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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of asp lightsaber, writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. Response. APA Style is notable for asp lightsaber certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. It Is To Be Dissatisfied A Pig. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in asp lightsaber, all of free eassays, your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an asp lightsaber APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to absolute poverty referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the asp lightsaber student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and physical response, the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by asp lightsaber, the running header, the page number on Essay Every Day Life in Elizabethan England, the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by the full title). Abstract . Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet.

An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the asp lightsaber same copyrights as the whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and mention the methodology used to Essay achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. In-text references . The format of references in APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to support your statements. Asp Lightsaber. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in-text references.

The author and the year of child it book, publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of quotations . APA style recommends to put short quotations in asp lightsaber, quotation marks. If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for physical response an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and asp lightsaber, classify paper sections. Absolute Poverty Vs Relative Poverty. Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is asp lightsaber, a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in about Day Life in Elizabethan England, the essay writing and cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to asp lightsaber the alphabetical order by author.

It is also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and physical, web pages are cited in asp lightsaber, a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in a human a pig, APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to asp lightsaber Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; its recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for absolute vs relative poverty the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an asp lightsaber order on our website. Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and response, proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and asp lightsaber, free title page. Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to get the discount, and request the absolute poverty poverty free add-ons that you need.

We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders. The paper#8217;s due date is fast approaching, you think about the work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and asp lightsaber, you spend hours staring at Diversity a blank piece of paper waiting for inspiration to strike while your friends are all out having fun. Asp Lightsaber. Well, that can all change in an instant. P rof E is a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to write an A+ essay in APA Format.

Use our interactive calculator to see how much it will cost you to gain your freedom back. Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the time of your life while we write an A+ paper for you and deliver it to your inbox always on child called it book, time! Learn More. Why choosing us to help? P rof E has been providing custom writing services to students for the past eight years. Thousands of students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in their courses and education. The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is important to P rof E , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. You are always on the save side with P rof E ! Click here to place your order. Asp Lightsaber. References are obligatory in Diversity within Essay, a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format. The sources are indicated by asp lightsaber, the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible).

In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in free eassays, APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in asp lightsaber, figures provided in Essay about Every, it, you need to asp lightsaber include the page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the Essay about Day Life in Elizabethan year of publication is already mentioned in asp lightsaber, the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . If the response source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of asp lightsaber, them, at least in the first reference within the essay.

Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of no author . In some cases the it is to be a pig satisfied author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of asp lightsaber, books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of Commonality Essay, articles, chapters, and web pages are in asp lightsaber, quotation marks. Organization: (, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in Every in Elizabethan, the paper.

The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay. It is asp lightsaber, also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in Essay about Every, the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of asp lightsaber, source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Physical. Article : Author, A. Asp Lightsaber. (Year).

Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article. Name of the web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an it is better being dissatisfied than satisfied ID in asp lightsaber, the sense that it can provide identification on free eassays, the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for asp lightsaber your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing.

Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for Essay succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. Asp Lightsaber. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied, font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. A running header should be placed in the right corner at the top of the asp lightsaber page next to the page number. A running header in APA style contains a short title of the essay.

The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. APA styles requires to better to be dissatisfied than a pig satisfied write a short title first, put a colon and write the asp lightsaber full title underneath. Within Commonality Essay. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the name of asp lightsaber, professor, and the date of submission are printed at better to be dissatisfied the bottom of the asp lightsaber APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and child called it book, figures. You may not need it in asp lightsaber, your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Response. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is asp lightsaber, mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the Diversity within author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page. What to remember with the asp lightsaber APA essay writing format.

The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to poverty vs relative poverty avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. Asp Lightsaber. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference materials author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is actually an easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in Essay, the writing process at asp lightsaber the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process.

This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an to be a human dissatisfied a pig satisfied academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. Asp Lightsaber. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references. Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Following the format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students academic papers.

In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays . Child Called. Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of asp lightsaber, headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to consider is the format of the a human dissatisfied a pig satisfied essay. Asp Lightsaber. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the free eassays basic essay format of introduction, body and asp lightsaber, conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of response, writing.

P rof E believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the whole essay. P rof E is professional and asp lightsaber, reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Write Effectively With the Essay Day Life in Elizabethan Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to asp lightsaber any academic paper. Though this is merely a superficial element of essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. Free Eassays. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .

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Rule of law under Indian Constitution. INTRODUCTION India being one of the most powerful democratic nation in the world, guided by the Constitution, which declares it to be Secular, Socialist, Republic and at the same time we are governed by Rule of Law. Asp Lightsaber! Law is the child called, supreme authority which confers rights to its citizens and under which most important is the Equality before the law and Equal protection of Law. The constitution of India has been made the asp lightsaber, supreme law of the country and other laws are required to be in conformity with it. We will write a custom essay sample. on Rule of Essay Day Life in Elizabethan England law under Indian Constitution or any similar.

topic specifically for you. Any law which is found in violation of any provision of the asp lightsaber, constitution, particularly, the fundamental rights, is it is to be dissatisfied than, declared void. The Indian constitution also incorporate the first principle of asp lightsaber Dicey i. e. equality before law and equal protection of laws. The Rule of Law embodied in Article 14 is the basic feature of the Indian Constitution and hence it cannot be destroyed even by an amendment of the Constitution under Article 368 of the Constitution. It Is Better Being! In India, the meaning of Rule of asp lightsaber Law has been applied differently in different cases by the judiciary. Before moving further, dimensions of Article 14 of the Constitution of it is better being dissatisfied than India is very vital to asp lightsaber discuss. Poverty Poverty! Both positive as well as negative discrimination of this Article came and Supreme Court and asp lightsaber various High Courts from time to time have summarized their decisions in different cases. Diceys rule of law has been adopted and incorporated in the Indian Constitution. The Preamble itself enunciates the ideals of justice, liberty and equality. It Book! In chapter III of the Constitution, these concepts are enshrined as fundamental rights and are thus made enforceable. The Constitution is supreme and all the three organs of the government, viz. legislature, executive and judiciary are subordinate to and have to act in accordance with it.

The principle of judicial review is asp lightsaber, embodied in the Constitution and subjects can approach the Diversity within Commonality Essay, High Courts and Supreme Court for the enforcement of fundamental rights guaranteed under Indian Constitution. No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to the procedure established bylaw or of his property save by the authority of asp lightsaber law. The government and the public officals are also not above the law. Page 2 Rule of law under Indian Constitution Essay. They are also subject to the jurisdiction of ordinary courts of law and for similar wrongs are to be tried and punished similarly. They are notimmune from the ordinary legal process nor is any provision made regarding separate administration courts and tribunals. In public services too, the doctrine of equality is accepted. Thus, it appears that the doctrine of rule of law is embodied in the Indian Constitution, and is treated as the basic structure of the Constitution. Physical Response! The guarantee of equality before the law is an aspect of what Dicey calls the rule of law in England. Rule of Law has many different facets and because of asp lightsaber its indiscriminate promiscuous use, has meant different things to different people at different times.

In simpler terms, this means that no man is above law and that every person, whatever be his rank or condition, is subject to the jurisdiction of ordinary courts. Also, it requires that no person shall be subjected to harsh, uncivilized or discriminatory treatment even when the object is the securing of the paramount exigencies of law and order. Response! It is the basic rule of asp lightsaber governance for any enlightened civilized societys effort as it is not merely a legalistic slogan. It is a kind of commitment to certain traditional principles and values. Diceys rule of law has been embodied in Article 14 of the Constitution which is the basic feature and hence it cant be destroyed even by an amendment of the Constitution under Article 368 of the Constitution. Absolute Poverty! RULE OF LAW: MEANING Dicey has included three distinct though kindered ideas in Rule of Law. 1. Supremacy of law Explaining the first principle, Dicey states that rule of law means that the absolute supremacy or predominance of regular law as opposed to the influence of arbitrary power or wide discretionary power.

Acc. To him, the Englishmen were ruled by the law and by the law alone; a man with us may be punished for asp lightsaber, a breach of law, but can be punished for about Every Day Life, nothing else. Simply it means the asp lightsaber, absolute supremacy of law as opposed to the arbitrary power of the Government. If there is cogent evidence of commission of a grave crime for which an ordinary citizen would be arrested, the law cannot be differently applied depending on the status of the response, person. However high you may be, law is above you. 2. Equality before law-

It means that subjection of all classes to the ordinary law of the land administered by ordinary law courts. This means that no one is above law with the sole exception of the monarch who can do no wrong. Dicey, explained this principle of the rule of law as there must be equality before the law or the equal subjection of asp lightsaber all classes to the ordinary law of the Every in Elizabethan England, land administered by the ordinary law courts. Acc. To him, in England, all persons were subject to one and the same law, and there were no extraordinary tribunals or special courts for officers of the government and the other authorities. Though he criticized the French legal system of droit administratif in which there were separate Administrative Tribunals for asp lightsaber, deciding cases between the officials of the State and the Citizens. Acc. It Is Being! To him, exemption of the civil servants from the jurisdiction of the asp lightsaber, ordinary courts of law and child called it book providing them with special tribunals was the negation of equality.

The Constution has further taken care to provide us with bulwark that guards the freedom of an average citizen, it is the law court. Courts of justice are more important than even the military to asp lightsaber guard the freedom of the country and of the individual by enforcing adherence to the rule of law. In the case of, State of West Bengal v. Anwar Ali Sarkar , it was clearly held that all persons shall be treated alike both in the privileges conferred and liabilities imposed by the laws. Equal laws should be applied to all in the same situations, and there should be no discrimination between one person and another. Thus, the simple rule is that the like should be treated alike and not that unlike should be treated alike. Also, the response, Supreme Court in Basheshar Naths case in 1959 observed that the principle of the Rule of asp lightsaber Law was an essential element of the guarantee of equality. 3. Judge made Constitution- We may consider the position prevailing in India vis-a-vis the third principle i. e. , the doctrine of Judge made Constitution or predomination of legal spirit.

Until recently, this principle was being studied and examined in context of interpreting the provisions of the Constitution and in Chief Settlement Commr. v Om Prakash , the Supreme Court observed: In our constitutional system, the central and most characteristic feature is the concept of of rule of law, which means, in Essay Every in Elizabethan England the present context, the authority of the law courts to test all administrative action by the standard of legality. The administrative or executive action that does not meet the standard will be set aside if the aggrieved party or person brings the appropriate action in the competent court. The Rule of asp lightsaber Law rejects the conception of the dual state in which the governmental action is placed in a privileged position of it book immunity from contrl by law. Such a notion is foreign to our basic constitutional concept. (emphasis supplied) The First and the second aspects apply to Indian system but the third aspect of Diceys rule of law does not apply to Indian system as the asp lightsaber, source of rights of Diversity Essay Individuals is the Constitution of India. The Constitution is the supreme Law of the land and all laws passed by the legislature must be consistent with the provisions of the Constitution.

Equal protection of the laws: The guarantee of asp lightsaber equal protection of laws is similar to one embodied in the 14th Amendment to the American Constitution. This has been interpreted to mean subjection to equal law, applying to all in the same circumstances. In Raghubir Singh v. State of Haryana the court held that, The rule of law imposes a duty upon the State to take special measures to prevent and punish brutality by police methodology. Exceptions to the Rule of Law: This rule of equality is, however not an absolute rule and there are number of exceptions to absolute poverty vs relative it. (i)equality before the asp lightsaber, law does not mean the powers of the private citizens are the same as the powers of the free eassays, public officials. Thus, a police officer has the power to arrest while no other private person has this power. Rule of Law explicitly doesnt require that these powers should be clearly defined by the law and that abuse of authority by public officers must be punished by asp lightsaber ordinary courts in the same manner as illegal acts committed by response any private person. (ii)The rule of law doesnt prevent certain classes of persons being subject to asp lightsaber special courts. Thus, the members of armed forces are controlled by military laws. Also under Article 361 of the Indian Constitution, during the term of his/her office, the Governor of a state or the President shall not be answerable to any criminal offences.

(iii)Today ministers and other executive bodies are given very wide discretionary powers by a statute. And as a result of which such power is been abused. Today, a large no. of legislations in the form of delegated legislation i. e. , rules, orders are been made by the ministers and it is not directly under the Parliaments power. (iv)Certain members of the society are governed by special rules in their professions, i. e. Diversity Within! , lawyers, doctors, members of armed forces and police. Asp Lightsaber! Such clauses are treated differently from ordinary citizens. The Constitution itself contains provisions which, under certain circumstances, limit the effectiveness of Art. 14. (i)The scope of right to equality U/A 14 has been considerably restricted by the 42nd Amendment Act, 1976.

The new Article 31-C added by the amendment act provides that the it book, laws made by the State for implementing the Directive Principles contained in asp lightsaber clause (b) or clause (c) of Article 39 cant be challenged on the ground that they are violative of Article 14. In Sanjeev Coke manufacturing co. v. Bharat cooking Coal Ltd. The Supreme Court has held that where Art. 31-C comes in, Article 14 goes out. (ii)Article 359(1) provides that where a proclamation of emergency is in operation the President may, by order, declare that the right to move any court for the enforcement of such rights conferred by Part III( except Arts. 20 and 21) shall remain suspended. Thus, if the President of India issues an order, where a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation, enforcement of Article 12 may be suspended for the period during which the proclamation is in force. (iii)Article 361 lays down that the President and about Every in Elizabethan England the Governors are exempted from any criminal proceeding during the tenure of their office. (iv)Under International Law, foreign sovereign and asp lightsaber ambassadors enjoy full immunity from any judicial process. This is also available to enemy aliens for acts of war. Article 14 permits classification but prohibits class legislation. Day Life! The equal protection of laws guaranteed by Article 14 does not mean that all laws must be general in character. It does not mean that the same laws should apply to asp lightsaber all persons.

It does not mean that every law must have universal application for, all persons are not, by nature, Attainment or circumstances in the same position. The varying needs of different classes of persons often require separate treatment. From the very nature of the society there should be different laws in different places and the Legislature controls the policy and free eassays enacts laws in the best interest of safety and security of the State. In fact, identical treatment in unequal circumstances would amount to inequality. So, a reasonable classification is only not permitted but is necessary if society is to progress. Thus, what Article 14 forbids is class-legislation but it does not forbid reasonable classification. The classification, however, must not be arbitrary, artificial or evasive but must be based on asp lightsaber some real and substantial distinction bearing a just and reasonable relation to the object sought to be achieved by physical the legislation. Article 14 applies where equals are treated differently without any reasonable basis. But where equals and unequals are treated differently, Article 14 does not apply.

Class legislation is that which makes an improper discrimination by conferring particular privileges upon asp lightsaber a class of better to be a human a pig persons arbitrarily selected from asp lightsaber, a large number of persons, all of whom stand in the same relation to the privilege granted that between whom and the persons not so favoured no reasonable distinction or substantial difference can be found justifying the inclusion of one and the exclusion of the other from such privileges. Test of Reasonable Classification- Article 14 forbids class legislation, but it does not forbid reasonable classification of persons, objects and free eassays transactions by the legislature for the purpose of achieving specific ends. Classifications to be reasonable must fulfill two conditions:- (c)The classification must be founded on asp lightsaber an intelligible differentia which distinguishes persons or things that are grouped together from others left out of the group; and (d)The differentia must have a rational relation to child it book the object sought to be achieved by the Act. The important thing is that there must be a nexus between the basis of asp lightsaber classification and the object of the Act which makes the classification. K. K. Mathew, J. highlighted the poverty vs relative, negative concept of the doctrine of equality before the asp lightsaber, law, as traditionally understood and posed the absolute poverty vs relative poverty, question whether the command of Article 14 is merely to ban creation of equality or to eliminate inequalities ? According to him Formal equality before the asp lightsaber, law has been found to be a shame in many areas.

The true meaning and response scope of Article 14 have been explained in a number of cases by supreme Court. In re-Special Court Bill case, Chandrachud, J. , (as he then was) reformulated new propositions to be followed regarding the asp lightsaber, applicability of Article 14. About Day Life England! But this has been rightly criticized by Mr. Seervai as making the well-settled principles unsettled and creating confusion and uncertainity and encouraging litigation. The principles laid down by asp lightsaber Das, J. , in absolute poverty vs relative Ramkrishna Dalmia v. Justice Tendolkar has not been disputed by asp lightsaber Chandrachud, J. , and child called therefore there was no need to reformulate the same unless it was necessary to add something to asp lightsaber the existing principles. In Sagir Ahmad v. State it has been clearly held that. It Is Better To Be Satisfied! The question whether a classification is reasonable, and proper or not, must, however be judged more on commonsense than on legal subtleties. New concept of asp lightsaber Equality: Protection against Arbitrariness- In E. P. Royappa v. Commonality Essay! State of asp lightsaber Tamil Nadu, the Supreme Court has challenged the traditional concept of equality which was based on called the reasonable classification and has laid down a new concept of equality. Chandrachud and Krishna Iyer, JJ. Propunded the new concept of equality in the following words- Equality is a dynamic concept with many aspects and dimensions and it cannot be cribbed, cabined and confined within traditional and doctrinal limits.

From a positivistic point of view, equality is antithesis to arbitrariness. In fact, equality and arbitrariness are sworn enemies; one belong to the Rule of Law in asp lightsaber a republic while the other, to the whim and caprice of an absolute monarch. Where an Act is arbitrary, it is implicit in it that it is unequal both according to political logic and constitutional law and is therefore violative of Article 14. In Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India, Bhagwati, J. , again quoted with approval the new concept of equality propounded by him in the E. P. Royappa case. He said :- . Physical! Equality is a dynamic concept with many aspects and dimensions and it cannot be imprisoned within traditional and doctrinal limits. Article 14 strikes at arbitrariness in State action and ensures fairness and equality of treatment. The principle of reasonableness, which legally as well as philosophically, is an essential element of equality or non-arbitrariness, pervades Article 14 like a brooding omnipresence. Asp Lightsaber! The basic postulate of the better to be than a pig, Rule of Law is asp lightsaber, that justice should not only be done but it must also be seen to be done. The society is composed of unequals and a welfare State has to strive by both executive and Essay legislative action to help the less fortunate and to improve their condition so that social and economic unequality in the society may be bridged.

This would require a law to be made applicable to that group in order to ameliorate their lot. Asp Lightsaber! Desai, J. , said that the doctrine of classification was evolved to sustain a legislation of State action in order to help the weaker sections of the society or some such segments of the society in need of succor. In ADM Jabalpur v. Shivakant Shukla, it is one of the most important cases when it comes to rule of law. In this case, the question before the court was whether there was any rule of law in India apart from Article 21. This was in physical response context of asp lightsaber suspension of enforcement of Articles 14, 21 and 22 during the proclamation of an emergency. The answer of the majority of the bench was in negative for Essay, the question of law. However Justice H. R. Khanna dissented from the majority opinion and observed that Even in absence of Article 21 in the Constitution, the state has got no power to deprive a person of his life and liberty without the authority of law.

In India, there are a few instances where Judiciary has infringed upon the areas of Executive and asp lightsaber Legislature and this can be said from the example of the present Reservation system. Judiciary was against the fact of giving reservations to free eassays the creamy layer but the Executive and Legislature was not in favor of this. Though many of them had critiqued about Rule of Law in Indian Constitution. Acc. To them, Law changes with time. As time evolves, Law has to change in that way.

They see Rule of Law simply as a tool for guiding and maintaining the status quo of the society. For them maintain status quo is far from being neutral, serves to protect the powerful at asp lightsaber the cost of others. More extreme critics claim that [t]he liberal paradigm has destroyed the rule of law. The rationale behind this statement is that, considering the real state of the called it book, world, many equate the rule of law with legality. However, this is asp lightsaber, a flawed equation as [l]egality simply means that there are laws and says nothing about the quality of those laws. Hence, there are many lacunas in response the concept of rule of law which servers the reason of non-implementation of the concept properly.

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50 Import Export Business ideas and Opportunities for 2017. Do you want to start an import and asp lightsaber, export business from home? If YES, here are 50 viable small import export business ideas and opportunities you can start in free eassays 2017 . All over the globe, import and export is asp lightsaber rampant. There are countries that just cannot do without import and export. This is because no nation can survive totally on its own without interaction with other countries. There is always a need to relate and engage in exchange of goods, it can either be in terms of raw materials, semi-finished good or finished goods. This important gap can be monetized by you in a form of movement of goods from Diversity within Commonality where it is in abundance and above the demand to a nation where there is asp lightsaber a high demand for such products. About Every Day Life England! International trade is one of the asp lightsaber hot industries of the 21 st century. Starting an child, Import and Export Business Industry Overview.

According to the United States Department of Commerce, importations account for an annual $1.2 trillion in goods. Exporting is equally as big in asp lightsaber its own right as American companies exported $772 billion worth of goods to over 150 overseas countries. It Is Better To Be Being Dissatisfied A Pig Satisfied! Interesting Statistics About the Import Export Industry. The worlds third biggest exporter is the asp lightsaber United States and its exports accounts for 13% of GDP. Its exports fell by 2.1% in January of 2016 to $176.46 billion. This was the lowest it had fallen in more than 5 1/2 years. To Be A Human! From 1950 till 2016, exportation was at an average of $48,995.11 million with a record low of $772 million in March of asp lightsaber, 1950 and physical, an all-time high of $197,759 million in October of 2014. More than 40% of the rise in GNP of the United States was as a result of the asp lightsaber contribution of merchandise exports from 1986 to 1990. Exports totalled a high of $394 billion in 1990.

As a result of the increase in free eassays the U.S exports in the late 1980s and early 1990s, there was a significant lower trade deficit and an addition of 2 million jobs attributed to exports. Asp Lightsaber! The United States Department of physical response, Commerce has made an estimate that one job is created for every $45,000 in export sales. The United States claimed a 16.8% share of the worlds total imports making it the world leader in imports. Export is an asp lightsaber, important vehicle of growth for companies in the United States. This is because a lot of domestic products and the service market in the country are already saturated and there is only room for child it book limited growth opportunities. These days, a lot of small companies sometimes seek to develop continuous and permanent business ties with other overseas countries. 15% of the exporters in the United States make up 84% of the value of manufactured export in the country. Less than 20% of the exporters and asp lightsaber, less than 3% of within Commonality, all the companies in the United States export to over 5 markets and half of the exporters sell in just one foreign market. The market for import and export for asp lightsaber many product lines are already saturated and there is information to back this up. So to it book avoid facing any kind of asp lightsaber, problem in this business, make sure that there is better a human a pig a genuine need for the products you want to deal with.

When you have done this, with a lot of commitment from asp lightsaber your end, your business is off to Diversity Commonality Essay a good start. If you think that starting an export and import business is asp lightsaber what you want to do, then you may want to consider starting an import export business. Here are some business ideas that you can begin to act on. You can cash in on poverty vs relative international trade with any of the under listed business ideas; 50 Viable Small Import Export Business ideas and Opportunities in asp lightsaber 2017. You must have heard about,,, and several other online based marketplaces. All these websites listed above deal with online trading as they ship to other part of the absolute vs relative poverty world. You make your order and payment online while they ship your product to your provided address. You are also to pay for the cost of shipping. The internet has brought down the asp lightsaber walls which used to restrict access to manufacturers located thousands of kilometers away.

Improvements in transportation and logistics now make it possible for small businesses with little capital to in Elizabethan England import smaller amounts of stock at low shipping costs. Asp Lightsaber! The beauty of this business is that with little start-up capital and access to the internet you can start earning a good income. An import-export agent or broker, also known as a trade agent or customs broker, is an individual or a company that sends and receives goods to and from child it book different countries. Import-export agents or brokers work with both importers and asp lightsaber, exporters by helping them prepare necessary documents for exporting or importing their products. They also help their clients establish connections in foreign companies. So, they work on both ends of free eassays, import-export deals that of the asp lightsaber origin and that of the destination. To become an within Commonality, import-export broker, you must understand the basic jargon of asp lightsaber, import-export law, currency transactions, trade policies, and everything else that goes into making profitable import-export deals. As a product sourcing agent you can conveniently plug into the export value chain. What a good way to build up a successful exportation business from nothing and have fun doing it? Not only does it require little financial investment to start you dont need previous experience in the field to get started, but you should have a good head for organizing and paying constant attention to little details.

As a product sourcing agent, you will need to make contact with exporters. You can register with some trade portals where you will have access to their chosen commodities, specifications and contacts details. You can also send a mail to them and inform them that you can meet their requirement. As a product sourcing agent, you will deal majorly with farmers. You will need to absolute poverty go to asp lightsaber their farms and Essay about Day Life in Elizabethan, deal with them directly and you might need to transport the commodity to the city. You can also deal with the local buying agents and the commodity merchant. If you have the logistic and business management skills, as well as an entrepreneurial spirit, you may just be fit to learn how to start a freight brokerage business. Asp Lightsaber! As a freight brokerage company, it is your duty to act as a mediator between shippers and client companies who need their services and facilities. Their tasks also involve clearing your goods from the ports, paying up your duties and taxes, transporting your consignment to your desired destination, etc. Sometimes, freight brokers are referred to as clearing and forwarding agents. Theres much money to be made as a clearing and forwarding agent.

The sweetest part is that this business can be done anywhere, in any country; as long as international trade still exists and your country is a partaker, you are in business. This is another money raining business in this field. About Day Life In Elizabethan England! A buy and asp lightsaber, sell opportunity can turn into a lucrative business provided that you do it well. Called! This is especially true especially if you are considering the idea of how to buy and sell used cars. Asp Lightsaber! As technology increases and state-of-the art cars are being produced, people will always have the need to buy new vehicles; thus also creating the need to disposed of old ones. Regardless of the country you reside. Free Eassays! Whether you are in United States, U.K, Canada, Singapore, Nigeria, Ghana, etc.; you can import and sell used cars. The construction and asp lightsaber, furniture sectors all over the world today cannot do without the use of timber, but what is important to you as an about Every in Elizabethan, entrepreneur is to identify the markets for these products while connecting the timber producing nations to the market, even though very stressful and energy sapping, the pain is always worth it. If you are specialized in asp lightsaber a certain industry, you can very well go to an oversea manufacturer and ask to represent them in the countries of your choice. A representative has the it is better to be dissatisfied edge because you are the expert in asp lightsaber the industry or a certain market.

For example, if you are an expert in the wooden furniture business and you have been selling in the western US region, you have the great opportunity of going to a Chinese furniture maker and asking to be a representative of their western US region. Most of the manufacturers love people like you because you are their free labor (no base, only commission) to help them get into the market. It#8217;s a win-win situation for both you and the manufacturer. It Is To Be A Human Being! Although tobacco is generally known to be dangerous to health, the addiction that comes with its consumption has only helped to maintain the increased demand for cigarettes and other tobacco products. While many will frown at this option, the asp lightsaber truth remains that tobacco and its products sell well in anywhere in the world, and you can make a fortune from importing them. Tons of seafood, such as fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and child called it book, so on are consumed on a daily basis.

Ironically, however, indigenous suppliers cannot cater to the huge demand for these products, leaving open a window of opportunities for importers of seafood. While there are more-than-countable import and export opportunities that you can tap from, you would hardly go wrong with seafood importation. Publishing a biannual import/export opportunities directory in printed and electronic format has the potential to make you rich, as millions of budding entrepreneurs worldwide are constantly on the lookout for income and business opportunities. Asp Lightsaber! Simply create an import/export directory that features information about absolute vs relative poverty worldwide manufacturers, wholesalers and asp lightsaber, agents that are seeking to expand their product lines into foreign countries and new markets, or individuals or companies that are seeking to import particular products into about in Elizabethan England their regions. Charging a fee to be listed in the directory, as well as selling the directories to people who are seeking this type of valuable and potentially profitable information and contact sources would earn revenue for the business. Starting a warehousing and asp lightsaber, distribution service means you can act as a warehouse, shipping and receiving agent for to be a human being than satisfied as many as 20 or 30 different companies. This business venture does require a great deal of research and investment capital. However, with careful planning and exceptional organizational skills, this type of business venture is capable of creating a six-figure income per year, all within a very short period of time for the enterprising entrepreneur. Considering the many red-tape barriers and asp lightsaber, all the issues surrounding importing products into this country, or exporting products out of this country, it#8217;s no wonder that so many businesses don#8217;t know where to start and just plain give up out of frustration. Poverty Poverty! Of course, the smart business owners who don#8217;t want to miss a single opportunity to grow their businesses and revenues don#8217;t give up. Instead, they hire an asp lightsaber, import/export specialist to guide them through the complex issues of the import/export business legal, transportation, warehousing, distribution, marketing, employment, environmental, political and financial.

Starting an import/export consulting business will require experience in the industry, or the physical response willingness to learn about the industry. One simple way to market your services is to develop and asp lightsaber, host a free informational seminar on importing and exporting and use the event to sign up businesses and individuals who want to get started in import and export. In North America there are thousands of home based manufacturing businesses. Two of the largest challenges facing these entrepreneurs are marketing and competing against much larger and better-financed competitors. Diversity Within Essay! Herein lies the business opportunity. Develop an online #8216;factory direct#8217; Web site that features products for sale manufactured by these home based entrepreneurs. Not only will you be giving these small manufacturing businesses a fantastic marketing and distribution channel, but you will also be giving them a chance to compete for business without having to blow a bundle on developing and marketing their own Web site. Products sold via the site can be shipped to purchasers directly from the manufacturer, thus eliminating the need for warehousing inventory. In exchange for providing manufacturers with a marketing channel, you can retain a portion of the sales that the site generates; in the range of asp lightsaber, 10 to poverty vs relative poverty 15 percent would be fair. This type of cyber venture could really prove to be successful, as #8216;factory direct#8217; pricing attracts consumers and securing manufactured goods to be featured on the site would be very easy.

Africa and many developing economies are blessed with a lot of asp lightsaber, food and natural resources; and most of these natural resources are raw materials needed for the production of some finished products. Every day, tons of raw materials and food products leave the shores to countries such as India, Vietnam, China, USA, UK, Brazil, etc; yet, the Every England demand is never met. You can become an exporter by simply registering with the appropriate government agency and decide on the specific product you wish to export. Examples of products highly in demand are Chili pepper, Kola nuts, Bitter Kola, Cassava flakes (Garri), Cocoa, Groundnut, Yam flour, Cashew nuts, etc. Asp Lightsaber! While beauty products are typically quite expensive to purchase in salons, they can be imported quite cheaply from overseas and resold for considerable markup and profit. Regardless of the economic climate, these items are typically always in demand especially with the female demographic. If you want to partner with domestic sellers to find foreign buyers for a small group of companies over a long-term. An EMC does it allhiring dealers, distributors and representatives; handling advertising, marketing and promotions; overseeing marking and packaging; arranging shipping; and sometimes arranging financing. Essay Every Day Life! If you want to serve foreign buyers, this is a great option for you. You will be responsible for purchasing goods directly from a domestic or foreign manufacturer and then pack, ship and resell the goods on your own.

If you are interested importing goods from global retailers in asp lightsaber bulk then packaging goods up individually for free eassays resale, then going into this line of international trade is good for you, While an EMC has merchandise to sell and is using its energies to seek out buyers, an ETC attacks the asp lightsaber other side of the trading coin. It identifies what foreign buyers want to spend their money on and then hunts down domestic sources willing to export. An ETC sometimes takes title to the goods and sometimes works on a commission basis. Clothing is physical response another basic need of man. Regardless of the economy, people must wear clothes and this includes shoes, bags, underwear, perfumes, etc. Now there is a fast growing trend now and that is Used clothes or Recycled clothes. Since the economy is getting tougher and theres need to be clothed, the masses have resolved to buying used clothes rather than new ones. Still yet, there is a market for new clothes; for men, women, and kids. You can source your materials from China, Hong Kong, Italy, France, Dubai, India, etc. Although smart phones may appear to be every day items in asp lightsaber markets such as the U.S., they are just beginning to scratch the surface in many developing nations. The cost to produce this type of technology is extremely inexpensive especially if you can find export opportunities in China for these items. While electronics are certainly hot sellers, it is actually the accessories that go along with the latest smart phones, laptops, and poverty vs relative poverty, other gadgets that are highly profitable items.

Many of these items can be purchased wholesale for asp lightsaber pennies on the dollar and then resold to the end user at retail price either online or through traditional brick and mortar outlets. Home accessories are another area that is booming when it comes to profitable import export opportunities. This can mean anything from picture frames to candle holders to soap dispensers and about England, everything in between. Most items for the home are easy to manufacture and can be shipped and asp lightsaber, sold in wholesale packages. A customs broker facilitates the exporting and importing of goods with foreign nations that are subject to customs restriction and inspection. These commodities shipments could be small or large and include both perishable and non-perishable products. Some brokers work as independent contractors who render services for child it book different companies. Customs broker companies and international freight forwarders are usually considered the most employers of asp lightsaber, professional customs brokers. However, customs brokers also usually work for trade authorities, shipping firms, and export and import companies. The international freight forwarder is a specialist in the field of global transportation and makes arrangements in Essay about Day Life shipping in asp lightsaber accordance with the set standards of the industry.

The role of a forwarder is to free eassays give advice, inform, and complete all of the necessary documents for the shipment. Since they regularly deal with different people in an international level, they are aware of the requirements, rules, and policies of each nation with regards to international trade. Also, they are considered experts in the field of transportation . With the increasing demand for shipping services that offer reasonable prices and promise convenience, speed and reliability, no other time could be better than now for taking a plunge into the shipping business. The industry is asp lightsaber growing and rapidly changingthanks to the increasing dependence on online shopping. It Is To Be Being Than Satisfied! However, you must realize the asp lightsaber fact that the it is better dissatisfied than a pig satisfied maritime / shipping industry is highly capital intensive and competitive. Asp Lightsaber! Secondly, starting your own shipping company requires that you have in-depth knowledge of import and export procedures as well as the called it book shipping, container, and logistics industries in your country. You also need to know the asp lightsaber legislation for response crew members to work on-board your vessels, how to operate vessel within and outside specific ports, how to handle dangerous goods and other types of goods, and how to operate certain communication equipment on-board your vessel and many other legislation. Compliance officers investigate and audit organizational trade involving pre-determined trade compliance regulations and laws, including domestic and foreign trade agreements. Many compliance officers are employed by local, state or federal government agencies, such as the Bureau of Industry and Security, a division of the asp lightsaber U.S. Department of Commerce. Because the consequences of noncompliance with international trade regulations can be severe, including the loss of free eassays, rights to do business and imprisonment, all companies need to ensure awareness of and compliance with all legal aspects of their import and export activity.

While smaller companies may consult outside services, larger companies are more likely to have legal departments dedicated to compliance with tax and accounting as well as export-control. Logistics specialists analyze and coordinate supply chains for asp lightsaber organizations and businesses. They direct the allocation of materials, supplies and products, overseeing purchasing, shipping, warehousing and delivery. They also present reports on performance data, striving to find cost-effective solutions to production, shipping and delivery of products . Marketing managers play an invaluable role for importing and exporting organizations, developing and establishing overseas markets for goods and services. These professionals identify markets and develop competitive pricing strategies. They utilize forecasting computer applications and work with various aspects of messaging and communications, including public relations and advertising. The process of buying foreign exchange, stocks, bonds, and other commodities in one market and immediately selling them in another market at higher prices.

This is another business idea for poverty poverty you if you have the means and knowledge. Export shipments are usually insured against loss, damage, and delay in transit by cargo insurance. Asp Lightsaber! For international shipments, the carrier#8217;s liability is frequently limited by international agreements and the coverage is poverty poverty substantially different from domestic coverage. Arrangements for cargo insurance may be made by either the buyer or the seller, depending on the terms of sale. Asp Lightsaber! Exporters are advised to consult with international insurance carriers or freight forwarders for more information.

Damaging weather conditions, rough handling by carriers, and Essay about Day Life in Elizabethan England, other common hazards to cargo make marine insurance important protection for exporters. If the terms of sale make the firm responsible for insurance, it should either obtain its own policy or insure cargo under a freight forwarders policy for a fee. You can therefore become an asp lightsaber, insurance broker in the import and export business. Cassava flour has very close substitute in garri, yam flour, plantain flour etc. This notwithstanding, it is a very popular food item that is easy and fast to prepare. The raw material for this project is cassava tubers. The raw material is available all over the federation.

The machinery, accessories and equipment needed to produce good quality cassava flour are cassava peeler, cassava tuber, grinder, sieve, dryer, fermentation tank, sealing /sewing machine and international standard measuring scale. All of the above can be fabricated locally for any capacity required by investors. There is a ready market in Europe, America and Middle East. Presently the world footwear and leather products sector is moving from high-cost industrialized countries to developing countries and many developing countries have strong potentials in physical response this sector regarding raw material and human resources, but have mainly remained suppliers of raw and asp lightsaber, semi-finished products. The raw materials for leather and its products are mainly from livestock, and Nigeria is endowed with the absolute poverty vs relative poverty third largest livestock population in Africa. Raw materials availability has been acknowledged as a basic comparative advantage towards the export of leather and leather products. Palm kernel cake (PKC) as a by-product in the milling of palm kernel oil. Palm kernel cake is considered a medium grade protein in feed, containing 14.6% to 16.0% crude protein, useful for fattening cattle either as a single feed, with only asp lightsaber minerals and vitamins supplementation or mixed with other feedstuff. It has also become the main ingredient in daily cattle ration. Palm kernel cake is commonly exported, mainly to Europe.

It is delivered in bulk via vessel or pack in bags for easier handling and distribution. Lately, it is also used as Biomass fuel in Europe especially United Kingdom to free eassays provide heat and asp lightsaber, energy. The cake is demanded by about Every Day Life, feed millers and by exporters. Gum Arabic is asp lightsaber produced by Acacia trees and occurs within the Sahel Ecological zone of Nigeria. We are currently the third largest exporter of Gum Arabic in Africa, after Sudan and Chad.

Its annual exports are estimated at free eassays 5,000 metric tons. The highest quality of Gum ArabicGrade 1is used in asp lightsaber a wide variety of food, beverage, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products, making the market for this grade of gum quite robust. Cashews are found wild. Actual production figure is not available, but is estimated to be around 50,000 tons annually. Absolute! Over 80 per cent of asp lightsaber, it is exported raw and unprocessed to it is better being dissatisfied a pig India, Vietnam and Brazil, where they are processed into kernels and sold for higher value in Europe and North-America. Asp Lightsaber! In recent times, world market price of kernels has stabilized at $1.7 per pound for the benchmark grade W320.

This consumer-friendly price is likely to free eassays sustain continued demand for the product, even as new low cost suppliers enter the international market. One cashew tree produces between 200 and 300 cashew nuts in a year. The cry for alternative energy source has put CHARCOAL in the forefront in the global market. A large market exists in EU, USA and ASIA with prices ranging from $700 to $800 per ton, with about asp lightsaber 40% return on Investment . Day Life England! Gallstone is clay-like solid substance found in the gallbladder of a matured cow or oxen. It is asp lightsaber about the child size of a peanut and can be as big as a pigeon egg. At times, they could be as big as ordinary eggs and can weigh between 15 and 18 grammes.

They are collected by asp lightsaber, pharmaceutical companies abroad for medical purposes. Free Eassays! A good quality gallstone should be dried upon asp lightsaber collection of some quantity say 100g, you can then parcel them and child called, send to buyers abroad who then pay with hard currency immediately the parcel is received. Gallstone has a well-established market in Asia and America. The market is guaranteed and can take up as much quantity as supplied without any adverse effect on the price. Asp Lightsaber! Every nation of the world needs energy and fuel to power their economy and not all these countries have in excess these fuel. You can deal in the exporting and Essay Every in Elizabethan England, importing of crude oil from one country to another. It is important to note that it is for the big dogs as it involves large cost of startup but a very profitable business in the long run.

Sesame seeds (sesamum indicum) belong to the plant family Pedaliaceae. It is an important oilseed crop believed to have originated from tropical Africa. 25% of world sesame seed hecterage is planted in asp lightsaber Africa and Nigeria is one of the major producers of sesame seed in Africa. The commodity ranks second to cocoa in terms of volume of export and foreign exchange earnings. Global production in 2005 was put at free eassays 2.4 million metric tonnes with China and India as leading producers. Honey is primarily composed of asp lightsaber, fructose, glucose and water. It also contains other sugars as well trace enzymes, minerals, vitamins and child called, amino acids. Honey is manufactured in one of the worlds most efficient factories, the beehive. Honey is currently priced between US$ 10.00 AND US$12.00 per kilogram at international market. World production of yam is asp lightsaber 51.4 million tonnes per year out of which Nigeria accounts for absolute poverty vs relative poverty an average of 36.7 million tonnes, Ghana for 3.6 million tonnes and Cote dIvoire for 4.8 million tonnes. There are no specific standards for asp lightsaber yam export, but intending exporters must seek information on the quality and free eassays, phytosanitary regulations of the importing country as well as the product specifications required by the importer.

Drop shipping allows business owners to sell products and ship them directly to their customers without having to maintain an inventory. Drop shippers handle all packaging and shipping concerns, allowing the business owners who use their services to focus on getting the products in front of potential customers. Bad business practices from some business owners have soured the idea of drop shipping for others, but it is still possible to asp lightsaber run a reputable business using drop shipping. Just like used cars, you can go into the importation of Every Day Life in Elizabethan, either used or new spare parts. Since it is very hard to return cars to factory especially from Africa, importation of the spare part is a goldmine if you have the knowledge and can import in large quantities.

Even though it might sound like a dirty business, there is a ready market for asp lightsaber used cloth in Africa and other third world economies. You can specialize in the importation of this product to these places where it is in high demand. Nigeria is one of the tropical countries endowed with rich shrimp resources. With rich organic deposit arising from runoff, the Niger Delta region is the heartland of shrimp and oil production in Nigeria; having a production capacity of 12,000 metric tons (MT) per year. The major markets for the Nigerian shrimp in it book Europe are Belgium, Portugal, Spain, France and the USA. All are usually packaged in 2.2-kg packets into master cartons. So this is a business you can go into and succeed. The term poultry is generally used to refer all the domestic birds kept egg or meat purposes. Neighboring West East and Northern Africa Countries also depend on poultry eggs from Nigeria, as the weather for the production of poultry eggs is highly conducive in Nigeria compared to these neighboring countries. Irrespective of the asp lightsaber abundant animal feeds, which are readily available, there is also the to be a human than export potential, which has not been tapped fully. For any person or corporate bodies looking for a project that will generate income on asp lightsaber a daily basis, poultry egg production is one of such project.

Nigeria is known to be one of the major producers of physical response, pepper in the world. Asp Lightsaber! The implication of this is that we have the good weather that can readily support the growth and production of poverty, pepper in Nigeria. There are hundreds of asp lightsaber, different types of chili peppers that vary in size, shape, color, flavor and hotness. This fleshy berry features many seeds inside a potent package that can range from less than one inch to six inches in length, and approximately one-half to one inch in diameter. Chili peppers are usually red or green in color. As an free eassays, importer and exporter, there is always a risk involved in asp lightsaber the business especially when you do not have the knowledge of the absolute poverty vs relative poverty location of your goods on sea.

But this risk can be reduced with cargo tracking firms which you can employ their service in tracking and updating you in asp lightsaber real time the location of about Every Day Life, your goods. The safety and asp lightsaber, timely arrival of your cargo is paramount. But keeping track of where it is and whether its journey is going as planned can be hard without the right tools. Cargo tracking solutions is about monitoring cargo while its moving so you can make sure its where it needs to be when it needs to poverty poverty be there. Moreover, youll be able to receive real-time notifications about departures, arrivals and asp lightsaber, checkpoint clearances so you can document you cargos journey easily and Commonality Essay, efficiently. Asp Lightsaber! Its the smart way to: monitor and Day Life, document the temperature of asp lightsaber, perishable cargo while its in transit, document where your goods were and when they reached their destination, locate and recover lost or stolen goods quickly. This business helps you improve the productivity and efficiency of importers and free eassays, exporters operation because they can organize the rest of their logistics around the predicted arrival of their cargo. Palm kernel oil (PKO) is asp lightsaber extracted from the kernel of palm.

It should not be confuse with palm oil, which is obtained from the pulp of fruit of the palm. Palm kernel oil has a light yellow color and it has a milder flavor than palm oil. It is often used in the manufacture of various cosmetic, confectionery and pharmaceutical industries. Palm Kernel Oil Crushing is a viable investment because raw materials can be sourced at ease, the production technology is simple and feasible, and the market for it book end products are automatic . You can therefore go into the business of exporting PKO to Europe and Asian markets. The sea is not the only means through which cargos can be brought in, the air can also be utilized in asp lightsaber transporting containers.

In 2014, airlines transported 51.3 million metric tons of goods, representing more than 35% of global trade by value but less than 1% of absolute poverty, world trade by volume. With the right tools and equipment even though very costly, you can start an asp lightsaber, air cargo business by helping businessmen transport their goods faster and in a safer way. If you have the ability to sell, and an air of diplomacy, the import/export business might be right for you. All you need is the desire and determination to make it work. As you progress in the business, many factors become obvious and easy to handle.

Once you get the business underway, the commission for setting up sales is very profitable. And after you establish and maintain a number of exclusive accounts, you#8217;ll find the time you spend is highly rewarded with money.

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Combined effects of precipitation and asp lightsaber, nitrogen deposition on native and invasive winter annual production in California deserts. Primary production in it is to be a human being satisfied, deserts is limited by soil moisture and N availability, and thus is likely to asp lightsaber, be influenced by both anthropogenic N deposition and precipitation regimes altered as a consequence of climate change. Invasive annual grasses are particularly responsive to increases in N and water availabilities, which may result in competition with native forb communities. Additionally, conditions favoring increased invasive grass production in free eassays, arid and semi-arid regions can increase fire risk, negatively impacting woody vegetation that is not adapted to asp lightsaber, fire. We conducted a seeded garden experiment and child, a 5-year field fertilization experiment to investigate how winter annual production is altered by increasing N supply under a range of water availabilities. The greatest production of asp lightsaber, invasive grasses and native forbs in within Commonality, the garden experiment occurred under the highest soil N (inorganic N after fertilization = 2.99 g m ?2 ) and highest watering regime, indicating these species are limited by both water and asp lightsaber, N. A classification and regression tree (CART) analysis on the multi-year field fertilization study showed that winter annual biomass was primarily limited by NovemberDecember precipitation. Better To Be Being Satisfied! Biomass exceeded the threshold capable of asp lightsaber, carrying fire when inorganic soil N availability was at least 3.2 g m ?2 in pinon-juniper woodland. Due to water limitation in creosote bush scrub, biomass exceeded the fire threshold only it is better to be dissatisfied than satisfied, under very wet conditions regardless of asp lightsaber, soil N status. The CART analyses also revealed that percent cover of invasive grasses and native forbs is primarily dependent on the timing and amount of precipitation and secondarily dependent on soil N and site-specific characteristics. In total, our results indicate that areas of physical response, high N deposition will be susceptible to grass invasion, particularly in wet years, potentially reducing native species cover and increasing the risk of asp lightsaber, fire.

Communicated by Louis Pitelka. Electronic supplementary material. The online version of called, this article (doi: 10.1007/s00442-009-1516-5 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Climate change models indicate that many regions will experience an increase in the severity of extreme climatic events such as droughts, heat waves, and asp lightsaber, floods (Solomon et al. 2007 ). Diversity Commonality! These climate changes will cause vegetation distributions to shift, such as in California where the asp lightsaber, extent of arid grasslands is it is a human being dissatisfied a pig predicted to increase due in part to increased fire size and asp lightsaber, frequency (Lenihan et al. 2003 ). Many studies from arid and semi-arid regions have shown a linkage between climate and fire (Swetnam and Betancourt 1998 ; Grissino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000 ; Harris et al. 2008 ; Drury and Veblen 2008 ; Miller et al. 2009 ). Fire may also be promoted by invasions of non-native species (DAntonio and Vitousek 1992 ; Brooks et al. 2004 ), which themselves are associated with increased disturbance, including climate change, land use change, and N deposition (Dukes and Mooney 1999 ). In western North America, invasion by non-native grasses has resulted in absolute poverty poverty, increased fire frequency and intensity (Zouhar et al.

2008 ). This so called grass-fire cycle occurs because the invasive grasses create a persistent and continuous fine fuel load that allows fire to carry between widely spaced shrubs (DAntonio and Vitousek 1992 ; Brooks et al. Asp Lightsaber! 2004 ). The invasive grasses recover more quickly than shrubs, increasing fire frequency until the shrubs are lost from the landscape. This type-conversion has occurred in it is dissatisfied a pig satisfied, several ecosystems including sagebrush, coastal sage scrub, and creosote bush scrub (Minnich and Dezzani 1998 ; Menakis et al. 2003 ; Brooks and asp lightsaber, Matchett 2006 ; Zouhar et al. Child It Book! 2008 ). An increase in asp lightsaber, fire size and child, frequency has been observed in the Sonoran and Mojave Deserts resulting in reduced shrub density and diversity (Brown and Minnich 1986 ; Brooks and Berry 2006 ; Hereford et al.

2006 ). Fires in these deserts often occur in years with below-average precipitation but that are preceded by 12 years of above-average rainfall (Swetnam and Betancourt 1998 ; Grissino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000 ; Lenihan et al. 2003 ; Brooks and Matchett 2006 ). The years of asp lightsaber, high rainfall result in high production by native and invasive annuals thereby increasing the fine fuel load (Brown and Minnich 1986 ). Arid land winter annuals have also been found to be sensitive to within-season precipitation timing, which differentially affects germination of child it book, invasive grasses and native forb species (Beatley 1974 ; Brooks 1999 ; Lundholm and Larson 2004 ; Sher et al. 2004 ). While several large native annuals produce persistent fuel beds (Minnich 2008 ), the asp lightsaber, fuel components of greatest concern are invasive annual grasses red brome ( Bromus madritensis ), cheatgrass ( Bromus tectorum ), and Mediterranean split grass ( Schismus barbatus and Schismus arabicus ) that may increase in Essay about Every Day Life in Elizabethan, productivity in asp lightsaber, years of high rainfall (Brooks 1999 ; Brooks 2003 ; Salo 2004 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). No threshold of about Every Day Life England, fine fuels has been determined for desert biomass, although thresholds for fine fuels needed in asp lightsaber, grass-dominated systems are estimated to be 70150 g m ?2 (Anderson 1982 ; Scifres and Hamilton 1993 ; Fenn et al. 2003a ). In the desert this range is more likely to be reached under high invasive grass abundance because grass litter does not disarticulate as rapidly as native forb litter (Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). Additionally, invasive grasses are responsive to both increased precipitation and absolute poverty poverty, increased N availability (Monaco et al. 2003 ; Fenn et al. 2003a ; Salo et al. 2005 ). After precipitation, N is considered most limiting to plant production in arid and semi-arid regions (Hooper and Johnson 1999 ). In arid regions downwind of major urban or agricultural centers, dry N deposition is increasing and is likely influencing plant communities through fertilization effects (Brooks 2003 ; Fenn et al.

2003b ; Allen et al. 2009 ; Rao et al. 2009 ). The co-limitation of production by asp lightsaber, N and water suggests that the build-up of fine fuels sufficient to about Every Day Life, carry wildfires would most likely occur when both N deposition and above-average precipitation are present. Thus, the hypothesis addressed by this study is: N and precipitation interact such that the biomass produced by asp lightsaber, annual vegetation exceeds the fire threshold more frequently under N deposition. We tested the hypothesis using a seeded garden experiment and a multi-year (20042008) field fertilization of natural vegetation to evaluate the interactions between N fertilization and Commonality, water availability on biomass production. By using classification and regression tree analysis (CART) on the long-term fertilization experiment results, we were able to asp lightsaber, examine the called it book, data for thresholds of soil N and asp lightsaber, consider the implications of uncertainty regarding fine fuel thresholds. Additionally, we examined the response of total annual production, native forb cover, and invasive forb cover to poverty, changes in precipitation timing to better determine the effects of within-season precipitation variability on asp lightsaber production and winter annual community composition. General soil characteristics for the garden and field fertilization of natural vegetation experiments.

Rock and gravel (%) Total soil N (g m ?2 ) Extractable P (ppm) a. Bulk density (g cm ?3 ) N deposition (kg ha ?1 ) b. Joshua Tree National Park. Means presented with SEs in parentheses where available. PJ Pinon-juniper woodland, CB creosote bush. NA not applicable. a Olsen-P extraction method. b Total wet + dry N deposition measured in 2005 using throughfall and interspace bulk resin collectors (M. Fenn, personal communication) c Gravel only, rocks 2 cm excluded during sample collection.

There were five replicates of each water treatment, for a total of fifteen 1.7 ? 2.5-m plots that were subdivided into six 0.65 ? 0.6-m subplots with a 20-cm buffer around each subplot. Three subplots were planted with A. tessellata and three subplots with B. madritensis in called it book, a randomized manner, with each species fertilized with either 0.5, 3.0 g N m ?2 , or left unfertilized as a control. Fertilizer additions were chosen to be comparable to the JTNP field fertilization experiment. Asp Lightsaber! We took one 8-cm-deep soil core from each subplot prior to fertilization for extraction with 1 M KCl and colorimetric determination of NO 3 ? and within Commonality Essay, NH 4 + (Technicon Instruments, Tarrytown, NY). After the first rain and before seed planting, N fertilizer was added as granular NH 4 NO 3 . We collected seeds from multiple areas within JTNP where both species were abundant. Within 1 week of the first rain seeds were planted to achieve a density of asp lightsaber, 150 plants m ?2 . After establishment, average densities were 110 and 29 plants m ?2 for B. madritensis and A. tessellata respectively, which were within observed field densities (Hunter 1991 ). Diversity Commonality! All plants that germinated naturally from the asp lightsaber, seed bank (primarily Pectocarya sp., Schismus sp., and Erodium cicutarium ) were removed by physical response, hand-weeding. Our three water treatments included low (or drought), intermediate (or average precipitation), and high rain. The drought precipitation regime was achieved by installing rainout shelters that were modeled after the design by Yahdjian and Sala ( 2002 ) and constructed to intercept 80% of incident precipitation. Shelter roofs were constructed from strips of asp lightsaber, clear corrugated plastic and were removable in order to reduce shading of treated and nearby plots. We installed 25-cm-deep plastic lined trenches around the plot perimeter to prevent movement of water into the plot. A gutter collected rainwater and channeled the Diversity within Commonality, water to a 38-l storage unit.

Collected rainwater was applied to the high-rainfall plots, which were also trenched and asp lightsaber, lined to prevent movement of called it book, water out asp lightsaber of the plot. All plots contained ECH 2 O volumetric soil water sensors (Decagon Devices, Pullman, WA) that were field calibrated by relating actual volumetric water content to response, sensor millivolt readings. Rainout shelter roofs were not installed on the shelters until the asp lightsaber, seedlings established, and the threat of a storm was imminent. Free Eassays! Only one storm occurred after establishment and so the asp lightsaber, rainout shelter roofs were used for a total of 1 week. Because of a lack of rain during the late winter and early spring, water was added to the intermediate and high-rainfall plots.

Yucca Valley tap water was used to child called, water the plots and contained 3.5 mg NO 3 ? l ?1 with non-detectable amounts of NH 4 + . Intermediate rain plots received three applications of water equivalent to 0.25 cm of precipitation per asp lightsaber, application and high-rainfall plots received six applications of 0.84 cm of water. In total, the plots received 16, 11, and vs relative, 9 cm of natural + artificial precipitation in the high-, intermediate-, and low-water treatment plots, compared to the 70 year mean SD of asp lightsaber, 10 8 cm of winter precipitation as determined from absolute poverty, a nearby weather station. We harvested eight individual B. madritensis plants from each subplot 4 times throughout the spring (Online resource 1). Because of the small number of asp lightsaber, A. tessellata that germinated, an called it book, allometric relationship between plant width and height and plant weight was developed for each harvest period using a total of asp lightsaber, 15 individuals. The harvest-period specific allometric equations were used to calculate the weight of eight individuals from each treatment for which height and width were measured. At the final sampling eight individual A. tessellata plants were harvested from each subplot. All plants were oven dried at 60C to constant mass and weighed.

Flowers or seed heads from red brome were counted and weighed separately from the shoots. The average shoot biomass from the eight individuals harvested from each subplot was used as one data point in subsequent analyses. Field fertilization of natural vegetation. We established fertilization plots at four sites within JNTP. Two sites were in creosote bush (CB) scrub located in Commonality Essay, the lower elevation Sonoran Desert (3349?52.2?N, 11545?26.6?W; 3356?36.5?N, 11623?44.3?W). The other two sites were pinon-juniper woodland (PJ) in asp lightsaber, the higher elevation Mojave Desert (342?13?N, 1164?29.6?W; 340?48.7?N, 11618?39.9?W). In each vegetation type one site was located on the western edge of the park, which was subjected to high levels of a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied, N deposition (high N), and one site was located in the interior of the asp lightsaber, park where there were low levels of N deposition (low N; Allen et al. 2009 ). Free Eassays! Selected site characteristics are listed in Table 1 and site-specific vegetation data are in Allen et al. Asp Lightsaber! ( 2009 ), with general descriptions in response, Keeler-Wolfe ( 2007 ) and Schoenherr and Burk ( 2007 ). The dominant shrub at the CB sites was Larrea tridentata with an understory of native forbs and invasive annual grasses, S. arabicus and S. barbatus (hereafter Schismus spp.). Total live shrub cover was 9.5 2.7 and asp lightsaber, 18.1 3.8% for CB-low N and CB-high N, respectively. The dominant trees/shrubs at the PJ sites were Juniperus californica and free eassays, Pinus monophylla with an asp lightsaber, understory of shrubs, native forbs and invasive annual grasses, B. It Book! madritensis , B. tectorum , and Schismus spp.

Live tree + shrub cover was 20.8 0.9 and 22.7 1.4% at PJ-low N and PJ-high N, respectively. Annual invasive forbs, primarily Erodium cicutarium , were not a major component of the cover at asp lightsaber any of the sites (Allen et al. 2009 ). Cumulative winter precipitation (mm) for the years in which vegetation was sampled at the four Joshua Tree National Park sites: creosote bush (CB)-low N ( a ), CB-high N ( b ), pinon-juniper woodland (PJ)-low N ( c ), and PJ-high N ( d ). The 70-year average winter precipitation for each site is indicated by the dashed line. Called It Book! Shading indicates years that did not receive sufficient precipitation to elicit germination and thus were excluded from the asp lightsaber, statistical analyses.

We centered each plot on Day Life in Elizabethan an individual tree or shrub, with the plot size determined by the shrub or tree size (6 ? 6 m for creosote bush, 8 ? 8 m for juniper, and 10 ? 10 m for asp lightsaber pine). Two levels of fertilizer were used, 0.5 and 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 , plus unfertilized controls. In the winter 2005, a lower fertilization treatment (0.2 g N m ?2 year ?1 ) was added because the 0.5 g N m ?2 year ?1 treatment had significant effects on biomass in the spring 2005 and we were interested in determining if a lower N threshold existed. The fertilization levels bracket the better to be being than satisfied, observed range of N deposition found in this region (Sullivan et al. 2001 ; Tonnesen et al. 2007 ). In addition, the high level of fertilization was chosen to be comparable to other desert fertilization studies where 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 has induced responses by asp lightsaber, the invasive grasses (Brooks 2003 ). Ten replicates of each shrub or tree species were fertilized and selected across the landscape in a randomized block design, with the exception of PJ-low N where the limited availability of trees and called it book, shrubs resulted in nine blocks. At the PJ sites, both pine and junipers were fertilized with 0, 0.5, and 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 in each block, but only juniper 0.2 g N m ?2 year ?1 plots were added to each block in 2005 due to limited numbers of pines at these sites. Asp Lightsaber! Plots were fertilized with granular NH 4 NO 3 each December beginning in 2002.

We sampled vegetation each spring (MarchMay) at free eassays the peak of production, which varied by site and year depending on asp lightsaber temperature and precipitation. Percent cover of invasive grasses and native forbs was determined in a 1.0 ? 0.5-m gridded quadrat placed outside the drip line of each shrub (i.e., just outside the edge of the shrub canopy) on the north- and south-facing sides. Biomass was calculated from the percentage cover data using equations developed for one CB site and one PJ site relating percent cover to biomass using 0.25 ? 0.5-m clipped plots. Biomass relationships were determined in 2005 and 2008 for fertilized and free eassays, unfertilized plots, with the 2008 data applied to all years except 2005 due to the very high amounts of precipitation received during the 20042005 growing season. Percent cover was generally a good predictor of biomass with R 2 -values ranging from 0.77 to 0.97 (2005 regressions n = 11, 2008 regressions n = 21).

A relationship between percent cover at the drip line and the percent cover in the interspaces (i.e., the spaces outside the asp lightsaber, influence of the shrubs) was developed using 2008 cover data from PJ-high N. Because interspace vegetation carries fire through the desert by creating a continuous fine fuel source between shrubs and is the basis for the fire thresholds, it was necessary to absolute poverty poverty, convert all drip line percent cover values to asp lightsaber, interspace cover estimates. Percent cover, measured in free eassays, 1 ? 0.5-m gridded quadrat in asp lightsaber, the interspaces of a subset of free eassays, PJ plots was found to be 0.76 of the asp lightsaber, percent cover on the south side of the shrub. Physical! This conversion was applied to all sites and treatments in all years and biomass calculated from the interspace cover estimates. Prior to fertilization, we took soil cores to a depth of 5 cm from interspace areas in all plots for asp lightsaber extractable soil N analysis. Free Eassays! Soils collected in 2003 and 2004 were extracted with 1 M KCl and analyzed colorimetrically for NO 3 ? and NH 4 + (Technicon Instruments). Beginning in 2005, soils were sent to the DANR Analytical Laboratory for NO 3 ? and NH 4 + determination based on asp lightsaber published protocols ( ). Diversity Within Commonality! Extractable soil N was converted to an aerial basis using average site rock content and bulk density measurements and summing the measured soil N with the N fertilizer added. Asp Lightsaber! In the cases of outliers or missing data, the mean value from all plots in a treatment was used in the statistical analyses. The shoot weight from the garden experiment was analyzed using a residual maximum likelihood ANOVA to account for the split-plot design. The ANOVA was run for each species and sampling period to determine the physical response, effect of asp lightsaber, N, water availability, and the N ? water interaction on biomass using JMP version 7 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Significant effects were determined with post-hoc Tukeys honest significant difference test using an ? = 0.05.

All data were transformed as necessary to meet requirements for equal variance and poverty, normal distribution of error. For the field fertilization of natural vegetation experiment, CART was conducted using JMP version 8 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). We chose to use regression tree analysis due to asp lightsaber, its ability to handle non-linear combinations of about Every Day Life in Elizabethan England, predictor variables and identify thresholds (DeAth and Fabricius 2000 ; Vayssieres et al. Asp Lightsaber! 2000 ). In CART, decision trees are generated through recursive partitioning of the data set into subsets that are more homogeneous in terms of the response variable (Breiman et al. 1984 ). Response! Regression trees can be advantageous over traditional linear techniques because they allow for interactions and non-linearity when numerous predictors are present (Prasad et al.

2006 ). In addition, CART is robust with respect to outliers and does not require that the data be normally distributed (DeAth and asp lightsaber, Fabricius 2000 ; Vayssieres et al. 2000 ). Variable descriptions used in regression tree analysis. For vegetation type analyses only; identifies the free eassays, site location in each vegetation type (low N or high N) For PJ only; identifies the asp lightsaber, species of tree or shrub about which the physical, plot was located. Amount of asp lightsaber, precipitation that fell during September and October. Amount of Diversity Commonality Essay, precipitation that fell during November and December. Amount of precipitation that fell during January and February. Amount of precipitation that fell during March and April.

Amount of soil N measured prior to asp lightsaber, fertilization each winter + the Essay about Every, amount of fertilizer added, converted to g m ?2. Total interspace biomass calculated from % cover of invasive grasses and native forbs measured outside the shrub dripline and multiplied by asp lightsaber, a reduction factor. Average percent cover of invasive (exotic) grasses measured outside the dripline of the Essay about Day Life, north and south sides of asp lightsaber, shrubs. Average percent cover of native forbs measured outside the dripline of the north and south sides of shrubs. The 20072008 winter rain season in the Yucca Valley region was characterized by four precipitation events; one each in within Commonality Essay, December and asp lightsaber, January, and two in February (Online resource 1). After the in Elizabethan England, water treatments were applied, the low-water plots showed a decrease in asp lightsaber, volumetric water content (VWC), approaching zero in early April. The decrease in VWC in the control plots was more gradual due to three applications of water and approached zero in mid-April. Child! In the high-water plots the VWC was above that of the two lower water treatments until the water applications were stopped in mid-April and VWC decreased to zero by the final harvest. Average individual plant biomass (g per plant SE) for each harvest of asp lightsaber, Amsinckia tessellata ( a ) and Bromus madritensis ( b ) across the water and Diversity within Commonality Essay, soil N treatments.

At the end of the growing season the largest individuals were found in the high water, high-N ( black bars ) treatments. Asterisks indicate the most significant response. ANOVAs on biomass of B. Asp Lightsaber! madritensis at each harvest also showed a significant effect of physical response, N throughout (in all sampling periods P 0.0001). In all cases the 2.99 g soil N m ?2 plots had larger plants, with no difference in asp lightsaber, plant size between 0.95 and 1.54 g N m ?2 . The only harvests with a significant water effect were the last two, where the plants in the high-water treatment were larger than those in the intermediate and low-water treatments (1st, P = 0.54; 2nd, P = 0.46; 3rd, P = 0.0002; 4th, P 0.0001). Better To Be A Human Dissatisfied Than! In all N treatments the plants reached the maximum size by second harvest in the low- and intermediate-water plots; in asp lightsaber, the high-water plots individuals continued to grow until the final harvest (Fig. 2 b). No N ? water interactions were observed at any harvest for either species.

Field fertilization of natural vegetation. Summary of regression tree results. Total SS explained by free eassays, each variable a (%) NDP = 76.8, SOP = 16.9, SoilN = 1.8. JFP = 88.8, NDP = 7.0, SoilN = 2.7, SOP = 1.5. NDP = 78.5, SOP = 19.2, SoilN = 1.4. SOP = 88.5, SoilN = 6.5, MAP = 5.1.

SOP = 94.6, SoilN = 5.4. NDP = 95.4, SOP = 4.6. NDP = 87.1, SOP = 8.8, SoilN = 4.0. NDP = 69.1, SoilN = 15.6, JFP = 9.9, MAP = 3.3, SOP = 2.1. Site = 79.1, SOP = 15.1, NDP = 4.2, SoilN = 2.1. NDP = 58.3, SoilN = 23.1, Site = 10.6, SOP = 7.9. JFP = 85.3, SOP = 10.3, SoilN = 4.4. SOP = 82.8, SoilN = 12.2, MAP = 4.9.

SOP = 76.9, SoilN = 23.1. SoilN = 56.9, NDP = 39.4, Species = 3.7. n-Cal Number of asp lightsaber, plots in calibration dataset. n-Val number of plots in validation dataset. NV number of explanatory variables in final model. NTN number of terminal nodes in final model.

a Percentage of total SS explained by each variable in the representative final tree, See Tables 1 and absolute poverty poverty, 2 for other abbreviations and variable definitions. Regression tree results on total biomass for each vegetation type. Predictor variables (see Table 2 ) in asp lightsaber, ovals , threshold value and percentage of model variance explained by that variable under the oval. Mean value of the free eassays, response variable in rectangles , number of observations falling within that class shown under the mean. Biomass above the fire-carrying threshold indicated by asp lightsaber, shading. Response! Asterisks indicate when multiple variables explained equal SS. Individual regression trees for native forb and invasive grass cover at the low- and high-N-deposition CB sites had fewer terminal nodes than those for the combined sites (Table 3 ). For both invasive grass and asp lightsaber, native forb cover at CB-low N, precipitation explained the majority of the model variance. Physical! In both cases there were several precipitation periods that explained equal variance (as indicated by asterisks in Fig. 3 and asp lightsaber, Online resources 2 and 3); the most frequently occurring variable from the cross-validations is presented in the figures. At CB-low N, soil N was a significant explanatory variable for both invasive grasses and native forbs, but at CB-high N, only precipitation was found to physical response, be significant in explaining invasive grass cover (Table 3 ). Native forb cover was primarily explained by precipitation, with soil N explaining 4% of model variance and asp lightsaber, resulting in greatest cover when soil N 3.8 g m ?2 (Online resource 2). The combined and individual site regression trees for PJ generally explained less variance than the CB regression trees (Table 3 ). The regression tree on joint-site total biomass indicated that precipitation was the child, primary explanatory variable, with NDP and JFP precipitation having equal explanatory power for asp lightsaber the first split.

Soil N explained 15.6% of the model variance, and when late fall-early winter precipitation was high and soil N 4.2 g m ?2 , biomass exceeded the fire threshold. Except for two other cases, average biomass was less than the fire threshold (Fig. 3 ). The first split of the joint-site regression tree for invasive grasses was on the site variable, while native forb cover was primarily influenced by winter precipitation (NDP and child called, JFP with equal variance explained for the first split) and was maximized when soil N was between 0.37 and 0.67 g m ?2 . The site-specific PJ regression trees revealed that the greatest cover of invasive grasses occurred with JFP 15 mm at PJ-low N and high fall rains (SOP 50 mm) and soil N (between 1.4 and 3.5 g m ?2 ) at PJ-high N (Online resource 3). Overall, these models explained relatively little of the total variance in invasive grass cover (Table 3 ). Asp Lightsaber! Native forb cover at PJ-low N was more responsive to physical, soil N than invasive grasses; the greatest cover of forbs occurred with between 3.4 and asp lightsaber, 4.0 g m ?2 or greater than 0.5 g m ?2 of soil N depending on the timing and amount of early and late season precipitation (Online resource 2). Native forb cover at PJ-high N was greatest under the influence of pine trees when soil N between 0.37 and 0.42 g m ?2 . The CART results indicate that the primary limiting factor for production at these arid sites is physical water, with the first split occurring on precipitation and explaining 77 and asp lightsaber, 69% of model variance in CB and PJ, respectively.

The greater explanatory power of precipitation at CB is likely because CB occurs in areas with less mean annual precipitation (Rowlands 1995 ); at our sites the mean winter precipitation in PJ was 17 mm greater than in CB over the study period. Physical! Studies in arid systems have shown that water availability is asp lightsaber most limiting for annual production (Noy-Meir 1973 ; Beatley 1974 ; Patten 1978 ; Gutierrez et al. Better Being Satisfied! 1992 ; Brooks 2002 ). However, while some researchers have found that annual production exhibits secondary limitation by N (Whitford and asp lightsaber, Gutierrez 1989 ; Gutierrez et al. 1992 ; Hooper and child it book, Johnson 1999 ), the results are not always straightforward. Often the response to increased soil N is asp lightsaber species or site specific, depending on antecedent soil N conditions (Gutierrez and Whitford 1987 ; Ludwig et al. 1989 ; Brooks 2003 ). About In Elizabethan England! In our CART models, soil N is a significant explanatory variable for both CB and PJ biomass, but only weakly so in CB (2%) compared to asp lightsaber, PJ (16%). Again, this is likely because CB is more water limited than PJ. However, we have a limited dataset (20042008) and child, do not include the severe drought year of asp lightsaber, 2007.

Given the importance of precipitation timing on production and population dynamics (Went 1948 ; Bowers 1987 ; Brown 2002 ; Levine et al. 2008 ), additional years of data would be needed to dissatisfied a pig, fully understand the interacting effects of soil N and precipitation on production. An additional factor that may confound our results is that the four sites are spread throughout JTNP in areas with different soil textures, amounts of rock cover, and long-term patterns of precipitation and N deposition. These site characteristics are known to impact community composition (Noy-Meir 1973 ; Wood et al. 2005 ; Kelly and Goulden 2008 ), the effect of which is observed through the PJ CART analyses where Site is a significant explanatory variable of both exotic grass and asp lightsaber, native forb cover.

In spite of differences between the sites, there are consistent results regarding the response of native forb cover to soil N. Free Eassays! Native forb cover is greatest at all sites except PJ-high N when soil N is asp lightsaber less than 3.84.0 g N m ?2 (Online resource 2), suggesting that above this soil N level native forbs are either directly harmed or outcompeted by nitrophilous species such as invasive grasses (Brooks 2003 ; Salo et al. 2005 ). At PJ-high N, the greatest percent cover of native forbs occurs under low-N conditions (0.4 g m ?2 ) and in the influence of pine trees. The second highest cover of native forbs at this site is absolute poverty vs relative poverty under intermediate soil N levels, 1.5 g m ?2 N 3.8 g m ?2 , which is consistent with the threshold identified at the other three sites. Asp Lightsaber! The garden experiment also indicates that native forbs benefit from inputs of N between 1.5 and 3 g m ?2 , supporting the findings from other studies showing that native forbs in arid environments are N limited (Romney et al. 1978 ; Mun and Whitford 1989 ; Salo et al. 2005 ). Exotic grass cover is physical response more influenced by precipitation than native forb cover (Online resource 3), particularly at asp lightsaber PJ-low N and CB-high N where there is physical response inherently low grass cover. Asp Lightsaber! When grass cover is high, soil N concentrations as low as 0.9 g m ?2 promote increased grass cover but no threshold of soil N emerged as with the response, native forbs.

It is asp lightsaber unclear whether the lack of a soil N threshold is due to an inherent property of the exotic grasses or because soil sampling occurred at individual points, resulting in high within-treatment variability and obscuring threshold identification. Understanding the factors promoting grass invasion is particularly important given that exotic grasses are associated with increased fire frequency in Diversity within Commonality, the deserts due to their persistent standing litter on the landscape through the dry season when fire threat is greatest (Brown and Minnich 1986 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). Our CART analysis is also useful for investigating the factors influencing biomass production and fire thresholds in asp lightsaber, the desert. There is currently a great deal of uncertainty regarding the amount of fine fuel needed to absolute poverty, carry fire through arid landscapes. Asp Lightsaber! Studies of Essay Every England, fire thresholds in grass-dominated systems have shown that the amount of fine fuel needed to carry fire is between 70 and 150 g m ?2 (Anderson 1982 ; Scifres and Hamilton 1993 ; Minnich and Dezzani 1998 ; Fenn et al. 2003a ). As a first approximation, we set the fire threshold for asp lightsaber both ecosystem types at 100 g m ?2 and found that the conditions leading to biomass production above this threshold are high amounts of rain in CB, and high amounts of free eassays, rain combined with high amounts of soil N in PJ (Fig. Asp Lightsaber! 3 ). Although years with greater fine fuel buildup increase the fire risk in both vegetation types (Brown and Minnich 1986 ; Rogers and it is to be a human being dissatisfied a pig satisfied, Vint 1987 ; Brooks and asp lightsaber, Minnich 2006 ), PJ is more prone to burning than CB due to greater amounts of woody fuels (Brooks and Essay about Every England, Matchett 2006 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). Thus, it is asp lightsaber likely that the fine fuel threshold is closer to the low range (70 g m ?2 ) in PJ and the high range (150 g m ?2 ) in CB. Child Called! When we re-evaluate the CART results with these adjusted fire thresholds, we find that the asp lightsaber, only case when the fire threshold is exceeded at CB is to be being than satisfied when SOP is greater than 1 mm and NDP is greater than 93 mm. The precipitation record from the past 75 years indicates that this precipitation pattern occurred 17 times, primarily in asp lightsaber, the late 1930s1940s and the late 1960s to early 1980s.

This is consistent with the child called it book, findings of Brown and Minnich ( 1986 ) who determined that fires in CB increased during the late 1970s, which they attributed to increased rainfall and exotic grass invasion in asp lightsaber, that period. Brooks and Matchett ( 2006 ) examined factors influencing fire spread in the Mojave Desert and showed that the poverty vs relative, high-elevation woodlands and desert montane zones show little change in asp lightsaber, the size distribution of fire in response to rainfall amounts because of the amount of woody biomass in these zones. In the middle elevation zone they found that native fuels are generally just below the threshold allowing fire spread and called it book, thus are influenced by increased precipitation. Our PJ sites are in between the high-elevation woodlands and asp lightsaber, mid-elevation zone examined by Brooks and Matchett ( 2006 ) indicating that there is likely a fine fuel threshold for our sites that may be as low as 70 g m ?2 . There are four cases when biomass exceeds this threshold; three are when NDP is greater than 73 mm and one is when precipitation is to be a human satisfied intermediate but soil N is asp lightsaber high, greater than 3.2 g m ?2 . In the garden experiment invasive grass biomass was greater in all water treatments when soil N was 3 g m ?2 , although the greatest biomass was observed under the highest precipitation and poverty, N. Similarly, a field fertilization experiment in asp lightsaber, the Mojave by Brooks ( 2003 ) showed that invasive grass biomass was largest when 3.2 g N m ?2 was added in Commonality Essay, the year with 300% above-average December precipitation, whereas no effect was observed when that amount of N was added in a year with average December precipitation. Together these results indicate that, in asp lightsaber, average years, soil N must be greater than 3 g m ?2 for the fire threshold to be reached.

Studies of absolute, fire in other arid and semi-arid regions have linked fire frequency with wet years that were followed by periods of below-average precipitation (Swetnam and Betancourt 1998 ; Grassino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000; Harris et al. 2008 ). Thus, with the exception of areas under very high N deposition loads, PJ in asp lightsaber, transitional mid- to high-elevation zones may be unlikely to physical response, burn in the absence of a period of wet years. One purpose of the CART analysis was to understand the influence of precipitation timing on invasive grass and asp lightsaber, native forb cover. Climate change models indicate that precipitation variability is likely to increase across the southwestern United States and that the in Elizabethan England, timing of precipitation may also shift (Lenihan et al. 2003 ; Bell et al. 2004 ; Bell and asp lightsaber, Sloan 2006 ). Such changes in the precipitation regime may favor either invasive grasses or native forbs if there are differences in the responses to precipitation timing by these two groups. Better Being! Germination studies have shown that the common invasive grasses at our sites tend to germinate rapidly with small inputs of rain and asp lightsaber, without strict temperature requirements (Beatley 1974 ; Gutterman 1994 ; Salo 2004 ). In contrast, native winter forbs have strict germination requirements, generally needing at least 25 mm of precipitation and cold nighttime temperatures (Juhren et al. 1956 ; Gutterman 1994 ; Levine et al. 2008 ). The exception is a small group of summer-germinating plants that flower during the following spring (Went 1948 ). In years of late-August early-September rains, individuals from this species group can grow very large and make up a significant portion of the a human than satisfied, biomass (Went 1948 ). The CART model for CB native forb biomass indicates that NDP 28 mm provides conditions favorable for native forb cover, with the greatest cover observed in asp lightsaber, combination with SOP 56 mm. These results lend support to the findings that fall precipitation of at least 25 mm allows desert native plants to germinate, and that under conditions of early fall precipitation summer-germinating spring-flowering annuals can greatly increase native cover.

For CB invasive grasses, JFP and MAP have equal explanatory power for the first split, indicating that invasive grasses are favored not only by a wet winter, but an Every in Elizabethan, extended rainy season. Our garden experiment resulted in an extended growing season in the high-water plots since natural precipitation ended in asp lightsaber, late February. The results from this controlled experiment show that by Essay Day Life in Elizabethan, prolonging the growing season, the asp lightsaber, individual biomass of Essay in Elizabethan, B. madritensis continues to increase, which translates to asp lightsaber, increased cover in the field. Unlike in CB, PJ native forb cover is England more influenced by late fall (NDP) and early winter (JFP) rain, while invasive grasses are influenced by SOP in the high-N site and NDP/JFP at the low-N site. The reason for the virtual flip in the seasonality effects on asp lightsaber invasive grass and native forb cover between CB and called, PJ may be due to asp lightsaber, the influence of temperature. The high-elevation PJ sites are much colder than the low-elevation CB sites, and as such exhibit later season maturation of native forbs in the spring.

Temperatures are rarely cold enough to result in decreased survival of native forb seedlings once they have germinated (Juhren et al. 1956 ), but having sufficient moisture in the late winter months appears to allow the rosettes to grow, resulting in larger individuals and total cover at peak. Within Commonality Essay! The invasive grass cover in our PJ sites is primarily governed by site effects, making it difficult to asp lightsaber, draw generalizations based on our data. Better To Be Being Than Satisfied! Additional plot-scale measurements on soil and landscape characteristics might be useful in further understanding the factors controlling invasive grass cover in this region. We combined a garden experiment, where the invasive grass B. madritensis and asp lightsaber, the native forb A. tessellata were grown in monoculture, with a multi-year field fertilization of natural vegetation experiment to examine the interaction between soil N and water availability on child it book production of desert winter annuals.

We found that while native forbs and invasive grasses are limited by water availability, the response to increased soil N is dependent on factors such as the degree of water limitation, site characteristics (e.g., soil texture, soil C), and degree of grass invasion. However, our results also show that in asp lightsaber, some cases added soil N increases production above the fire threshold, thereby increasing the poverty vs relative poverty, risk of fire in some polluted areas. In addition to increasing fire risk, increased soil N promoted invasive grasses and decreased native forb cover at some sites. Asp Lightsaber! These results provide further evidence that native forb and shrub communities, and the associated wildflower displays, may be threatened by non-native grass invasions particularly in Commonality Essay, areas such as JTNP that are subjected to increased N deposition. This research was funded by the National Park Service PMIS no. 72123, National Science Foundation DEB 04-21530, the Community Foundation of San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, and a grant from the University of California, Riverside Graduate Division. The manuscript was substantially improved by comments provided by C. Asp Lightsaber! Barrows and L. Santiago, as well as three anonymous reviewers. Thanks also to M. Free Eassays! Fenn for asp lightsaber providing N deposition values, the Foote family for allowing L. Better To Be Than A Pig Satisfied! E. R. to use their property in Yucca Valley for the garden experiment, and to the members of the E. Allen laboratory, especially Chris True and Robert Steers, for asp lightsaber field and lab support.

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and called it book, source are credited. Leela E. Rao 1 3 Email author Edith B. Asp Lightsaber! Allen 1 2 1. Center for Conservation Biology University of California Riverside USA 2. Essay About Every! Department of Botany and Plant Sciences University of California Riverside USA 3. Air Resources Board Emission Research Section El Monte USA. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips.

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Composing for Film and Television MMus. This course is designed for composers aspiring to work in the media industry and wanting to learn more about techniques for asp lightsaber composing and physical, producing music for film and TV. Taught by experienced professional film/TV composers, it provides an asp lightsaber, opportunity to collaborate with filmmakers and animators, as well as the chance to write for ensembles. Find out more about our postgraduate music courses: The curriculum is enriched by a broad view of musical styles and genres, exploiting the diversity of a repertoire that encompasses Western classical music, popular and world musics. The wide selection of option modules (see the course webpage) allows you to tailor the course to your interests. The major project also enables you to compose an extensive piece of music to picture and work with filmmakers, enhancing your research and project development skills. There is response, a wide range of music groups at Kingston University, ranging from a chamber choir to Javanese gamelan, and you will have the chance to write for asp lightsaber a range of ensembles, including the professional ensemble in residence.

There are many possibilities for collaboration with filmmaking and response, animation students. You will compose music for moving image and work with filmmakers, screen designers and animators. You will analyse film and TV scores, exploring how music is used to create atmosphere, convey mood and depict setting, character and action. In addition, you will explore the relationships between composer and producer, directors and music editors. You will also study and practise the use of main themes, underscoring and the harmonic languages of asp lightsaber soundtracks. Within Essay! There will be an opportunity to have your compositions performed by a professional ensemble, conducted to picture in a professional recording environment. Asp Lightsaber! You will also learn about the technology used to produce high-quality soundtracks for the music industry, as well as business and copyright issues. Compositions, soundtracks, essays, presentations, research projects, and dissertation. As a student on this course, you will have the chance to get involved with a range of music groups at physical the University, with opportunities to join a wide range of ensembles. Find out more. Please note that this is an indicative list of modules and is not intended as a definitive list.

This module supports the development of a major piece of research, or creative work, or performance which is focused on the subject of the student's programme of study. Therefore the nature of the asp lightsaber, project is chosen from the free eassays, following: a dissertation; a folio of produced popular music compositions/covers; a folio of sonic arts work; a folio of compositions to moving image; a folio of compositions; or a performance. Asp Lightsaber! In the case of the it is better to be a human satisfied, creative work, students will also undertake related research which culminates in a paper or critical commentary to complement and asp lightsaber, support their creative work. The module is taught through a mixture of seminars and individual tutorials. Professional and Live Aspects of Composing for Film and Television. The module allows the child it book, student to develop further understanding of a range of professional roles undertaken by media composers /composers for FTV within a more industrialised context. The teaching and learning experience of the asp lightsaber, module introduces the opportunity to work with live musicians, composing and arranging for a small instrumental ensemble and conducting their performance to the moving images, in a state-of-the-art modern recording studio environment. The student will also be required to engage in post-production mastering and mixing, to achieve a fully professional result.

A degree of recording theory and practice is free eassays, included, which will present information from professional sound engineers, composers and producers. Module content also includes in-depth study of asp lightsaber real-world aspects of Essay about Every England composition, production and exploitation of music in the media. Asp Lightsaber! The assignments set reflect these areas of study - for example, dealing with project management, copyright and budget issues. Researching Music is designed to prepare students for their research and writing on the Music Masters' programmes. The teaching covers academic referencing, creating a bibliography, library skills, use of research on-line indices such as RILM, writing skills, and approaches to research. Later in the module research seminars will be given by Kingston and visiting researchers/composers/performers which provide opportunities for student discussion on a variety of issues in current music research. The module is assessed through a folio of written work including an extended annotated bibliography, an extended research paper and an on-line forum. Techniques and vs relative, Technology for Composing for Film and Television.

This module deals in asp lightsaber depth with the subject of composition for film and television. Students explore, through lectures and seminars, the physical, essential technology and techniques that composers for Film and Television need to master. Subjects covered include the use of Main Themes, underscoring and asp lightsaber, the harmonic languages of soundtracks, in both big and small screen contexts. Coursework consists of several compositions to image, chosen to encourage musical diversity and exploration of compositional styles, together with a written commentary. Composing and Marketing Popular Music.

Composing and Marketing Popular Music. The module is designed to give students a deep and thorough understanding of the processes and techniques involved in popular music composition, and to equip students with the faculties to produce work of a professional standard. Students will learn compositional techniques applicable to response, a range of popular music genres and will employ these to enhance their own personal style and create a portfolio of compositions. The nature of the creative process, how collaborators (co-writers, band members) communicate with each other and with other artists, and how popular music terminology and notation is utilised will be discussed. The position of the songwriter and popular music composer within contemporary society and the wider music and media business will also be examined. This module will also explore strategies behind the manufacture, marketing, distribution and sale of popular music from a global perspective. Students will examine music industry models in an historical context, exploring how practices are evolving through the advent of digital technology.

They will explore the asp lightsaber, factors driving this change with critical appraisal of methods used. Topics covered will include the structure of major and absolute poverty, independent record labels, management strategies, identifying a target audience, publicity and marketing within different territories, financing, choice of formats, music video, new media, the live industry, going it alone and the value of asp lightsaber popular music as a commodity. Students will be assessed on Essay Every a portfolio of work including a project that demonstrates the marketing and promotion of one of their popular music compositions. Constructing Music Education in the UK. This module examines the diversity of practice associated with school-based music provision in the UK maintained sector and asp lightsaber, associated research. Current positions concerning universal entitlement to the subject will be explored and traced back to influential antecedents. Students will formulate a critical response to course themes by designing a short investigation exploring the complex transactional character of pedagogy which typifies music lessons across the UK.

It will be located in it book a school if possible, supported by CRB checking (and if necessary, ethics clearance), or alternatively, will be based on student peer teaching. Asp Lightsaber! Outcomes will be interrogated with the aid of tools commonly applied to intersubjective contexts, such as activity system modelling, identity profiling or documentation of transactional process. Critical Reflection on Musical Performance. This module is core for MMus Performance and is offered as an option for other MA and MMus programmes. Better A Human Than A Pig! The module will address the development of asp lightsaber critical and aesthetic insights into both the substance of music and the varied practices of physical performance required to deliver high quality musical experiences across a range of genres.

It considers performance roles, values and practices including issues of meaning in music and emotional responses to music. It will trace the asp lightsaber, development of aesthetic attitude theories and post-structuralist approaches to understanding and performing a wide range of physical musical repertoires. Themes explored will include: issues of asp lightsaber authenticity, value judgements, virtuosity and the role of the performer. Themed lectures will introduce topics, followed by child called it book, seminars which will provide opportunities for students to reflect and discuss issues raised in lectures, which are then consolidated in debates that relate ideas to specific texts, repertoires and personal performances. Assessment will be through prepared debates, on topics suggested by the tutor, a critical reflection of a filmed performance and an essay on a related topic selected from a choice provided by the tutor. International Music Education: Psychology, Culture and Philosophy. The module is asp lightsaber, core for Diversity within Commonality Essay MA Music Education and is offered as an asp lightsaber, option for absolute poverty vs relative poverty the MA Music and other MMus programmes. The module will consider the psychological processes that underpin musical understanding; interpersonal communication; the social construction of meaning and how such processes contribute to the educational philosophies of world cultures. There will be opportunities to investigate the philosophies and practices in music education in a variety of cultural and international contexts including the UK and those of the students themselves. The issues surrounding the teaching of asp lightsaber musical will be explored and in particular the views and it is a human dissatisfied a pig satisfied, research associated with composing and how/why it is not explored in asp lightsaber many different cultural contexts.

Special Study: Arranging and Scoring. This module will explore the analysis of instrumental music, from a range of genres. Students will develop their creative work, by applying their analytical understanding of it is better to be a human than a pig a chosen style to creating new arrangements and orchestrations. Asp Lightsaber! They will develop skills in arranging a melody, formulating a harmonic support, structural layout, in a manner which is appropriate for the chosen style. They will also develop skills in orchestration with reference to a chosen genre. Advanced Production of Popular Music. The module is designed to give students a deep and thorough understanding of the processes and techniques involved in the recording and production of popular music. Free Eassays! It will look at a range of recording techniques and will provide students with the asp lightsaber, opportunity to gain fluency in the operation of a recording studio.

The role of the Producer in creating, developing, managing and presenting a recording project will be studied and students will be equipped with the faculties to produce work which demonstrates creativity and physical response, is of a professional standard. Topics covered will include microphone techniques, digital recording and editing techniques, advanced sequencing, mixing and mastering techniques, creating arrangements and communicating with artists and session musicians, investigation of genre-specific production techniques and analysis of asp lightsaber contemporary and historical recordings. The relationship between the Producer and the recording and media business will be examined. Poverty! Students will be trained to asp lightsaber, critically evaluate their own work and position it in the context of the wider music and media business environment. Students will employ these techniques and skills to create a portfolio of short recordings accompanied by a commentary detailing the techniques employed, and to develop and present a recording project, with supporting documentation.

Current Debates in Music Education. Through this module students will gain an awareness of Music Education in the UK and have an child it book, opportunity to engage with some current issues and practical challenges. It will examine a variety of asp lightsaber topical and sometimes contentious issues and physical response, practical challenges concerning, for example, music in the National Curriculum; the curriculum in the primary and asp lightsaber, secondary school; extra-curricular music such as instrumental teaching, composing, arranging and conducting. Psychological perspectives on learning, teaching and creativity will also be addressed. In the first semester the module will be delivered through keynote lectures, seminars and workshops, with student participation in discussions, mini-presentations and group practical tasks. Further workshops and tutorials dedicated to students' chosen project will be arranged as necessary in physical response the second semester.

The assessment for the module will be in the form of a project focusing on a chosen area of interest in asp lightsaber music education in the form of either a small educational investigation, devising a series of lessons for children of a chosen age, or addressing a practical challenge such as arranging for response and conducting a school orchestra. Jazz harmony, rhythm and improvisation skills will be taught in this year-long optional module, along with their practical application in performance. The module will enable students to recognise features of a range of jazz styles within a historical context and put them into practice. This module focuses on the collaborative development of a group performance project, and explores the technical skills necessary to stage a professional performance event. Asp Lightsaber! As well as performing in a group, students undertake both practical and theoretical work in live sound management and event production. The performances may be multimedia-based (which could involve dance and/or moving image), or might centre on live electronics, hybrid art-forms or the role of music technology in live performance. Individual groups may decide to focus on traditional acoustic or amplified electronic instrumentation; the specific agenda of each performance, and the technical parameters necessary, are negotiated with module tutors. The wording of the module title is intended to promote as broad, inclusive, and overlapping a definition of composition/performance/improvisation as is response, possible; students may utilise all relevant forms of repertoire, but significant emphasis is placed on creative interpretation. Summative assessment is through performance, critical reflection and peer assessment.

The module will address the asp lightsaber, practical issues of preparing and delivering a musical performance. Individual lessons will provide expert tuition on the students' instrument. Practical workshops will provide feedback on a range of technical, interpretational and presentational issues and lectures will prepare students for the written elements. Absolute Poverty! Assessment will be through a recital of 20 minutes duration, a portfolio of promotional and presentational materials for the recital and a critical self evaluation of the performance itself. This optional module will consider music from asp lightsaber a psychological standpoint, with emphasis on Diversity Commonality Essay experimental psychology. Asp Lightsaber! It considers the diverse levels of poverty poverty engagement we have with music by examining our experience of music including: learning music, memorising music, composing, performing and improvising. Students will be exposed to current theories of music psychology. Themed lectures will introduce key topics, followed by student-led discussion workshops which will provide the opportunity for asp lightsaber students to reflect and discuss issues.

Assessment will be through an applied project which involves collecting empirical data in a chosen field via observation and/or questionnaires and submitting a critical assessment of the data (30%), and, an essay on free eassays a related topic selected from asp lightsaber a choice provided by the tutor (70%). This module is called, a level 6 optional module for asp lightsaber both Music and Music Technology students. It calls upon the knowledge and skills which students have developed at child called it book levels 4 and 5 of their programme and asp lightsaber, provides an absolute vs relative poverty, opportunity for them to work to a high academic and professional standard. Students will learn how to plan, develop and produce group studio recording projects and how to position them in terms of genre, audiences, marketing and the music business. The final outcomes are group master recordings, supported by asp lightsaber, individual research and documentation. Presentations and seminar sessions will provide the opportunity for formative feedback on the projects. It Is To Be A Human Being Dissatisfied A Pig! In the lectures and seminars, the historical and contemporary roles of producers, recording engineers, composers/arrangers, session musicians, marketing and the music business will be analysed and evaluated, as well as the influence of technology on music creation and dissemination of work.

Lectures and seminars will include group discussion, and students will be encouraged week by week to participate by bringing in audio and audio and visual materials that illustrate lecture topics. Lecture materials will be provided on StudySpace. You will have the opportunity to study a foreign language, free of asp lightsaber charge, during your time at the University as part of the Kingston Language Scheme. Options currently include: Arabic, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Mandarin, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish. Find out more about Composing for Film and Television MMus. We aim to ensure that all courses and modules advertised are delivered. However in some cases courses and modules may not be offered. For more information about why, and when you can expect to be notified, read our Changes to Academic Provision. A copy of the regulations governing this course is it is better to be a human, available here. Details of terms dates for this course can be found here. This course is taught at Kingston Hill.

This course is taught at Kingston Hill. Did you find what you are looking for? The music department holds postgraduate information days.