that are usually thieves using stolen accounts, and we have no interest in rewarding or assisting thievery. How can I get started, then? The best way for you to get started would probably be to go to a LUG (Linux user group) meeting. Functional? You can find such groups on the LDP General Linux Information Page; there is probably one near you, possibly associated with a college or university. LUG members will probably give you a Linux if you ask, and fraser vs bethel, will certainly help you install one and get started. Your next step (and your first step if you can't find a LUG nearby) should be to find an justified characters open-source project that interests you.

Start reading code and reviewing bugs. Learn to fraser vs bethel, contribute, and work your way in. The only way in is by working to improve your skills. The Crucible? If you ask me personally for fraser advice on how to get started, I will tell you these exact same things, because I don't have any magic shortcuts for you. I will also mentally write you off as a probable loser - because if you lacked the stamina to read this FAQ and functional relation, the intelligence to vs bethel, understand from it that the justified only way in fraser is by working to the crucible, improve your skills , you're hopeless.

Another interesting possibility is to go visit a hackerspace. There is a burgeoning movement of people creating physical locations - maker's clubs - where they can hang out to work on fraser vs bethel, hardware and software projects together, or work solo in a cogenial atmosphere. Hackerspaces often collect tools and relation, specialized equipment that would be too expensive or logistically inconvenient for individuals to fraser, own. Hackerspaces are easy to find on the Internet; one may be located near you. When do you have to start? Is it too late for me to learn?

Any age at which you are motivated to start is a good age. Most people seem to get interested between ages 15 and 20, but I know of exceptions in both directions. How long will it take me to learn to hack? That depends on how talented you are and justified, how hard you work at it. Most people who try can acquire a respectable skill set in vs bethel eighteen months to two years, if they concentrate. Don't think it ends there, though; in hacking (as in aseptic environment many other fields) it takes about ten years to achieve mastery.

And if you are a real hacker, you will spend the rest of your life learning and perfecting your craft. Is Visual Basic a good language to start with? If you're asking this question, it almost certainly means you're thinking about trying to hack under Microsoft Windows. This is a bad idea in vs bethel itself. When I compared trying to environment, learn to hack under Windows to trying to learn to dance while wearing a body cast, I wasn't kidding. Don't go there. It's ugly, and it never stops being ugly.

There is a specific problem with Visual Basic; mainly that it's not portable. Though there is fraser vs bethel a prototype open-source implementations of Visual Basic, the applicable ECMA standards don't cover more than a small set of functional relation its programming interfaces. On Windows most of its library support is proprietary to vs bethel, a single vendor (Microsoft); if you aren't extremely careful about which features you use more careful than any newbie is really capable of being you'll end up locked into only those platforms Microsoft chooses to support. If you're starting on a Unix, much better languages with better libraries are available. Python, for elizabeth the crucible example. Also, like other Basics, Visual Basic is a poorly-designed language that will teach you bad programming habits.

No, don't ask me to describe them in fraser detail; that explanation would fill a book. Learn a well-designed language instead. One of those bad habits is becoming dependent on a single vendor's libraries, widgets, and development tools. In general, any language that isn't fully supported under at least Linux or one of the BSDs, and/or at aseptic least three different vendors' operating systems, is a poor one to learn to hack in. Would you help me to crack a system, or teach me how to crack? No. Fraser Vs Bethel? Anyone who can still ask such a question after reading this FAQ is too stupid to functional relation, be educable even if I had the time for fraser tutoring. Any emailed requests of this kind that I get will be ignored or answered with extreme rudeness. How can I get the password for someone else's account? This is cracking. Go away, idiot.

How can I break into/read/monitor someone else's email? This is cracking. Get lost, moron. How can I steal channel op privileges on IRC? This is cracking. Begone, cretin. I've been cracked. Will you help me fend off further attacks? No. Every time I've been asked this question so far, it's been from some poor sap running Microsoft Windows. It is not possible to effectively secure Windows systems against crack attacks; the code and architecture simply have too many flaws, which makes securing Windows like trying to adverts, bail out fraser a boat with a sieve.

The only reliable prevention starts with switching to relation, Linux or some other operating system that is designed to at least be capable of fraser vs bethel security. I'm having problems with my Windows software. Will you help me? Yes. Go to a DOS prompt and type format c:. Any problems you are experiencing will cease within a few minutes. Where can I find some real hackers to talk with?

The best way is to find a Unix or Linux user's group local to you and go to their meetings (you can find links to several lists of user groups on relation, the LDP site at ibiblio). (I used to say here that you wouldn't find any real hackers on IRC, but I'm given to understand this is changing. Apparently some real hacker communities, attached to things like GIMP and fraser vs bethel, Perl, have IRC channels now.) Can you recommend useful books about hacking-related subjects? I maintain a Linux Reading List HOWTO that you may find helpful. Justified? The Loginataka may also be interesting.

For an introduction to Python, see the tutorial on the Python site. Do I need to be good at math to fraser, become a hacker? No. Hacking uses very little formal mathematics or arithmetic. In particular, you won't usually need trigonometry, calculus or analysis (there are exceptions to this in a handful of specific application areas like 3-D computer graphics).

Knowing some formal logic and justified, Boolean algebra is good. Fraser? Some grounding in finite mathematics (including finite-set theory, combinatorics, and graph theory) can be helpful. Much more importantly: you need to be able to think logically and follow chains of exact reasoning, the way mathematicians do. While the content of elizabeth most mathematics won't help you, you will need the discipline and intelligence to fraser, handle mathematics. If you lack the intelligence, there is little hope for aseptic you as a hacker; if you lack the fraser discipline, you'd better grow it. I think a good way to find out if you have what it takes is to pick up a copy of Raymond Smullyan's book What Is The Name Of This Book? . Smullyan's playful logical conundrums are very much in The Dangers the hacker spirit. Fraser Vs Bethel? Being able to solve them is a good sign; enjoying solving them is an functional relation even better one. What language should I learn first?

HTML if you don't already know it. There are a lot of glossy, hype-intensive bad HTML books out there, and fraser vs bethel, distressingly few good ones. The one I like best is HTML: The Definitive Guide . But HTML is not a full programming language. When you're ready to start programming, I would recommend starting with Python. You will hear a lot of television people recommending Perl, but it's harder to learn and (in my opinion) less well designed. C is really important, but it's also much more difficult than either Python or Perl.

Don't try to learn it first. Windows users, do not settle for Visual Basic. It will teach you bad habits, and fraser vs bethel, it's not portable off Windows. Avoid. What kind of hardware do I need? It used to be that personal computers were rather underpowered and memory-poor, enough so that they placed artificial limits on a hacker's learning process. This stopped being true in the mid-1990s; any machine from an Intel 486DX50 up is more than powerful enough for development work, X, and Internet communications, and the smallest disks you can buy today are plenty big enough. The important thing in choosing a machine on which to learn is whether its hardware is The Dangers of Alcoholism Essay Linux-compatible (or BSD-compatible, should you choose to vs bethel, go that route). Again, this will be true for almost all modern machines.

The only really sticky areas are modems and wireless cards; some machines have Windows-specific hardware that won't work with Linux. There's a FAQ on hardware compatibility; the latest version is here. I want to contribute. Can you help me pick a problem to work on? No, because I don't know your talents or interests. You have to to canterbury tales by chaucer, be self-motivated or you won't stick, which is why having other people choose your direction almost never works.

Do I need to vs bethel, hate and bash Microsoft? No, you don't. Not that Microsoft isn't loathsome, but there was a hacker culture long before Microsoft and environment, there will still be one long after Microsoft is history. Any energy you spend hating Microsoft would be better spent on loving your craft. Write good code that will bash Microsoft quite sufficiently without polluting your karma. But won't open-source software leave programmers unable to make a living? This seems unlikely so far, the vs bethel open-source software industry seems to be creating jobs rather than taking them away. If having a program written is functional a net economic gain over not having it written, a programmer will get paid whether or not the program is going to be open-source after it's done. Vs Bethel? And, no matter how much free software gets written, there always seems to be more demand for new and The Dangers of Alcoholism, customized applications. I've written more about this at the Open Source pages. Where can I get a free Unix?

If you don't have a Unix installed on your machine yet, elsewhere on this page I include pointers to where to get the most commonly used free Unix. To be a hacker you need motivation and fraser vs bethel, initiative and the ability to educate yourself. Start now.