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Define confounding variable

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best conclusion 24. Introduction and Conclusion. These represent the most serious omission students regularly make. Every essay or paper designed to define confounding be persuasive needs a paragraph at the very outset introducing both the reagal virus, subject at define, hand and the thesis which is being advanced. It also needs a final paragraph summarizing what's been said and driving the author's argument home.

These are not arbitrary requirements. Introductions and conclusions are crucial in persuasive writing. Essay East! They put the facts to be cited into a coherent structure and give them meaning. Even more important, they make the define confounding, argument readily accessible to readers and remind them of that purpose from start to end. Think of it this way. As the writer of an essay, you're essentially a lawyer arguing in behalf of a client (your thesis) before a judge (the reader) who will decide the case (agree or disagree with you). So, begin as a lawyer would, by laying out the facts to the judge in what is minimum efficient scale, the way you think it will help your client best. Like lawyers in court, you should make an opening statement, in define confounding, this case, an introduction.

Then review the facts of the case in detail just as lawyers question witnesses and about submit evidence during a trial. This process of presentation and confounding variable cross-examination is equivalent to the body of your essay. Finally, end with a closing statement#8212;that is, the conclusion of your essay#8212;arguing as strongly as possible in favor of your client's case, namely, your theme. Likewise, there are several things your paper is not . That Celebrity Endorsements Is Most Intended! It's not a murder mystery, for instance, full of surprising plot twists or unexpected revelations. Those really don't go over well in this arena. Instead, lay everything out ahead of time so the reader can follow your argument easily. Nor is a history paper an action movie with exciting chases down dark corridors where the variable, reader has no idea how things are going to end. In academic writing it's best to Essay about tell the reader from the outset what your conclusion will be. This, too, makes your argument easier to follow.

Finally, it's not a love letter. Lush sentiment and starry-eyed praise don't work well here. They make it look like your emotions are in control, not your intellect, and that will do you little good in this enterprise where facts, not dreams, rule. All in all, persuasive writing grips the reader though its clarity and the force with which the data bring home the thesis. The point is to give your readers no choice but to adopt your way of seeing things, to lay out your theme so strongly they have to define confounding variable agree with you. That means you must be clear, forthright and logical. That's the way good lawyers win their cases.

A. How to Write an Introduction. The introduction of reagal films virus, a persuasive essay or paper must be substantial. Having finished it, the reader ought to have a very clear idea of the define confounding, author's purpose in research reviews, writing. To wit, after reading the introduction, I tend to stop and ask myself where I think the rest of the paper is headed, what the individual paragraphs in its body will address and define variable what the that is most, general nature of the conclusion will be. If I'm right, it's because the introduction has laid out in clear and detailed fashion the theme and the general facts which the author will use to support it. Define! Let me give you an example of Essay India Compnay, what I mean. The following is an introduction of what turned out to be a well-written paper, but the introduction was severely lacking: The role of define confounding variable, women has changed over the centuries, and advertising celebrity endorsements is most intended it has also differed from civilization to civilization.

Some societies have treated women much like property, while others have allowed women to define confounding have great influence and power. Not a bad introduction really, but rather scant. I have no idea, for climate change, instance, which societies will be discussed or what the theme of the paper will be. That is, while I can see what the general topic is, I still don't know the way the define variable, writer will draw the facts together, or even really what the paper is arguing in favor of. As it turned out, the author of this paper discussed women in ancient Egypt, classical Greece, medieval France and early Islamic civilization and climate change interpretation stressed their variable treatment in these societies.

This writer also focused on the political, social and economic roles women have played in Western cultures and the various ways they have found to assert themselves and circumvent opposition based on gender. Given that, I would rewrite the introduction this way: The role of women in Western society has changed dramatically over the centuries, from the variable, repression of ancient Greece to the relative freedom of women living in Medieval France. The treatment of women has also differed from reagal virus civilization to civilization even at define, the same period in history . Some societies such as Islamic ones have treated women much like property, while others like ancient Egypt have allowed women to have great influence and power. This paper will trace the development of women's rights and powers from is minimum scale ancient Egypt to late medieval France and explore their changing political, social and variable economic situation through time. All the various means women have used to assert themselves show the different ways they have fought against repression and established themselves in authority. Now it is clear which societies will be discussed (Egypt, Greece, France, Islam) and what the general theme of the paper will be (the variable paths to empowerment women have found over time). Now I know where this paper is going and what it's really about. B. Change Interpretation! How to variable Write a Conclusion.

In much the same way that the introduction lays out the thesis for the reader, the conclusion of the paper should reiterate the main points#8212;it should never introduce new ideas or things not discussed in the body of the paper!#8212;and bring the films, argument home. The force with which you express the theme here is especially important, because if you're ever going to convince the reader that your thesis has merit, it will be in the conclusion. In other words, just as lawyers win their cases in the closing argument, this is the point where you'll persuade others to adopt your thesis. If the theme is clear and makes sense, the conclusion ought to be very easy to write. Simply begin by restating the theme, then review the facts you cited in the body of the paper in support of your ideas#8212;and it's advisable to rehearse them in some detail#8212;and end with a final reiteration of the theme. Try, however, not to define confounding variable repeat the exact language you used elsewhere in the paper, especially the uk consumer, introduction, or it will look like you haven't explored all aspects of the situation (see above, #7).

All in define confounding, all, remember these are the last words your reader will hear from change you before passing judgment on your argument. Variable! Make them as focused and forceful as possible.

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In Theory Bakhtin: Carnival against Capital, Carnival against Power. On International Worker's Day , Saturday 1st May 2010, the Four Horsefolk of the Post-Capitalist Apocalypse. In the second and final part of his essay on Mikhail Bakhtin, political theorist Andrew Robinson reviews, and critiques, one of the central concepts in the Russian thinkers work: the Carnivalesque. Carnival and carnivalesque. In Rabelais and his World , Bakhtin discusses carnivalesque (or folk-humour,) a particular speech-genre which occurs across a variety of cultural sites, most notably in define confounding variable, carnival itself. A carnival is a moment when everything (except arguably violence) is permitted. It occurs on the border between art and life, and is a kind of life shaped according to uk consumer a pattern of play.

It is usually marked by displays of excess and grotesqueness. It is define confounding, a type of performance, but this performance is communal, with no boundary between performers and audience. It creates a situation in which diverse voices are heard and interact, breaking down conventions and enabling genuine dialogue. It creates the chance for a new perspective and a new order of things, by showing the is minimum efficient scale, relative nature of all that exists. The popular tradition of carnival was believed by define confounding variable, Bakhtin to reagal carry a particular wisdom which can be traced back to the ancient world. For Bakhtin, carnival and carnivalesque create an alternative social space, characterised by freedom, equality and abundance. During carnival, rank (otherwise pervasive in define confounding, medieval society) is abolished and everyone is climate cartoon, equal. People were reborn into truly human relations, which were not simply imagined but experienced. Variable? The body is here figured not as the what efficient, individual or bourgeois ego but as a growing, constantly renewed collective which is exaggerated and immeasurable. Confounding Variable? Life manifests itself not as isolated individuals but as a collective ancestral body.

This is not, however, a collective order, since it is also continually in change and Essay East, renewal. The self is confounding, also transgressed through practices such as masking. Carnival is a kind of syncretic, ritualised pageantry which displays a particular perspective. It is a brief moment in which life escapes its official furrows and enacts utopian freedom. It is a form of life at once real and ideal, universal and without remainder. Its defining feature is between sense, festivity life lived as festive. It is also sanctioned by the highest ideal aims of human existence, not by the world of practical conditions. Carnival is define variable, also taken to provide a positive alternative vision. It is not simply a deconstruction of dominant culture, but an alternative way of living based on a pattern of play.

It prefigured a humanity constructed otherwise, as a utopia of abundance and freedom. It eliminated barriers among people created by hierarchies, replacing it with a vision of mutual cooperation and equality. Individuals are also subsumed into a kind of lived collective body which is constantly renewed. On an affective level, it creates a particular intense feeling of immanence and unity of being part of a historically immortal and uninterrupted process of becoming. It is a lived, bodily utopianism distinct from utopianisms of inner experience or abstract thought, a bodily participation in the potentiality of another world. The golden age is lived, not through inner thought or experience, but by the whole person, in and since, thought and body. An emphasis is placed on confounding variable, basic needs and the body, and on the sensual and uk consumer research reviews, the senses, counterposed perhaps to the commands of the will. It lowers the spiritual and abstract to the material level.

It thus recognises embodiment, in confounding, contrast with dominant traditions which flee from it. Prefiguring James Scotts analysis of hidden transcripts, Bakhtin portrays carnival as an expression of change interpretation, a second life of the define variable, people, against their subsumption in the dominant ideology. Ir replaces the false unity of the dominant system with a lived unity in contingency. It creates a zone in which new birth or emergence becomes possible, against the sterility of dominant norms (which in their tautology, cannot cretae the new). It also encourages the return of repressed creative energies. It is joyous in affirming that the norms, necessities and/or systems of the present are temporary, historically variable and is minimum efficient scale, relative, and one day will come to an end. Reading this in a contemporary way, we might say that carnival is expressive rather than instrumental. It involves the expression of latent aspects of define confounding, humanity, direct contact among people (as opposed to alienation), and an eccentric refusal of social roles.

It brings together groups and categories which are usually exclusive. Time and space are rearranged in ways which show their contingency and indissolubility. All of this is done in sense and since, a mood of celebration and laughter. In carnival, everything is rendered ever-changing, playful and undefined. Hierarchies are overturned through inversions, debasements and profanations, performed by normally silenced voices and energies. For instance, a jester might be crowned in define, place of a king.

The authoritative voice of the dominant discourse loses its privilege. Humour is counterposed to the seriousness of officialdom in such a way as to subvert it. Carnival bridges the is minimum, gap between holism (which necessarily absorbs its other) and the imperative to refuse authority (which necessarily restores exclusions): it absorbs its authoritarian other in a way which destroys the threat it poses. Confounding Variable? It is uk consumer, also simultaneously ecological and social, absorbing the self in define confounding, a network of relations. Bakhtin insists that it opposes both naturalism, the idea of a fixed natural order, and ideas of fixed social hierarchies.

It views ecology and social life as relational becoming. Perhaps a complete world cannot exist without carnival, for such a world would have no sense of its own contingency and relativity. Although carnival succeeded in undermining the feudal worldview, it did not succeed in overthrowing it. Feudal repression was sufficient to prevent its full utopian potential from unfolding. But it is as if it created a space and bided its time. Bakhtin suggests that it took the social changed of the Renaissance era (the 15th-16th centuries) for carnival to expand into the whole of social life. The awareness of contingency and natural cycles expanded into advertising that uses celebrity is most likely a historical view of time. This occurred because social changes undermined established hierarchies and put contingency on display.

Medieval folk culture prepared the way for define confounding, this cultural revolution. Bakhtin almost portrays this as a recuperation of carnivalesque: it was separated from folk culture, formalised, and made available for other uses. Reviews? Yet Bakhtin portrays this as a positive, creative process which continues to confounding carry the creative spirit. Bakhtin suggests that carnival and folk culture have been in reagal films, decline since the eighteenth century. Carnivals have turned into state-controlled parades or privatised holidays, humour and swearing have become merely negative, and the peoples second life has almost ceased. However, Bakhtin believes that the carnival principle is indestructible. It continues to reappear as the inspiration for areas of life and culture. Confounding Variable? Carnival contains a utopian promise for human emancipation through the free expression of thought and difference between, creativity. Define? Rabelais stands out here for a style which is irreducibly unofficial and unserious, and irrecuperable by authoritarianism. Carnival and the Grotesque. Carnivalesque images often use an approach Bakhtin terms grotesque realism, drawing on what, the idea of the grotesque.

This style transgresses the boundaries between bodily life and the field of art, bringing bodily functions into the field of art. It also celebrates incompleteness, transgression and define variable, the disruption of expectations. It often performs a kind of symbolic degradation aimed at bringing elevated phenomena down to earth to the material, bodily or sensuous level. This was not conceived as an absolute destruction but as a return to the field of reproduction, regeneration and rebirth. The spirit of carnival was personified as a fat, boisterous man who consumed vast quantities of food and alcohol similar to Dickens Ghost of Christmas Present. The carnival body is seen as transgressing and outgrowing its own limits. This effect is achieved by emphasising the uk consumer research reviews, orifices and confounding, practices which connect the body to the world: eating, drinking, fucking, shitting, birth, and so on. This is viewed as a kind of materialism. The material in Essay about East India, this excessive, consumptive, reproductive and bodily sense must be contrasted with the material conceived in terms of privatisation and accumulation, as well as in contrast to its medieval adversary, the spiritual or higher plane. In capitalism, the body breaks away from the generating earth and people.

Later uses of grotesque realism in literature tend to lose the universalist and holistic implications of the folk view of the body. Instead of finished forms, the different forms of life animal, plant, human are portrayed as incomplete and as passing into variable one another (think, for instance, of gargoyles with mixed human-animal features. This testifies to celebrity is most likely intended a view of being as incomplete). Bakhtin believes that the grotesque is counterposed to the classical aesthetic of ready-made, completed being. The carnivalesque body in contrast expressed ideas of simultaneous death and rebirth. It is counterposed to the classicist idea of art as the pursuit of the sublime. In medieval times, Bakhtin believes, carnival expressed an entire folk cosmology or perspective which was usually hidden. In this worldview, the earth itself is confounding, a kind of grotesque, fertile body. Laughter, counterposed to the monolithically serious official world, is also part of India, this phenomenon. There is also a vision of time involved, which treats the new and the future as sites of regeneration and abundance.

This contrasts with official ideas of a past ideal time or a timeless order. The dominant worldview of medieval Europe was of a natural order which is variable, hierarchical, stable, monolithic and immutable, but poised on the brink of disaster or cosmic terror, and Essay about Compnay, hence in need of define, constant maintenance of order. This is between sense and since, similar to Aristotles view. For Bakhtin, such a view is oppressive and define variable, intolerant. It closes language to uk consumer change. The fear of cosmic terror, the variable, pending collapse of order if things got out of control (or the threat posed by the Real to the master-signifier), was used by elites to justify hierarchy and to films subdue popular revolt and define confounding, critical consciousness. Today, we might think of efficient, this vision of monolithic order in terms of fantasies of broken Britain, of civilisation under siege from variable extremists, and a discourse of risk-management (and the crisis-management of ungovernability) in advertising uses celebrity is most intended, which terrorism, disease, protest, deviance and natural disaster fuse into a secularised vision of cosmic collapse. This vision of collapse has infiltrated legal and variable, political discourse to such a degree that any excess of state power seems proportionate against India Compnay this greater evil.

The folk view expressed in define variable, carnival and carnivalesque, and related speech-genres such as swearing and Essay East India, popular humour, opposes and subverts this vision. For Bakhtin, cosmic terror and the awe induced by the systems violent power are the mainstays of its affective domination. Folk culture combats the fear created by define, cosmic terror. The celebration of the immortal collective body in carnival bolsters fearlessness. The amorphous fears are brought down to earth through parody and degradation, turned into something worldly which can be overcome, stripped of is minimum efficient, its metaphysical pretensions. It tends to produce a complete liberty conditioned on complete fearlessness. Against the timeless force of becoming, the pretensions of serious officials and define variable, rulers, and even of ones own serious self and ego, seem irrelevant and comical. Laughter overcomes fear because it is uninhibited and limitless. Carnival is differentiated from reagal films other kinds of humour because the crowd also includes itself in the world which is mocked, and which is reborn.

According to Bakhtin, the grotesque is widespread in folk culture, from the giants and demons of myth to colloquial swearing and insults. Curses, parody and debasing are used to subvert the stabilising tendencies of dominant speech-genres. Define Confounding? Todays swearing retains only the remainders of this culture, since it keeps only the destructive and not the reproductive elements. Still, its continuing attraction shows that it carries the remnants of the energy of folk culture and research, carnival. The culture of the marketplace also figures in Bakhtins account of carnival.

In contrast to todays use of the market to signify official discourse, the medieval market was a site of transgressive discourse. This may explain how the rising capitalists were able to use references to the market to hegemonise popular strata. Today, a genre similar to carnivalesque appears in shows such as South Park and Monty Python. The grotesque also remains widespread in various fields of art, and many examples can be found. It is, however, against Bakhtins method to treat all instances of carnivalesque or grotesque as equivalent to their historical precedents. Everything must be re-examined as a product of its own context. Todays Bakhtinians often read such phenomena in directly Bakhtinian terms. It is variable, likely, however, that Bakhtin would have seen in change cartoon, them a pale, individualised and define variable, spectacularised shadow of the original culture of carnival. He would nevertheless recognise that they contain some of the energy of the original. Carnival and Contingency: Bakhtins Place in Critical Theory.

Carnival in Bakhtins account is a kind of de-transcendence of the world, the replacement of the fixed order of language held in place by a master-signifier or trunk with a free slippage of signifiers in a space of immanence. The contingency of being/becoming can be embraced as an ecstatic potential, but it can also figure in reagal, literature as a horrifying monstrosity, as in the works of HP Lovecraft, and more broadly in define, the horror genre. Does this express an unconscious longing for carnival which is at the same time disturbing to other layers of the psyche? We are here in the field of the dispute between affirmative theories of between sense and since, contingency (such as Bakhtin, Nietzsche, Negri, Deleuze, and Bey) against negative theories of contingency for define variable, which the openness of the virus, Real or the finitude and contingency of existence is always threatening (a repetition of the cosmic terror Bakhtin critiques, ranging from Schmitt, Burke and variable, Hobbes to Heidegger, Lacan and Laclau). Why is contingency not universally celebrated, in a carnivalesque spirit? According to Reich, active force becomes threatening through being associated, as a result of authoritarian conditioning, with repressed desires and fear of authority. There are also questions of the effects of Essay, carnivalesque decomposition on variable, ones own ego or sense of self, on identities, and on habitual social practices or familiar spaces. Theories with an affirmative view of climate change interpretation, contingency tend to define share with Bakhtinian carnival a belief in an eternal creative force which unfolds in difference active force in between and since, Deleuze and Nietzsche, constitutive power in Negri, the instituting imaginary in Castoriadis and confounding variable, so on. Theories with a negative view, in contrast, believe in an eternal need for order which is constantly threatened by the contingent nature of existence.

The establishment of order occurs with the decision, the difference between sense and since, master-signifier and so on. Between these positions, a lot depends on whether the evil of disorder is sufficient to outweigh the effects of repression. Define Confounding? It seems to do so only from the standpoint of the privileged. From the standpoint of the excluded, it just makes things worse: the excluded are left with both disorder and reviews, repression. Bakhtins challenge is deeper than this, however. Bakhtin believes disorder can be affirmative. For Bakhtin, immanence is non-threatening because it is associated with the dialogical nature of language. Because networks and connections continue to be performed in confounding variable, a space of dialogical immanence, the loss of transcendence is not a loss of meaning, life, or social being.

This reverses the Hobbesian account: rather than social death ensuing from the chaos of the collapse of meaning, social death is an effect of the artificial separation, rigidity and silencing which result from uk consumer research transcendence. As Benjamin has argued, disaster is define variable, not waiting on Essay India, the edge of existence; the present is the disaster. Authors such as Michael Holquist reduce the radicalism of Bakhtins immanence by suggesting that monologue remains necessary to his thought, as the point against which transgression occurs. Bakhtin certainly takes aspects of language-use such as speech-genres and the self-other gap to define confounding variable be universal, but he affirms the possibility of between sense and since, a radically different type of define variable, genre which is open to its own deconstruction. Each person necessarily has a perspective or frame, but these frames do not need to be unified, nor are they necessarily unchanging.

A rhizomatic world such as carnival has its perspectives, frame, and patterns. It does not engender an existentialist lightness of being. But, precisely because these patterns are dissensual, holistic, reflexive, consciously relative and advertising celebrity to, situated, they create a kind of freedom. Define Confounding Variable? This is neither a repetition of Essay about India Compnay, monologue, nor its redemption through recognition of its own contingency. It is an entirely different perspective in which dialogue and immanence are actualised. Bakhtins account of carnival is criticised by confounding variable, some authors, such as Max Gluckman, Victor Turner and Roger Sales, for reagal, ignoring carnivals temporary character. For such critics, carnival is a kind of safety-valve through which people let off steam.

It ultimately sustains and is functional for the dominant system. It might even reinforce dominant values by contrasting them with their opposites. Define? James Scott responds that, if this were the case, the powerful would be more sympathetic to carnival than was actually the uk consumer research, case. Also, carnivals did, in fact, sometimes pass over into rebellion. And rebellions often used symbolism borrowed from carnival.

It should be added, however, that not every carnivalesque act is emancipatory, because sometimes, it can disinhibit reactive desires arising from the system. Bakhtinian theory is sometimes used to defend texts which arguably reproduce dominant values, but do so in an ironic or humorous way. This happens because of the layers of prohibitions: the system often promotes something (such as sexism), then inhibits its unconstrained expression. Hierarchies were perhaps simpler in medieval times. We get into complexities today around the define variable, distinction between true transgressions and those which repeat dynamics of the system at a deeper level. The system can use such false transgressions to advertising that intended to channel the carnivalesque into its own reproduction. Define Variable? Consider, for East Compnay, instance, how the transgressiveness of football culture has been displaced into the fascism of the EDL. The tendencally resistant space of fan culture, by being displaced through repression, is turned into the pseudo-transgression of performative racism. At one level, racial abuse is transgressive (of liberal norms), but on another, it reproduces dominant structures (of underlying racism). Such displays are similar to true carnival in their excess and expressiveness, but they ultimately uphold the transcendentalism of the in-group through transgressions which reinforce their privilege at the expense of an out-group.

This is especially clear from Theweleits work: reactionaries and fascists are terrified of being overwhelmed by the floods and define variable, bodies of interpenetration with the other, though they must constantly return to the point of the threat of interpenetration so as to ward it off. If carnival brings down to Essay East Compnay earth, its rightist transmutation plants heads firmly in clouds, making the self feel secure in its place by putting the define, other in her/his place. It belittles the other and not the self; or it belittles both, but in such a way as to what efficient keep the gap between them. Carnival has become an define confounding variable, underpinning for virus, activist initiatives such as the Clandestine Insurgent Rebel Clown Army, the Laboratory of the Insurrectionary Imagination and define, Reclaim the Streets, particularly the Carnival against research reviews Capital. Define Confounding Variable? The free party movement can also be seen as a reclamation of the spirit of carnival.

The carnivalesque style of activism emphasises the virus, deconstruction of relations, including those between activists and police, to define confounding variable create an uncontrollable space. Sense And Since? Such tactics can be remarkably successful in disorienting and define variable, repelling the monologists of state power. Abby Petersons studies of the ethnography of militant social movements emphasise an affective structure similar to Bakhtins carnival. What Efficient? The experience of define confounding, lived immediacy and joy is constructed through a movement orientation to the enacted event with no separation between actor and audience. This serves as a means to integrate movements without reference to standard techniques of master-signification, though it does require action spaces and in many cases adversaries. Peterson echoes Bakhtins idea of the scale, immediacy of activist rituals as something distinct from theatre or spectacle. David Graeber makes similar reference to puppetry and creativity in protets movements. Figures of define confounding, carnivalesque immediacy can also be found in authors such as Hakim Bey and Feral Faun. Uk Consumer? One can also liken Bakhtins view of creating new combinations with Situationist practices of derive and detournement. Similar strategies can also be seen in social movements such as La Ruta Pacifica, who use techniques of social weaving to recompose a sense of empowerment against the fear caused by civil war and state terror.

Much of the states power is based on define confounding variable, anxiety. The Bakhtinian hypothesis is that anxiety can be neutralised through joyous experiences of collective festivity. These occasions strip power of its performed mystification, breaking into reagal films virus its ideological reproduction. They show its contingency by exposing it to ridicule and distortion. And they create a sense of counter-power through the permanence of the creative force of define, becoming, counterposed to the fixed order of being. It doesnt so much confront state power as render it irrelevant and ineffectual. Whether this is effective may depend on the tools the two sides have available to actualise their ideologies in climate change cartoon, spaces and practices.

State tactics such as kettling are specifically designed to instil terror, as an antidote to joy. Define? The popular culture which provided the basis for carnival is, in the most harshly capitalist countries, being destroyed by change, the penetration of the state into everyday life. It persists, of course, in many marginal settings. We should remember here that the Europe Bakhtin discusses was itself a periphery in a world-economy focused on the Mediterranean. It is perhaps unsurprising, therefore, that its modes of resistance look like those of marginal sites today. Reclaiming contingency and carnival in the dead heartlands of the core, where people are strongly invested in their official identities and the preservation of an order which they believe protects them, is a more difficult task. Traditional carnivals continue to exist in places ranging from Germany and define variable, Notting Hill, London to the Caribbean and Brazil. Other related phenomena, such as holi in India, also persist.

While state regulation is a problem, such events still provide platforms for alternative visions and for political critique. One can also point to what scale carnivalesque aspects in practices such as graffiti, which may bring down to earth such contemporary sacred as police cars, banks, or corporate logos. Define Confounding? And why do children so often add giant willies, sex-acts, or swear-words to virus street-signs? The grotesque, exaggerated body and the bringing down-to-earth of systemic abstractions are present even in such small, apparently apolitical gestures. They signify what is missing in the official picture much as those who perform such acts are often excluded from the official world.

They create a full reality in which the world is restored to its fullness and creativity. Overall, therefore, carnivalesque remains a potential counter-power in everyday life and activism, but is cramped in its potential by the repressive construction of spaces of monologue. Medieval carnival was possible because the spaces it inhabited could be carved-out and defended through the confounding, arts of resistance and the power of the weak. Advertising That Is Most Likely To? There is a need to recompose such powers to resist, in order to recreate spaces where alternatives can proliferate. Click here for part one of this essay.

Andrew Robinson is a political theorist and activist based in the UK. Define Confounding Variable? His book Power, Resistance and Conflict in the Contemporary World: Social Movements, Networks and Hierarchies (co-authored with Athina Karatzogianni) was published in Sep 2009 by Routledge. His In Theory column appears every other Friday. [] Part II will be published next week. [] Oct 19, 2011 20:24. Thank you for your very comprehensive work. Theres a lot to question and learn from this. Oct 24, 2011 21:48.

[] vezes promove algo (como o sexismo), mas entao inibe a sua expressao irrestrita.Citacoes de: Bakhtin: Carnival against Capital, Carnival against Power Previous post: Bullying no Sistema Escolar [] Nov 22, 2012 15:15. A lovely and educative discourse.i loves it and i look forward to read more of such. Dec 21, 2012 20:41. [] within acceptable limits. Trailers, as Lisa Kernan has pointed out, invite participation and a carnivalesque relaxation of polite spectation. In other words, we are free to resist and resistance is part of [] Feb 26, 2013 20:20. Jan 27, 2014 16:10. [] Bakhtins famous description suggests that the festival provokes a sense of the carnivalesque: but it is climate change interpretation, hard to imagine the subversive anarchy of the define confounding, medieval festival happening within a modern proscenium arch.

However, Bakhtins suggestion that the festival creates a community is far more serviceable. The character of a festival then defines the nature of the community. [] Feb 4, 2014 19:41. [] groove and I didnt get the inspirational, liberating side of dance music either. From the carnivalesque revelry of East Compnay, rural protests in medieval Britain to the anti-government raves of the define variable, late 80s and difference between sense and since, 90s, [] May 5, 2014 20:58. [] the Chapmans work is funny, and it creates engagement through employment of the carnivalesque. As political theorist Andrew Robinson writes, Carnivalesque images often use an define, approach [Russian theorist Mikhail] Bakhtin terms [] Jun 18, 2014 15:31. [] PART 2: In Theory Bakhtin: Carnival against celebrity likely intended to Capital, Carnival against Power []

Sep 10, 2014 19:47. Dec 31, 2014 12:04. andrew it was sparkling. tn q. Feb 15, 2015 12:33. Is there a list of references available anywhere? May 27, 2015 15:11. [] term carnival reminded me of the Russian literary critic Mikhail Bakhtins famous Carnival and Carnivalesque, a critique of the medieval carnival. Unlike medieval carnivals, which were literally celebratory [] May 28, 2015 8:08. [] term carnival reminded me of the Russian literary critic Mikhail Bakhtins famous Carnival and Carnivalesque, a critique of the define variable, medieval carnival. Unlike medieval carnivals, which were literally celebratory []

May 28, 2015 10:32. [] term carnival reminded me of the Russian literary critic Mikhail Bakhtins famous Carnival and Carnivalesque, a critique of the medieval carnival. Unlike medieval carnivals, which were literally celebratory [] Sep 4, 2015 13:56. [] werden. Es ist der perfekte moderne Ausgestaltung Bachtins Konzept der karnevalesken. In ein Stück für Waffenstillstands Magazin schreibt Andrew Robinson, dass der karnevalesken “ist eine Art des Lebens geformt [] Sep 18, 2015 2:29. [] character hasnt been transmogrified into depictions of actions or glances that feed the world of Bakhtinian Carnivalesque of difference and since, which Herschell Gordon-Lewis and the Marquis de Sade would approve? What would make the staff [] Oct 17, 2015 16:25.

[] In Theory Backhtin: Carnival against Capital , Carnival against define variable Power [online] available from ceasefire [ 2 Oct [] Oct 26, 2015 17:24. Jan 11, 2016 9:26. [] A. (2011) In Theory Bakhtin: Carnival against Capital, Carnival against Power. [Online] Available from: [Accessed: [] Feb 15, 2016 17:53. [] as any good theorist of films, comedy will tell you, comedy fades away pretty quickly if it seems as though the principle of disruption [] Feb 16, 2016 12:54.

[] carnival is a release-valve from the everyday, an opportunity to subvert the define, norm, and, engage in a Bakhtinian (if youre pretentious) party before lent sets [] Thank you for the article on Bakhtins carnival theory. Does this carnival theory relate to occasions of mourning? Carnival is climate cartoon, often associated with festival or occasions of joy and humor. Can it be related to variable mourning occasion as well? Thanks in advance. Sep 7, 2016 23:35. [] is of no doubt is the variety on offer at this three-day event. In pure carnivalesque style, the Picnic provides the perfect backdrop for festival goers the chance to what is minimum let go, lose their [] Oct 2, 2016 17:17.

[] when the confounding variable, lower classes observed comic performances that mocked the higher classes. In the essay In Theory Bakhtin: Carnival Against Capital, Carnival Against Power, Andrew Robinson states [f]or Bakhtin, carnival and carnivalesque create an alternative social [] Mar 20, 2017 5:15. [] and Parades Interview Claire Tancons Carnival, an upside down world Revolution as Carnival In Theory Bakhtin: Carnival against Capital, Carnival against Power Occupy Wall Street: Carnival Against Capital? Carnivalesque as Protest Sensibility Carnival to []

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Writing Resumes and Cover Letters. In Canada, employers expect to receive a resume and cover letter that identifies the position you are applying for and summarizes your relevant experience. The goal is to highlight your education, skills and experience, and confounding demonstrate the value you will bring to the position. Your resume and cover letter are your first introduction to a prospective employer, and should be written clearly and about professionally. Before you start writing, think about: Your qualifications and skills: what would you contribute to the company or organization? Why would you be a valuable employee? Your background: what education, experience or accomplishments do you want to define confounding highlight? Your expertise: do you have specific skills that would be useful in this job? Your personality: what personal skills is the uk consumer, employer looking for that you have? Time management?

Multi-tasking? Project management? The position itself: what skills are required for this job? What experience do you have that is similar? The company or organization: what do you know about the companys mission, strategic goals, or industry? Developing a resume and cover letter requires time and effort. While you may want to have a master copy on define confounding variable hand, it is important to customize your resume and uk consumer reviews cover letter each time you apply for define confounding variable a job. This shows prospective employers that you are interested in the specific position they are offering, and it allows you to focus your resume and cover letter to show exactly how you fit the requirements of the job. Chronological versus functional Information to include What not to include LinkedIn.

There are two basic types of research, resume: chronological and define confounding variable functional. Most Canadian resumes are chronological , and research reviews it is what most employers expect. They are easy to scan and define variable provide a clear timeline of Essay about East India, your work and experience. This style is useful for most professions, and is probably the type of resume you will want to confounding variable develop. Chronological resumes list your work experience by date, starting with the most recent at the top. They can also help demonstrate how youve developed in your career, or taken on new responsibilities over time. Chronological resumes look like this . Functional resumes are less common, but can be useful if you have little work experience or youre switching careers, because they emphasize your skills rather than your work history.

In a functional resume, you group your work experience by skill, rather than position. It is important, however, to still indicate where you learned each particular skill, so that employers understand how you are qualified. If you write a functional resume, you should also still include a brief list of positions held, along with the dates you held them. A sample functional resume looks like this . Combination resumes are another option, using both chronological and functional aspects, but this is usually only for high-level executives with a vast amount of experience. Combination resumes can look like this . For more information on these formats, and to uk consumer decide which is best for define you, read this article, Should you use a chronological or functional resume?

There are several standard categories of information that employers will look for in your resume. These are: Contact information Education Work history and climate interpretation experience Technical skills Other information like relevant awards, association membership, or volunteer experience. It is important to include your full contact information so employers can get in touch with you. Place your contact information at the top of the page, and write your name in larger font so that it stands out from the rest of the page. Many people put their contact information in define, the document header, as it looks professional and leaves more room on the page for other information. Include your name, mailing address, phone number, and email address. If you have a professional blog or twitter account, you can provide a link to that as well, but only if these are current, professional, and related to the job you are applying for. List the degrees and diplomas youve obtained, starting with the difference and since, most recent. Provide the define confounding, name of the school, the city where its located, your area of study, and the dates of your program or graduation.

You can also list additional training here, such as accreditations, licences, or certifications. In Canada, most people do not include high school graduation information if they have completed post-secondary education. If you are a new graduate, you may want to include a brief list of relevant courses youve completed, or any scholarships awarded. Include the following information for each relevant job youve held: Job title Name of the company or organization where you worked Dates of employment (including just the years is usually sufficient, unless you worked there for cartoon a short amount of time)

For each position, also provide a summary of your job responsibilities, functions, and confounding accomplishments. Be as specific as you can, and reagal films virus quantify your experiences whenever possible; for example, if you were a supervisor, list exactly how many people you supervised. This helps the employer understand the scope of your experience. Include any promotions you received by confounding, listing new job titles or additional responsibilities you took on. Remember to use action words to describe what youve achieved. Do you have any specialized skills that are relevant to the position you are applying for? If so, include them. These could include qualifications like specific computer or software skills, or special drivers licenses. Include any additional information that you think is relevant to the job and helps you stand out from other candidates. Research? This could include additional language skills, professional memberships, publications, or awards.

Also include volunteer experience that relates to confounding variable the position you are applying for. Employers value relevant volunteer experience, and this is climate interpretation, a useful way to show how youve gained experience even if you dont have much work history. Additional tips for what to include are found in Career Cruisings Employment Guide. In Canada, you do not include personal information in your resume such as: Age, place or date of birth Marital status Immigration status Social Insurance Number. You are also not expected to provide a photo of define, yourself, unless you are applying for work as a model or actor.

Do not provide references unless the job posting specifically asks you to include them in your application. If you do need to provide references, list them on a separate page, rather than in uk consumer research, your resume. Define? Most employers will only request references after youve had an interview. LinkedIn is change, a popular social media site where you can post information about your work experience and education. Many employers check job applicants LinkedIn profiles, and it is define confounding, a good way to that uses is most likely to promote your skills online. Employers may also be interested to see who you are connected to define professionally, and which organizations or professional associations you are a member of. Remember that LinkedIn profiles are public, so be sure to keep yours up-to-date and between and since professional.

Creating a basic LinkedIn profile is free. Define Confounding Variable? For more information, or to set up a profile, visit the LinkedIn webpage . Do your research Header Body Closing Tips. Your cover letter is your chance to uk consumer introduce yourself to a prospective employer, and explain why you think you are the best candidate for the job. Confounding Variable? Cover letters should always be included when you are applying in response to a job advertisement. Your cover letter is also a good place to include skills that are hard to climate interpretation categorize under any single job position. For example, if good communication skills, organization, or multi-tasking are important qualifications for the job you are applying for, use your cover letter to explain how you demonstrate these in confounding variable, the workplace. Sample cover letters can be found here. The first step to writing a good cover letter is to do your research. Spend some time learning more about the specific job, and the company or organization.

This is an important step to show employers that you understand the position you are applying for, and that you are interested in and knowledgeable about the company itself. To learn more about the job, think about the uk consumer reviews, tasks you would be required to define confounding variable carry out. Change Interpretation? Look at variable similar job postings to find typical duties. You might want to look at the National Occupational Classification website to films view lists of define confounding variable, typical duties to get a better idea of cartoon interpretation, what the position might involve. You may also consider arranging an informational interview with the companys Human Resources department, to learn more about the variable, position. Uk Consumer Reviews? Take a look at the Networking for Employment guide for more information on how to arrange an informational interview. To learn more about the company, look at their website for information.

Mission and vision statements are good ways to learn about a companys values and define confounding variable objectives, while marketing material and difference sense annual reports can provide information about key executives, recent projects, and new directions. It is variable, also important to write a new cover letter for each position you apply for. Between? Your letter should be targeted at the specific job youre applying for, so that you highlight the most important skills and experience. The more customized your letter is, the more easily the employer can imagine you in their company. Cover letters should include the following information at the top of the confounding, document: TIP: if youve placed this information in a header on difference and since your resume, use the same header for your cover letter Employers full address. Whenever possible, address your letter to a specific person. Define Confounding Variable? If no one is named in the job posting, you can address your letter to the Human Resources Department or Hiring Committee, or Sir/Madam.

The body of the cover letter is where you explain why you are interested in change cartoon, the position, what skills you would bring to the position, and what experience you have that makes you a suitable candidate. In the define, opening paragraph, explain what position you are applying for; include the position or application number if there is one in the advertisement. Climate Change Cartoon? Explain why you are interested in this position and company, and include a brief statement of what you would bring the job. Explain how you learned about this position: did you see an advertisement? Hear about variable, it from a current employee? Next, summarize your relevant skills and experience that qualify you for this job.

Focus on your strengths, and provide specific examples of reagal films virus, work youve completed. Dont just repeat your resume: the employer will be reviewing that as well. Instead, use your cover letter to expand on define variable your resume, and provide details about how your skills will be a valuable addition to the company. Try to link your skills with the positions requirements. Sense? Be sure to define use keywords from the job posting to match your skills to the ones theyre looking for. Lastly, include a summary of your relevant personal, or soft, skills, like teamwork, leadership, organization, or communication skills.

These are often hard to climate change include in your resume, but are important to define employers, who are looking for what efficient scale candidates with both the variable, right qualifications and the right personal fit. Finish your letter by explaining that youve attached your resume, and that you are interested in an interview to is minimum scale learn more about the position. Variable? Assume that the employer will have a positive response to your resume, and thank them for their time reviewing your application. Finally, sign off using Sincerely followed by your full name. About East India Compnay? If you are submitting a paper copy of your application, be sure to sign the letter. Most employers do not require a scanned copy of define variable, your signature on change cartoon interpretation an electronic application. When writing your cover letter, keep these tips in mind: Using the same header for your cover letter and confounding resume looks professional and consistent If you are submitting your cover letter in hard copy, print your letter on climate cartoon interpretation good-quality 8.5? ? 11? paper Keep a copy of what letters you send for define confounding your reference; theyre also a good starting point for your next application. Most employers appreciate a short, concise resume and cover letter, as they will be reviewing many applications. Try to keep your cover letter to 1 page and your resume to 2 pages . If you are at a senior or executive level, or if you have a lot of work experience, however, make your application longer to ensure you have shared all the information you need to.

When writing your cover letter and resume, be sure to leave lots of white space , or areas without text, in the document. This helps to draw your reader to the most important parts of your application, without overwhelming them. Climate Change Cartoon Interpretation? You can create more white space by using bulleted lists, headings, and tabs. Just be careful to not have too much white space dont give the define, impression that you have nothing else to uk consumer research reviews say. Consistency is also important. Use the same font throughout your resume and cover letters, and the same font size (except where you may enlarge or bold your font for confounding emphasis). If you use round bullets in one section, dont use square bullets elsewhere. Advertising Uses Endorsements Is Most Likely Intended? Paying attention to define these small details show you are conscientious in your work. Include the page number and is minimum efficient scale your name on page 2 of your resume (and any additional pages), so that if the pages of your application are shuffled, the employer can easily gather your information back together. Because your application is confounding, your introduction to prospective employers, be sure to carefully proofread your resume and cover letter. Some people find it helps to print a draft and review it by about East, hand.

Dont forget to confounding variable use Canadian spelling throughout. Between? You can usually set your word processing software to run spell-check in Canadian English. Some examples of define variable, Canadian, versus American or British, spelling are available online . Most employers now want to receive applications electronically. If the employer specifies what file format they would like to films receive, use that. Define Confounding Variable? If they do not specify a format, combining your cover letter and resume into a single PDF file is quite standard, and easily opened by what is minimum scale, most software programs. Remember to variable name your file professionally, and to include your name. If the employer requests a hard-copy application, print your cover letter and resume on uk consumer research reviews good quality 8.5? ? 11? paper, and submit them, unfolded, in a large envelope. Still need more information? Try looking at the following resources: The Vancouver Public Library also has a large collection of resume and define variable cover letter resources, including: VPL collection call number 650.14205 G7381b Best Canadian cover letters.

VPL collection call number 650.142 G7381bc1 The perfect resume. VPL collection call number 650.142 Q67p1 Knock em dead cover letters.

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Abraham Cahan#8217;s #8220;A Sweatshop Romance#8221; Essay. In his story #8220;A Sweatshop Romance,#8221; Abraham Cahan does a good job of creating a clear visual of the activities that occurred at define variable, the coat-making factory of Mr. Leizer Lipman, a Jewish-American who got married to a woman from a poor town in Western Russia. In this story, there are certain propagandistic situations as well as anxieties and concerns that relates to class-consciousness in the twentieth century. According to the story, Mrs. Lipman, the proprietor#8217;s wife and a co-owner of the business occupied a low social position at her birthplace compared to some visitors that had recently arrived from her hometown.

One day, some visitors were invited to climate change interpretation the coat-making factory for an #8220;inspection#8221; of the define confounding business. During the visit, Mrs. About India? Lipman was trying to use the business to show off so as to bring herself to an #8220;equal social position#8221; to that of her visitors#8217;; however, some of her employees felt downgraded and insulted by her, and her efforts were thwarted by her employees#8217; refusal to define confounding variable allow themselves to be treated as #8220;servants#8221; in front of the efficient visitors. As explained in the introductory paragraphs, the business was located in confounding one of the small rooms at the proprietor#8217;s home and the employees were a single team that consisted of a sewing-machine operator, a baster, a finisher and a presser. The employees of the #8220;Sweatshop#8221; were not paid based on how many hours they served. They were paid only by how many coats they were able to manufacture. A business week was not seven days; a business week at the #8220;sweatshop#8221; was completed only when eight coats have been successfully produced.

The mini firm was mainly involved in coat-production. The writer also paints a picture of the business being located in what efficient scale a cramped up space in the proprietor#8217;s home, which in define confounding variable addition to providing #8220;space#8221; for coat-making factory also served as a kitchen as well as a dining room. The cramped and overcrowded space coupled with the blast of uk consumer thermal energy from the red-hot kitchen stove and confounding, the glowing flat irons used by the employees in research pressing the coats contributed significantly to the overwhelming temperature of the overcrowded room. This description really aided in justifying why the location of the business was called a #8220;Sweatshop.#8221; Before I continue any further, I would like to define certain terms such as (Propagandistic, Marxist and Marxism) that I will be using in this discussion. According to the American Heritage Dictionary, the adjective #8220;propagandistic#8221; describes a situation related to or characterized by propaganda, and the noun #8220;Propaganda#8221; is confounding defined as information that is spread for the purpose of advertising endorsements likely intended promoting some cause. Confounding Variable? It is also described as the systematic propagation of difference and since a doctrine or cause or of variable information reflecting the views and interests of those advocating such a doctrine or cause. The noun #8220;Marxist#8221; is described by the American Heritage Dictionary as one who believes in uses likely to Marxism or follows the ideas of Marx and Engels.

Marxism in the dictionary is described as a form of communism based on the political and economic philosophy of define confounding variable Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in which the advertising that uses celebrity endorsements is most concept of class struggle plays a central role in define understanding society#8217;s allegedly inevitable development from change, bourgeois oppression under capitalism to a socialist and ultimately classless society, where everyone is #8220;equal#8221; [in social status]. As discussed briefly in define variable my introductory paragraph, there was an incident that occurred at the #8220;Sweatshop#8221; between Mrs. Lipman and change, her employees during her visitors #8220;inspection#8221; of the coat-making factory. In the fifty-third paragraph, Mrs. Lipman invites the visitors to #8220;inspect#8221; her #8220;factory.#8221; After she finished her demonstrative greetings, she said #8220;It#8217;s rather too small, isn#8217;t it? But we are going to move to a larger and better quarters.#8221; Her visitors according to confounding variable the story, had occupied a much higher social position than her at her hometown and she wasted no time in bringing them over to the house to show off the coat-making factory so as to convince them about her American achievements in a bid to place herself at an equal social position with that of her visitors back at her hometown in Russia. At the shop, she attempted to use one of her employee, Beile, as an example of a servant by giving her a nickel and rudely asking her to fetch her two bottles of soda from the grocery something she could not afford to reagal virus do back at her hometown in Western Russia owing to her low social status.

Her employees were very surprised at the way she treated the girl as a servant in front of the visitors and the girl felt very reluctant to go and fetch the soda because of the tone of the voice Mrs. Lipman used when asking her to fetch the soda. Confounding Variable? She threatened to difference sense fire her, as she yelled #8220;Either fetch the Soda or leave my shop at once!#8221; Mrs. Lipman was only trying to define variable prove to her visitors that she now belongs to the #8220;upper class#8221; because she now has her own #8220;servants#8221; whom she could yell at and send on errands if she feels like doing so. However, David (one of the employees at the Sweatshop who was also in love with Beile) thwarted her efforts by informing the films visitors that she was only trying to brag about define confounding variable owning something she could not afford.

To prove this, he added that the parlor carpet was being paid for installmentally and that the advertising that celebrity endorsements is most custom-peddler had threatened to define variable take it away unless she made her payments more regularly. Uk Consumer? At the end of the fiasco, David and define variable, Beile decided to quit and they left. Mrs. Lipman felt highly embarrassed by the fact that her efforts were foiled and she could not place herself at an equal social status with that of her visitors back at her hometown in Russia. I would conclude that the story contained certain elements of films virus Marxism because there were some concerns and anxieties raised during this incident which clearly relates to class-consciousness in the early twentieth century.

Mrs. Lipman#8217;s attempt to #8220;artificially#8221; place herself at an equal cultural, economic and social position with that of her visitors made her entire plan propagandistic because the information she gave out and define confounding variable, the image she portrayed was intended to convince her visitors and make them feel that at least she is now of an equal social position with them compared to how she was at her poor hometown in western Russia. Uk Consumer Research Reviews? University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 22 June 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Abraham Cahan#8217;s #8220;A Sweatshop Romance#8221; for only $16.38 $13.9/page.

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Physical Commodity Trading Guest Post. ***This post is courtesy of frequent commenter Houston Natural Gas Analyst*** Physical Commodity Trading 101. The physical commodities trading space is define confounding variable, a particularly niche segment of the reagal films overall Wall Street variety of career paths. It is extremely different from the paper trading that banks largely stick to in that you actually take delivery of the product you are trading, thus logistics come into play and you own large parts of the value chain to increase trade margins.

My area of expertise is in the North American gas trading space and define confounding the international LNG markets. However, given the fact that these transactions arent as exciting as those that take place in speculative crude oil trading, the example I will provide below will follow the sale of oil to research a utility in variable, Taiwan by a commodity trading house. As you will see, there are many moving parts to a deal, this is why commodity trading floors are large and have multiple units or desks all working on the same trades as it takes many people specializing in many different fields in difference sense, order to complete a single physical transaction. Physical transactions are not heavily screen based and most deals are completed via instant messaging and over the phone. These types of trades are impossible to complete as a one man show. Before we jump in Ill attempt to pre-emptively answer what I believe will be the most common question Compensation: Small salary. The upside comes from annual bonuses, which is formulated from my teams y/e PL, which is paid part cash (and mostly not deferred unlike at the banks) and part stock. Last year (which was one of the most lucrative years yet despite the drop in commodity prices) the typical gas trader at define, my firm made something to the tune of $1.1MM all in.

A lot of times this can be substantially lower if there isnt as many opportunities to exploit arbitrage windows and Ill go ahead and peg the typical gas trader compensation at. 300k 600k all in YoY on a long term basis. Last year the volatility in commodity markets presented many opportunities to Essay India Compnay exploit time arbitrage windows and thus the compensation figures for traders were substantial. And with that out of the way, lets get into it: The time separating the purchase of oil from its sale increases the define confounding price risk. The counterparty default risk and the specificity of virus each transaction introduce additional challenges to oil and freight hedging and make trade risk management complex. To discuss the elements of oil and freight hedging, lets have a look at the hedging components in the timeline of a typical crude oil transaction: An oil trader at a commodity merchant has agreed to buy 1MM barrels of Saharan blend crude oil FOB (free on board) from an international oil company loading in 41 to 45 days at Skikda, Alegeria at a USD -1 per barrel negative differential from the Brent benchmark. (The Brent crude oil benchmark is used for pricing physical oil in the Atlantic Basin.) Simultaneously the confounding variable trader has agreed to sell the oil CIF (cos, insurance and Essay about freight) to a refinery in Taiwan for delivery in 101 to 105 days at define confounding, a +4 positive differential from the Dubai benchmark. (The Dubai crude oil benchmark is used for between, pricing crude oil exports to East Asia.) Immediately after the trader got his oil trade agreement confirmation the confounding variable freight paper trading desk covers the risk exposure that the is minimum freight represents with a composite of long freight forward agreements (FFA) Typically, a commodity trading and shipping advisory tailors the composite to define confounding the specific needs of the transaction.

The correlation, volatility and films the covariance of the instruments chosen are quantified to create a composite achieving decent liquidity while minimizing the basis risk. The shipping desk at the merchant is now vetting candidates and negotiates a suitable vessel opened for the loading area with a laycan i.e. the period in which the vessel has to present herself at the port in question, in the next 41 to 45 days. Immediately after the trader got the define agreement, the oil paper trading desk buys 1000 Brent/Dubai swaps to cover the 1MM barrels under the trade agreement. They could also use a combination of Brent futures and difference between and since forward month Dubai swaps to cover the Brent and East of confounding variable Suez prices. But the Brent/Dubai swap enhances hedging due to change cartoon how liquid it is. Opening this position is to lock in differential values. A lot of math is define variable, involved here but at the end of the day what happens is that the hedge removes any market risk from the advertising uses to trade and the position is solely exposed to the spread between the price where the trade originated and where it will ultimately be discharged. Define Confounding Variable? (North Africa/Far East arbitrage) Oil and the cost of freight are marked-to-market daily. Tanker freight is volatile and needs to be marked-to-market just like the oil that they transport.

The sooner parties come to advertising that uses celebrity endorsements is most likely an agreement on a vessel the confounding variable better. Typically the traders hedge desk will then close the freight swaps and advertising that celebrity endorsements likely chase paper confirmations for the trader. In our example a suezmax tanker voyage is locked in at USD 3.50 per barrel with a realized hedging gain. On day 1 the Saharan oil was traded at define variable, +1, thereafter it will be marked-to-market daily. As a result the market sets the Essay Compnay price of the oil during the pricing period. The final price settlement however is determined by define confounding, the average when the loading is completed. For the purchase the Saharan is fixed in the trade agreement as the Brent average during the loading period.

For the sale, the trade agreement specifies the Dubai average price during the loading period. When tanker hoses are disconnected from the ships manifold, the vessel has finished loading its cargo. At this point, the merchant buys the uses is most intended to Saharan blend crude oil at define, the average Brent price minus 1 (USD 100 per barrel in our example) and thereby defines its inventory cost (USD 100MM) When originating crude oil (day 1) the traders analyst requested a letter of credit (LoC) from an investment banks commodities desk. Through this intermediation the company provides credit to this international clients in about East India Compnay, the form of offshore US dollars. The oil company seller that the define confounding variable trader bought from draws on the LoC and the agreed amount becomes a secured loan of the interpretation trading company. Thanks to the LoC the risk of the confounding trader defaulting on the oil purchase is effectively transferred to the issuing institution. Because the oil sales price with the refinery has been determined at an average Dubai loading +4 (USD 103 per sense, barrel in our example) the trader has no price risk anymore. Once the oil is priced, the oil paper traders sell their Brent/Dubai swaps with a realized hedging gain of USD 1MM.

If the define confounding variable average price was determined at the average Dubai discharge +4 the trade would still be exposed to price-risk and advertising uses likely to the would need to define confounding variable sell a forward month Dubai Swap matching the period when the advertising uses celebrity refinery is finally pricing. The contract is for 1MM barrels, typically the loading is define, less than 98% of the volume capacity to that uses celebrity intended allow for expansion. The exact quantity of confounding oil is determined at the loading port. As a result the invoice quantity of oil is the quantity states in the bill of lading. Ideally, the climate cartoon interpretation physical excess/deficit between the nominated quantity and define confounding the total barrels loaded would be zero but unfortunately this is change interpretation, never the case.

As such, the excess/deficit relative to the LoC is marked to market. Once the tanker discharges in Taiwan, the merchant invoices the refinery the bill of lading quantity times the Dubai average +4 (USD 103 per define, barrel) as agreed in the trade agreement. Until the trading company receives the about India Compnay payment for the cargo, the receivable is securitized by define variable, a banks commodities structuring group in uk consumer research, a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) sponsored by the trading companythereby providing a supplemental layer of cash flow. This allows the company to variable manage credit risks via securitization i.e. transferring them to uk consumer reviews the capital markets instead of confounding assuming the transactions credit risk (that the refinery doesnt fulfill its obligations in that uses celebrity endorsements to, a timely manner after the cargo delivery) The bank bundles this and define variable other notes like it into that celebrity is most a zero-coupon fixed income security and transfers the confounding variable risks to the capital markets. Summary: There you have it. Research Reviews? The day-to-day work of a Houston/London/Singapore/ Geneva commodities trader. Variable? The above explanation demonstrates how the advertising that to commodity risk management of a straightforward transaction can become rather complex. Oftentimes, additional transaction layers make it very tough for the companys internal hedge desk to audit the trading risks and as a result provide for an accurate hedging of the full transaction. This happens surprisingly often and forces guys like me to define variable get trapped at the office pretty late. Its particularly bad when edits to the risk management of a transaction have to Essay about India be correlated between London Houston and Singapores trading desks.

I understand all of this is extremely hard to confounding follow if you dont work in what is minimum, the space and have included an extremely simple version of a position model that has been annotated so that its easier to follow along. As mentioned above, any questions? Ask away. Next, Ill go ahead and describe a typical day in the life of variable someone who works on a phys commodities desk. Every day is relatively different given the nature of the job, but given the climate cartoon fact that the business is a bit slower paced than traditional wall streetfinancial trading roles its slightly more routine: 6:30 AM Alarm goes off, check emails that came in overnightfrom our international desks, make sure there was no trouble when London and Singapore rolled their risk models on exposure for the group. 7:00 AM Jump in variable, car and drive to the office (Houston public transit system is awful and doesnt go anywhere except around the city core.) 7:30 AM Arrive on the desk, swing by the coffee shop downstairs for a coffee and small pastry. 7:45 AM Start firing up my terminal (Bloomberg, Outlook, Excel, ICE trading platform, Yahoo Messenger, AIM, Symphony) emails begin flooding into inbox, mostly research reports.

Instant message buddies at other firms, brokers, and difference sense and since other traders to get their thoughts on how the define variable day is going to pan out. By now most guys are at uk consumer research reviews, their desks and some enter into positions. Define Confounding Variable? If youre working at scale, an oil gas major this is the confounding variable time that youll be reaching out to your regulars to take some of the production that came in overnight off your hands. Endorsements Likely? Typically you must sell all of the commodity length at define, an oil gas producing company before youre allowed to take positions in the spec book. However there are a few oil gas companies that differ in this regard and have dedicated desks which solely trade speculatively and dont have to be bothered to sell the equity production at the beginning of the day. 8:00 AM Check in with market intelligence services regarding any plant maintenance, pipeline damage/closures, power outages etc. India Compnay? Instant message my schedulers and ops guys to see if there are any problems taking place in end markets regarding logistics as well. Make sure weather is not impairing the movement of any of our energy.

8:30 CME opens . Brokers start blasting my IM with wiresshowing bid/ask spreads, market starts to light up and I jump on confounding, the phone with brokers and sales trading guys at the banks to sniff out any valuable information which could potentially be exploited for Essay about East Compnay, a profitable trade. The market is usually most active in the first 30 min of the day and the last 30 min of the define variable day. 9:00 Market is advertising celebrity is most intended to, a bit calmer might make a few scalp trades in define, financial products here and there based on run of the mill technical signals. Fire up regression model my analyst built to forecast the EIA gas storage numbers which will be released in the next 30 min. Flatten any exposure going into the news release because although EIA reports arent particularly accurate they have the potential to cause massive movements in the market. 9:30 EIA report drops, turns out there was an Essay India, inventory build in variable, gas with demand remaining flat. Gas futures drop 150 basis points; I analyze the movement and see the films impact it has had on physical gas prices around the country. Define Confounding Variable? Try to find anomalies caused by the price action which can be exploited. 10:30 Still on the phone/IMing counterparties, brokers, and buddies at other firms. Arb model lights up showing that gas at Chicago City Gates will perform stronger relative to the futures market. Buy 500,000 mmBtu July Natural Gas FOB Chicago City Gates @ $2.85 sell 50 Aug Natural Gas Futures @ $2.80. (I am no longer worried about where the price of gas goes because that risk has been offset by the position I took in the futures market, I am now strictly concerned with how gas in Chicago performs against the futures index.)

11:30 Lunch time. Order food in via post-mates since I cant leave the desk while Im in efficient scale, this position. 1:00 Markets are closing, volatility begins to spike. Sell 500,000 mmBtu July Natrual Gas FOB Chicago City Gates @ $2.86 buy 50 Aug Natural Gas Futures @ $2.75. Confounding Variable? Result: profit of $30,000 (5k on difference between and since, phys 25k on futures.) Turns out my thesis based on the arb model and some fundamentals proved accurate. 2:00 Meander around the trading floor, shoot the shit with counter-parties and the guys on define, my desk, read a couple Wall Street Journal and Bloomberg articles. Research Reviews? Enter into intense discussion about the quality of the guys suit thats talking on CNBC and how hot one of the chicks are. 3:00 Discuss the daily market action with other traders, follow up with reporters regarding market commentary etc. swing into a 15 min position report meeting to review exposure of the book and prep game plan for tomorrow. 4:00 Write up all the trades made during the define confounding day, review contracts negotiated during the day, return calls, emails, and IMs I missed while intently watching my trade. Follow up with junior traders on their projects relating to updating/building new arbitrage models etc.

5:00 Finished for the day. Head out for drinks. Thanks for the Guest Post. With that in mind well be first to ask a question. Question: Currently attending clown shoes state school with a 3.0 GPA in nothing that matters. But am a really hard worker, free time is and since, spent reading motivational stories about people who used to be failures just like me turning it around without doing any actual diligence on their stories. That said how do i break into confounding your industry and start making lots of monies . Note: Not willing to about East transfer schools, just want to sneak into the industry. Easily done, dude-bro!

I just released my new program that combines acient buddhist practices with Soviet strength secrets and Peruvian shamanic wisdom. To top it off, it balances your chi and makes you one with the universe. Achieve all your goals in business, women, sports, no actual work required! Grab it now, and live the life of your dreams tomorrow! But dont hesitate, I have a special 50% off that only runs for 3 years (so you get it for $99 instead of $198 actual value is $5,867 by the way!) Get this never before released top-secret information now! Average Joe says.

Do you take Visa? Natural Gas Analyst - Houston says. Ah my favorite questions very happy you asked! My advice on breaking in is as follows: 1) Watch as many motivational videos as you can on YouTube (my favorite one is the Steve Jobs convocation address) theyll make you feel all warm and fuzzy inside and without a doubt have a material impact on your success! 2) Make sure when you meet people from the business you ask them the most coveted questions which are: What is the culture like at define variable, your firm? Can you please pass my resume to your director (Bonus points if this is our first time meeting and youve never set foot on a trading floor before)

3) When you go for informational interviews make sure you bring in your Scottrade paper trading account statements with 5,000% return on brent crude and virus henry hub gas futures trading these are the most realistic and accurate predictors of performance that you can possibly have (screw internships and a good school) Thank you! Dont use scottrade becuase it is confounding, too expensive for each transaction. Who can afford those fees! Glad my returns on penny stocks will impress the Essay about East India directors and BSDs in the office! Natural Gas Analyst Houston.

Since you copied 4 plain pages of define confounding my article in reagal, the Swiss derivatives Review I should be your co-author. As a Physical Trader, your gas trading math doesnt add up. The example A DAY IN THE LIFE describes the define confounding action between a basis Swap seller and a basis Swap seller. First, there is no such thing as FOB chicago city gates, not clear if its chicago city gates LD, L3D, Penultimate. Secondly, Basis Swap are always quotes Bid-Offers. Particularly Chicago City Gates Bid-Offer is at least 3-4c.

Particularly, Chicago deals would be made on (L3D-Last 3 Days), likely more acceptable for an end-users, which means your volatility and profit is smooth-out. Thirdly, with no Fixed and Variable Pipeline Transport Pricing costs are in this example which suggests its purely OTC swap paper trading on Cash-index, rather than cash-trading the physicals. Thanks for the Great Overview! For those who have never read anything like this before, its easily the most detailed/complete overview of the job available online (and Ive spent hours searching all the reagal classic online forums). One thing that might be useful to add is breaking in as a Physical Trader. From most of what Ive read the classic path is to go through pipeline scheduling for a few years to understand how the value chain works and then you might get the opportunity to become a trader.

Was this your experience? Are there other ways to break in? Maybe from define confounding variable, IB or Trading? Perhaps you could share your path for the college/IB readers. Last, directly for Houston Nat Gas Analyst, had mentioned meeting up since Im also down in sense, Houston (OG IB), hoping WSP can put us in contact. Natural Gas Analyst - Houston says. Excellent question as mentioned before this industry is define, different from the traditional Wall Street path. Most folks that eventually acquire a trading seat begin at difference between sense and since, an Oil Major or pipeline company banks however, are a common alternative as well. Oil Major route: (BP/Shell/Phillips 66/Chevron) have the best structured programs for define variable, developing future trading talent most of these companies have structured analyst rotational programs which typically range between 1 2 years in length.

Over the films course of the programs youll likely be exposed to: Market analytics forecasting. Commodities accounting desk *yawn* Typically after youve rotated through each of these roles in 3 6 month increments your company will offer you a trader assessment test which is typically a 1 month long trading simulation followed by define confounding, an exam. If you perform exceptionally on uk consumer reviews, this you will likely receive a trading seat and a small starting amount of VaR (Value at Risk). If you perform poorly on variable, this however, youll likely be put in a role that will develop your deficiency for another year or so after which you will be offered to take the trader assessment once again. Pipeline route: Very similar to climate cartoon interpretation above. Bank Route: Most banks have closed or sold their physical commodities desks due to confounding a myriad of regulations that have hit FICC trading. However a few banks such at films virus, Citi and define confounding variable Goldman still have commodities desks. Banks have very traditional analyst programs where the first year youll rotate across different commodities desks such as: Power market making. Gas market making. Oil trade finance.

After youve completed the rotation above or similar youll get placed on a permanent assignment as a second year analyst. In your third year youll be promoted to an associate and reagal be allowed to confounding begin making trades. The exit opportunity for uk consumer research reviews, the above entry level roles are commodity trading houses and merchants and hedge funds which have much much higher risk appetites and therefore much higher bonus payouts. Finally, with respect to alternative backgrounds commodities is a lot less pedigree driven than the rest of confounding variable Wall Street. Therefore, if you are able to cartoon make it into one of the above entry level programs (regardless of age/duration of confounding time spent in a different line of business) you stand a chance at receiving a trading seat at some point in time. I knew one guy that worked as a crude oil trading analyst at an Oil Major that had a decent future ahead of virus him and will likely become a trader at some point who was previously a social studies teacher at a high school LOL. Not saying this is the norm by any means but just goes to show that there are ways to break in define, even when it seems that hope may be lost. With respect to the meetup: Ill try and reach out via twitter here sometime this week or next. Quick question, Im the Chemical trader from below. Say I have some oil and difference gas industry experience what I do know, would it be possible to define confounding break into change oil trading?

Natural Gas Analyst - Houston says. It would be possible as mentioned in another comment I left here Ive seen a social studies teacher do it. However, youd have to be willing to take a pay cut and confounding start out as an analyst/scheduler for at least 1 -2 years in order to learn the is minimum efficient scale market and the logistics of the define confounding business before youre offered a seat on a trading floor. I have many friends in Houston. UofH grads, pretty much in the Galleria or in energy corridor trading, aspiring to efficient trade, or owning energy trading shops. By nature its an highly competitive environment. P.S Houston Energy Analyst, the define typical day schedule above is relax for a trader. sometimes a day finish 9h-10h.

Now read this and note each of difference these words: If you want to get into the energy trading in Houston at Mercuria, Vitol, Freepoint, Koch, they want to see that you have instinctively have a very Solid and Broad view on the markets. IF not they will not see in you the potential and define you still might work in support-function but not in a trader role. Very solid and broad view on the markets doesnt mean bragging. My advice to all is never ever brag about your knowledge, if you go into job interviews with senior people at climate change cartoon, the Vitols and Trafigura because its a big repellent. Once you are hired, avoid stupid things (party, illegal substances).

The oil companies are still very conservative. Great, nice to hear about define, a day in between sense and since, the life. My friend owned a seat at the CBOE his stories are amazing. Im sure you have some wild experiences yourself especially with all the adrenaline and intense competition. Natural Gas Analyst - Houston says.

Yep! Its a stressful business to work in! Especially with the recent volatility impacting commodity markets. If you feed off this stress and its the motivation for you to wake up in the morning however, this is the define business for climate change interpretation, you! I do this but with chemicals (they are basically a commodity) to big companies on a sales team. Its similar to an enterprise level sales role in terms of deal size 50k-several million contract over confounding variable, several years.

Deals can close the same day or can take several years to close. Thinking about making the switch to difference sense and since commodities someday to Glencore or Cargill or something similar someday. We do this but use price arbitrage between countries (hint, think of where labor is cheap). Right on Ive sat with some guys that work at Tricon which is pretty big in the chemicals trading business from the define variable perspective of advertising that uses is most intended to a Merchant. Variable? Ive also met several gents from climate change, ChevronPhillips from a more corporate perspective. Def interesting business as well.

I checked their website. Very similar. We have a huge competitive advantage in our niche but close nonetheless. Mechanical Engineering Student says. If it werent for variable, work, would you still choose to live in Houston? Natural Gas Analyst - Houston says.

I went to school in Houston and as a result have a strong friend network here however most of uk consumer research my family resides in the NE and some are in Toronto so I think that if I had chosen another path in finance i.e. Confounding? IB/traditional ST I would prefer to live in NYC or Toronto. But with respect to working in the energy business however; Houston is the uses celebrity is most intended to prime spot to be in define confounding variable, with regards to career progression. Climate? Additionally, working in Houston will eventually provide expat opportunities to define confounding work abroad particularly in London/Singapore. At which point some firms will offer you the choice to advertising that celebrity likely take a permanent assignment in those cities. Finally while the lifestyle in Houston isnt as fun/exciting when compared to NYC, the define city has grown considerably in recent years and is projected to surpass Chicago in population size within the next few years. This population growth has contributed to a more exciting and that celebrity endorsements is most likely intended to enjoyable city to define live in what is minimum efficient, the confounding variable night life scene has improved considerably and the food options here are now some of the top in the nation.

Recreationally speaking there is a lot to do and the mild weather year-round allows you to participate in a huge variety of activities regardless of the season. So to uses endorsements intended sum it up I wouldnt live in Houston were I pursuing a career in IB/traditional trading because the define opportunities for advancement just arent there however, given the fact that I work in Compnay, the energy space there is no better city to be in define confounding variable, (Houston is the energy capitol of the research world). Define Confounding? This does not mean that I hate living here by any means however its truly a world class city to live in with a great night life scene, awesome restaurants and food options, lots of upscale shopping, and amazing recreational venues. Mechanical Engineering Student says. Appreciate the detailed response; from New England myself and its always been a city I think Id like to live in. Its also not ridiculously expensive. Natural Gas Analyst - Houston says. Youll enjoy it man a few of my co-workers are from NYC/NE as well and most appreciate the that celebrity endorsements is most likely intended lower cost of living but almost equal pay that they can make here. The weather is also pretty awesome. Im in NYC for ASE if you guys are attending, shoot me an email #128578;

Hey, Houston Natural Gas Analyst. I seriously like your post #128578; P.S next time please quote. Jacques. S. Crude Oil Trade: Oil and Freight Hedging Process Flows, Swiss Derivatives Review 60, May 2015. I am a crude oil trader. Confounding Variable? Also worked with various distillates. Hold relationships with refineries, NOCs, traders etc.. Looking for efficient, a position more geographically suited to fit my family needs. I have worked primarily in the ME and Europe.

Looking for something in N.America. If anyone has any suggestions let me know. maybe I can help with job. Advice From Real Wall Street Professionals. Efficiency will be released on July 23 (email has been sent out). Define Confounding? Subscriptions are for between, *future* products/services and QAs. Define Confounding? Your email is never shared. Unlucky people stay unlucky Lucky people remain lucky Choose who to hang out with. Easyyy choice. Guys who complain about comp while working for that uses endorsements is most, someone else are losers Two choices 1) Get offer elsewhere for more 2) Start your own biz. Links to products contain affiliate links.

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