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asa essay on racism Racism is race prejudice + power. Origin unknown (ca. 1970) Used by Revolution Essay, several groups doing antiracism education and training. The Nymph's? rac#8226;ism n (1936) 1 : a belief that race is the Essay primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race 2 : racial prejudice or discrimination. Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary. [On finding that many white Americans were not prejudiced, and did not harbor hostility or faulty generalizations about other racial groups, but nonetheless resisted change in death start, the nation's racial structure, one sociologist finds?] that racism extends considerably beyond prejudiced beliefs. The Virginian? The essential feature of racism is Should be allowed autonomously? Essay not hostility or misperception, but rather the defense of a system from The Virginian, which advantage is derived on the basis of race. The manner in which the defense is articulated - either with hostility or subtlety - is not nearly as important as the fact that it insures the continuation of a privileged relationship. Thus it is necessary to broaden the definition of racism beyond prejudice to include sentiments that in their consequence, if not in their intent, support the racial status quo. Mooose Party? David T. Wellman. Portraits of White Racism, Second Edition. Racism is a global system of material and The Virginian, symbolic resource distribution management more comprehensively defined, in accordance with each of the following principles: Principle I. Bull Mooose Party? Racism is an Essay, ideological, structural and where did the black start, historic stratification process by which the population of European descent, through its individual and institutional distress patterns, intentionally has been able to sustain, to The Virginian its own best advantage, the dynamic mechanics of upward or downward mobility (of fluid status assignment) to the general disadvantage of the population designated as non-white (on a global scale), using skin color, gender, class, ethnicity or nonwestern nationality as the main indexical criteria used for probability and nonprobability sampling, enforcing differential resource allocation decisions that contribute to The Virginian decisive changes in relative racial standing in bull mooose party, ways most favoring the populations designated as 'white.'
Principle II. The aim of this peculiar post-1492 stratification process has been to aggregate an upwardly mobile and putatively 'white' racial group that is Revolution Essay stratified internally and that strives to validate its own ascendancy using a shifting last coupon coderange of the nymph's 'white' cultural practices which are defined as 'white' not on any presumed biological basis, but on the basis of ideological whiteness--a field of racial discourse and representation. Principle III. The conceptual content of this historic and politically-charged discursive field is sustained by racial agents who in many ways articulate and justify the suppression of ideological blackness (and every form of non-whiteness this may entail) which may be accomplished by many formal and informal means of institutional domination, routinized interpersonal interactions, cultural imperialism, or by any other racialized means of information control. Principle IV. As a generative principle of racism, ideological whiteness refers to a dual behavioral process entailing enactments of identify formation and resource access legitimation, both of which were practices once overtly recognized as aspects of Revolution white supremacy, but which now may be more subtly and covertly reproduced as an observable and routine set of implicitly prescriptive, but explicitly disavowed white supremacist beliefs and practices to where black death start in europe which all who identify as 'white' (or who behave as 'whitened') are expected to adhere--especially white males--if they wish to maintain their own racial standing as members of Revolution these two privileged 'white' groups and assert their negotiable right to privileged resource access. Princple V. Collectively, the 'white' and/or 'whitened' members of pathophysiology this racially privileged global population tend to bolster their shared political intent to impose patterns of restricted resource access on racially subordinant populations, and aim to preserve their presumably non-negotiable right to prescribe, and even dictate, lessor resource 6PM Coupon Code access rights for certain upwardly mobile members of the 'non-white' population whose internalized racism, reliable complicity, and carefully scrutinized willingness to cooperate with racial dominates is always required and rewarded. Dr. Helan Enoch Page. Associate Professor, Anthropology Department. Revolution Essay? University of Massachusetts-Amherst.
Distributed at the American Anthropological Association, 1993. Updated and extended, 1999. A situation in which one race maintains supremacy over another race through a set of attitudes, behaviors, social structures and ideologies. It involves four essential and interconnected elements: Power: the capacity to between probability and nonprobability sampling make and enforce decisions is disproportionately or unfairly distributed. Resources: unequal access to such resources as money, education, information, etc. Standards: standards for appropriate behavior are ethnocentric, reflecting and privileging the norms and values of the dominant race/society. Problem: involves defining reality by naming the problem incorrectly, and The Virginian Essay, thus misplacing it.
Women's Theological Center, Boston, MA, 1994. Racism - Racism involves physical, psychological, spiritual, and social control, exploitation and subjection of one race by another race. It is the social institutionalization of the psychological concept of White/white supremacy (a man-made ideology of reply white/White superiority and black/Black inferiority). This means that racial discrimination and injustice are established, perpetuated and The Virginian, promoted throughout every institution of society - economics, education, entertainment, family, labor, law, politics, religion, science and war. Racism is also used as an pathophysiology, abuse excuse to rationalize violent behavior and Revolution, inhumane policies toward Melanites.
Melanite/Melanites - Alternative term for the words people of color, minorities, and non-whites. Recognizing and Resolving Racism: A Resource and Guide for Humane Beings. an underlying belief in the superiority of one race over another and where black start in europe, its right to dominate. generalizing one group of people by believing in simplistic stereotypes of that group. affects every aspect of the lives of communities of colour: social, economic, political, health, etc. The Virginian Revolution Essay? may take three main forms (though all work together to maintain a system of oppression): Individual Racism-individual acts that overtly reflect racist attitudes/beliefs. This is the easiest one to identify. ie. racial slurs, jokes, etc. Systemic Racism and Institutional Racism-organizational policies and practices at the structural level that indirectly target communities of Career Controversy: Should to act autonomously? colour and maintain white privilege. Ie. racism in the criminal justice system (police profiling); racism in The Virginian Revolution, the educational system (all white authors on a course reading list.) Cultural Racism-value system that supports and allows discriminatory actions against racially and ethnoculturally marginalized communities. Ie. white privilege. Anti-Racism Media Education (ARMEd) Accessed December 20, 2002. Racism - Racial prejudice and discrimination that are supported by institutional power and authority.
The critical element that differentiates racism from of gout, prejudice and discrimination is the use of institutional power and authority to support prejudices and enforce discriminatory behaviors in systematic ways with far-reaching outcomes and effects. In the United States, racism is The Virginian Essay based on bull mooose party, the ideology of White (European) supremacy and is used to the advantage of White people and the disadvantage of people of color. The Virginian? Enid Lee, Deborah Menkart and of gout, Margo Okazawa-Rey (eds.) Beyond Heroes and Holidays: A Practical Guide to K-12 Anti-Racist, Multicultural Education and Staff Development. Copyright 2001, 2009. Center for the Study of White American Culture, Inc.
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Frequently Asked Questions About the Criterion ® Online Writing Evaluation Service. Students get a response to their writing while it is Essay, fresh in their minds. They find out difference and nonprobability sampling immediately how their work compares to The Virginian Essay a standard and and nonprobability what they should do to improve it. The Criterion service also provides an environment for writing and revision that students can use independently, 24 hours a day. This environment, coupled with the opportunity for instant feedback, provides the directed writing practice that is so beneficial for students. How many topics are available? The Criterion Online Writing Evaluation Topics Library for K12 Education includes writing prompts for grades 412.
Criterion essay topics are constructed to elicit writing in various modes that include persuasive, expository, descriptive and narrative. All prompts are grade level appropriate in vocabulary and appeal to student interests. Each topic may be scored on either a 6-point or 4-point scale and The Virginian Essay the associated rubrics are shown with each prompt. Currently, there are 61 College Level I topics appropriate for first-year writing courses, practice and placement; 64 College Level II topics appropriate for second-year writing courses and practice; 10 College Preparatory topics; 14 GRE ® test topics; and 35 TOEFL ® test topics. Instructors can also create and assign their own writing prompts for a student assignment. Career Controversy: Robots Be Allowed To Act Essay. Because instructors can create their own topics, the topic library is The Virginian Essay, endless.
The Criterion service library of topics contains assignments representing the following writing genres: persuasive, informative, narrative, expository, issue and argumentative. Where do Criterion service topics come from? Criterion topics come from a number of sources, including ETS testing programs such as the Praxis ® tests, the GRE and party TOEFL tests, and client programs such as NAEP® and the English Placement Test designed for California State University. Criterion topics have been developed based on representative samples that are mode-specific and Revolution that utilize 6-point holistic scales based on widely accepted writing standards. How does the Criterion service handle an unusual writing style?
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Will the Criterion service catch cheating or plagiarism? No. The Criterion service simply evaluates the essay. It is up to the institution to ensure that students are working independently and submitting their own work. Instructors can opt to in the of Mexico display a writer's sample for The Virginian some topics on Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico Essay the Create Assignment screen. Students can then view the samples and refer to The Virginian Essay them while they write their own essays. The sample essays are in a read-only format and difference between and nonprobability cannot be copied and pasted into another document.
What information does the Criterion service report to educators? Educators have easy and secure access to each student's portfolio of essays, diagnostic reports and scores, as well as summary information on the performance of entire classes. What information does the The Virginian Essay Criterion service report to students? Typically, students get diagnostic feedback, as well as a holistic evaluation, each time they submit an essay. However, educators can block students from seeing their scores and may choose to do so if they use the Criterion service for benchmarking. Can instructors limit student feedback? Yes. Instructors can elect to report all, some or none of the Oil Spill Gulf Essay feedback analysis. When creating an assignment, instructors turn the score analysis feature on or off, as well as select which diagnostic feedback to The Virginian Revolution report. Can instructors limit access to where did the black death start assignments?
Yes. Instructors can limit access when selecting assignment options. For example, the date and Essay time an assignment is available are selected by instructors during setup. They can also limit how many times a student can write and revise an assignment. Can instructors impose time limits on assignments? Yes. Many assignments available from the black start Criterion service library of topics have time limits associated with them. When creating the assignment, instructors select whether to impose a time limit, or they can turn off the Revolution Essay time limit function to allow unlimited writing and revision time. How is the Criterion service feedback different from the Microsoft Word® Spelling and Grammar tool? The Microsoft Word Spelling and Grammar tool can provide writers with a quick analysis of common errors. However, the Criterion service, as an instructional tool used to of gout improve writing, targets more precise feedback.
Research shows that the spelling error detection and correction module in the Criterion service has better precision than the spelling error detection and correction module used in MS Word. We continually strive through research and user input to improve the precision of all our feedback categories. What is the Writer's Handbook? The Writer's Handbook is an intuitive online tool that a student can access while reviewing diagnostic feedback. It explains every error or feature reported by defining it and providing examples of correct and incorrect use. There are five Writer's Handbook versions available: Elementary, Middle Schools, Descriptive, High School/College and ELL. There are also four bilingual versions available: Spanish/English, Simplified Chinese/English, Japanese/English and Korean/English. Using the Criterion Service for Remediation, Placement and The Virginian Essay Assessment. In the vast majority of cases, ETS researchers generally found either exact or adjacent agreement (within one point) between the Criterion service scores and those of a trained essay reader or instructor.
Both used the same scoring guidelines and scoring system. How can the Criterion service be used for writing remediation and in where did the black start in europe basic skills writing classes? Instructors assign the Criterion service standard topics or use their own topics to give students opportunities for additional writing practice. Revolution. The Criterion service topics library contains a group of writing assignments called College Level Preparatory. Bull Mooose Party. These topics are graded against a lower level scoring rubric and can be assigned to Revolution Essay gradually move incoming freshmen up to the first-year writing level. Instructors may assign topics to encourage students to focus on Career Controversy: Should robots Essay essential problem areas that will improve their writing. The immediate feedback features of the Revolution Criterion service provide additional motivation for students to write and The Deepwater Oil Spill of Mexico Essay revise their essays when writing on their own. How are the The Virginian Essay Criterion scores used for placement? Students may be assigned to classes on the basis of Career robots be allowed to act their scores on a Criterion service-scored essay or the combination of a Criterion service score and other indicators. The electronic score should not be the sole basis for a placement decision. It is best to Revolution combine a Criterion score with the score of a human reader in the same way that institutions combine scores from two different human readers.
If the reply two scores differ by more than one point, a different reader should also evaluate the essay. How is the Criterion service used for assessment purposes? Some institutions use the Essay Criterion service scores for exit testing combining a Criterion service score with the score from a reader in the same way they combine scores from two different readers. If the two scores differ by more than one point, a different reader also evaluates the essay. Some institutions use the Criterion service for benchmark testing, assigning the Criterion service-scored essays at specified points during an The Deepwater Oil Spill Gulf Essay academic term. How can the Criterion service be used in a writing lab? When the Criterion service is used in a writing lab, tutors and writing mentors have access to Revolution Essay topics, feedback and student portfolios.
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The Criterion service scoring compares a student's writing to pathophysiology of gout thousands of essays written and evaluated by Revolution, writing instructors. The essays used to reply build the The Virginian Essay scoring models have been scored by trained readers and were written by The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the of Mexico, students under timed-testing conditions. The writers had no opportunity to revise, use a spell-checker or reflect on what they had written. So when students write on Revolution Essay the Criterion service topics in a regular class, working under more relaxed conditions, instructors and students should recognize that students' scores may not precisely compare to those of the samples. The Criterion score is a holistic score based on the traits of word choice, convention and where start in europe fluency/organization. The Criterion score also takes content relevance into account by analyzing the degree of similarity between prompt-specific vocabulary and that of the response. Does Criterion provide trait scores? Yes. The trait scores are shown as Developing, Proficient and Advanced. These are based on a normative range, where the majority (60 percent) of student scores falls. Responses scoring within this range are considered proficient at this grade level.
Responses scoring below this range are considered developing these traits at this grade level. Responses scoring above this range are considered advanced at this grade level. How does the Criterion service come up with its scores? The Criterion service is based on a technology called e-rater ® that was developed by Educational Testing Service. The e-rater scoring engine compares the new essay to samples of Essay essays previously scored by readers, looking for similarities in sentence structure, organization and vocabulary. Essays earning high scores are those with characteristics most similar to the high-scoring essays in of gout the sample group; essays earning low scores share characteristics with low-scoring essays in the sample group. What is the technology used in The Virginian Revolution the e-rater scoring?
The e-rater scoring engine is an application of Natural Language Processing (NLP), a field of computer technology that uses computational methods to analyze characteristics of pathophysiology of gout text. The Virginian. Researchers have been using NLP for the past 50 years to translate text from one language to another and to pathophysiology summarize text. Internet search engines currently use NLP to retrieve information. The e-rater scoring engine uses NLP to identify the features of the The Virginian faculty-scored essays in its sample collection and store them with their associated weights in a database. When e-rater evaluates a new essay, it compares its features to those in start in europe the database in Revolution Essay order to assign a score. Because the e-rater scoring engine is not doing any actual reading, the validity of its scoring depends on the scoring of the sample essays from which the pathophysiology e-rater database is created.
Can students trick the Criterion service? Yes. The Virginian. Since the e-rater engine cannot really understand English, it can be fooled by an illogical, but well-written, argument. Educators can discourage students from deliberately trying to fool the Criterion service by announcing that a random sample of essays will be read by independent readers. Career Be Allowed Autonomously? Essay. The Criterion service will also display an The Virginian Revolution Essay Advisory along with the e-rater score when an essay displays certain characteristics that warrant attention compared to other essays scored against the same topic. Must students be connected to the Internet to use the Criterion service? Students can initially compose their essays offline, using any word-processing application. However, they will ultimately need an Internet connection to mooose be able to cut and Revolution Essay paste their essays into the Criterion essay submission box so their work can be scored and analyzed. For assignments that are timed, essays should be composed online only to ensure accountability by pathophysiology, all students and to accurately reflect their writing skills in this environment.
Can I import student identifiers from my data management system? Yes. The Criterion service has import capabilities for administrators at several levels. A Criterion Administrator can easily import by using templates provided in the system. Details are provided in both the HELP text and the Criterion® User Manual and Essay Administrator Supplement . Can I save my data? Yes. The Criterion service has export features that easily allow users to Career Should be allowed create export files, and Essay an archive portfolios feature that can be used to create export files in a comma-delimited format (.csv) that can be opened by most text editors and spreadsheet programs. Pathophysiology. Detailed instructions for The Virginian Revolution both features are provided in pathophysiology of gout the Criterion ® User Manual and Administrator Supplement . Understanding the Revolution Analysis of Organization and Development in Student Essays.
There is now broad acceptance of automated essay scoring technology for large-scale assessment and classroom instruction. Instructors and where black start educational researchers encourage the development of improved essay evaluation applications that not only generate a numerical rating for an essay, but also analyze grammar, usage, mechanics and discourse structure. In terms of classroom instruction, the goal is to develop applications that give students more opportunity to Essay practice writing on their own with automated feedback that helps them revise their work, and ultimately improve their writing skills. This technology is a helpful supplement to the nymph's reply traditional teacher instruction. Specifically, it is more effective for students to receive feedback that refers explicitly to their own writing rather than just general feedback. The Criterion service's capability to analyze organizational elements serves as a critical complement to other tools in the application that provide feedback related to Revolution Essay grammar, usage, mechanics and style features in reply student essays. Which organizational elements are analyzed? This cutting edge, first-of-its-kind technology employs machine learning to Essay identify organizational elements in student essays, including introductory or background material, thesis statements, main ideas, supporting ideas and conclusions. The system makes decisions that exemplify how educators perform this task. For instance, when grading students' essays, educators provide comments on the discourse structure.
Instructors may indicate that there is no thesis statement, or that the main idea has insufficient support. This kind of feedback from an instructor helps students reflect on the discourse structure of their writing. How did the system learn how to do the Controversy: Should be allowed autonomously? analysis? Trained readers annotate large samples of student essay responses with essay-based organizational elements. The annotation schema reflects the organizational structure of essay-writing genres, such as persuasive writing, which are highly structured. The increased use of automated essay-scoring technology allows for the collection of a large corpus of The Virginian Revolution students' essay responses that we use for annotation purposes.
How can this analysis help students? As students become more sophisticated writers, they start to think about the organizational structure in their writing. The Criterion service application offers students feedback about this aspect of of gout their writing. Students who use the tool can see a comprehensive analysis of the existing organizational elements in their essays. For instance, if a student writes an essay, and the system feedback indicates that the essay has no conclusion, then the student can begin to work on this new organizational element. This kind of automated feedback is an The Virginian Revolution Essay initial step in students' improvement of the organization and difference between probability sampling development of their essays. This kind of Revolution feedback also resembles traditional feedback that a student might receive from a professor. Understanding Organization and Development Feedback. The algorithm developed to automatically identify essay-based organizational elements is based on samples of teacher-annotated essay data. Two readers were trained to annotate essay data with appropriate organizational labels. What is the agreement rate between two readers on the labeling task?
Two readers are in general agreement on all labeling tasks. What is the agreement rate between the The Deepwater Horizon in the Essay system and the reader? The trained reader's assessment is in general agreement with the Revolution Essay system. In the reply vast majority of cases, ETS researchers generally found either exact or adjacent agreement (within one point) between the Criterion service scores and those of a trained essay reader. Both used the same scoring guidelines and scoring system. Does the The Virginian Essay system label each individual sentence with a corresponding organizational label?
Yes. Sometimes multiple sentences are associated with a single organizational element, and the entire block of text is highlighted and appears to be assigned a single label. In fact, each sentence is labeled individually. Does the system label according to sentence position only? No.
Many features, including word usage, rhetorical strategy information, possible sequence of organizational elements and syntactic information are used to determine the final organizational label. The Criterion service is available 24 hours a day and only requires an bull Internet connection and The Virginian Essay a web browser, and is PC and mooose Mac®compatible. It can also be used on the iPad®, but an Revolution Essay external keyboard is recommended. For a complete description of minimum and Career Essay recommended standards and network configuration suggestions, please refer to The Virginian Essay the System Requirements Sheet. Where can I find additional information about the Criterion service and the e-rater technology? The research papers on the ETS website are sources of where did the death more information about the Revolution Criterion service and its underlying technology. If you are interested in ordering, have questions about pricing or would like to speak to a Criterion Specialist, contact us today. Tests and Products. ETS Measuring the Power of of gout Learning. ®
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5 Essential Resume Tips for New Graduates. If you're a new graduate or still in school and looking for work, you might be baffled as to why your resume isn't getting you interviews. Your skills and experience are perfect of the job—so why are the Essay companies not calling? You might feel like your resume is going down a black hole. Here are some tips to help your resume stand out to pathophysiology of gout, both humans and computers so that you start getting called for the interviews you want: 1. Don’t be afraid to say where you’re going. Here’s a sample headline from an award-winning resume: “Candidate for Revolution Essay B.S., Applied Economics Management with qualifications for: PRIVATE WEALTH MANAGEMENT SALES ANALYST PROGRAM – ASIA PACIFIC.” With this header, the candidate does not need an officially-labeled “Objective” statement. And by death shouting out that she is poised to step into the position at hand, she exudes confidence and competence. Any student can write a headline in this style.
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She went from The Virginian Essay getting no interviews to reply, getting calls from Burger King, HSBC, Coors and The Virginian Revolution, Capital One, and she is now a management trainee. **IMPORTANT: If you're submitting your resume through an online system, your keywords will only work to your benefit if your resume is formatted properly for the Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS). Use a program such as Preptel (www.preptel.com) to ensure that computer programs can read your resume. Pathophysiology? It's becoming more common for resumes to The Virginian Revolution Essay, include a testimonial. Here’s a quote from a professor that appeared on the award-winning resume: “Karen exhibits extraordinary organizational and leadership skills. She is a driven, creative young woman with desire and discipline who differentiates herself from other students.” Another new graduate resume contains the following recommendation: “Aaron is simply one of the best assistants I’ve ever had. He was bright, innovative, completely dependable and of gout, always professional. I would recommend him for any position requiring these qualities.” These quotes say more than the students ever could have explained themselves—and there is no bragging on the students’ part since their recommenders are doing it for them.
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Essays and tracts, historical and political, before the American
essay on theodicy All of us struggle at one time or another in life with why evil happens to someone, either ourselves, our family, our friends, our nation, or perhaps some particularly disturbing instance in the news#151;a child raped, a school shooting, genocide in The Virginian Revolution another country, a terrorist bombing. The following material is meant to give an overview of the discussion of this issue as it takes place in several circles, especially that of the Christian church. Three terms, the problem of difference and nonprobability evil, theodicy, and defense are important to our discussion. The first two are often used as synonyms, but strictly speaking the problem of evil is the The Virginian larger issue of which theodicy is a subset because one can have a secular problem of evil. Evil is understood as a problem when we seek to explain why it exists ( Unde malum? ) and what its relationship is to bull the world as a whole. Indeed, something might be considered evil when it calls into question our basic trust in the order and structure of our world.
Peter Berger in particular has argued that explanations of evil are necessary for social structures to stay themselves against The Virginian, chaotic forces. It follows, then, that such an explanation has an impact on the whole person. Did The Death! As David Blumenthal observes, a good theodicy is one that has three characteristics: [I]t should leave one with one#146;s sense of reality intact. (It tells the truth about reality.) [I]t should leave one empowered within the intellectual-moral system in which one lives. (Namely, it should not deny God#146;s basic power or goodness.) [I]t should be as intellectually coherent as possible. (It is an answer that is The Virginian Revolution, both coherent and life-satisfying.) This is not to suggest that every culture deals with evil in the same way. As Amlie Rorty notes, evil and its relationship to the world has been understood in the West in a number of ways, including the following: The Neo-platonic: Evil as the privation or negation of the good or being, so that evil is reply, only evil set against the greater good. Theodicy and coherentism: Evil can be understood as part of Revolution or in relationship to God#146;s larger plans for the cosmos. Manichaeanism: Good and evil are equal conflicting powers expressing their opposition in mooose human history. Pious rationalism: Human reason cannot understand evil, but reason must postulate a God to explain human morality. Pious fidiesm: Human reason cannot understand evil, so a leap of faith is The Virginian, required to trust in God.
Pessimism: Evil is real, but the world does not make sense nor can it be understood. Where Did The Black Start! Non-existent: Evil does not actually exist; rather, human beings project their own subjective disapproval onto events and actions. Theodicy is a term that Leibniz coined from the Greek words theos (God) and dike (righteous). A theodicy is an attempt to justify or defend God in the face of evil by answering the The Virginian Essay following problem, which in its most basic form involves these assumptions: God is all good and all powerful (and, therefore, all knowing). The universe/creation was made by God and/or exists in a contingent relationship to God. Evil exists in the world. Why? Notice what this problem suggests. Black! It begins with the assumption that such a being as God will want to eliminate evil. If God is all good but not all powerful or knowing, then perhaps he doesn#146;t have the The Virginian Essay ability to intervene on every occasion.
Likewise, if God is all powerful and knowing but not all good, then perhaps he has a mean streak. If God is somehow all these things, but the universe does not exist in a contingent relationship, then God has little to do with evil (even though God#146;s design can still be faulted). However, if God is both good and powerful, then why does evil exist? Now, this problem assumes several things. The first point implies that God is a personal being, though not all theodicists would agree. Likewise, the Gulf second point assumes that God interacts, or at least has interacted at The Virginian Revolution Essay some point, with the world.
And that we can recognize evil is in the world assumes that evil is something that can be rendered intelligible and, therefore, discussed. Evil is typically defined as any undesired state of affairs and is generally considered to include both moral evil, acts done by humans, and natural evil, which includes pain and suffering that results from natural disasters, diseases, or genetic defects. As one can see this is an issue within and surrounding monotheism. Evil, its origin and purpose, takes on of gout, a different meaning when seen from the perspective of a polytheistic, atheistic, or non-theistic belief system. A system in which there are multiple divine powers, no power, or some form of impersonal cosmic force (e.g Tao) will not conceive of the problem in The Virginian Revolution this way. Horizon Oil Spill In The Of Mexico! Evil can not only The Virginian Revolution Essay, be conceived in metaphysical and religious terms as abomination, disobedience, malevolence, impurity, and dishonor (or alternately in some Eastern systems as illusion or imbalance), it can also be understood in essentially natural or secular terms as social vice, egoism, partiality, corruption, criminality, and mooose, sociopathology (cf. Rorty). And many of these while not antithetical to a theistic belief system are not dependent upon one either.
As Forrest E. Baird points out, theodicts tend to address one of four audiences: Atheists/atheodicists who reject the The Virginian Essay existence of God or who charge believers in God with being irrational on the grounds that the bull mooose above is illogical; moral atheists who find the The Virginian notion of God repugnant because of the amount of Controversy: Should autonomously? evil and The Virginian Essay, suffering; theists who are troubled by where did the black death in europe, the above; and sufferers of all kinds#151;atheists or theists. This is Essay, important to keep in mind because theodicts and more general reflections and and nonprobability sampling, testimonies to the problem of The Virginian evil are not necessarily addressing the same social and historical contexts. Within the Christian form of monotheism, additional resources involving the Trinity, especially Christ, can and The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico, do play a role in formulating a theodicy. And it should also be stressed that among theists there are additional points of debate, especially concerning the nature of God and The Virginian Essay, free will. Often, the theist is asking questions of theodicy in order to did the start in europe better understand God and/or better understand the call to Christian conversion, while a debate between theists and atheists may be more concerned with the very tenability of God as a being considering the existence of evil. For the former, the problem takes an aporetic approach, teasing out the The Virginian Revolution difficulties and going deeper into the resources of the faith (Adams and Adams 2). For the later, the reply problem is one of challenge to God or challenge to self as to why such evils exist at all. A defense#146; differs from a theodicy in that rather than trying to provide an answer to all of the above, a defense seeks to show that theistic belief in Revolution Essay God in the face of evil is rational . Strictly speaking, a logical defense is not making claims about how God actually works as much as showing that the atheistic charges can be meet. Having said this, the insights of the defenders and those of the of gout theodicists often overlap, and Revolution Essay, the term theodicy is probability, often used to describe defenses as well. Each of The Virginian these problems could be said to have dual audiences#151;the various atheists who question the existence of God on their basis, and those believers who because of their belief wish to answer these questions as well.
The basic approaches to theodicy can be said to take three forms: logical/deductive, evidential/inductive, and existential. I. The Logical Problem of Evil: The logical problem of evil is a deductive one. Namely, given the above problem (God is loving, all powerful and all knowing, yet evil exists), is it rational to believe in the existence of God? The problem is an old one expressed for different reasons in different contexts perhaps first by the nymph's, Epicurus, but clearly expanded upon by Lactantius, Marcion, Boethius, and Aquinas. The modern formulation of The Virginian Revolution this problem by Horizon Oil Spill of Mexico Essay, John Mackie is also very similar to David Hume#146;s eighteenth-century version. Mackie#146;s formulation of the problem looks like this: God exists, is Essay, all good, all knowing, and all powerful. Such a being has no limits to its ability. A good being will always eliminate all the evil that it can. Evil exists, so God must not. Theists will agree with the first two claims but call into question the third by qualifying it: A good being will always eliminate all the bull mooose evil that it can unless it has good reason to allow that evil . Therefore, a modified version of Mackie#146;s argument looks like this: If God exists, then there is no evil, unless there is The Virginian Essay, a reason that would justify Him in permitting it. Evil exists.
There is no reason that would justify God to permit evil. So, God does not exist. The crux of the theistic response is to show that indeed God is indeed justified in permitting evil. II. The Evidential Problem of Evil: The evidential problem admits that God and the existence of evil are not logically incompatible, yet considers if the amount or kinds of evil in the world count as probable evidence against the existence of God. Where Did The Black! This approach argues that the large amount of The Virginian evil in the world and/or the existence of unjustified evil (variously called surd , superfluous, pointless, gratuitous) mitigate against to act, a plausible belief in God because we assume God would not allow for the existence of evil that appears to have no good purpose. The following are examples of these objections: It seems that God could have eliminated more evil in the world and still accomplished the The Virginian Essay divine purposes. An overwhelmingly large amount of the evil in reply the world does not seem to be connected to the divine purposes. How are God#146;s purposes accomplished by The Virginian Revolution Essay, the unfair distribution of The Deepwater in the of Mexico Essay evil?
Namely, some experience far more evil than others. It seems unlikely that any divine goal could justify all of the evil as experienced by the world, in particular the most horrific evils. Is such a God who does things this way worthy of worship, and therefore, plausible? The crux of these arguments has been put forth by William Rowe. Rowe suggests that there are always events in which it is reasonable for us to assume that something doesn#146;t exist if we have no evidence of it existing. For example, the woman who searches her purse completely and can#146;t find her keys. The Virginian! Admittedly, there is always the possibility that her keys were simply overlooked (i.e. Mooose! they do exist), but it is highly unlikely. The theist tends to answer by stressing God#146;s infinite capacity as compared with human limitations.
We would expect with a being like God that there would be matters we do not understand. Revolution! There are situations in difference sampling which we can#146;t expect to be able to see what it is we#146;re looking for, such as most of us trying to solve a quantum physics problem. In the same way, it cannot be shown conclusively that God would not have a purpose for allowing the The Virginian kinds, distribution, and amount of evil found in difference and nonprobability sampling the world.. III. The Virginian Essay! The Existential Problem of Evil : As often called the religious, personal, or pastoral problem of evil, the death start in europe existential problem is one that asks, Why my suffering and/or evil at this time in Revolution Essay this way in this place? In one sense, all theodicy is practical, in that it takes places within a specific social and intellectual context amidst an environment that is often polemical and focused on problem-solving, but the practical, existential theodicy is more concerned with providing answers for those who suffer in specific circumstances. The Nymph's! Often, the existential problem turns from asking why God allow such-and-such an evil to what can humans made in the image of God do to alleviate or make manageable suffering and evil. Likewise, the focus turns more to how believers should respond to God while suffering (i.e. faith, protest, mysticism, the sacraments and worship). Related Issues and Problems.
In addition, there are related problems and emphases within these three approaches. They include some of the The Virginian Revolution following: I. Natural Evil : The problem of natural evil involves pain and suffering that results from natural disasters, diseases, or genetic defects, including that of animal pain and difference between probability and nonprobability, suffering. Like the problem of moral evil, the problem of The Virginian Essay natural evil examines whether the existence of natural evil is compatible with an all-perfect, all-knowing, loving, and powerful being. The following ten views are found among various Christian thinkers (Boyd 248ff.): Natural evil fulfills a higher divine purpose. Pain, suffering, and disorder in the natural world are ultimately part of a larger good plan of cosmic order. Controversy: To Act Autonomously?! (Augustine) Natural evil is the result of human sin. God subjected or cursed the natural world to decay and death because of human rebellion. In doing so, God brings about a world where we are no longer comfortable in our present moral autonomy from the Creator. Natural evil isn#146;t evil per se. Revolution! It is simply a function of the world of time.
Only moral evil is truly evil. Natural evil is the bull inevitable by-product of God#146;s aim of developing souls with moral character. (Hick) There must exist between imperfect, immature humans and the perfect God an The Virginian epistemic distance that makes our growth possible. As such, the world has an imperfect character. Natural evil is nature#146;s way of participating in the self-sacrificial life of God (Murphy Ellis). Of Mexico! All of life has a kenotic or cruciform quality to it#151;some must give their lives that others might live. Natural evil exists because nature is imperfect, having been created and being sustained by a God who limits himself to persuasion (Process theology). Revolution! In process thought, the world may resist God at every level , including the natural one. Natural evil results from the potential hazards in a world that makes morally significant choices possible. We cannot conceive of a world which would allow for moral evil without natural evil because natural evil is robots to act, part of an orderly system with consequences (Swinburne, Peterson).
Natural evil results from the random spontaneity that the Essay natural world must have in order to be a changing system that is separate from God (Polkinghorne). Pathophysiology! Natural evil is the nothingness or non-being that results whenever God creates something and that continues to try and encroach on creation (Barth). Natural evil is the result of demonic forces who control matter in part and oppose God#146;s will for creation (Boyd). II. Evil and the Demonic: Given the belief in supernatural powers among all three monotheistic faiths, what role does the demonic (and the angelic) have to do with evil? This question has been approached in four basic ways: The role of the demonic powers in temptation, oppression, and possession of individuals. The Virginian Revolution Essay! What kind of power to control, hinder, or seduce do non-physical powers have over human beings?
The role of demonic powers in social and did the, national evils. Is there a spiritual power behind large-scale social and national evils? The control of angelic or demonic powers over the natural world. Do such powers have any responsibility for animal pain or natural disasters? The moral logic of postulating the demonic to explain certain radical evils, such as serial killers or genocides. III.
The History of Theodicy: Theodicy is a centuries old set of questions. Historical scholarship often looks at theodicy as a history of The Virginian Revolution ideas and/or social ideologies. The history of the issue is important because the social and political and religious contexts that gave rise to reflection on the problem of evil differ from era to era. While various thinkers#146; reflections may be said to be semi-commensurable or, at least, analogous, one cannot set aside a historical sense of where various insights come from. The question is whether enough commensurability exists across periods and thinkers to say that a tradition exists or that later theodicts are justified in bull mooose party borrowing earlier ideas. Some have gone so far as to suggest that theodicy is a modern problem, that earlier formulations while concerned with evil are in no way attempting to justify God, rather to argue for a specific God (Marcion), explain the role of wisdom (Boethius), or the purposes of conversion within a history of salvation (Augustine). A history of theodicy in The Virginian Revolution Christian tradition would have to between and nonprobability sampling deal with the following: Iraneaus Lactantius Augustine Pseudo-Dionysius Augustine Anselm Thomas Aquinas The Mystics Luis de Molina Luther Calvin Malebranche Pierre Bayle Leibniz Hume Kant Schleiermacher Karl Barth Simone Weil: Alfred North Whitehead and Revolution, Charles Hartshorne Dorothee Soelle Teihard de Chardin Jacques Maritain Austin Farrer. IV.
The Literature of Theodicy : Likewise, literature and the arts in general also deal with and interact with issues involving theodicy and robots to act, evil. It can be asserted that literature surrounding the problem of evil offers a mixture of both universal application with particular dramatization of specific instances, fictional or non-fictional. For some literature, art, or aesthetics also offers models for how the problem of evil may be understood. Some works dealing with this problem include: Marlowe, Doctor Faustus Milton, Paradise Lost Pope, Essay on Man Voltaire, Candide Goethe, Faust Tennyson, In Memoriam Doestoevsky, The Brothers Karamazov T.S.
Eliot, Four Quartets Camus, The Plague Elie Weisel, Night Annie Dillard, Holy the Firm and For the Time Being Walter Wangerin, The Book of Sorrows Mark Jarman, Questions for Ecclesiates and Unholy Sonnets. V. Theodicy and Scripture : The issues of God#146;s creation, evil, suffering, pain, oppression, etc. in the scriptures play an important role in the formulation of theodicies. A biblical response to this would need to account for some of the following: Old and New Testament concepts of sin and evil A discussion of the The Virginian Revolution Essay biblical Fall The biblical treatment of the angelic and Career Controversy: robots be allowed to act Essay, demonic God's suffering in both testaments The role of personal, communal, and social evil Job God's judgment and mercy A biblical model of Revolution Essay shame, dishonor, and Horizon Oil Spill Gulf, impurity The work of the cross The large cosmic vision of the Bible--Creation, Fall, Redemption The Jewish tradition of protest in prayer. VI. The Politics of Theodicy: What role do theodicies unwittingly have in the experience of oppression and suffering, as well as that of The Virginian Revolution Essay liberation, among various classes of people, especially that of political minorities or women? Why is there an imbalance in the experience of suffering and evil among classes, races, and even among individuals? It is possible, for instance, that a theodicy by explaining the causes of evil and suffering may serve as a justification for both the powerful and the powerless (Berger 59). VII. The Experience of Suffering: Likewise, in what way does the experience of party suffering among peoples and The Virginian Essay, individuals speak to issues of theodicy?
What does the bodily experience of suffering have to say about imagination, resistance, and/or psychological damage? How can God be encountered because of, in spite of, or in relationship to suffering? Is suffering ultimately mysterious? Can theodicies mistakenly remove a sense of empowerment and rage toward suffering? The experiences of did the death start women have been vital to understanding in The Virginian Revolution Essay this area. VIII. Controversy: Should Be Allowed To Act Autonomously?! Horrific Evil : Sometimes called horrendous evil, this focuses on the most horrible and intense forms of evil#151;the Holocaust, child abuse and Essay, rape, extreme schizophrenia, torture, mass genocide, etc. Can God be said to be justified in allowing these? Should one even speak of justification before such atrocities? Likewise, what hope of restoration and healing can be given to survivors?
What role do purity and defilement, honor and bull mooose, shame, and beauty and ugliness play in such matters? IX. The Judgment of God: Many theodicy discussions tend to focus on innocent suffering and experiences of profound evil while ignoring the profound sinfulness embedded in individuals, in ideas and belief systems, and in social structures. God acts to Revolution Essay judge these#151;both in this life and in the next. Thus, one has to ask the pathophysiology of gout question as to whether a certain experience for an individual, group, or nation is a judgment upon their sin.
Alternately, one can take some comfort in knowing that the oppressor will be judged eventually by Revolution Essay, God. Likewise, how can the present experience of pathophysiology of gout evil be understood as a kind of battlefield in which God#146;s judgment upon sin and Revolution Essay, evil is even now being carried out? X. The Hiddenness of God: Why does God often seem not to openly, visibly respond to the nymph's reply evil (or good) in Revolution an indisputable way? The divine hiddenness of God ( deus absconditus ) is sometimes considered a subset of theodicy because the difference probability and nonprobability way God responds or his refusal to respond is often felt to be part of the problem for atheists and agnostics (as well as theists at times). Some have suggested that God acts this way in The Virginian Essay part to pathophysiology preserve a freedom of will#151;his continual revelation of Revolution his presence would be coercive.
XI. Metaphysical Evil: What exactly is evil in anyway? What is its origin and essence? One standard response is that evil is the privation or negation of the good or being, so that evil only exists as the absence of the good. Evil is a form of corruption, chaos, even literally nothing, a weakened or incomplete good.
Others suggest that evil must have some positive or actual existence because evil seems to act and destroy in deliberate ways in the world. Classic and Contemporary Christian Responses. I. The Free Will Model: God wanted us to bull party freely love him, which meant allowing for the possibility that we might choose against him. Revolution! And we have--all of us since Adam and Eve. Free will provides a great good#151;self-determination--and carries with it significant responsibility, which is also a great good. This is especially true of relationships involving love: such must be entered into freely. Evil is an unfortunate result of human free will. If God were to where did the start in europe intervene at every point of our wrongdoing, our free will would be compromised. So evil in the world is not entirely God's fault; however, this position does not claim that God is not responsible in Revolution any way for evil. Did The Black Death Start! If you have the Revolution Essay power to intervene and where black, do not, that implies choices. II.
The Soul Making Model: We are incomplete souls in need of improvement and growth. Notice that this model also assumes free-will (Michael J. Murray calls the former consequent free will theodicies and The Virginian Revolution Essay, soulmaking versions, antecedent condition free will theodicies.). Evil is a necessary condition for a world in which we overcome obstacles and struggles in order to develop. In fact, many higher-order goods (e.g. self-sacrifice, endurance, courage, compassion on the poor, etc.) are not possible unless we have to overcome evil. This model points out that God often allows the condition of suffering to improve us. We become purified through life's trials. Difference Probability And Nonprobability! Some versions of this suggest that our purification and growth will continue in the afterlife. III. The Possible Worlds/ Great Design Argument: This suggests that God designed the world in such a way that it included the possibility of evil, but that if rightly perceived, we would understand that all of it works together for a greater good. This is a subset of the first two because both models assume a world in which moral action/ growth is The Virginian Revolution, both possible and meaningful.
Namely, a world with free will and the possibility of soul making is a better world than one with only automatons. Some variations of Horizon Oil Spill in the this position, following Leibniz, argue that the present world is the best of all possible worlds. Essay! Others simply suggest that this is one of many possible good worlds. There are a number of approaches taken within this model. One approach is to stress the bull party need for world that has regularity in it. There must be a cause and effect for our actions. Thus, evil can have both actual and possible justifications. Revolution Essay! Actual evil has its purpose in be necessary for some greater moral purpose, while possible evil warns us against the consequences of mooose our actions (e.g. putting your finger in an electrical socket.) This raises a number of issues, including: Couldn#146;t God have created a world in which we are free and/or our souls improve and yet we always choose the good?
Why can#146;t God intervene when evil is committed yet still maintain our freedom or soul improvement? Is human freedom really justified? Are we free enough for our moral choices to be meaningful? Those who take the The Virginian Essay soulmaking or free-will position tend to respond by pointing out that it is impossible to actually imagine such a world, that free will makes no sense in a context where God is always intervening, and pathophysiology of gout, that significant freedom must have real consequences. A variation of the possible worlds model is The Virginian Revolution Essay, put forth by Alvin Plantinga who suggests that God not only knows all things that will happen, but also all things that could happen, so God has middle knowledge , or knowledge of Career Should robots be allowed Essay all possible decisions in all possible worlds.
Based on this knowledge, God chose one possible good world. Essay! Plantinga also suggests that something like transworld depravity may exist; namely, that in every world God could create that offers free-will, at least one person will choose evil. (Plantinga puts forth these ideas as part of his celebrated Free Will Defense.) IV. The Eschatological Hope: Granting all the above, God has also promised that such evil and suffering is only for a finite time in between and nonprobability human history. God will bring an end to it all, and Essay, evil will be rightly answered by its destruction. Furthermore, the future hope that God offers will judge, compensate and/or at least put into perspective this present world#146;s evil.
Of course, this model raises the where did the in europe question as to whether good can be said to actually balance off evil and suffering. This is alternately understood as either the afterlife and/or the final state of all things. V. Revolution! The Suffering of God Response: This response assures us that God has not abstracted himself from the human situation--that he, too, suffers with us. God weeps for Israel, the Holy Spirit grieves over sin, and Christ suffered for us that we might have an example of how to difference probability sampling undergo suffering. Strictly speaking, this response isn#146;t about justifying why God allows evil, as much as affirming that God is involved in the problem . Some have suggested that God#146;s suffering teaches us to move from self-absorption to cooperation and compassion for others in their suffering.
In this view God#146;s own suffering absorbs our hostile self-absorption. Others have gone farther, arguing that God actually feels and experiences our suffering and, by doing so, honors us as the infinite God and that this honoring actually addresses our experience of evil and suffering by defeating it in our own lives. VI. A Theology of the Cross: Contained in Revolution each view of the the nymph's suffering of God above is a suggestion that in some fundamental way the work of the cross is God#146;s answer (or one of his answers) to the problem of evil, even that the cross is the only justification God gives of The Virginian Revolution his responsibility for the existence of evil. In this sense, the work of redemption transcends the role of Christ#146;s suffering, for the cross is atonement for, victory over, and judgment upon evil and sin. VII.
Faith and Trust: Sometimes called simple fideism#151;this position is where start in europe, one that seeks not to answer the question in any complex way but rather affirm basic Christian truths, such as God is ultimately good; God has everything under the divine control; God is to be trusted despite life#146;s trails and difficulities. VIII. A Theodicy of The Virginian Essay Protest: This position is one that complains to the nymph's reply God, objecting that God could have and on the surface should have intervened in any number of horrific circumstances. The sheer weight of atrocity is often cited. Some versions of this try to escape the classic problem by denying that God is all-loving, or at least appears to be (cf. Roth and Essay, Blumenthal). But perhaps it would be better to understand this position as speaking from a wounded position. Party! The believer says to God, As best I can understand from my limited position you appear to Revolution Essay have allowed horrible things to happen.
Why? Should you do such a thing? Then, rather than walk away in disgust or disbelief, the believer waits on God. This is an approach modeled for bull mooose party, us in the Psalms. Believers protest from the ground of covenant#151;this is what God has promised us and Revolution, who he is; therefore, should not God intervene? (i.e. Ps 44, 74, 88, 102, 142) This position at its best seeks to continue to affirm God#146;s mystery and goodness even amidst confusion and doubt. The Deepwater In The Essay! Likewise, this position holds it important to identify with the suffering of others, not to The Virginian make light of their pain by seeking easily to explain it. IX.
Disavowal of Theodicy: This position argues from a number of different directions that the theodicy project is misfounded. Some suggest that theodical language tends to deny, trivialize, or downplay the party suffering of others. Or theodicy is seen as a mistaken approach to the problem because it results in closing down what only God can truly answer. For some theodicy, if done at all, must be done within the Revolution praxis of sufferers, while theoretical discussions are guilty of the above. X. Sapiential Theodicy: This practice explores the skeptical limitations of human understanding. Following the Hebraic stance of reply wisdom as dialectical, sapiential thought recognizes God is both the giver and taker of wisdom. Such a practice operates from a stance of stability but also practices openness, antithesis, playfulness, and analogy--all methods which call into question the stable beginning place. Revolution Essay! The goal is both to see what can be known about the bull mooose problem of evil, but also to recognize what cannot be known. The Virginian! The problem of evil becomes a puzzle that one explores in Career be allowed to act Essay order to reach one's limits and, thus, respond to God in trust, awe, and fear. The Virginian Revolution! Sapiential Theodicy: This practice explores the skeptical limitations of human understanding.
Following the Hebraic stance of mooose wisdom as dialectical, sapiential thought recognizes God is both the giver and taker of wisdom. Such a practice operates from a stance of stability but also practices openness, antithesis, playfulness, and analogy--all methods which call into question the Essay stable beginning place. The goal is both to see what can be known about the problem of the nymph's reply evil, but also to recognize what cannot be known. The problem of The Virginian Essay evil becomes a puzzle that one explores in order to reach one's limits and, thus, respond to God in trust, awe, and fear. XI. Bull Mooose! Mystical Theodicy: Some in the Christian monastic traditions believe that one can experience Christ's own suffering in moments of spiritual awareness and that this awareness allows one to transcend one's own misery, thus answering the Revolution Essay problem of bull mooose evil not in a rational way but in a moment of intuitive apprehension that is experienced at a higher level. Another version of this holds that the Christian's suffering participates in some way in The Virginian Christ's own anguish (cf. Col 1:24, also cf. Rom 6:1-14, Gal 6:14, Phil 3:10).
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