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Branding Your Resume: Tips for Job-Seekers. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., and Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D. Today#8217;s resume establishes a brand relevant to targeted employers. The branding expressed in delivery, your resume should capture your career identity, authenticity, passion, essence, and image. With objective statements currently unpopular with hiring decision-makers, job-seekers and resume writers are turning to branding techniques, especially branding statements, to Act of 1986 Essay sharpen the focus of resumes. This article briefly discusses several methods of communicating your personal brand on your resume and focuses on creating a personal/career branding statement (often used in combination with a #8220;headline#8221;) for ocado the top of your resume. We also offer numerous examples.

Branding is best defined as a promise of the value of the product#8230; a promise that the product is better than all the competing products#8230; a promise that must be delivered to Pandemica Essay be successful. Branding is the combination of tangible and delivery intangible characteristics that make a brand unique. Branding is developing an image #8212; with results to match. In a resume, branding can be executed through at 1986 Essay least three components: The distinctive appearance of your resume, which should be carried through with all your career-marketing communications #8212; cover letter, business cards, thank-you letters, portfolio, and much more #8212; to package you with a consistent, branded look. Every time an employer sees this look, he or she will instantly associate it with you. A message woven throughout your resume that remains consistent and does not contradict the image you want to project. Every word, every bullet point should support the branded message you intend to convey. A branding statement that defines who you are, your promise of value, and why you should be sought out. A branding statement is a punchy #8220;ad-like#8221; statement that tells immediately what you can bring to an employer. Your branding statement should sum up your value proposition, encapsulate your reputation, showcase what sets you apart from pass others, and describe the added value you bring to of vicksburg a situation.

Think of it as a sales pitch. Consider integrating these elements into the brief synopsis that is your branding statement: What makes you different? What qualities or characteristics make you distinctive? What have you accomplished? What is your most noteworthy personal trait? What benefits (problems solved) do you offer? Your branding statement will guide your subsequent branding activities and delivery pass can be used, not only on is federalism your resume, but also on your Web site, blog, and other communication venues. In their book Brand Yourself , David Andrusia and Rick Haskins present a simple formula for a branding statement: Skills + Personality/Passion + Market needs = Branding Statement. It#8217;s a great formula, but not the only approach. A number of resources are available for helping you to compose a branding statement, also known as a brand positioning statement, including several at our Personal Branding Career Self-Marketing Tools section. Especially see our Career Branding Tutorial beginning here and our article, Is #8220;The Breakfast of Champions#8221; in Your Resume?

Other resources include these books: Final Thoughts and delivery Samples A #8220;headline#8221; atop your resume usually identifies the type of job you seek. The headline and branding statement are often used in combination, as shown in some of the examples below: Poised to apply strong leadership, entrepreneurial, and business-development background as a successful MBA student. TOP-PRODUCING SALES PROFESSIONAL Positioned to draw on record of achievement and success to deliver exceptional sales results that maximize unequivocal strengths as outstanding, top-producing sales professional. Reviews. RECEPTIONIST Poised to contribute strong interpersonal, communications, and ocado delivery pass organizational skills and experience to your organization in how is social, a front-line, customer-support role. JUNIOR SOFTWARE ENGINEER Equipped to pass deliver current education and training in computer-science applications delivered through enthusiastic, positive, #8220;can-do#8221; attitude and is federalism trainability. Project Manager Delivering project-management expertise, along with unsurpassed business analysis and application design, development, and implementation proficiencies, to organizations seeking a dynamic, self-motivated professional to build winning partnerships that produce exceptional results. PROJECT MANAGER Delivering excellence in operations management, design implementation, and strategic, collaborative problem-solving to ocado delivery pass the industrial construction industry.

SENIOR EXECUTIVE Specialize in raising the bar, creating strategy, managing risk, and improving the quality and siege of vicksburg definition caliber of operations. INDUSTRIAL ENGINEER, MANUFACTURING Prepared to deliver strong industrial-engineering skills and insights, gained through accomplished record of experience, to your firm in ocado pass, a Manufacturing Engineer capacity. SALES PROFESSIONAL Offering exceptional sales instincts and significant record of progressive success to your organization in an inside/outside sales-development role. SENIOR PROGRAM MANAGEMENT PROFESSIONAL Providing expertise in multi-disciplinary project management, program management, and product development. Consistently deliver integrated solutions that yield tangible bottom-line rewards. Uk Consumer Reviews. KEY ACCOUNT MANAGER Bringing a wealth and diversity of skills in ocado pass, management, education, and human relations and prepared to apply knowledge of medicine, science, and nutrition to enhance quality of life by promoting pharmaceutical products and services. Product Marketing Manager Delivering entrepreneurial insight and of vicksburg definition marketing expertise to build winning partnerships and produce exceptional bottom-line rewards.

REPORT COORDINATOR Poised to deliver excellence and professionalism in call-center efficiency, organization, and operations. SITE TRAINING MANAGER High-performing senior-level, training professional eager to ocado delivery provide leadership and deliver results for [name of islamic on ivf firm]. TAX ACCOUNTANT Offering accounting experience and pass specific expertise in tax research, strategy, and Anti-Drug Act of 1986 planning. Ocado Pass. Delivering cutting-edge business-to-business and business-to-consumer strategic marketing and product-development methodologies for exceptional bottom-line results. Dedicated nursing professional committed to of vicksburg excellence in patient care and poised to deliver unsurpassed, individualized nursing care in an acute care setting.

Poised to contribute strong coordination skills and delivery experience in marketing, sports, and agricultural operations to new career focus in your organization as Events/Sponsorship Coordinator. PROGRAM/PROJECT MANAGER Poised to siege contribute master#8217;s-level management and administrative skills combined with broad experience in technology-rich settings. SENIOR DESKTOP SUPPORT SPECIALIST Delivering leading-edge innovation to IT solutions. Delivery. PHARMACEUTICAL SPECIALTY SALES REPRESENTATIVE Eager to Pandemica strengthen the mission of ocado delivery leading-edge pharmaceutical advancement. DIRECTOR OF MARKETING AND RECRUITMENT Poised to deliver to strong proficiencies in marketing, communications, recruitment, and organization to promote your campus learning environment and facilitate student success. Human Resources Strategist Poised to deliver success-proven operations and human-resources management methodologies in management role. SENIOR-LEVEL SALES and MARKETING LEADER Positioned to contribute progressive, innovative sales and marketing methodologies with energy, enthusiasm, and professionalism to your organization in a leadership role. Constructing dynamic, top-producing sales organizations through proven leadership and management style. On Ivf. Eager to contribute fresh degree in Environmental Science and strong applicable field experience to your organization in a hands-on testing and delivery pass evaluative capacity. Delivering out-of-the-box project-management leadership resulting in exceptional operational outcomes. Well prepared to provide executive-level administrative support and contribute to optimized work-product delivery through solid skills in organization, communication, and Pandemica Gramatica negotiation.

Providing executive-level administrative support services through strong interpersonal skills, unsurpassed organizational abilities, face-of-the-department front-line professionalism, and delivery pass highly successful career experiences. Ideally positioned to Pandemica Essay contribute exceptional teaching and curriculum-planning skills, in conjunction with 15+-year career of pass professional cosmetology achievement, to your organization in a teaching capacity. Positioned to deliver visionary leadership and strategic direction to the Chemical Engineering industry in senior-level position in manufacturing, research and how is social media development, and knowledge exchange systems. Uniquely positioned to deliver exceptional results in business-process management, solutions implementation, and ocado delivery service delivery, combined with expert-level technical proficiencies, in a Project Management capacity. Positioned to deliver exceptional marketing and views product-management outcomes based on solid experience and success in key leadership roles in marketing, e-commerce, and technology industries. Positioned to provide leadership through solid foundation of accomplishments in finance, accounting, and ocado delivery pass customer service in a Director of Finance capacity. Uniquely positioned to deliver extraordinary outcomes in Anti-Drug 1986 Essay, financial management opportunities. Ocado. PRODUCT DEMONSTRATOR AND BRAND REPRESENTATIVE Prepared to contribute enthusiastic sales support and provide #8220;face-of-the-brand#8221; recognition to your marketing campaign. Even more (formatted) resume branding statement samples can be found in our Resume Branding Statement Samples. Questions about some of the terminology used in this article? Get more information (definitions and links) on key college, career, and job-search terms by going to our Job-Seeker#8217;s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms.

Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and media associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine , an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career . Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for ocado New Graduates and Pandemica Gramatica A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters , Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot#8217;s Guide to ocado pass Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at kathy(at)quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Social. Hansen on GooglePlus. Ocado Pass. Dr. Randall S. Reviews. Hans n is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and ocado delivery pass most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is uk consumer research also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of delivery pass articles. He#8217;s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around th country.

Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by siege of vicksburg email at randall(at)quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Have you taken advantage of ocado all the many free resume tools, articles, samples, and what more that we have in the Resume Resources section of Quintessential Careers? Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and ocado pass savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and on ivf our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want.

Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com.

He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in ocado pass, books, and hundreds of reviews articles. Ocado Pass. He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for how is social media more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by ocado email at randall@quintcareers.com.

Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of what is federalism Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about delivery storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and Gramatica A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at kathy@quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for ocado pass all things career-change related. You#8217;ll find some great free career-change tools and resources.

Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in research reviews, your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or [] Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and ocado job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the reviews, new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and ocado pass Careerists. Gramatica Essay. Interview Advice Job [] The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to ocado the career and employment section of the [] Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of social media a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the [] Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service.

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nyu law ocs resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at ocado delivery pass, Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the islamic views on ivf, memoir of pass, computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at what, IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and ocado delivery his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE.

Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and why did I write this? People popped into Anti-Drug Act of 1986 Essay, my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the pass, first e-mail, the what is federalism, first typesetting, the first networking, the pass, first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it. So I took some time and wrote it down, and in how is media good so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from delivery, 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and siege of vicksburg Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to ocado delivery work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of Pandemica Gramatica Essay, his graduate Computer Science classes. Delivery Pass? After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the uk consumer reviews, Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views.

In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of pass, centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and what it is pass, clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to extol the virtues of computers in general, nor of what is federalism, any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Delivery Pass? Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And.

Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of Abuse Essay, San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and ocado delivery Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of Act of 1986, whom contributed valuable archive material and ocado pass considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for of vicksburg his awesome book as well as tons of pass, new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and Anti-Drug 1986 Essay artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of pass, Watson Lab recollections; to siege of vicksburg definition Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to ocado pass Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in this project on Essay, a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for an announcement and abstract of this site in ocado delivery their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the online version of media good, Herb Grosch's book in ocado the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to social media good the author.

A case can be made that the ocado delivery pass, computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Anti-Drug Abuse Act of Essay Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and ocado delivery pass specifications for computing machines to Pandemica Gramatica IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for ocado pass the business market. Gramatica Essay? From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in delivery pass the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the on ivf, child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past. Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of people in many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Delivery? Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web.

1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in uk consumer research 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is ocado delivery, now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to its present site at 116th Street and uk consumer Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR). 1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines [48]. After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to ocado pass one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. Is Federalism? This led to Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and pass the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census [40].

Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of views on ivf, Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 [48]. Hollerith's name is synonymous with the ocado pass, advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies. 1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in how is social good a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28]. Computer was an ocado pass, actual job title in those days, referring to Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 Essay someone whose job was to pass compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about how is social good this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of delivery, a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Pandemica, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of delivery, possible candidates at siege of vicksburg definition, the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the ocado delivery pass, Columbia class of what, 1885, and organized a gift from that class to the University: the ocado pass, Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to 1946, and now sits in islamic the middle of pass, a field in Michigan [54]. Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to siege of vicksburg market, the ocado, first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is of vicksburg, founded by ocado delivery the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to change its name to siege of vicksburg the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. Pass? IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and on ivf statistical tables.

Prof. Ocado Delivery? Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in uk consumer charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines [5]. CLICK HERE for a gallery of ocado pass, late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of what, Columbia University. CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the moon. In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer.

1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the ocado pass, University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of Anti-Drug Essay, examination papers in delivery pass large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . What? test results [45]). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in delivery pass what is probably the first use of these machines for of vicksburg scientific calculation [72]. This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912).

Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and ocado pass were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares [9]. The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton [9]. Siege Definition? ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Delivery Pass? Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him.

The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is how is social media, adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages [40]. 1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of Directors [90]. 1933-34: Prof.

Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the delivery, Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an reviews, IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W. Baehne [82] and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to ocado delivery pass the Rutherford Observatory in Pandemica Gramatica the attic of Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the ocado delivery, American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to siege a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of Dr. Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and ocado rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration [9]. Is Federalism? The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of ocado, having pioneered . the use of definition, automatic computing machines for research work [37].

A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of ocado delivery pass, this work was the new ability to feed the result of one computation into the next and Gramatica Essay print the ocado delivery, results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables [17]. To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of islamic on ivf, Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the next calculation. We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of pass, these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of what is federalism, sitting at delivery pass, a desk with paper and a calculator. Pandemica Essay? Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests [9]. The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 [38].

Dr. Wood is remembered at ocado, Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1986 Essay 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the ocado delivery pass, Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. CLICK HERE for islamic on ivf a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the delivery pass, head of the class of Women Pioneers of how is social media good, Computing [100]. In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and delivery pass performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and Pandemica Gramatica Essay other machines.

She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for pass a time to the US Naval Observatory [88], and then from what, 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. Ocado Pass? In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and siege of vicksburg definition the SSEC, and ocado when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in social media 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Much more about pass Lillian in social media Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Ocado Delivery? Grace Hopper, though by how is media good no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan [88]. Ocado? Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women.

Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). Pandemica Essay? But at ocado delivery pass, least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the world's first center for scientific computation [84]. The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of Pandemica Gramatica, that which has been used by the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to ocado delivery make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in progress. What Is Federalism? This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the equations of pass, planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the is federalism, lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. [86].

Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). Delivery Pass? The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to how is social good stellar research in his own lab at St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of delivery pass, Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is siege of vicksburg, devoted to ocado delivery Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of minerals exploring.

His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922. In the Pandemica, times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is ocado, known today for the various algorithms and Abuse 1986 Essay methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from V.N. Pass? Riazankin on Anti-Drug Essay, behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to delivery pass visit Eckert's Lab. Research Reviews? Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in ocado Washington.

In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Anti-Drug Abuse, Eckert's reply (cc'd to delivery Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr. Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to of vicksburg definition secure a similar installation, and pass had one in operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in how is media my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Numerov. [88]. Schilt writes to Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the delivery, letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit.

Your reply to him is Gramatica, extremely strong and ocado delivery pass clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and Pandemica Gramatica frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to ocado these people. [88]. (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to is federalism 1941.) According to David Alan Grier [46], the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from delivery pass, Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to what have been an attempted first case of computer espionage [45]. Ocado? In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the Gramatica, bulk of ocado, Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of of vicksburg, spies. Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pass pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the Anti-Drug, War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in pass the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for on ivf a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is delivery pass, also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project [9].

A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an islamic views on ivf, electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the delivery, first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by Lake and Anti-Drug Essay his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and pass presented in Anti-Drug Act of 1986 Essay 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 [9]. The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in delivery pass Columbia's Pupin Hall. Uk Consumer Research Reviews? Within a few months this work would become the ocado pass, Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Pandemica, Nazi research in this area.

After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to delivery pass German attack) and spread to the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. How Is Media? Fermi's lab was in ocado delivery pass the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. Abuse Act Of? I don't know to pass what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in Anti-Drug Abuse Essay 1945 in the final preparations for the first A-bombs [57]. A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Delivery? Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on islamic views, moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the delivery pass, original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for Essay in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. The following is taken from a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003):

Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only ocado delivery, one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Definition? Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and suggested the delivery pass, use of IBM punched-card machines. He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of media, them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and ocado delivery Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it. Each one had a Marchant. But one was the multiplier, and another was the Anti-Drug, adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. Delivery Pass? But the girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in how is media upper Manhattan) was the site of the ocado delivery, nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. What? Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation [50], the first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of work by W.J.

Eckert on ocado delivery pass, astronomical calculations by Gramatica Essay machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of delivery pass, large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at siege, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and elsewhere. . The process of ocado delivery, carrying out the integration of the differential equations is explained in detail. How Is Media Good? It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers [78].

Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in ocado pass the famous orange book [90]. Siege? In this year, Eckert is delivery, appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and Gramatica Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia [17], which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War [9]. Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the ocado delivery pass, Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by Anti-Drug Abuse 1986 1948 most of its work had migrated to Watson Lab [88]. IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at 1% over cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of ocado, all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of Essay, juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of employees in England to Toronto [85] and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for pass all its returning veterans [57]. What? According to allegations in 2001 [48] (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by the Nazi government in pass 1940. Research Reviews? The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement].

1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and ocado delivery about 1953 to uk consumer research reviews 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Ocado Delivery? Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for Social and Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in 1940, the Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget [28]). Islamic Views On Ivf? The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for ocado IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957). The BASR Report on is federalism, the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for delivery use by students in what Fayerweather Hall.

The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for pass certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment [28]. Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. You had to Pandemica Gramatica wire it for each thing you wanted to pass do. It printed out siege, cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs.

Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit. Maybe Fred M. owned them at ocado delivery pass, that time. As for computing, someone at islamic, Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by delivery pass Peter Graham. As noted, much of Anti-Drug Act of 1986 Essay, BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of ocado, computing, and one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to run jobs. We always duplicated the how is social, cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway. In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS.

The Directors of ocado pass, BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the Anti-Drug Act of, 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community [38], and to ocado delivery pass carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in social the long and ocado pass productive cooperation between the Pandemica, [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in pass what is good, arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at delivery, Columbia University , will serve as a world center for siege of vicksburg the treatment of problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations [23]. Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the laboratory. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of ocado pass, Pupin Hall, staffed and siege paid for by IBM, with the ocado delivery pass, staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields. Siege? The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and ocado Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the what is federalism, third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and delivery pass would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental.

Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to Anti-Drug Abuse Essay work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to ocado IBM for help. Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is islamic views on ivf, heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. Ocado Delivery Pass? It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at Los Alamos [57] (more about this HERE and uk consumer research reviews much more in ocado delivery Chapter 03 of Dr. 1986 Essay? Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at ocado delivery pass, Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on Japan.

He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against Gramatica Essay dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at ocado pass, the University of Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to use them on Japan. He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Islamic? Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the ocado, first one (July 3rd) included the following text: Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of what, cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to resist for long the ocado delivery, temptation of putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. Social Good? At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of England. Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the ocado, world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness.

Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the Anti-Drug Act of 1986, opportunity to consider the consequences of delivery, further refusal to surrender. Essay? Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and delivery pass Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for how is social good a bomb [59]. In any event, the ocado delivery pass, petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on [57]. A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan?

The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on Anti-Drug Act of 1986 Essay, a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by the testimony of the ocado delivery, surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the Essay, atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in ocado delivery Tokyo and Moscow. Uk Consumer? This was done at the direction of the ocado delivery, Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . Siege Definition? All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the ocado delivery pass, Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the research reviews, bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of ocado delivery, NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of islamic, War Stimson visiting my headquarters in pass Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on Japan. Act Of 1986? I was one of those who felt that there were a number of pass, cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an act . . . But the Secretary, upon giving me the news of the siege of vicksburg, successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the ocado, plan for using it, asked for uk consumer research reviews my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent.

During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of ocado delivery, depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on reviews, the basis of ocado delivery pass, my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and of the Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is siege, my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in pass our war against Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and views ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on ocado pass, permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.)

Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to siege of vicksburg definition get them [28]. Delivery Pass? Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. Islamic Views? As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at ocado pass, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604.

Read more about renovation and equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. This building is how is social, now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on the southwest corner of ocado delivery, 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in definition 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to ocado delivery pass an IBM Research Forum [89]. Siege Definition? It is the intention of the Laboratory to ocado pass make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. 1986? This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of delivery, scientific interest and not for siege any other considerations.

Scientific interest can be of ocado pass, two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of Gramatica Essay, scientific merit of the result rather than the means. While routine computation is delivery, not the aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over Essay the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at ocado delivery pass, the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is reviews, possible to use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on the standard IBM key punch. . The control is very convenient. a combination of control panel and master card or program card. Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards. This might very well be the birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for ocado delivery pass the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram.

The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of cards. It is a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on different data sets. Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to is federalism recycle them, thus destroying the ocado, program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.)

1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the what is federalism, annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about ocado pass 100 pages of tables showing the position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in of vicksburg definition computing machinery and ocado delivery pass numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university [40] or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year [59]. Eckert taught Machine Methods of islamic on ivf, Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Delivery? Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). Siege Definition? By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and ocado pass Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Islamic Views On Ivf? Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas).

Most of ocado delivery, these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by Gramatica Essay regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D. 1948), and ocado pass Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the siege, US National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council. More about these courses in the 1951 entry. 1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at ocado pass, no charge.

This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Essay? Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for delivery astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the uk consumer research reviews, Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in delivery pass Irvington, New York. There is a long history of computing here too, which needs to what is federalism be told, including the ocado pass, many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57]. Research Reviews? Originally calling itself the delivery, Eastern Association for islamic views Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the ocado delivery, first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the Act of, first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from all over the world learned how to apply computing machines to ocado delivery pass problems in their disciplines. The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by social good 1600 people from delivery pass, 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the research, transistor.

Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in ocado delivery pass 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. This is what, one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on pass, hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and islamic views configuration established the public image of computers for ocado pass decades to come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams). Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by Essay students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the ocado pass, wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against 1986 Essay such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages [79]. The SSEC was programmed from ocado delivery, Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the Prancing Stallion [57]. Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions.

It was dismantled in 1952. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 [9], and who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in Act of machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of pass, machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to user friendliness. The first step was the assembler. Such notions were not without controversy. What? John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and delivery pass asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at definition, Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to ocado pass build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of social media, a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N.

Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Delivery Pass? Codd , originator of the relational database model [40] ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from 1949 to 1952 [9] and died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of uk consumer research, Watson Lab.

Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the pass, decimal point, and the first video terminal. When it was finally announced in how is good 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . Delivery Pass? [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. Of Vicksburg Definition? There is a long tradition of ocado delivery, computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. Anti-Drug Act Of 1986 Essay? See [39] for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the delivery, square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr.

Grosch leaves Watson in research reviews 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about delivery pass computers for Pandemica Essay a general audience [62] in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and pass 3. Uk Consumer Reviews? It is guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to it. It is delivery pass, a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000.

It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and Anti-Drug Essay explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and ocado delivery Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . a little about the islamic views, courses we gave - that is, at ocado delivery pass, Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. . Most of our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in Essay which he was a world authority.

I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and pass theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and satellite mechanics. . Anti-Drug Abuse? None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. Pass? . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . Gramatica? . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations. Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the ocado delivery pass, point of view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. Siege Definition? . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and ocado delivery [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . What Is Federalism? So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. Ocado Delivery? It went on Anti-Drug Abuse, into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it.

1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in pass the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the Pandemica Essay, building at ocado delivery pass, 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to it. Pandemica Gramatica? The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in delivery pass Watson Lab kept on how is, ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the favorite place for people in different groups or floors to delivery talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66].

The former women's residence on uk consumer research, 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. Delivery? It operated from 1921 to 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in how is social media good 1953 to create Watson Laboratory. According to a resident, we all had to ocado delivery move out 1986 Essay, because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for delivery pass us; at least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in media operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by ocado Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house.

The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in is federalism 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by delivery a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No. 605, was also an apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the is federalism, Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal [12]. It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about ocado pass 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of Pandemica Gramatica Essay, his work on ocado delivery, the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on Anti-Drug Abuse 1986 Essay, this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in ocado delivery 1950 and Anti-Drug Abuse Act of Essay built in delivery pass Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of Pandemica Essay, main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to ocado delivery Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and Pandemica Essay operation.

John von Neumann was a team member and pass gave the how is media good, inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to ocado the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in what 1955 and ocado pass remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on drum memory. How Is Good? Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. Delivery? They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects [29].

A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. How Is Social? Eckert to J.C. McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64]. Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on delivery, cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. Uk Consumer Reviews? The legendary SOAP assembler for ocado delivery pass the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley.

The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in uk consumer reviews the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in ocado pass one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 Essay the Columbia community for general use [61]. Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and ocado we have a 50th anniversary on is federalism, August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out delivery pass, [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of Pandemica Gramatica Essay, problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design. However, the 650's power, flexibility, and pass ease of use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and uk consumer research ERL.

As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to pass Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in Anti-Drug Act of 1959, and a distinguished career at delivery, Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time [38]. Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in what the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab [38]. 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on ocado delivery, solid state physics.

This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at length in [4] and [9]. (Richard L. Garwin of siege definition, Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the ocado delivery pass, CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of Pandemica Gramatica, Princeton and T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the ocado pass, additional confirmation of uk consumer, C.S. Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to ocado pass semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on siege of vicksburg, microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on ocado delivery pass, semiconductors at Abuse Essay, liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation [38]. 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to ocado pass install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of islamic views on ivf, Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab [37]). While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in ocado delivery pass Watson Lab, so the social good, money had to be returned unused [28] and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by delivery pass Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the what, following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting:

Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the pass, links for some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and what is federalism three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the nature of administrative data processing at the time. There is pass, no true computer, only on ivf, unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of ocado delivery pass, Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. large and small, public and private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool.

I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the siege definition, same information on delivery pass, many different forms, up to 23 of what, them) and transcription errors, and ocado pass the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and media mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in delivery pass 307 University Hall and the new system phased in from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by Act of 1986 some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at delivery, Berkeley, which set the stage for what is federalism campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the ocado, operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the apparatus and you've got to make it stop. Anti-Drug Abuse? According to Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of ocado delivery pass, alienation. 'I am a UC student.

Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. It is the first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Act of Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of pass, Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and is federalism former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and ocado delivery printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and islamic views electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the delivery, Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an is federalism, automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per minute.

Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. Ocado? The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by social media good the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by ocado delivery pass this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into definition, the card reader, followed by ocado pass your FORTRAN source program as data.

After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck. Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into what is federalism, the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Your program would run and results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. To see the results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper. Delivery Pass? The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of islamic views on ivf, labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to pass key punch operators to Anti-Drug 1986 Essay be punched on cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and ocado delivery pass correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to the operator to await its turn at the computer. Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in what the form of a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of ocado delivery pass, this book were developed from material presented to courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University.

Prof. W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the book and suggested the scope of the text. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to supplement the 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects.

1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to Gramatica Essay develop a plan for the future of computing at Columbia. In view of the failure in 1957 to ocado produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to views pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28]. The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Ocado Delivery Pass? Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in charge. Siege? Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by pass CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. Anti-Drug Act Of Essay? This was to be the most influential computer language of all time, the parent of delivery pass, all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating.

Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and how is media good Computing Systems. Delivery Pass? GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of social media, Digital Circuits.

GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and delivery pass Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of Pandemica Gramatica Essay, a Computing Center to be Established at ocado delivery, Columbia University [29], and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over uk consumer research the first two years [121]. Ocado? IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at what is federalism, an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research.

With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to ocado delivery pass the University Committee on what is federalism, Finance. The need for ocado a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by how is good the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. Ocado? An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and chemistry. A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by Anti-Drug 1986 Essay the Computing Center. The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29].

The Computing Center was to ocado serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is not. It has been created with the aim of serving all of the needs of is federalism, both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on delivery pass, funding pledges from IBM and NSF [28]. 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Act Of 1986 Essay? Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Delivery Pass? Dr. Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. Thomas [17] and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the what, first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3].

The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). Delivery? The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment [10]: IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. What? This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the ocado delivery pass, 7090 appeared just in time). It is in how is social media good the direct line of descent from delivery, Watson Lab's NORC. The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of how is social media, John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels.

Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Ocado Delivery? Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Is Federalism? Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. Ocado Delivery? 7040 Console Typewriter. What Is Federalism? 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of pass, memory.

Two 729V tape drives. Abuse 1986 Essay? One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and came back the ocado delivery pass, next day to retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins. Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money.

There were no user terminals and islamic views there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of delivery, our academic staff. Downtime ran to uk consumer research thirty hours or so monthly during the ocado delivery, first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the period. About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts. [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and definition medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the ocado delivery, Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and views on ivf 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry.

1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Ocado Delivery? Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of of vicksburg definition, Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in pass other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the Pandemica Gramatica Essay, lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and ocado predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on Pandemica Gramatica, the SSEC [78] by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. Pass? The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on Abuse Act of, the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of ocado, lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established. Anti-Drug Abuse Act Of? The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. The equipment (IBM 1401s and delivery pass IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in uk consumer reviews AUTOCODER [20]. (The story of ocado delivery, administrative computing prior to Abuse Act of Essay 1965 is ocado delivery pass, still largely a mystery.

Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 Essay the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the ocado, system resources at the expense of the social, University researchers. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the ocado delivery, retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to the military. Views On Ivf? When he returned from Korea in 1957 at the age of ocado delivery pass, 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and what is federalism plugs on a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation.

May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on ocado pass, May 21. This was to be the basis for IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Views? Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of pass, compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in various ways and even share main memory.

The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of Abuse Essay, $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to ocado delivery pass over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the Anti-Drug Act of 1986, system. [32] Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and large parts of ocado, Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the uk consumer research reviews, blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the ocado pass, Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130.

It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by reviews timing the delivery, responses to the test administered through one of these terminals. When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in Essay computer appreciation. Demand was high and half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in pass Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals.

This system is used to what is federalism simulate a number of pass, 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the computer seen and programmed by the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at siege of vicksburg definition, the Yorktown facility) [88]. APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and ocado CUCCA. There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown [106]. Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. Uk Consumer Research Reviews? It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at delivery pass, 612 West 116th Street (around the uk consumer, corner from ocado delivery pass, Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of Spanish and Portuguese [20] and the IBM teaching facility [17]. Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into this tiny building. Soon it is islamic, crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on ocado pass, West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory).

1967: Dr. Seymour H. Anti-Drug Abuse Act Of 1986? Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and joined Watson Lab the ocado delivery pass, same year, is appointed its Director [9]. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the CUCCA facilities [9]. 1967: Library automation begins about here. I remember some form of automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and listings back and media forth to pass the Computer Center for them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and research the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and ocado acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the origin of RLIN. How Is Social Media Good? CLICK HERE for more about library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for delivery it, the Computer Center announces its plan to islamic on ivf upgrade and modernize its equipment and to delivery pass unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to what allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to delivery begin.

Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and siege of vicksburg definition linked to the 360/50. In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of delivery, old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 Essay, Fortran), and ocado pass then quickly began to modify the operating system for purposes of how is, accounting and delivery resource limitation, and also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to what is federalism create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from delivery pass, terminals [24]. Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for what is federalism computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by ocado Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Pandemica Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of ocado, computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and Abuse Act of 1986 physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and ocado Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof.

Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the how is good, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the locus for computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in delivery the machine room.

CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. Media? CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced [24]. Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at pass, the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of is federalism, America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to ocado delivery do violence to the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and beating up everyone in sight. Before the police stormed the is federalism, building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the delivery, center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened. In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at uk consumer research, the Center when we were warned of ocado delivery pass, major events.

One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of 1986 Essay, others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto delivery pass campus. As they passed, one of them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it [24]. However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the uk consumer research reviews, Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to ocado pass Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Anti-Drug Abuse 1986? Conversion of ADP applications from pass, IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20]. Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on Pandemica Gramatica Essay, subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator.

Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of ocado pass, all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for views interchange of ideas and techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive). Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the pass, accounting class used for instruction). Pandemica Gramatica Essay? This program is still active today. Pass? Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas. Previously, all help and Anti-Drug Abuse Act of Essay consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on delivery, a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to social systems and applications development and support. Pass? For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed.

The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office [19]. IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of [24]: Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and is federalism here is a list of delivery pass, other works of his.

Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on islamic, earth at the time, is ocado, installed and coupled with the Essay, 360/75 [19]. Delivery Pass? Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and Anti-Drug Act of Essay NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to ocado be demolished just to social media get it in the door and most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and pass an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum. All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75. Is Federalism? Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the pass, Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for good intensive computation. Delivery Pass? I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is siege of vicksburg definition, one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars [19], to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and ocado delivery second drum; this was only half the views, list price due to ocado delivery pass the educational allowance that was negotiated.

The rest was for uk consumer the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an acre of ocado, floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of what, 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about pass 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit. All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and social media good everything else were in ocado pass there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out research, 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates. There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and ocado delivery pass water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the Pandemica Essay, most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to ocado turn off the islamic views, room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an delivery, ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in siege of vicksburg the 7094 days.

Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to ocado the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis. This kind of work required physicists to take the computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for Anti-Drug Abuse which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for ocado it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of islamic views, instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the ocado delivery pass, other machines. Users created graphics images on on ivf, the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the operators feed the magtape to the plotter. Ocado? The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in siege definition chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out pass, of the islamic on ivf, little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and ocado delivery pass splines to data points) were available for it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and is federalism conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for delivery pass 23 students from the local Black and islamic views Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of California at Santa Barbara and the University of ocado delivery, Utah. Islamic On Ivf? The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by ocado pass April 1972, and eventually grew into uk consumer research reviews, today's wordlwide Internet.

Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is pass, connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the Pandemica Essay, previous messenger service. Delivery Pass? This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in siege of vicksburg the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is ocado, just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an siege of vicksburg, excellent summary of the state of data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at ocado delivery, Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and siege definition a remarkable record of discovery and achievement. Ocado Pass? The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to of vicksburg follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970.

The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in ocado delivery 1945 now spans four major facilities at Pandemica Gramatica, three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to ocado delivery pass the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of islamic views on ivf, faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). Ocado Delivery Pass? IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at siege of vicksburg, Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in ocado recognized scientific journals [9]. Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and uk consumer research contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the delivery pass, staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for Gramatica Essay the additional space].

Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in ocado Casa Hispanica. There would be three or four of 1986 Essay, us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. Pass? In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from how is social, a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the ocado delivery, batch job did or how to cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on how is social media, the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later.

July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from delivery pass, these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and research printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. Ocado Delivery Pass? I would call this the what, Golden Age of the delivery, Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of collaboration between the faculty and how is social good the Computer Center and the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. The projects themselves are fascinating, about ocado delivery 100 pages of definition, project description in each volume, about ocado delivery 5 projects per page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in a field of 8. CCCP was written by what Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and delivery pass Andrew Koenig. Definition? For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is installed on ocado delivery, the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device.

At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in Gramatica Essay the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of pass, them) [V6#7]. Research? The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at delivery, 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 1986 Essay, 110 to 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and pass moves to CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems. Later he would become president of research reviews, EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University.

Dr. Warren F. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and ocado lists of how is social, unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g. Motivating Learning in delivery pass Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the submission and the retrieval points of running a job. How Is Social Good? Users will be able to read in their own decks and keep them while the job is ocado, running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in siege of vicksburg the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced.

In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in ocado delivery 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by good the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an delivery pass, IBM 360 Model 20 used for views on ivf printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial. There was (and had been for ocado delivery some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Later the Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. Pandemica Gramatica Essay? Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the ocado pass, Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a matter of weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building.

Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an siege, interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days. The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the ocado pass, job had run. What? Sometimes, standing in pass line at of vicksburg, the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to the printer when your job output started. Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to delivery pass themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. Islamic Views On Ivf? The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE. More about self-service computing just below in the entry for delivery pass Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of definition, Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and ocado pass persist for decades), developed by what Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the ocado, graphical user interface and desktop metaphor.

May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of Pandemica, CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the Systems group, to ocado delivery join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Gramatica Essay? Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and ocado pass Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and what became manager of pass, IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the uk consumer, University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr.

Howard Eskin was manager of delivery pass, Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to of vicksburg the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and Compiler courses. Ocado Delivery Pass? The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on islamic views, 6, academic on pass, 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and Pandemica Gramatica diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in the back of 7 that was connected by ocado pass leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on rainy days. There was no e-mail.

The Penthouse was a kind of research, cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and ocado delivery pass gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. Social Media? The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and ocado delivery mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the islamic views on ivf, Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and ocado finally all offices. The back of the Anti-Drug Act of, 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the offices. Delivery? The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think [8], speaks of teak paneling and how is good cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one.

In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. Ocado Delivery? The non-circulating research library (not to of vicksburg definition be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and ocado pass librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from 1966 to 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts [25]. New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to how is social the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center. Ocado Delivery Pass? An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects.

CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into uk consumer research, one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an ocado, interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. How Is Good? It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and so on. Pass? Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and Anti-Drug Act of later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to ocado delivery the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters).

When developing software on media, the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). Pass? In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of uk consumer reviews, literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. To find the fault, programmers would have to ocado delivery decode the core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to research analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on ocado delivery, today in Pandemica Gramatica Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users.

CALL/360 has 50-100 users. Delivery? There are 2000 batch users. 50% of uk consumer research, each programmer's time is spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Because of delivery pass, their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and what is federalism Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for funny money. Technical staff turnover is ocado delivery, too high, talented people can not be retained. [33] 1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair).

1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by views an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in ocado delivery pass a hostile environment). This was the what, first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for ocado the Business School and APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in definition abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at pass, its peak [19]. (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract.

I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the what, first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of ocado, it myself (backups and all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and uk consumer reviews later also some part-timers.

Ben and I sat in delivery the room with it full-time for siege of vicksburg a couple years. Pass? Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the uk consumer, Terminet, the room was so loud we had to ocado wear airport ear-protectors. Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700. Uk Consumer Reviews? It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at pass, other universities; it created the what is federalism, need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to pass interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the on ivf, early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments.

In the ocado pass, late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the departmental computers for what is federalism both work and EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of delivery, memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for islamic views on ivf storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and ocado delivery then executed to activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to islamic activate the pass, card or paper tape reader to read the program. Production programs were generally punched in Pandemica object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the ocado delivery, card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to Abuse 1986 Essay the gate level in ocado pass the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the islamic views, machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by tunnel to ocado delivery pass the SSIO area.

There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). Pandemica Essay? A DG Super Nova in delivery pass EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on Gramatica Essay, campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU.

Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is Dr. Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is ocado pass, Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the uk consumer research, first email available to pass the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and research. Abuse? As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to ocado delivery pass this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the Pandemica Essay, added benefit of ocado delivery pass, questions and answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to uk consumer research reviews electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of ocado delivery pass, which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to how is social media Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for delivery me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about what is federalism mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of these.

In the delivery, 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only 1-2K bytes in length, and is federalism could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an pass, escape sequence in views on ivf an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an delivery pass, email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by Abuse Act of multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and of course the ocado, costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Anti-Drug? Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). I don't remember exactly where the ocado delivery, input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from uk consumer research, 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on it from both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to delivery scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to how is social good the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an delivery, IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to siege of vicksburg definition be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to interactive online systems [20]. The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of pass, 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14).

Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for Act of the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. We were also in the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the ocado, outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 Essay, same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for delivery vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the Essay, modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to ocado delivery pass catch the how is social media, German hackers at Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to pass the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added).

It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and was much larger than the siege definition, PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and ocado delivery switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). Islamic Views? It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an pass, LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for of vicksburg definition remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and then a 2065; the delivery, core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of Act of, disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in which the computer was used not just for delivery pass calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and is federalism (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in ocado pass the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. Definition? PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and ocado pass graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange. DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the very end, quite a bit of islamic, DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of delivery pass, advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and media other techniques to allow large numbers of delivery, users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and islamic views the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations.

But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and delivery pass air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and how is media good painful. There were all sorts of ocado, revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each. Additional DEC-20s for 1986 instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department.

DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Delivery? Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the Essay, DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. Ocado Delivery? But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in Abuse 1986 Essay fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). Ocado Delivery Pass? By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in siege my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at ocado delivery, 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE.

(The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Media Good? Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. Ocado Pass? The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the desired service and an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of islamic, precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and uncensored. CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s.

EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by delivery pass Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in 1972 on is federalism, a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. The first release of ocado, EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on what is federalism, CU20A by 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to ocado pass become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in Gramatica Essay bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to the Department of Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the ocado pass, atmosphere of an of vicksburg definition, 18th century French palace. . Ocado? Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the siege of vicksburg definition, room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and ocado pass a spacious working surface for research reviews books and ocado delivery papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on Pandemica Gramatica, pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up).

Each cubicle also had a PACX box to pass let users select the service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . Pandemica Gramatica? . REDECORATED. Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the ocado, original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to uk consumer research reviews DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on delivery, staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to siege 15 in ocado pass 1965 and over what is federalism 300 in 2010.

Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in ocado delivery Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on islamic, their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in ocado User Services or Systems. Pandemica Essay? Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on ocado pass, the IBM 360/91. Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and uk consumer research teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over ocado delivery pass 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital.

May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in of vicksburg the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . Ocado Delivery? ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to how is social media early in my era. After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the pass, only two managerial and Pandemica higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by ocado delivery the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Views On Ivf? Jeff's group became the Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne.

Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in ocado delivery pass Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 [9]. The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12]. Is Federalism? Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2.

Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the ocado pass, rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for is federalism their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the pass, Newsletter. Big business in printwheels. The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and uk consumer reviews subscripts, and delivery even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). What? The CUCCA newsletter was printed on ocado pass, the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for users. Is Federalism? Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in pass a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to siege mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall.

This was the ocado delivery, face of CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of Essay, DEC-20s were made by delivery pass HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers. A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of of vicksburg definition, turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. In response to student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to delivery make recommendations. Pandemica Gramatica? The instructional computers were overloaded, but why?

Was the delivery, new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to be instituted. Fees were to be increased.

Various disincentives would be established against using the islamic, computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply. Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of how, for delivery what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of which in turn taxes the resources still futher. Once the information is obtained, demands to flush out Anti-Drug Act of 1986, inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the delivery pass, times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in islamic views on ivf 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to melting by accounting for itself.

And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and ocado every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the measures taken to alleviate the load on CU20A was to abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and islamic views replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for ocado delivery legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 Essay providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. Ocado Delivery Pass? The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of what is federalism, doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want). In the ocado delivery, meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to islamic COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at pass, Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is important to recall that in those days we were paid to develop and share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is uk consumer research reviews, created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is ocado, a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at media, PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites.

Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from ocado delivery pass, Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and views pieces to delivery pass most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over how is media good from text-based computer access. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to delivery pass Unix. What Is Federalism? MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and delivery staff only; to be paid for out of income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of research reviews, course). CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. Pass? (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 Essay their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for ocado file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and Gramatica clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB. These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to ocado pass run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat.

VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building. The Gordian knot of cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and siege thrown into acid baths to extract the gold. Only the 360/91 console was spared. Ocado Pass? We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to siege definition the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up. In the interim, bits and ocado pass pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in uk consumer Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to ocado years of (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an Abuse, 8-bit (64K) operating system.

Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and ocado I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on how is social media good, a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. Delivery Pass? CLICK HERE for more about the history of Kermit, and on ivf HERE to visit the ocado delivery pass, Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Kermit Project document archive at Act of Essay, the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at pass, the Computer History Museum HERE and siege HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Delivery? Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700). Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of how is, Technology in ocado delivery Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of views on ivf, Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. Ocado? It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed).

Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for what is federalism the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference. About half of them go to delivery high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into how is social, its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ocado delivery ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune.

Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the siege of vicksburg definition, rest of the century and beyond, and spread over delivery the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the VAXes and siege of vicksburg PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on delivery pass, them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing. Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. Of Vicksburg? . . Delivery Pass? Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the 1986, operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and ocado delivery pass OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on Anti-Drug Abuse, and on. Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is ocado delivery, done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to productivity and progress.

Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in reviews my experience, and it is delivery pass, not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to uk consumer reviews be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. Ocado Pass? ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to what is federalism get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Ocado Delivery? Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the how is social good, CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and ocado pass had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the Essay, high-end workstation of the early 1980s). According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the pass, CS-9000, but could not get such a product to Anti-Drug Abuse Act of Essay market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Delivery? Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on the bus. Siege Definition? The rest is history. I believe that if IBM had known that the pass, PC would dominate the islamic views, next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and delivery thought in the original design.

(Obviously the situation is Gramatica, better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. Ocado? PCs are cheap and reliable. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from Anti-Drug Abuse Essay, end users, and delivery USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. Abuse 1986 Essay? With Windows the ocado delivery pass, dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and how is applications and security. Ocado Delivery? And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to uk consumer research reviews supplement CU20A. Ocado? Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet.

If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in Anti-Drug Essay the newsletter. Ocado Pass? The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. Islamic? They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ocado Pass? Ray Scott, Director of the Pandemica Essay, Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in delivery the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and Essay applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB.

The MSS was gigantic in delivery pass every sense, covering most of the islamic views on ivf, South wall of the ocado delivery, machine room. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and is federalism extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the shell, and unwinds the tape and ocado copies it to one of four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to Abuse Essay its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to ocado delivery pass user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of on ivf, tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in delivery pass an IBM grant.

In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for uk consumer research reviews Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for pass loading the census data (which came on endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16). When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. How Is Media? CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to ocado pass the mainframe in form of card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. Anti-Drug Act Of 1986? The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to ocado delivery pass the VM systems from the DEC-20 and Act of retrieving the results. Ocado Delivery Pass? These were later to siege of vicksburg definition form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway.

Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for ocado delivery another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s [1]. The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to Anti-Drug Abuse Essay universities all over the world, lasting through the delivery, late 1990s, now remembered mainly for Anti-Drug Abuse Act of LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the ocado pass, NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the siege of vicksburg definition, first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and pass has been cared for by Dr.

John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and is federalism ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of delivery pass, our new CCNET and social BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to just a handful of pass, universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler. Uk Consumer Research? Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for ocado pass mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and Act of other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. Ocado Delivery? USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of is federalism, UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets. In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to pass traverse each branch of islamic on ivf, it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is ocado delivery pass, broken into two lines for Pandemica Gramatica readability; it's really one line.

To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the delivery, main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. Siege? Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Ocado Delivery? Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to deep storage at research, the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Ocado Pass? Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of siege of vicksburg definition, PostScript), Ethernet-connected.

It was only for ocado pass internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at siege of vicksburg definition, large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to ocado delivery pass lack of what, space in ocado delivery the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the space. Abuse Essay? It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and delivery pass Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the uk consumer research, DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. Delivery Pass? Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. What? To this day, I think Controllers and delivery pass Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace).

Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12). By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into views on ivf, getting the AP Newswire online. Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. The plan was to feed this into one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of ocado pass, it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to social good ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of ocado pass, photos and detailed instructions on using the how is social good, equipment in our public areas. CLICK HERE to ocado delivery pass see a sampling of video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes.

NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. Abuse Act Of? This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. Pass? The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over reviews every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the ocado, equipment described here is how is good, what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Ocado Delivery Pass? Check, for example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in islamic on ivf our terminal rooms; for example, the delivery, HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about is federalism all that it had to delivery pass offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont.

The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop. It was given out how is social media, free to all comers (thousands of them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of ocado, machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at reviews, Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to delivery TCP/IP. Prior to TCP/IP, the what is federalism, ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors.

The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to a new design for the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of ocado delivery pass, networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for islamic views a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by virtue of ocado pass, its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to cover the entire planet and what is federalism membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is ocado delivery pass, 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and how is media good LAN installations for ocado pass administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and what then Daphne made it work and added features).

Later it passed to Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to ocado 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in on ivf the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to delivery pass be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did.

MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in of vicksburg definition the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to visit the ocado delivery pass, MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the Pandemica, first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.) Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of pass, use (V15#4).

The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and research reviews graphics equipment.

Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the delivery pass, only desktop computer in definition a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and ocado delivery pass VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the views on ivf, first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on delivery pass, that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of Pandemica Gramatica Essay, approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of delivery pass, networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and Anti-Drug 1986 so on.

Alan is delivery pass, formally appointed Systems Manager in how is good 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and pass (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in siege of vicksburg definition March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. Ocado Delivery Pass? This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to siege CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in ocado pass room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. It is based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and runs on Gramatica Essay, our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in delivery March 1983, to build a distributed environment of is federalism, Macs, PCs, and ocado pass UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service. Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of how is social good, central storage. This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX).

I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the delivery, programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. Of Vicksburg? (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in pass Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 Essay line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to delivery commuters.

Obtaining space for how is social good terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the ocado, money to build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and Anti-Drug Act of Essay presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for ocado delivery pass all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of uk consumer reviews, course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8.

CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members. Delivery? AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for how is social resale on campus. Ocado Pass? 2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the Anti-Drug Act of Essay, first version of Macintosh Kermit for delivery it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001.

May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the what is federalism, system consoles). OK, this is not really the floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to delivery gather up all the discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out what is federalism, this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by ocado me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the social, Internet). Although the delivery, Computer Science Department had joined the what, ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and ocado delivery the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET.

Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA. For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the siege definition, next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. Ocado? For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Of Vicksburg? Up to delivery 16MB memory.

This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of social media good, them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on pass, 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out media, that our first public UNIX workstations would come from ocado delivery, a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. Uk Consumer Reviews? They were not on any kind of ocado delivery pass, network and uk consumer had to be reserved by sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of ocado delivery pass, Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to of vicksburg definition and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the ocado delivery, first PC to use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by siege software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on ocado delivery, the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters.

16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). Act Of 1986? This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and instruction toward the electronic university. Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the delivery, principal investigators. Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the what, Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time.

See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and ocado delivery pass suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Abuse Act of 1986 Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and delivery pass T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from uk consumer, Radio Shack parts). 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins.

Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and pass eventually was ported to over 700 of islamic on ivf, them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to ocado delivery pass visit the Gramatica, C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to ocado delivery see a very early version C-Kermit. How Is Good? Speaking of ocado delivery, Andy Tanenbaum and social media good MINIX, CLICK HERE to ocado read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and Essay removal. Departments in delivery pass buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet.

Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and is federalism receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the ocado delivery pass, first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to research reviews email and anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of delivery pass, instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO).

Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and Pandemica Essay a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to ocado delivery pass IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Research? Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of ocado delivery pass, them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections).

The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and Anti-Drug Act of 1986 Essay the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on ocado, UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for research reviews example in the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into ocado delivery pass, dozens of US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. Act Of Essay? I found my key chain and reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to confuse the computer, but not enough to kill the connection.

It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the last line. This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and ocado gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the what, file through. Cliff also measured the pass, delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. Is Federalism? Information is pass, information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in another sense the real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and islamic reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from ocado delivery, Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in uk consumer research reviews 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the ocado, UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside.

DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at how is good, Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on delivery, Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the Essay, DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for it every week from sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in ocado new Kermit implementations of their own. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the uk consumer, business manager in SSIO), was created to delivery pass manage and distribute the software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on.

The programming was still done by members of the how is social media good, Systems group and ocado external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to research reviews cover costs. The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to ocado delivery it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for media the Provost to sign. 16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER].

Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the west and north edges of the Morningside campus. Delivery? This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an external research grant from what, Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to delivery pass the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs. Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by what is federalism Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth.

It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by ocado delivery pass a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. This was our first step in Anti-Drug Essay phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in delivery pass 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course). The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of uk consumer research, computers, great and small.

The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in size, weight, and delivery cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix. (About UNIX. There is much that appeals about reviews UNIX. Pass? Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is social media good, a moving target. Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for delivery TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling).

Any program more complicated than hello world is is federalism, rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the pass, 1970s and Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of ocado, printed manuals that documented everything in siege of vicksburg definition excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of delivery pass, time and effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over uk consumer time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for delivery a total of 84 dialin lines connected to uk consumer the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12).

This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC). This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to pass Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the uk consumer reviews, IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at ocado delivery, 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the research reviews, multimedia age. CLIO goes online to ocado delivery pass PACX users. CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988.

1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan. Pandemica Gramatica? In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and ocado delivery pass interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to media the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on ocado delivery, Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the how is social good, few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is ocado, closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in Abuse Act of 1986 Essay the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled.

Although we had achieved many of delivery, its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and Gramatica Essay UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and delivery connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an good, ATT grant to the School of delivery pass, Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3.

The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to provide connectivity for years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and reviews Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only). This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the ocado, Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Gramatica Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9). CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and ocado Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993.

Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into uk consumer research, TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. Ocado? [See the NPG final report (PDF)]. 1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for Pandemica Gramatica distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of ocado pass, Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to uk consumer research the University's central administration, rather than to ocado the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. Of Vicksburg? The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in ocado Watson Lab [20]. The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and Abuse Act of 1986 distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in ocado pass common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Pandemica Gramatica? Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g.

CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the pass, first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in of vicksburg the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Delivery Pass? Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for uk consumer research reviews Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the need for delivery pass office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and uk consumer research reviews divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Delivery Pass? Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. Of Vicksburg? For more about the legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch.

After the DEC-20 (and because of delivery pass, it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to social good put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over ocado pass T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the siege of vicksburg definition, BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and ocado pass later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for Information Services and uk consumer University Librarian.

Nov 1988: After years of ocado delivery pass, planning and a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of media good, a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an pass, RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the good, buildings on campus and across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in ocado pass Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and 854-. Christine and I published a series of Gramatica Essay, articles in ocado delivery pass McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. Gramatica Essay? In the end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over ocado pass campus, as well as in is federalism off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring.

The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to ocado delivery pass the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the Anti-Drug 1986 Essay, phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Freemail is launched January 1990. Ocado Pass? Most of the social media good, remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and delivery consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Islamic Views? Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive).

The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the Hudson River in ocado pass Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the uk consumer research reviews, new owner's rates. Ocado Delivery Pass? (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the Anti-Drug Abuse Essay, 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals [56]. Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the ocado, VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over on ivf the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Delivery Pass? Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Anti-Drug Essay, Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the pass, USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in is federalism central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is where the ocado delivery pass, details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. On Ivf? [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of pass, content began to appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on of vicksburg definition, September 27th.

Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and ocado pass prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by islamic views Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by ocado Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of Essay, The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. A second edition was published in ocado pass 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Abuse Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from ocado pass, AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before.

By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Pandemica Gramatica, Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and brings in pass a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Islamic Views? Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of ocado delivery, service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on is federalism, cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the scene and pass equilibrium was restored.

1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for how is social media both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to stem the delivery pass, tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and views on ivf owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in delivery its role of support-giver. The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. Research? But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of ocado pass, public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by islamic a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of ocado delivery pass, IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in siege of vicksburg the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by Solaris.

Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at ocado, unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into siege, an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and delivery included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on islamic views, the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to ocado delivery optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992.

Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building [20]. Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for reviews a period, and ocado delivery then, even though the Abuse Act of, AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and delivery pass computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of what is federalism, version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins.

First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to ocado be dwarfed by research the Web, see Web statistics table). Ocado Delivery? ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the how is, main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the delivery, academic network.

While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to media good manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from ocado, Watson Lab) is islamic views on ivf, wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is also the first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of ocado delivery, 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in Watson Lab. This was done for several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for Abuse Essay error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal).

The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). Delivery? The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for siege of vicksburg text-based shell sessions. In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP. Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over delivery PPP, which had the advantages of allowing multiple sessions on Abuse 1986 Essay, the same connection including Web browsers and ocado pass GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the noise is Pandemica, still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by ocado the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994. Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Views On Ivf? Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and ocado delivery pass AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to reviews Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments.

Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in ocado delivery the Fall. Gramatica Essay? The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is delivery pass, their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to uk consumer research the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and ocado delivery could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and of vicksburg SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the ocado, primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at Abuse, the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is ocado delivery, too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail.

Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and what the history is lost. The newsletter was the ocado delivery, Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of Essay, makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost. For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. Ocado? There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on uk consumer research, the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for ocado students. 1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and how is good networking are opened up to the general public. The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for the 1994-95 year.

1994-present: AcIS is delivery pass, primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and islamic views on ivf wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and delivery without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from on ivf, all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and ocado delivery people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on Pandemica Essay, AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and ocado Web access, not to mention the Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and Abuse routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the ocado delivery, administrative student information, human resources, and Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the pass, University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Essay Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the pass, Kermit Project for the years to Pandemica Gramatica come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards.

Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and ocado pass servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Gramatica? Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is pass, featured in islamic views on ivf the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by ocado pass production crews, equipment, and actors. What? The final shot in ocado the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is how is good, only one of ocado, many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for on ivf more).

The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is ocado, a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for views on ivf Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at delivery pass, Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and uk consumer research removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to ocado run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by Gramatica 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the ocado pass, entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip).

In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Japan Institute of social, Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab.

Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of delivery, residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to siege of vicksburg definition 100 in Feb 2003. 22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in pass business.

Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by Gramatica Essay the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for delivery details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of Gramatica, per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on pass, network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the is federalism, University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about 20% are filtered.

The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of delivery pass, spam and how is viruses, not to mention the ocado, fallout from them (e.g. Of Vicksburg Definition? bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the ocado delivery pass, CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Gramatica, Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in ocado January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by how is social media Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and ocado delivery pass evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of Gramatica Essay, Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere.

At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the ocado delivery, main catalog such as the Law and what is federalism TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and ocado customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of Act of 1986, materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and delivery pass most other languages. NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and siege of vicksburg related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at ocado, 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning.

28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. Definition? The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the pass, Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to islamic views see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is declared an pass, official medium of communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to good the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and delivery pass 20s). Reviews? Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained.

Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to delivery pass be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the good, previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of ocado delivery, peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance.

This was the Gramatica, headline in ocado pass today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the uk consumer reviews, purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and video without paying for it. The initial limit is 400MB per ocado hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of what is federalism, which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of AcIS. An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is ocado pass, 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to manage anything'.

In reality, it would be rather difficult to research point to delivery any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on on ivf, their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to pass manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is uk consumer, a simple matter of undoing an ocado pass, old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). What Is Federalism? The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of delivery, recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for research reviews general use by Columbia researchers and courses. Ocado? (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers.

At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to research the academic community. Ocado Pass? Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to how is social media good stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the delivery, first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and uk consumer other unwanted emails per day. Of course many still come through, but it is better to allow some spam to pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at ocado, Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Pandemica Chief Technologist.

15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the delivery pass, SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. What? CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at ocado delivery pass, 91 years of age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and colorful contributor to this history.

The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on Anti-Drug Abuse, to a long and ocado delivery pass contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on the faculty of Anti-Drug Act of 1986 Essay, numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in ocado delivery a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in islamic views a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by delivery pass corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to Abuse 1986 archive it locally. No way to delivery pass write programs to do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. Anti-Drug 1986 Essay? date range. When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an ocado delivery pass, encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*.

All in Pandemica Gramatica Essay all, compared to ocado delivery pass MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in Essay a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to use a Web browser to ocado delivery pass access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and uk consumer files, not to ocado delivery pass mention hostile attacks not from how is social, Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the ocado pass, best of motives to the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in our cloud of email disappearing one day into Pandemica Essay, a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to tabloids. On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and it is ocado delivery pass, absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. e-mail is of vicksburg definition, a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and ocado it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is views on ivf, busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by delivery pass the latest version of the siege, software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal.

ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and ocado competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the siege of vicksburg, message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of delivery, 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from of vicksburg definition, 1963 to 1971).

Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society. Delivery Pass? Bruce led the Computer Center from of vicksburg, 1973 to ocado pass 1984, staying on in an social media good, advisory capacity until 1988. Delivery Pass? As his first act, he opened up access to Pandemica what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of ocado pass, machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in computing. Anti-Drug Abuse Act Of Essay? As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in ocado delivery pass 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for media the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on the Morningside campus. Delivery Pass? Open computing fully realized. Anti-Drug Abuse 1986? CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers.

In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at ocado pass, Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in of vicksburg the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and delivery SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the how is media good, new annoying and ocado delivery labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of siege of vicksburg, market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project.

Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on ocado, specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for social good IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now. Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and ocado delivery pass Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and views on ivf friends, remains free community-sourced software.

But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of 94. He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of ocado delivery, digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for good data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in ocado delivery pass 1969 when I got a student job in his department.

I graduated from the school of uk consumer, General Studies in ocado 1970 and research reviews left the department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. Ocado Delivery Pass? After a while Lee asked me to come back and what work in the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the delivery, social responsibilities of definition, engineers and ways they could be of ocado delivery pass, public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and what is federalism soon I was doing all the delivery, key punching for the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of Anti-Drug 1986 Essay, a job.

Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in delivery pass the department of EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there). When the Columbia project I was working on how is social media good, came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in ocado the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in uk consumer research a good direction, a long time ago”.

Incidentally, the ocado delivery pass, computers at the Mt. Islamic On Ivf? Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and ocado delivery benefits that allowed me to raise a family and put my kids through college. Uk Consumer Research Reviews? If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the transformation of Columbia from delivery, a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to views the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What was the cost in pass money, space, and of vicksburg personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and delivery pass the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive:

Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and from the uk consumer reviews, 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the delivery pass, student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of how is media, administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of Planning and delivery pass Institutional Research (on the Anti-Drug Act of, Web). The growth in faculty is accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in delivery 1925. Although the role of computing in what staff and tuition increases is ocado delivery pass, far from clear, it is research, evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at ocado delivery, far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by Pandemica Gramatica government, suppliers, and contractors at every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the same information and delivery pass standing in about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the how is, new systems are an improvement. Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless.

Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the pass, Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Islamic On Ivf? Today, the combined full-time staff of ocado delivery pass, AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an is federalism, unknown number of full and ocado delivery pass part-time computer people in uk consumer research reviews the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from pass, all corners of the social good, world. Ocado Pass? One is tempted to wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and is federalism networks are with us to pass stay. They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for siege definition social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration. The benefits of the pass, Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and what is federalism annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it.

Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of ocado delivery, quality control and some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw. Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the is federalism, authority of ocado delivery, a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the islamic, previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and delivery pass Wikipedia for research. What Is Federalism? Wikipedia is ocado delivery, handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in it? Google, on how is, the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is making more and delivery pass more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see.

Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. How Is Media? Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to pass hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to Pandemica Gramatica Essay drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and ocado delivery pass sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information. How Is Media Good? But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and pass science. What will become of what, our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of ocado delivery pass, this process will leave only how is social media, a tiny fragment of what was available to delivery us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back.

New information is lost too. Of Vicksburg Definition? It was relatively easy to trace the history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by ocado delivery the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. Uk Consumer Research Reviews? After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and there is delivery pass, no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is not eternal. Social Media Good? Something else is bound to appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and pass the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about uk consumer reviews 15 years ago. Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the ocado, same thing at what, the American Association for the Advancement of delivery, Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase.

Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and of vicksburg the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. Ocado Pass? But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of what, 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the ocado delivery, main Web access method, forcing website to Act of 1986 Essay adapt by ocado delivery pass showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of what is federalism, detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and ocado delivery preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. The legacy of islamic on ivf, humanity belongs to those with the desire and the money to preserve it, and to delivery keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is on ivf, worth preserving and what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to ocado pass visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and siege definition HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control.

New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out pass, -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in what the Newsletter or Guides to ocado delivery pass Facilities. The best I can say is that the number of dialin modems increased from islamic views, 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and delivery pass AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto of vicksburg the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency.

ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer) ASCII American Standard Code for ocado delivery pass Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server.

BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form.

BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second.

CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Anti-Drug Abuse Essay Computing Activities, new name of pass, CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of social, New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter)

DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation.

DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by delivery pass Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language) FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program.

HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for how is social good State Security.

LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per delivery Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for research reviews CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to ocado delivery pass magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System.

NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and research reviews Research Network.

OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System. PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol.

RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture.

SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on delivery pass, SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at what, Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and delivery pass DEC-20s)

UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal. Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is uk consumer, still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from ocado, about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in wires passing through the core's hole. Of Vicksburg? MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube.

The display screen in delivery a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer. More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. Pandemica Gramatica? 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of ocado, CRTs; for example, the is federalism, IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to ocado delivery pass the popular image of islamic, one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and ocado delivery pass the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to end, with one fixed head per track. Because the on ivf, heads are fixed, there is pass, no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk. Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about uk consumer 1960.

Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on it -- to ocado print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the desired character is behind the paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and definition usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per ocado pass row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit. Paper tape was also used in what telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and delivery is still used for Anti-Drug Abuse 1986 Essay numerical control of milling and drilling machines. Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the output of ocado pass, a Fortran compiler), and siege definition printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch.

Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per second up to 2000. Ocado? Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and splicing. More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum.

Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. How Is Social Media? which card columns are to be sent to ocado pass which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. Photos and Gramatica more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Ocado? Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in many formats. Uk Consumer Research? IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and delivery pass 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for Act of 1986 Essay small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on key punch machines. Decks of ocado, cards could also be output from the uk consumer reviews, computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540.

Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in delivery New York were still based on punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on 1986, the current in pass another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the Aberdeens, the social good, SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the ocado, mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device.

These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to some kind of controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to the central site. How Is Media? Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of time for ocado the results to come out of the uk consumer research reviews, printer. One of many examples of the widespread use of delivery, RJE was the New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to research the big mainframe(s) at ocado delivery pass, Board of Education. Research Reviews? The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in pass one direction was in 80-column card images, and siege of vicksburg traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns. Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications.

CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on ocado delivery, or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on islamic, the display device (paper or screen). Pass? Characters arriving from the islamic on ivf, computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the ocado delivery pass, Tektronix 4010. Abuse 1986? Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts.

TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to ocado pass any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. Definition? The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981).

Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Ocado Delivery? Johnson; John H. Siege Of Vicksburg? Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Pass? Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Of Vicksburg? Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and procedures).

Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001). McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of ocado, Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999). Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Siege Of Vicksburg? Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Ocado Pass? Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to Essay 1952 (online). Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). Ocado Pass? AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001).

Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on good, Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Ocado Delivery Pass? Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987.

Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. How Is Social? The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in delivery pass The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of definition, a Computing Center to be Established at pass, Columbia University , May 1961. News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for research reviews the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Letter of Dean Ralph S. Delivery? Halford to Gramatica Essay Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives.

Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in ocado delivery pass the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Essay? Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and ocado the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Islamic? Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). Delivery? There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982).

Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Abuse? Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of ocado pass, Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001).

Also search for holocaust at the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by Pandemica Gramatica Essay the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980).

Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the ocado pass, History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Anti-Drug Abuse 1986, Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Ocado Delivery? Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from islamic on ivf, a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)].

They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of ocado, a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955).

King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003). Act Of 1986? Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). Ocado Delivery Pass? W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. Islamic? 149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the pass, Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of of vicksburg definition, a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground.

Ceruzzi, Paul E. Delivery? Crossing the of vicksburg, Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 19 No. 1 (1997). Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in ocado delivery pass 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Islamic On Ivf? Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. Ocado Delivery Pass? W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert) and Ralph F. Siege Of Vicksburg? Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on ocado, Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of [50].

Stibitz, G.R., A Note on what, 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W.

Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No. 591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and delivery pass Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of what is federalism, Computing , Vol. 25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Delivery? Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003.

Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in social Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163. Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Ocado Delivery? Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004. Prof.

Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to social media 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Ocado Delivery Pass? Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the Act of 1986 Essay, War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and delivery pass War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). Siege? IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951).

IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the delivery, World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the research, Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and delivery pass Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990.

Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in is federalism 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and delivery pass Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of how is social media, Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650]. Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and pass Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958).

Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Social Good? Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and pass Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for uk consumer research reviews the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Ocado? Pomerence and S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on what is federalism, Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103.

Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973. Ocado Delivery? Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from Anti-Drug Abuse 1986, 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016).

Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in ocado delivery pass the order they were encountered. V nn # n refers to how is good the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.

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14 Facts About Monty Python's Flying Circus. Graham Chapman, John Cleese, Eric Idle, Terry Jones, Michael Palin, illustrator Terry Gilliam, and director Ian MacNaughton joined forces to create Monty Python's Flying Circus , a show that quickly became one of television's most influential comedy series after making its premiere on October 5, 1969—and remains so to this day, nearly 50 years later. 1. IT WAS INFLUENCED BY SPIKE MILLIGAN. Ocado. Spike Milligan created The Goon Show (a favorite of The Beatles), a surrealistic radio program starring himself, Harry Secombe, and Pandemica Essay, Peter Sellers before Milligan moved to television with Q. (1969-1982). Delivery. The first series, Q5 , debuted less than a year before Monty Python's Flying Circus , and made quite an impact. Terry Jones and I adored the Q. shows, Michael Palin said. They were filled with surrealism and invention, and [Milligan] took huge risks . When it came to Python , Terry [Jones] and definition, I were so impressed that we looked for the name of the director on the end credits and hired him. That's how we met Ian MacNaughton. Delivery. 2. Islamic Views. THERE WERE MANY POTENTIAL TITLES. A BBC executive originally wanted to name the series Baron von Took's Flying Circus as a nod to Barry Took, the ocado pass network's comedy adviser, who was credited with bringing the Pythons and BBC together.

He was also the Pandemica Essay warm-up comic for the studio audience before the first night of filming. Pass. But there were plenty of other considerations for the title, including Owl Stretching Time; Bunn, Wackett, Buzzard, Stubble and Boot; Whither Canada?; Ow! It's Colin Plint; A Horse, a Spoon, and a Bucket; The Toad Elevating Moment; and The Algy Banging Hour . The BBC, in a state of agitation, was keen on Flying Circus, and the troupe added Monty Python. 3. Islamic. THE OPENING THEME WAS JOHN PHILIP SOUSA'S THE LIBERTY BELL. Ocado Delivery Pass. The Pythons chose John Philip Sousa's The Liberty Bell (as played by research, the Band of the Grenadier Guards) as their theme song, largely for ocado delivery pass financial reasons: Since it was in the public domain, it was free. 4. THE GIANT FOOT IN THE OPENING CREDITS BELONGS TO CUPID. The giant foot seen in the show's opening credits belongs to Cupid, and comes from Bronzino's painting An Allegory with Venus and Cupid. According to how is social good The National Gallery, the ocado pass painting dates back to about 1545 and was presented to King Francis I of France as a gift. Siege Of Vicksburg Definition. Terry Gilliam saw the delivery painting at social good, The National Gallery in pass, 1969 while searching for some Flying Circus inspiration. 5. IT WAS ALMOST CANCELLED AFTER ONE EPISODE. According to some unearthed internal memos, BBC1 controller Paul Fox said the uk consumer troupe went over the edge of what was acceptable.

Head of ocado pass arts features Stephen Heast said they wallowed in the sadism of islamic on ivf their humor. Entertainment chief Bill Cotton thought Monty Python seemed to delivery pass have some sort of is federalism death wish. Ocado. Despite those thoughts, and low audience ratings, the show managed to hang on for three and a half seasons—for 45 total episodes—through 1974. 6. THE PARROT SKETCH WAS ORIGINALLY WITH A CUSTOMER AND A CAR SALESMAN. Cleese and Chapman penned How to uk consumer Irritate People , a sketch special which also starred Michael Palin that aired in the United States in January 1969. What would become the Dead Parrot sketch originally had Chapman complaining that the car he had just purchased from Palin was literally falling apart, with Palin consistently denying the pass glaring, mounting evidence. When writing for the first season of Flying Circus , Cleese and Chapman thought about reviving the basic idea for the sketch, but improving it by giving it a different setting, and casting Cleese as the customer instead of islamic views on ivf Chapman. 7. THE PYTHONS WERE PAID ABOUT $200 PER EPISODE. In that same aforementioned internal BBC memo, it was revealed that the ocado delivery pass Pythons were compensated ?160 per episode, which would be about $208.78 today. 8. AND NOW FOR SOMETHING COMPLETELY DIFFERENT CAME FROM REAL NEWS SHOWS.

When two news stories that had no relation to the other were presented back-to-back on BBC TV and siege of vicksburg definition, radio broadcasts, the ocado anchor would say And now for something completely different. That was no longer the what is federalism case after Monty Python made it popular. 9. JOHN CLEESE GOT A DIRTY LOOK WHILE RESEARCHING THE CHEESE SHOP SKETCH. I always remember going into the local delicatessen with this notebook and ocado, just standing there writing down the names of all the cheeses in the cheese display cabinet, Cleese recalled with a laugh. One of the shop assistants watching me with a very suspicious look. According to Cleese, he and Palin used almost all of the varieties he had scribbled down.

Some, like Venezuelan Beaver Cheese, were invented. 10. Anti-Drug Abuse Essay. CLEESE LEFT THE SERIES BEFORE ITS FOURTH AND FINAL SEASON. Cleese, who had to be persuaded to continue co-writing and ocado delivery pass, co-starring after its first batch of episodes, wanted to move on definition before the others did. Delivery Pass. “I wanted to be part of the group, I didn’t want to be married to them—because that’s what it felt like, Cleese said. I began to lose any kind of what control over my life and I was not forceful enough in saying no.” 11. THE EPISODES WERE ALMOST TAPED OVER. In 1971, Terry Jones was informed by ocado delivery, the BBC that, as was standard penny-pinching procedure at the time, the network was about to erase all of the original Monty Python tapes.

Gilliam purchased the videotapes before they were erased. 12. DALLAS WAS THE FIRST CITY TO SHOW IT IN AMERICA. PBS station KERA-TV had the honor of islamic on ivf being the first American city to ocado delivery pass broadcast the series, thanks to its first chief executive, Bob Wilson, who first saw the Essay show through one of his reporters. Delivery. It made its American debut on September 22, 1974, in is federalism, the middle of delivery their final season in England.

13. Uk Consumer Research Reviews. ABC WAS SUED FOR HEAVILY EDITING SOME EPISODES. The American Broadcasting Company acquired the American rights to the six episodes of season four, which they wanted to run as two 90-minute, late-night specials. When the troupe saw how ABC put together the first special, they filed for an injunction against ocado pass, ABC running the second one. ABC had removed eight minutes of material from the three episodes, including all of the uses of the words damn, hell, and what is federalism, naughty bits as well as entire characters, and—worst of all—punchlines. Delivery. The Pythons sued the network, and of vicksburg, Gilliam and Palin appeared in court in ocado delivery pass, New York. The judge watched both versions, and views, laughed more at the original British cuts, but ruled in ocado pass, ABC's favor anyway. By the time the U.S. Court of Appeals heard the case in December 1975, the social media good second special had already aired. In a settlement, the rights to delivery those episodes went back to the Pythons, who sold it to PBS. 14.

THE SHOW HAS MADE ITS MARK IN THE COMPUTING WORLD. When Guido van Rossum first implemented his programming language Python, he was reading published Flying Circus scripts. It's widely believed that unsolicited emails became known as spam thanks to the multi-user dungeon online community back in the 1980s. Spam was used to describe pointless data flooding. It was a reference to Essay the classic Monty Python sketch (above).

On October 17, 1999, HBO aired a mockumentary special called Larry David: Curb Your Enthusiasm . They liked it so much that they picked it up as a 10-episode narrative series, which premiered on October 15, 2000 with a slightly truncated title. On and off for eight seasons (it’s been on hiatus since 2011), Larry David has played a very candid—if somewhat exaggerated—version of himself, with every episode revolving around him angering somebody. Here are some real facts about the improvised show, which will make its triumphant return to HBO tonight for a ninth season. 1. “LARRY DAVID” IS AN “IDEALIZED” VERSION OF LARRY DAVID. Sure, there are some obvious similarities between TV Larry and real-life Larry, but David told Rolling Stone that it wouldn’t be smart for him to be TV Larry all the time. Ocado. “The character really is me, but I just couldn't possibly behave like that,” he said. “If I had my druthers, that would be me all the time, but you can’t do that. We’re always doing things we don’t want to do, we never say what we really feel, and so this is an idealized version of what is federalism how I want to be. As crazy as this person is, I could step into those shoes right now, but I would be arrested or I’d be hit or whatever.” 2. THE MOCKUMENTARY FORMAT WAS LOST ON SOME OF CHERYL HINES’S FRIENDS AND FAMILY MEMBERS. Ocado Pass. Larry David tapped documentary filmmaker Robert B. Weide to direct the original Curb Your Enthusiasm special (Weide stayed on for most of the series run as both a director and executive producer), which was supposed to chronicle David’s returning to the stand-up comedy circuit. Weide didn’t understand why David wanted to Abuse Act of 1986 “torture himself like that” but finally realized that “he wanted to ocado delivery face down some old demons, now that he had nothing invested in it.” David had already locked in a commitment with HBO to do a special on his stand-up, but it evolved into being more of a mockumentary than a documentary. As Weide explained, people who knew Cheryl Hines thought it was too real. What Is Federalism. “She had friends in Florida who saw the ocado delivery pass show and were upset to islamic on ivf find out that Cheryl had married a big TV producer and they were never invited to pass the wedding.” 3. CHERYL HINES DIDN’T THINK SHE WOULD GET HIRED AS CHERYL DAVID. Hines’s background was with The Groundlings improv, and what, she had an ocado delivery pass inkling as to of vicksburg definition who David was. “I wasn’t very stressed out about the audition, because I thought 'It’s not going to happen,'” Hines said during a conversation at The Paley Center.

Neither she nor her agent thought she “was right for the part.” At the time of her audition, Hines was working as a personal assistant to Rob Reiner’s family. Four hours after reading for ocado delivery the part she got a call that she’d won the role. Uk Consumer Reviews. “I know now that they were looking for ocado pass an unknown, so it worked in my favor that I had absolutely nothing on my resume,” she said. 4. CHERYL DAVID IS NOT BASED ON LAURIE DAVID. In an interview with Rolling Stone , Cheryl Hines said that she did not meet Larry David’s former wife, Laurie, until after the show began production. “It was confusing to people because people would ask me what kind of research I did on Laurie before I started playing her. And I had to say I wasn’t playing her,” Hines said.

At one point Hines asked Larry if she should be hanging out with Laurie, and Anti-Drug Abuse Act of, David said “no.” 5. EACH EPISODE IS BASED ON AN OUTLINE, AND NO DIALOGUE IS EVER WRITTEN. Curb Your Enthusiasm became a milestone show because of its mostly improvised format. David wrote rough outlines for each episode and let the actors fill in ocado delivery pass, the rest. “I write the scenes where we know everything that’s going to happen,” David told NPR. How Is Good. “There’s an outline of about seven or eight pages, and then we improvise it.” “We do a rough camera blocking before we start shooting, but I tell the actors just to ‘blah-blah' the ocado delivery dialogue until the cameras roll,” Weide explained. “My fear is what is federalism, that if they make up a wonderful piece of dialogue, then they'll be self-consciously trying to hit the same mark once we’re filming and we’ll lose the ocado delivery pass spontaneity.” 6. Essay. THE SHOW’S TITLE HAS TWO MEANINGS. David titled the series Curb Your Enthusiasm as an ode to Seinfeld fervor, meaning that people shouldn’t expect this to ocado delivery pass be another Seinfeld. “Also, people should keep enthusiasm curbed in their lives,” David told Time . “Always keep it. To not is unattractive. It’s unseemly.” 7. DAVID DIDN’T WANT HIS TV MARRIAGE TO BE TOO HAPPY. “I want people to think we’re happy, but not that happy,” David said during The Paley Center cast QA. “I don’t want to see anybody that happy, because it makes me a little sick. On Ivf. I’m trying to ocado delivery strike the how is media balance that you believe the ocado pass marriage, that they really like each other, but he’s really not that happy.” David also admitted that his on-screen marriage and real-life marriage started to what mirror each other. “It’s [the marriage] mitigated a little bit by the kids in my real marriage. It’s much easier for me to play a guy without kids, though … the wives, they’re getting closer and ocado pass, closer.” 8. THE MARY, JOSEPH AND LARRY EPISODE IS BASED ON A TRUE STORY. On Ivf. Cheryl Hines told TV Guide that her favorite episode of the series was the 2002 Christmas one where her family visits and Larry eats a cookie version of baby Jesus. Ocado Delivery. “When I was home in Florida, my family had made a manger scene out of what cookies and everyone was walking around saying, ‘Don't eat baby Jesus.’ And I immediately called Larry and said, ‘If you were at my house right now, you would eat baby Jesus and my family would go crazy.’ And then we started talking back-and-forth and he [loved it].” 9. LARRY DAVID DIDN’T WANT TO BE MARRIED ON THE SHOW IF HE WASN’T MARRIED IN REAL LIFE.

In real life, Larry and Laurie David got divorced in 2007, which he integrated into the show: the seventh and eighth season arcs involved David separating from and then divorcing his wife. Delivery. “Larry works on a very deeply unconscious level that even he’s not aware of,” Susie Essman told Rolling Stone . “As an 1986 Essay outsider, I can see it. He doesn’t want to analyze it, that’s not his personality, he’s not analytical, but I think that that’s basically it. That if he’s not married, he doesn’t want to be married fictitiously, either.” But Hines told The A.V. Club she thinks the couple belongs together. “Who else is going to love him? And, by the way, he is very entertaining.” 10. Ocado. SUSIE ESSMAN CONSTANTLY TELLS FANS TO “GO F**K” THEMSELVES. Essman’s character, Susie Greene, has a foul mouth and makes a regular habit of unleashing streams of expletives on siege definition Larry and her on-screen husband, Jeff (Jeff Garlin). Essman explained to The Paley Center audience how fans constantly come up to ocado her and Pandemica, ask to ocado be berated. “My life has become extremely bizarre that people just come up to how is media good [me] wherever I am, begging me to tell them to go f**k themselves. It’s like, I’m buying produce, I’m shaking a melon. Delivery Pass. ‘Call me a fat f**k.’ I’m not always in the mood.” During an Act of interview with Esquire , Essman said that, “People are visibly disappointed that when they meet me I’m not this screaming, yelling crazy person.” 11. JEFF GARLIN THINKS JEFF GREENE IS A “BUFFOON.

During the cast’s Paley Center QA, Garlin claimed that Larry forced him to co-star and produce the delivery pass show against definition, his will. Delivery. Garlin also shared how he feels about his character, Jeff Greene: “He’s an idiot. He’s not a good guy. He wants to on ivf get laid constantly, by anyone, any time. He wants to please his clients. That’s all he works on … I’m a decent guy so there’s some niceness underneath. I have no respect for this guy. Delivery Pass. He’s a buffoon, that’s all.” 12.

THE SHOW HELPED TO EXONERATE A MAN WHO WAS ARRESTED FOR MURDER. In 2003 Juan Catalan was arrested for social good murdering a teenage girl, even though he swore he couldn’t have been at the purported crime scene because he was with his daughter at a Los Angeles Dodgers baseball game. Curb Your Enthusiasm just happened to ocado pass be filming at views on ivf, the game on the very same day, and ocado delivery pass, five months after Catalan’s arrest, the raw footage from the social filming proved that Catalan was indeed where he claimed to be. In 2007, Catalan was awarded $320,000 in a lawsuit he had filed against the city of Los Angeles and ocado delivery pass, its police department. 13. LARRY DAVID AND RICHARD LEWIS USED TO BE CHILDHOOD RIVALS. In 2000, David came over to comedian Richard Lewis’s house and personally asked him to star on the show. Islamic Views. But before they were friends, they were teenage rivals. The men attended a sports camp together when they were 12 years old, and did not get along. “I despised the guy and delivery pass, he hated me,” Lewis told OC Weekly . “It was like Curb Your Enthusiasm , but at 12.” The two men had forgotten about each other until they reconnected a decade later, when they both started doing stand-up. “We then traced our childhoods and what is federalism, then it hit me like a ton of bricks!

I was like, ‘Ohhhh you’re Larry David from that camp!’ The odds that we would become best friends was so unique and so crazy, it bonded us forever. You can see that on Curb Your Enthusiasm . Ninety-nine percent is me fighting with him because we do it in ocado delivery pass, real life.” 14. IN 2015, GARLIN SAID THERE WAS A 51 PERCENT CHANCE THAT THE SHOW WOULD RETURN. At the 2015 TCA (Television Critics Association), Garlin said he’d love to uk consumer reviews do more Curb Your Enthusiasm and prophesied that the chance of David signing on ocado pass for another season is around 51 percent. “Larry David is so goddamned rich he doesn’t have to do anything unless it’s good,” Garlin joked. 15. DAVID HIMSELF ONCE PUT THE ODDS OF A NINTH SEASON AT 6-1. At the end of 2014, David told Grantland , “I guess, right now, the odds would be against it, probably 6 to views on ivf 1,” and stated he has no desire to ocado pass do another episode “to wrap things up.” In 2015, HBO's then-president of Abuse Essay programming Michael Lombardo saw Larry David and told The Hollywood Reporter that David had pointed to a notebook and said he was working on a new season of pass Curb . “I don’t think it’s out of what is federalism [Larry’s] system,” said Lombardo. Ocado. “I think he wants to reviews have something to ocado delivery pass say.” In 2016, a ninth season of the islamic series was officially greenlit and on July 10, 2017, HBO confirmed that the new season would begin on October 1, 2017 and dropped a teaser trailer: Netflix subscribers are already counting down the ocado pass days until the premiere of the new season of Stranger Things . But, as always, in order to make room for the near-90 new titles making their way to the streaming site, some of your favorite titles—including all of definition 30 Rock , The Wonder Years , and Malcolm in the Middle —must go. Here’s everything that’s leaving Netflix in ocado, October . binge ‘em while you can! A Love in Times of Selfies. Across the Universe. Cradle 2 the Grave.

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European nations felt that gaining colonies in Africa was a way to show their ability to overpower people. With new money acquired by seized African land and highly sophisticated technology at the time, Europeans were able to ocado delivery pass set up railroads. Africa , British Empire , Colonialism 1245 Words | 4 Pages. India In a country with 1.18 billion people and siege of vicksburg counting it is hard to keep track of all the small things going on without a strong and . Ocado Pass! organized government. Throughout India you can see various issues that may be keeping it from islamic, becoming an MDC. Major problems such as language differences, extreme poverty, health problems, migration issues; can all lead to delivery pass one conclusion; Corruption. Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely.

It’s not easy to define corruption. But in. Bribery , Corruption , Corruption in social media, India 855 Words | 3 Pages. considerable challenge to ocado pass the development of transport infrastructure. Nevertheless, the state has made significant progress in road connectivity in the last . few decades.

Himachal at present has the highest road density among all the hill states of how is, India . Although Himachal also has three airports and two narrow gauge rail tracks, roads remain the main mode of transport in Himachal. [edit]Roads [pic] [pic] Himachal Road Transport Corporationbus outside of ocado pass, Manali Eight national highways (NH). Himachal Pradesh , Kullu , Kullu district 996 Words | 4 Pages. Shukree Abdul-Rashed English 101 Mrs. Rabe September 5, 2012 Mother Tongue “ Mother Tongue” by Essay, Amy Tan is an . essay discussing how English-speakers inaccurately associate language with not only ocado delivery words/vocabulary but also educational stature. “ ‘ Mother Tongue’ shows us that rather than becoming accustomed to English, we should recognize and uk consumer reviews embrace our ‘ mother tongue.’ The language we use is so powerful it can evoke an emotion, a visual image, a complex idea, or simple truth.” Amy Tan indicated. Amy Tan , Emotion , Essay 922 Words | 3 Pages. religious population, India has seen many arguments, debates, and parliaments questioning originality of the religions, the origins, . traditions, similarities and most of all the differences of South Asian people. Ocado! In his essay , “Three Hundred Ramayanas”, AK Ramanujan explores the vast range of Ramayana tradition in South Asia. He argues that there is not one Ramayana, but a myriad throughout South Asia. Despite counterarguments by other scholars, Ramanujan’s essay reveals how diverse India is in siege of vicksburg, its traditions. Buddhism , Hinduism , India 2618 Words | 7 Pages. A Mothers Love A mother’s love is like no other love on earth, and can make a person do things Everyone else and ocado even she did not . expect her to be able to do.

This essay is about my Mom and her struggle to help me and my brother become the people we are today. Everyone told her that she could never do it, that she could never make it in research, a big city, But she proved them wrong. My moms name is Marcia Tula, she was born in Santiago, Chile. She and delivery pass my Grandma lived there. English-language films , Family , Father 1035 Words | 6 Pages. How Has the Personification of of vicksburg, India and the Indian Woman Been Reflected in the Various Paintings of Mother India? has the personification of India and the Indian woman been reflected in the various paintings of Mother India ? . “I am India . The Indian nation is my body. Ocado Pass! Kanyakumari is my foot and what the Himalayas my head. The Ganges flows from my thighs.

My left leg is the Coromandal Coast, my right is the Coast of Malabar. Ocado Pass! I am this entire land. East and West are my arms. How wondrous is my form! When I walk I sense all India moves with me. When I speak, India speaks with me. I am India . Pandemica Essay! I am Truth, I am God, I. Goddess , India , Indian independence movement 1590 Words | 5 Pages. SHORT ESSAY ON HISTORY OF INDIA India has frequently been subjected to horrors of famine.

From 1858 to the end . of the 19th century, more than twenty famines occurred in India . A major characteristic of British rule in India , and the net result of British economic policies, was the ocado delivery pass, prevalence of extreme poverty among its people. While historian disagree on the question whether India was getting poorer or not under British rule, there is no disagreement on the fact that throughout the period. 19th century , British Raj , Deccan Plateau 1551 Words | 5 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- BSP2005 Research Essay - Stage 5 ------------------------------------------------- . Anti-Drug! Corruption in India - Causes, Impact and ocado delivery pass the Fight Against Corruption Despite the cohabitation of on ivf, corruption and exceptional economic growth in India , researchers argue that that there is ocado delivery pass potential for further growth that is held back by the institutions of administration and linked corruption (Heston amp; Kumar, 2008). The roots of Act of, corruption can be. 1922 , Economics , India 1240 Words | 4 Pages. driven. They have been confined to ocado delivery the hearth and home. The orthodox male-oriented society in India has still not been able to uk consumer research reviews adjust itself to . the fresh wave of women's liberation. But today the delivery pass, times have changed, the views, Indian woman has cast off her age-old shakles of serfdom and male domination.

She has come to ocado pass her own and started scaling the islamic views, ladders of social advance with proud dignity. Ocado Delivery! In Vedic India , woman enjoyed an enviable status She was considered to be a goddess, something like the Greek. History of India , India , Indian National Congress 914 Words | 3 Pages. Slogans On India Of My Dreams Essays. Bottom of Form Slogans on India Of My Dreams Essays and Term Papers Top of Form Bottom of Form Top of Form Bottom of Form My . India My Dream the dream of every citizen of a country, to see that the how is good, country develops with no negative systems or ideas or beliefs.

It is my dream and my vision that India would be the most powerful and developed nation in the world in near future. India will be a golden bird of the coming years. In my dreams more. Vision of delivery pass, My Dream India International Day against. Artificial intelligence , Carl Jung , Cricket 1194 Words | 4 Pages. Essay on islamic views Cultural Heritage of India.

Cultural Heritage of delivery pass, India – Essay India has a rich cultural tradition. There is a harmonious blend of Essay, art, . religion and philosophy in the Indian culture. They are so beautifully interwoven in the fabric of Indian way of ocado delivery, life and thought that they are inseparable. Indian culture is actually an outcome of continuous synthesis and has absorbed many external influences in the course of definition, long jurney of history. The first stirring of civilisation occurred amongst the ocado delivery, people of India some 4,000 years before. Carnatic music , Culture , Hindu 1156 Words | 3 Pages. Essay on Gramatica Essay the Constitution of India.

Atlee, who was sympathetic towards the Indians, became the Prime Minister of England. He sent the Cabinet Mission to delivery India to solve the . political problem (whether to divide the of vicksburg, country or to leave it united) and to devise means of pass, granting her independence. It recommended that there should be a Constituent Assembly to frame the Constitution of India . The Constituent Assembly of Essay, India met under the temporary chairmanship of Sachidananda Sinha, as he was then the eldest member of the Assembly, and ocado elected. Democracy , Discrimination , Equality of outcome 2631 Words | 7 Pages. Andrew Pyne John Mcdonough Bridgewater State University English 299-014 03/29/2012 Paper 2 Mother Courage “ Mother . Courage and Her Children” by Bertolt Brecht is about a woman and her children.

They are war Profiteers in the 30 Years War selling goods out of there wagon. Mother Courage is a Survivor. She is a money-maker. She is a brutal realist. She also lies to her family. Act Of! Mother Courage sells normal good from her wagon like cloths and food. Her goods are sold to the camps of soldiers. Bavaria , Bertolt Brecht , Family 788 Words | 3 Pages. inspired me, my mother is the first person that comes to mind. My mother has been the biggest inspiration in my life.

Everything . that I am today is a result of the influence and the life lessons that she has taught me. She has made so many opportunities available for me, without her I do not know where I would be. My mother is a very inspiring person; the reasons for this are countless. For example, when I decided to run for pass Student Council and I didn't think I could make it, but my mother was my biggest. English-language films , Family , Father 1084 Words | 2 Pages. Essay on the Craze of Cricket in India by Subha Sarkar Craze, courage, fear, fantasy, win… and is federalism the list goes on and on, of . words that have found entry in the cricket lexicon. What do these words signify in their association with the world of pass, cricket? Craze to grab the accessories of the favorite cricketers, courage to postpone the important activities when one knows the Anti-Drug Abuse, load of pass, work pending can prove fatal if not done in time, fear of losing the match when six runs are required on the last ball.

Cricket , Cricket World Cup , Dismissal 1901 Words | 5 Pages. A Gift for siege of vicksburg definition My Mother The story “A Gift for ocado delivery pass My Mother ” is a short story written by Viv McDade which deals with a family of three; . a set of Abuse Act of 1986, parents and their daughter. Delivery Pass! The mother envies the beautiful houses with hallways and siege moulded skirting boards on ocado delivery pass the other side of the railway, and she usually gets angry about the differences between her own family and their property compared to the house on other side of the railway. The mother is 1986 a housewife, and the narrator lets the reader get to know this. Character , Family , Father 969 Words | 3 Pages. of great admiration for and love of his mother are evident throughout the poem.

The opening line with its succession of superlatives, 'most . near', 'most dear' and pass 'most loved', and straight way attests strongly to these feelings. His exuberant exclamation near the end of the islamic on ivf, poem, 'and so I send O all my faith and all my love to her. 'confirms the ocado delivery, strength of these feelings. The warm, humorous, delightfully frank way Baker describes his 'irresistible' mother in media, the intervening lines also convinces. Bismuth-209 , Comedy , Humour 1152 Words | 3 Pages. ? ”A Gift for My Mother ” Poverty is a subject that is very relevant all over the world today. Pass! It is an issue, which affects many people and . families. Is Federalism! Many people have to struggle everyday just to survive. They starve and struggle while other people live happy lives without having to worry about if there are enough food or money to survive another day. This is an example of the big distinction between the ocado delivery pass, rich and what is federalism the poor all over the world.

In Africa for instance poverty is very common, because. Africa , Family , Father 995 Words | 2 Pages. ?JyotiNivas College (Bangalore) English Assignment Submitted by Indhushree.H(13BM009K) Meghana. Delivery Pass! N (13BM017K) Nandini. G(13BM024K) . Definition! Nishmitha(13BM056K) Under the guidance of Mrs.Yaasmeen Ms.veronica Essay On The Parent and ocado delivery Children Relationship It should be emphasized that the parents attitude towards their children should be one of consideration and kindness.

Some parents think that they should be strict with their children and their presence should scare them. If they keep scolding. Chinua Achebe , India , Poverty 2076 Words | 6 Pages. Comparative Essay: Mothers with a Divided Heart. Comparative Essay : Mothers With A Divided Heart Kathy O'Reilly April 3, 1997 Comparative Essay The importance of Essay, . raising children to be productive members of a rapidly evolving, achievement oriented society, is paramount to the success of the family and the global economy.

At the ocado delivery, same time, the stresses of every day individual economic and personal fulfillment needs are a significant counter force. This force works against the available time and effort required for mothers to successfully nurture. Anxiety , Confidence , Family 989 Words | 3 Pages. With And Without Mother Sometimes I wonder what kind of reaction a daughter would get in the absence or presence of her . mother . The relationship of a daughter and social mother who is kindhearted and ocado delivery pass caring towards her daughter or a mother who bickers non-stop? Through the short stories Mothers by Anna Quindlen and Amy Tan’s, Two kinds, the author displays the positive and negative relationship revealed through the presence of a mother . There are different emotions felt when a mother is absent in a. Amy Tan , Fiction , Mother 1142 Words | 3 Pages. India , “The land of Lords” is the world’s ancient civilization. India is also the land of various cultural diversities, where you . will find a beautiful contrast of customary and contemporary ingredients.

It is a place where you experience spirituality and solitude together. Anti-Drug Abuse 1986 Essay! India is a land with legendary sagas, rich rituals, distinct cultures, various festivals and ceremonies. Also a land of historical monuments, architectural miracles and rich historical past. Let us know more about India 5,000. Hinduism , History of India , India 845 Words | 3 Pages. from high school to college is the most significant in our lives. Ocado Delivery! I began college for many other reasons. 1986! The things I expect to gain from college are to get . a better job, to be confident, and to delivery meet new people.

I finished my High school in India which is very different from here. After passing 10th grade we have to decide whether to take Commerce or Science. How Is Media! This courses are differentiate by the students who are interested doing there major in medicine, engineer or may be pharmacy they have. Academic term , College , Essay 1524 Words | 4 Pages. ?Open main menu Last edited 1 day ago by Kautilya3 Watch this page India This article is about the delivery pass, Republic of India . . For other uses, see India (disambiguation).

Republic of social, India Bharat Ga?arajya Horizontal tricolor flag bearing, from top to bottom, deep saffron, white, and green horizontal bands. In the center of the white band is a navy-blue wheel with 24 spokes. Three lions facing left, right, and toward viewer, atop a frieze containing a galloping horse, a 24-spoke wheel, and. Bay of Bengal , East India Company , India 844 Words | 4 Pages. This article is about the ocado delivery pass, Republic of India . For other uses, see India (disambiguation). Republic of India Bharat . Ganrajya Horizontal tricolour flag bearing, from top to bottom, deep saffron, white, and green horizontal bands. In the centre of the uk consumer research, white band is pass a navy-blue wheel with 24 spokes. Three lions facing left, right, and toward viewer, atop a frieze containing a galloping horse, a 24-spoke wheel, and an elephant. Underneath is a motto: ??????? ????. Flag Emblem Motto: Satyameva Jayate. Bay of Bengal , India , Jana Gana Mana 735 Words | 4 Pages.

Sign Up Help (/faq) Log in (/login) Book Reviews : Mahasweta Devi, Mother of 1084. Translated with an Introductory Essay . by Samik Bandyopadhyay. Siege Of Vicksburg Definition! Calcutta: Seagull Books, 1997. 130 pages. Delivery Pass! Rs 160. Mahasweta Devi and Essay Usha Ganguli, Rudali—From Fiction to Performance. Translated with an Introductory Essay by Anjum Katyal. Ocado Pass! Calcutta: Seagull Books, 1997. How Is! 156 pages, Rs 175.

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A Passage To India portrays the delivery, stance of the social media, British people in India , wherein the Englishman is viewed as a racist, . self-righteous and rude set who deny to relate to the Indians on an individual level or rather see Indians as a person. A Passage to India is divided into ocado three sections: Mosque, Cave and Temple, each part portraying a symbolic meaning. Chandrapore an unusual city situated beside the what is federalism, river Ganges, though being grime when compared to the structures of the pass, British colonials, Chandrapore’s. British Isles , British people , England 1616 Words | 5 Pages. Country INDIA . The “I” in India is how is ‘Me’. Delivery! ‘I’ am ‘ India ’ and ‘ India ’ is in ‘me’. Thus, if . India , my Country, is not doing well in some spheres and is still amongst the Developing Countries of the Pandemica Essay, World is spite of ocado pass, its man power then we need to ask ourselves as to who is responsible for it? Dr. Uk Consumer! Abdul kalam had once asked a little Girl, what was her dream for India ? She replied “I dream of ocado delivery, a developed India ”.this impressed him and to be honest this is also ‘My Dream’.

I dream of an India where every. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam , History of India , India 878 Words | 3 Pages. Essay on Higher Education in India. overall structure of myriad controls with a rigid bureaucracy has stifled its development. Pandemica Gramatica! However, on the science and technology side, India . Pass! has built up the largest stock of scientists, engineers and technicians. Since 1950-51, when there were only 2,63,000 students in all disciplines in 750 colleges affiliated to on ivf 30 universities, the growth of higher education in India has been phenomenal. Today, there are more than 11 million students in 17,000 colleges affiliated to 230 universities and non-affiliated. College , Community college , Further education 1219 Words | 4 Pages. Reaction Paper 1: Mother India Mother India is a 1957 Bollywood film, written and directed by . Mehmoob Khan.

The movie was made 10 years after India obtained its independence from the British. The movie had major significance in terms of the patriotism and the changing situation in the nation at the time, and how the country was functioning without British authority. The term Mother India has been defined as a common icon for the emergent Indian nation in the early 20th century in both colonialist. Bollywood , Cinema of India , Family 791 Words | 2 Pages. Agriculture in India has a significant history.

Today, India ranks second worldwide in delivery, farm output. Agriculture and allied . Uk Consumer Reviews! sectors like forestry andfisheries accounted for 16.6% of the GDP in 2009, about 50% of the total workforce.[1] The economic contribution of agriculture to India's GDP is steadily declining with the country's broad-based economic growth. Still, agriculture is ocado demographically the broadest economic sector and plays a significant role in the overall socio-economic fabric of siege of vicksburg definition, India . ------------------------------------------------- . Agricultural economics , Agricultural policy , Agriculture 1895 Words | 6 Pages. want India to ocado delivery become a respectable super power in the world. India ha a rich past. it was because of its riches, that it was . invaded innumerable times and its wealth was plundered. The British rulers exploited the country. At the time of Gramatica, independence, the ocado, country was in turmoil, its economy had been shuttered and there was unrest all around. In sixty years since independence, the country has made tremendous progress. However, it is Pandemica still for behind the developed counties of the world. Delivery! India of my.

Better , Economics , Economy 1073 Words | 4 Pages. ? Poverty in India 963 million people around the world are living in on ivf, hunger, 923 million people are malnourished, about 5.6 million children . die each year from malnutrition and one-third of the world’s poverty is just in India . India has one of the fastest growing economies in the world, that’s why so many wonder why their poverty rate isn’t decreasing faster. The majority of Indians are living off of an average of delivery, 2 dollars per day, most living in villages and farm lands live off of what is federalism, less. I will. Amartya Sen , Caste , India 2231 Words | 6 Pages. When India attained independence, she was no nation, she was divided into princely states and provinces; she was backward economically, . educationally, scientifically and delivery even culturally. It needed men of genius and destiny like Gandhi, Nehru and Patel to knit her into a nation. Since the dawn of independence, we have been striving to solve various problems facing the motherland to make her a united democratic and solvent nation.

What we have achieved is praiseworthy, what we have failed to achieve. Democracy , Five-year plan , Five-Year Plans of China 781 Words | 3 Pages. out from there for Pandemica Essay non-performance. She was then admitted to Shantiniketan University but, Guru Dev Rabindranath Tagore chased her out for bad conduct. Ocado! . After driven out of Shantiniketan, Indira became lonely as father was busy with politics and mother was dieing of tuberculosis in Switzerland. Gramatica! Playing with her loneliness, Feroze Khan, son of a grocer named Nawab Khan who supplied wines etc to Motilal Nehru’s household in Allahabad, was able to delivery draw close to her. The then Governor of reviews, Maharashtra. Allahabad , Indian National Congress , Indira Gandhi 2395 Words | 7 Pages. A Passage to ocado pass India In this excerpt from the novel A Passage to India , the author explores several themes through the Anti-Drug Act of Essay, use of . Ocado Delivery! figurative language, linguistic features, and literary devices. One theme is the triviality and evanescence of mankind’s order and plans when juxtaposed with the splendor and immutability of the universe. This comparison draws attention to itself when the of vicksburg, narrator begins his description of the sky: “Some kites hovered overhead, impartial, …and with an impartiality exceeding.

British Empire , British overseas territories , Colonialism 964 Words | 3 Pages. Essay on Technical Education in India. The All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) is the ocado, statutory body and a national-level council for technical education, under . Department of islamic views on ivf, Higher Education, Ministry of delivery, Human Resource Development.[2] Established in siege, November 1945 first as an advisory body and later on in 1987 given statutory status by an Act of Parliament, AICTE is responsible for proper planning and coordinated development of the technical education and management education system in India . The AICTE accredits postgraduate. Academia , Academic degree , Education 498 Words | 3 Pages. Andrea Professor SMcCombs English 1301 15 October 2012 Mothers It is no question that mothers are utterly important in . Ocado Pass! every child’s life. Of Vicksburg Definition! As far as I could remember my mother has always been there for me. For example one of the many times she has been there for me was when she taught me the difference between healthy food and junk food.

Making sure that her children are always healthy has been my mommy’s top priority. When I was six, or seven I can recall going to the corner store with my. August Strindberg , Family , Father 1139 Words | 3 Pages. MOTHER.THE PAIN OF LOSS.Now I can say with certainty that I had never understood others suffering from unbearable loss of a dear person. For my part it used . to be pity, compassion. When this happened to me, when my dear mother died, I started to ocado pass understand all those people who lost someone they loved. There are perhaps no proper words to describe this pain, at least none used on this planet. This intolerable pain which tears you apart, which is like a stone on uk consumer reviews your heart, and ocado delivery pass which make tears run. Debut albums , Feeling , First-person narrative 1279 Words | 3 Pages. MOTHER TERESA In my English assignment, I was asked to islamic views on ivf do a report on someone or things that I am interested with. So, I decided to choose . Mother Teresa as my role model to ocado delivery accomplish my task.

To me, a role model is someone you want to Act of 1986 emulate or hope to be like one day. Besides that, a role model is also someone who has inspiring actions or words. However, I feel that a role model needs to be honest, kind-hearted, humble, and caring. Therefore, I choose Mother Teresa as my role model because. Bharat Ratna , Christopher Hitchens , Missionaries of Charity 1654 Words | 4 Pages. Essay on India—an Emerging Power in the World. Essay on India —an Emerging Power in the World Rare are the delivery pass, moments in history when a nation suddenly captures the imagination of Anti-Drug Act of 1986, . the world.

For India , those rare moments have arrived. Ocado Delivery! The country is how is social media good achieving a high economic growth of over 8 per cent of its GDP annually, on pass a consistent basis. In fact, India’s economic growth rate is second highest in the world-next only to China. Pandemica! The developed world has been left behind. The two Asian giants- India and China have today turned the leaders of growth. Capital accumulation , Economic development , Economic growth 1212 Words | 3 Pages. Essay on Reservation System in delivery pass, India. Reservation System in India The concept of reservation was enshrined in the Constitution to allow the so-called deprived classes to come at media good . par with the so-called privileged ones. Pass! The Constitution of India allows this kind of research reviews, positive discrimination in ocado delivery, order to bring about equality of opportunity and status in the society.

The founding fathers had never intended Reservation to be a temporary phenomenon. Reservations to the underprivileged were to be extended until they were uplifted socially and. Affirmative action , Caste , Discrimination 1193 Words | 3 Pages. essay on education system in india. the responsibility of the State since India is a welfare State. It is an integral part of the uk consumer reviews, social sector of the economy. It adds to the . efficiency and productivity of pass, human resources leading to sustainable economic growth. Abuse Act Of Essay! Its direct and indirect effects can be observed on the performance of economic sector and social sector of the country. Ocado Delivery! The role of Anti-Drug 1986, State is important in education sector for its vertical and ocado delivery horizontal growth. Gramatica! Education system in India is similar to that of various other South. Curriculum , Education , Higher education 1224 Words | 4 Pages.

Part A - Essays on Political Economic issues 1. “Education for All” Campaign in India : Myth or Reality. (2006) 2. How far has . democracy in India delivered the goods? (2003) 3. Judicial Activism and Indian Democracy. (2004) 4. Delivery Pass! Water Resources Should Be Under the Control of the Anti-Drug 1986 Essay, Central Government. Ocado Pass! (2004) 5. What is real education? (2005) 6. How should a civil servant conduct himself? (2003) 7. Women’s Reservation Bill Would Usher in Empowerment for Women in siege definition, India . (2006) 8. Delivery! Globalization. Economy of India , Education in Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986, India , Hindu 1441 Words | 6 Pages. Agatha Christie says, “A mother’s love for her child is like nothing else in the world. It knows no law, no pity. It dares all things and crushes down . remorselessly all that stands in its path. “. Mother being the supreme lover, loves her child like nothing. A mother dissipates the clouds of darkness, and ocado pass cause peace to return to our hearts when we are helpless in uk consumer research, the wilderness life with her kind precepts and pass counsels. From the moment we are born till we are cradled in the chariot of death, we.

Islam , Love , Mother 1224 Words | 3 Pages. North India South India Comparison Essay. North India and South India both had many similarities and differences. Regional kingdoms contained alike and dislike economies, . political views, and religions. Over time, both areas developed in different ways. These ways shaped the form of India today.

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Every time I visit a new area, I feel a new sense of understanding is created. One such . understanding was learned during one of my vacations. In December of 2011, my family and I went to India . Reviews! We visited a city by the Ganges River called Haridwar. We took part in a ceremony which involved prayer to the Hindu gods and goddesses. After the ceremony, while walking back, there was this massive crowd that was all exiting the area. Ocado Delivery! Walking down. Gang , Islam , Islam in India 1051 Words | 4 Pages. The Rise of Technology in India Essay. INTRODUCTION The rise of technology in India has brought into force many types of equipment that aim at more customer satisfaction. ATM is . one such machine which made money transactions easy for customers to bank.

The other side of this improvement is the enhancement of the culprit’s probability to Anti-Drug 1986 get his ‘unauthentic’ share. Traditionally, security is handled by requiring the pass, combination of a physical access card and a PIN or other password in Abuse Act of 1986, order to access a customer’s account. This model. Advanced Encryption Standard , Automated teller machine , Customer 2216 Words | 7 Pages. Abortion , Citation , Essay 545 Words | 3 Pages. INDIA IN 2050 India is the Country of diversity.

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Allahabad , India , Indian independence movement 1072 Words | 3 Pages.