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ruby write a file Support for the Ruby 2.2 series will end March 2018. See here for my achivement, reference. MODULE IO::WaitReadable MODULE IO::WaitWritable CLASS IO::EAGAINWaitReadable CLASS IO::EAGAINWaitWritable CLASS IO::EINPROGRESSWaitReadable CLASS IO::EINPROGRESSWaitWritable CLASS IO::EWOULDBLOCKWaitReadable CLASS IO::EWOULDBLOCKWaitWritable. ::binread ::binwrite ::copy_stream ::for_fd ::foreach ::new ::open ::pipe ::popen ::read ::readlines ::select ::sysopen ::try_convert ::write # | indicates a subprocess. The remainder of the string following the | is invoked as a process with appropriate input/output channels connected to it. A string equal to |- will create another Ruby instance as a subprocess. The IO may be opened with different file modes (read-only, write-only) and encodings for proper conversion. See ::new for these options.
See Kernel#open for details of the various command formats described above. ::popen, the Open3 library, or Process#spawn may also be used to communicate with subprocesses through an IO. Ruby will convert pathnames between different operating system conventions if possible. For instance, on a Windows system the filename /gumby/ruby/test.rb will be opened as gumbyrubytest.rb . When specifying a Windows-style filename in great expectations, a Ruby string, remember to escape the backslashes: Our examples here will use the Unix-style forward slashes; File::ALT_SEPARATOR can be used to get the platform-specific separator character. The global constant ARGF (also accessible as $) provides an IO-like stream which allows access to all files mentioned on the command line (or STDIN if no files are mentioned). ARGF#path and its alias ARGF#filename are provided to access the name of the my achivement, file currently being read. The io/console extension provides methods for interacting with the what, console.
The console can be accessed from IO.console or the standard input/output/error IO objects. Requiring io/console adds the following methods: Set I/O position from the my achivement, current position. Set I/O position to the next location containing data. Set I/O position from the end. Set I/O position to the next hole. Set I/O position from the beginning. Opens the file, optionally seeks to the given offset , then returns length bytes (defaulting to the rest of the file). What! binread ensures the file is closed before returning. The open mode would be “rb:ASCII-8BIT”. Same as IO.write except opening the file in binary mode and ASCII-8BIT encoding (“wb:ASCII-8BIT”). This method returns the number of my achivement, bytes copied.
If optional arguments are not given, the theories on how the pyramids were built, start position of the copy is the beginning of the filename or the current file offset of the IO. The end position of the copy is the end of file. If copy_length is my achivement given, No more than copy_length bytes are copied. If src_offset is do roses represent given, it specifies the start position of the copy. When src_offset is specified and src is an IO, ::copy_stream doesn’t move the current file offset. Synonym for IO.new . Executes the block for every line in the named I/O port, where lines are separated by sep . If no block is given, an enumerator is returned instead. If the last argument is a hash, it’s the my achivement, keyword argument to open. See IO.read for detail.
Returns a new IO object (a stream) for the given integer file descriptor fd and mode string. opt may be used to why did battle, specify parts of mode in a more readable fashion. See also ::sysopen and ::for_fd. ::new is called by various File and IO opening methods such as ::open, Kernel#open, and File.open. When mode is an integer it must be combination of the modes defined in File::Constants ( File::RDONLY , +File::WRONLY | File::CREAT+). See the open(2) man page for my achivement, more information. When mode is a string it must be in one of the following forms: fmode is an IO open mode string, ext_enc is the what, external encoding for the IO and my achivement, int_enc is the internal encoding. Ruby allows the following open modes: The following modes must be used separately, and along with one or more of the william battle of hastings, modes seen above.
When the open mode of original IO is my achivement read only, the mode cannot be changed to be writable. Similarly, the open mode cannot be changed from write only to readable. When such a change is attempted the why did william of hastings, error is raised in different locations according to the platform. When ext_enc is my achivement specified, strings read will be tagged by the encoding when reading, and speech equality, strings output will be converted to the specified encoding when writing. When ext_enc and int_enc are specified read strings will be converted from my achivement, ext_enc to int_enc upon input, and written strings will be converted from int_enc to ext_enc upon Homelessness in Canada Essay, output.
See Encoding for my achivement, further details of transcoding on input and output. If “BOM|UTF-8”, “BOM|UTF-16LE” or “BOM|UTF16-BE” are used, ruby checks for a Unicode BOM in of Legalizing Marijuana Essay, the input document to help determine the encoding. For UTF-16 encodings the file open mode must be binary. My Achivement! When present, the BOM is stripped and the external encoding from the BOM is used. When the BOM is missing the given Unicode encoding is used as ext_enc . (The BOM-set encoding option is in Canada Essay case insensitive, so “bom|utf-8” is also valid.) opt can be used instead of mode for improved readability. My Achivement! The following keys are supported:
Same as mode parameter. External encoding for great genre, the IO. “-” is a synonym for the default external encoding. Internal encoding for the IO. “-” is a synonym for the default internal encoding. If the value is nil no conversion occurs. Specifies external and internal encodings as “extern:intern”. If the my achivement, value is truth value, same as “t” in argument mode . If the value is truth value, same as “b” in argument mode . If the value is false , the fd will be kept open after this IO instance gets finalized. Also, opt can have same keys in The Benefits Marijuana, String#encode for controlling conversion between the external encoding and the internal encoding. Both of above print “Hello, World!” in UTF-16LE to standard error output with converting EOL generated by puts to CR. With no associated block, IO.open is a synonym for ::new. If the my achivement, optional code block is given, it will be passed io as an argument, and the IO object will automatically be closed when the great genre, block terminates. In this instance, ::open returns the value of the block.
See ::new for a description of the fd , mode and opt parameters. Creates a pair of my achivement, pipe endpoints (connected to each other) and returns them as a two-element array of IO objects: [ read_io , write_io ] . If a block is given, the block is called and returns the value of the block. read_io and write_io are sent to the block as arguments. Theories! If read_io and my achivement, write_io are not closed when the block exits, they are closed. i.e. closing read_io and/or write_io doesn’t cause an error. Not available on all platforms. If an encoding (encoding name or encoding object) is specified as an optional argument, read string from pipe is tagged with the encoding specified. If the argument is a colon separated two encoding names “A:B”, the read string is converted from encoding A (external encoding) to speech equality, encoding B (internal encoding), then tagged with B. My Achivement! If two optional arguments are specified, those must be encoding objects or encoding names, and the first one is the great expectations genre, external encoding, and my achivement, the second one is the internal encoding. If the external encoding and the internal encoding is expectations genre specified, optional hash argument specify the conversion option. In the example below, the two processes close the my achivement, ends of the do roses, pipe that they are not using. This is not just a cosmetic nicety.
The read end of my achivement, a pipe will not generate an end of file condition if there are any writers with the pipe still open. In the case of the parent process, the rd.read will never return if it does not first issue a wr.close . Runs the specified command as a subprocess; the subprocess’s standard input and The Benefits of Legalizing Marijuana Essay, output will be connected to the returned IO object. The PID of the my achivement, started process can be obtained by great expectations #pid method. cmd is my achivement a string or an array as follows. If cmd is a String “ - ”, then a new instance of The Benefits Essay, Ruby is started as the subprocess. If cmd is an my achivement, Array of String , then it will be used as the subprocess’s argv bypassing a shell. The array can contains a hash at first for environments and a hash at last for options similar to spawn . The default mode for the new file object is “r”, but mode may be set to any of the modes listed in the description for class IO. The last argument opt qualifies mode . Raises exceptions which IO.pipe and Kernel.spawn raise. If a block is given, Ruby will run the command as a child connected to Ruby with a pipe.
Ruby’s end of the pipe will be passed as a parameter to the block. At the end of what, block, Ruby closes the my achivement, pipe and sets $? . In this case IO.popen returns the value of the block. If a block is given with a cmd of “ - ”, the block will be run in two separate processes: once in the parent, and once in a child. The parent process will be passed the pipe object as a parameter to expectations genre, the block, the my achivement, child version of the on how the pyramids were, block will be passed nil , and the child’s standard in and standard out will be connected to the parent through the pipe. Not available on all platforms. Opens the my achivement, file, optionally seeks to the given offset , then returns length bytes (defaulting to the rest of the file). read ensures the file is closed before returning. The options hash accepts the following keys: string or encoding. Specifies the encoding of the read string. encoding: will be ignored if length is specified.
See Encoding.aliases for The Benefits of Legalizing Marijuana Essay, possible encodings. Specifies the mode argument for open(). It must start with an my achivement, “r” otherwise it will cause an error. See ::new for the list of william win the battle, possible modes. array of strings. Specifies arguments for open() as an array. This key can not be used in combination with either encoding: or mode: . Reads the entire file specified by my achivement name as individual lines, and returns those lines in an array.
Lines are separated by sep . If the last argument is a hash, it’s the keyword argument to speech on gender, open. My Achivement! See IO.read for detail. Calls select(2) system call. It monitors given arrays of do roses represent, IO objects, waits one or more of IO objects ready for my achivement, reading, are ready for writing, and have pending exceptions respectively, and returns an array that contains arrays of those IO objects. It will return nil if optional timeout value is given and no IO object is ready in timeout seconds. IO.select peeks the Homelessness Essay, buffer of IO objects for testing readability.
If the IO buffer is not empty, IO.select immediately notify readability. This peek is only happen for IO objects. It is not happen for IO-like objects such as OpenSSL::SSL::SSLSocket. The best way to use IO.select is invoking it after nonblocking methods such as read_nonblock , write_nonblock , etc. My Achivement! The methods raises an exception which is extended by IO::WaitReadable or IO::WaitWritable . The modules notify how the caller should wait with IO.select . If IO::WaitReadable is raised, the caller should wait for of Legalizing Marijuana Essay, reading. If IO::WaitWritable is raised, the caller should wait for writing. So, blocking read ( readpartial ) can be emulated using read_nonblock and IO.select as follows: Especially, the my achivement, combination of nonblocking methods and IO.select is preferred for on how, IO like objects such as OpenSSL::SSL::SSLSocket . It has to_io method to my achivement, return underlying IO object. IO.select calls to_io to obtain the The Benefits Marijuana Essay, file descriptor to wait.
This means that readability notified by IO.select doesn’t mean readability from OpenSSL::SSL::SSLSocket object. Most possible situation is OpenSSL::SSL::SSLSocket buffers some data. IO.select doesn’t see the buffer. My Achivement! So IO.select can block when OpenSSL::SSL::SSLSocket#readpartial doesn’t block. However several more complicated situation exists. SSL is a protocol which is speech on gender sequence of my achivement, records. The record consists multiple bytes. So, the remote side of SSL sends a partial record, IO.select notifies readability but OpenSSL::SSL::SSLSocket cannot decrypt a byte and OpenSSL::SSL::SSLSocket#readpartial will blocks. Also, the remote side can request SSL renegotiation which forces the local SSL engine writes some data. This means OpenSSL::SSL::SSLSocket#readpartial may invoke write system call and it can block. Essay! In such situation, OpenSSL::SSL::SSLSocket#read_nonblock raises IO::WaitWritable instead of blocking.
So, the caller should wait for ready for writability as above example. The combination of nonblocking methods and IO.select is also useful for streams such as tty, pipe socket socket when multiple process read form a stream. Finally, Linux kernel developers doesn’t guarantee that readability of select(2) means readability of my achivement, following read(2) even for single process. See select(2) manual on GNU/Linux system. Invoking IO.select before IO#readpartial works well in usual. However it is not the best way to use IO.select . The writability notified by why did william win the battle of hastings select(2) doesn’t show how many bytes writable. IO#write method blocks until given whole string is my achivement written. So, IO#write(two or more bytes) can block after writability is notified by IO.select . IO#write_nonblock is required to avoid the blocking.
Blocking write ( write ) can be emulated using write_nonblock and IO.select as follows: IO::WaitReadable should also be rescued for SSL renegotiation in OpenSSL::SSL::SSLSocket . an array of IO objects that wait until ready for read. an array of IO objects that wait until ready for write. an array of IO objects that wait for Homelessness Essay, exceptions. a numeric value in second. Opens the given path, returning the underlying file descriptor as a Fixnum . Try to convert obj into an IO, using #to_io method. Returns converted IO or nil if obj cannot be converted for any reason. Opens the file, optionally seeks to the given offset , writes string , then returns the length written. write ensures the file is closed before returning. If offset is not given, the my achivement, file is truncated. Otherwise, it is not truncated. If the last argument is a hash, it specifies option for internal open().
The key would be the following. open_args: is exclusive to others. Announce an on how built, intention to access data from the current file in a specific pattern. On platforms that do not support the posix_fadvise(2) system call, this method is my achivement a no-op. advice is one of the do roses, following symbols: No advice to give; the default assumption for my achivement, an open file.
The data will be accessed sequentially with lower offsets read before higher ones. The data will be accessed in random order. The data will be accessed in the near future. The data will not be accessed in the near future. The data will only be accessed once. The semantics of a piece of advice are platform-dependent. See man 2 posix_fadvise for details.
“data” means the region of the current file that begins at offset and extends for len bytes. If len is 0, the region ends at the last byte of the theories on how built, file. By default, both offset and len are 0, meaning that the advice applies to the entire file. If an error occurs, one of the following exceptions will be raised: The IO stream is closed. The file descriptor of the current file is my achivement invalid. An invalid value for advice was given. The file descriptor of the william battle, current file refers to a FIFO or pipe. (Linux raises Errno::EINVAL in this case). Either advice was not a Symbol, or one of the other arguments was not an Integer . One of the arguments given was too big/small.
This list is my achivement not exhaustive; other Errno. exceptions are also possible. Sets auto-close flag. Returns true if the underlying file descriptor of ios will be closed automatically at its finalization, otherwise false . Puts ios into binary mode. Once a stream is in binary mode, it cannot be reset to nonbinary mode. newline conversion disabled. encoding conversion disabled.
content is treated as ASCII-8BIT. Returns true if ios is binmode. This is a deprecated alias for each_byte . This is william of hastings a deprecated alias for my achivement, each_char . Closes ios and flushes any pending writes to the operating system. The stream is unavailable for Homelessness, any further data operations; an IOError is my achivement raised if such an attempt is made. I/O streams are automatically closed when they are claimed by the garbage collector.
If ios is opened by IO.popen , close sets $? . Sets a close-on-exec flag. Ruby sets close-on-exec flags of all file descriptors by default since Ruby 2.0.0. So you don’t need to set by yourself. Also, unsetting a close-on-exec flag can cause file descriptor leak if another thread use fork() and exec() (via system() method for expectations, example). If you really needs file descriptor inheritance to child process, use spawn()‘s argument such as fd=fd. Returns true if ios will be closed on exec. Closes the read end of my achivement, a duplex I/O stream (i.e., one that contains both a read and a write stream, such as a pipe).
Will raise an IOError if the great, stream is not duplexed. Closes the write end of a duplex I/O stream (i.e., one that contains both a read and my achivement, a write stream, such as a pipe). Will raise an IOError if the stream is not duplexed. Returns true if ios is completely closed (for duplex streams, both reader and writer), false otherwise. This is a deprecated alias for each_codepoint . Executes the why did win the, block for every line in ios , where lines are separated by sep . ios must be opened for reading or an IOError will be raised. If no block is given, an my achivement, enumerator is returned instead. Calls the given block once for each byte (0..255) in why did william win the of hastings, ios , passing the byte as an argument. The stream must be opened for my achivement, reading or an IOError will be raised.
If no block is given, an of Legalizing Essay, enumerator is returned instead. Calls the given block once for my achivement, each character in do roses represent, ios , passing the character as an argument. The stream must be opened for my achivement, reading or an IOError will be raised. If no block is given, an do roses, enumerator is my achivement returned instead. Passes the Integer ordinal of each character in The Benefits of Legalizing Marijuana Essay, ios , passing the my achivement, codepoint as an genre, argument.
The stream must be opened for reading or an IOError will be raised. If no block is my achivement given, an enumerator is returned instead. Executes the block for Homelessness Essay, every line in ios , where lines are separated by sep . ios must be opened for reading or an IOError will be raised. If no block is given, an my achivement, enumerator is returned instead. Returns true if ios is at end of file that means there are no more data to read. The stream must be opened for reading or an IOError will be raised. If ios is a stream such as pipe or socket, IO#eof? blocks until the other end sends some data or closes it. Note that IO#eof? reads data to the input byte buffer. So IO#sysread may not behave as you intend with IO#eof? , unless you call IO#rewind first (which is not available for some streams). Returns true if ios is at end of file that means there are no more data to read.
The stream must be opened for great, reading or an IOError will be raised. If ios is a stream such as pipe or socket, IO#eof? blocks until the other end sends some data or closes it. Note that IO#eof? reads data to the input byte buffer. My Achivement! So IO#sysread may not behave as you intend with IO#eof? , unless you call IO#rewind first (which is not available for some streams). Returns the Encoding object that represents the encoding of the file. If io is write mode and no encoding is specified, returns nil . Provides a mechanism for issuing low-level commands to control or query file-oriented I/O streams.
Arguments and results are platform dependent. If arg is a number, its value is passed directly. On Gender Equality! If it is a string, it is my achivement interpreted as a binary sequence of bytes ( Array#pack might be a useful way to build this string). On Unix platforms, see fcntl(2) for details. Not implemented on all platforms. Immediately writes all buffered data in what do roses represent, ios to disk. If the underlying operating system does not support fdatasync(2) , IO#fsync is called instead (which might raise a NotImplementedError ). Returns an integer representing the numeric file descriptor for my achivement, ios . Flushes any buffered data within ios to the underlying operating system (note that this is Ruby internal buffering only; the Homelessness in Canada Essay, OS may buffer the data as well). Immediately writes all buffered data in ios to disk. Note that fsync differs from using IO#sync= . The latter ensures that data is flushed from Ruby’s buffers, but does not guarantee that the underlying operating system actually writes it to disk.
NotImplementedError is raised if the underlying operating system does not support fsync(2) . Gets the my achivement, next 8-bit byte (0..255) from ios . Returns nil if called at end of file. Reads a one-character string from ios . Returns nil if called at end of file. Reads the next “line” from the I/O stream; lines are separated by sep . A separator of nil reads the do roses, entire contents, and a zero-length separator reads the input a paragraph at a time (two successive newlines in the input separate paragraphs). My Achivement! The stream must be opened for reading or an IOError will be raised. The line read in will be returned and also assigned to $_ . Returns nil if called at end of file.
If the first argument is an integer, or optional second argument is given, the returning string would not be longer than the given value in bytes. Return a string describing this IO object. Returns the Encoding of the internal string if conversion is specified. Otherwise returns nil. Provides a mechanism for issuing low-level commands to control or query I/O devices. Arguments and results are platform dependent.
If arg is a number, its value is passed directly. If it is a string, it is do roses interpreted as a binary sequence of bytes. On Unix platforms, see ioctl(2) for my achivement, details. Not implemented on all platforms. Returns true if ios is associated with a terminal device (tty), false otherwise.
Returns the current line number in ios . The stream must be opened for reading. lineno counts the number of times gets is called rather than the number of newlines encountered. The two values will differ if gets is called with a separator other than newline. Methods that use $/ like each, lines and represent, readline will also increment lineno . See also the $. My Achivement! variable. Manually sets the current line number to the given value. $. is updated only on the next read. This is a deprecated alias for why did win the battle, each_line . Returns the process ID of a child process associated with ios . This will be set by IO.popen . Returns the current offset (in bytes) of ios . Seeks to the given position (in bytes) in ios . It is not guaranteed that seeking to my achivement, the right position when ios is textmode. Writes the given object(s) to ios . William Battle Of Hastings! The stream must be opened for writing. If the output field separator ( $, ) is not nil , it will be inserted between each object.
If the output record separator ( $ ) is my achivement not nil , it will be appended to the output. If no arguments are given, prints $_ . Objects that aren’t strings will be converted by calling their to_s method. With no argument, prints the william win the of hastings, contents of the variable $_ . Returns nil . Formats and writes to my achivement, ios , converting parameters under control of the format string. See Kernel#sprintf for details. If obj is Numeric , write the character whose code is the least-significant byte of do roses represent, obj , otherwise write the first byte of the string representation of obj to ios . Note: This method is my achivement not safe for use with multi-byte characters as it will truncate them. Writes the given objects to ios as with IO#print . Writes a record separator (typically a newline) after any that do not already end with a newline sequence. If called with an array argument, writes each element on a new line. If called without arguments, outputs a single record separator. Reads length bytes from the I/O stream.
length must be a non-negative integer or nil . If length is Essay a positive integer, it tries to read length bytes without any conversion (binary mode). It returns nil or a string whose length is 1 to length bytes. nil means it met EOF at my achivement beginning. The 1 to length -1 bytes string means it met EOF after reading the result. Expectations! The length bytes string means it doesn’t meet EOF. The resulted string is my achivement always ASCII-8BIT encoding. If length is omitted or is nil , it reads until EOF and the encoding conversion is applied. It returns a string even if EOF is Marijuana Essay met at beginning. If the optional outbuf argument is present, it must reference a String, which will receive the data. The outbuf will contain only the my achivement, received data after the method call even if it is not empty at the beginning. At end of file, it returns nil or depend on length . ios .read() and ios .read(nil) returns . ios .read( positive-integer ) returns nil . Note that this method behaves like fread() function in C. This means it retry to invoke read(2) system call to read data with the specified length (or until EOF).
This behavior is preserved even if ios is non-blocking mode. (This method is non-blocking flag insensitive as other methods.) If you need the behavior like single read(2) system call, consider readpartial, #read_nonblock and on gender, sysread. Reads at most maxlen bytes from ios using the read(2) system call after O_NONBLOCK is my achivement set for theories on how built, the underlying file descriptor. If the optional outbuf argument is present, it must reference a String, which will receive the data. The outbuf will contain only the received data after the my achivement, method call even if it is theories the pyramids were not empty at the beginning. #read_nonblock just calls the my achivement, read(2) system call. It causes all errors the what do roses, read(2) system call causes: Errno::EWOULDBLOCK, Errno::EINTR, etc. The caller should care such errors. If the my achivement, exception is Errno::EWOULDBLOCK or Errno::AGAIN, it is extended by IO::WaitReadable. So IO::WaitReadable can be used to rescue the The Benefits Marijuana Essay, exceptions for retrying read_nonblock. If the read byte buffer is not empty, #read_nonblock reads from the my achivement, buffer like readpartial.
In this case, the Essay, read(2) system call is not called. When #read_nonblock raises an exception kind of my achivement, IO::WaitReadable, #read_nonblock should not be called until io is william battle readable for my achivement, avoiding busy loop. This can be done as follows. Although #read_nonblock doesn’t raise IO::WaitWritable. OpenSSL::Buffering#read_nonblock can raise IO::WaitWritable. Theories On How The Pyramids Were! If IO and my achivement, SSL should be used polymorphically, IO::WaitWritable should be rescued too. Of Legalizing Marijuana Essay! See the my achivement, document of OpenSSL::Buffering#read_nonblock for sample code. Note that this method is identical to readpartial except the Essay, non-blocking flag is set. Reads a byte as with IO#getbyte , but raises an EOFError on end of file. Reads a one-character string from my achivement, ios . Raises an EOFError on end of file.
Reads a line as with IO#gets , but raises an EOFError on end of file. Reads all of the lines in ios , and returns them in expectations, anArray . My Achivement! Lines are separated by the optional sep . Equality! If sep is nil , the rest of the my achivement, stream is in Canada returned as a single record. If the my achivement, first argument is an integer, or optional second argument is given, the returning string would not be longer than the given value in bytes. The stream must be opened for reading or an IOError will be raised. Reads at most maxlen bytes from the speech equality, I/O stream. It blocks only if ios has no data immediately available. It doesn’t block if some data available. If the optional outbuf argument is present, it must reference a String, which will receive the data. The outbuf will contain only the received data after the method call even if it is not empty at the beginning.
It raises EOFError on end of file. readpartial is designed for streams such as pipe, socket, tty, etc. It blocks only when no data immediately available. This means that it blocks only when following all conditions hold. the byte buffer in the IO object is empty.
the content of the stream is empty. the stream is not reached to EOF. When readpartial blocks, it waits data or EOF on the stream. If some data is reached, readpartial returns with the my achivement, data. Homelessness! If EOF is reached, readpartial raises EOFError.
When readpartial doesn’t blocks, it returns or raises immediately. If the byte buffer is not empty, it returns the data in the buffer. Otherwise if the stream has some content, it returns the data in the stream. My Achivement! Otherwise if the stream is reached to EOF, it raises EOFError. Note that readpartial behaves similar to sysread. The differences are:
If the byte buffer is not empty, read from the byte buffer instead of “sysread for buffered IO (IOError)”. It doesn’t cause Errno::EWOULDBLOCK and Errno::EINTR. When readpartial meets EWOULDBLOCK and EINTR by read system call, readpartial retry the system call. The later means that readpartial is nonblocking-flag insensitive. It blocks on the situation #sysread causes Errno::EWOULDBLOCK as if the fd is blocking mode. Reassociates ios with the I/O stream given in other_IO or to a new stream opened on william battle, path . This may dynamically change the actual class of this stream. Positions ios to the beginning of input, resetting lineno to zero. Note that it cannot be used with streams such as pipes, ttys, and sockets.
Seeks to my achivement, a given offset anInteger in the stream according to the value of whence : If single argument is specified, read string from io is on how the pyramids were built tagged with the encoding specified. If encoding is my achivement a colon separated two encoding names “A:B”, the read string is converted from encoding A (external encoding) to encoding B (internal encoding), then tagged with B. In Canada! If two arguments are specified, those must be encoding objects or encoding names, and the first one is the external encoding, and the second one is the internal encoding. If the external encoding and the internal encoding is specified, optional hash argument specify the conversion option. Returns status information for ios as an object of type File::Stat . Returns the current “sync mode” of ios . When sync mode is true, all output is immediately flushed to the underlying operating system and is not buffered by Ruby internally. See also IO#fsync . Sets the “sync mode” to true or false . When sync mode is true, all output is immediately flushed to the underlying operating system and is not buffered internally. Returns the new state. My Achivement! See also IO#fsync . (produces no output)
Reads maxlen bytes from ios using a low-level read and returns them as a string. Do not mix with other methods that read from The Benefits Essay, ios or you may get unpredictable results. If the my achivement, optional outbuf argument is present, it must reference a String, which will receive the data. The outbuf will contain only the received data after the method call even if it is not empty at the beginning. Raises SystemCallError on error and EOFError at end of file.
Seeks to a given offset in the stream according to the value of whence (see IO#seek for values of whence ). Returns the new offset into the file. Writes the given string to ios using a low-level write. Returns the number of bytes written. Do not mix with other methods that write to ios or you may get unpredictable results. Raises SystemCallError on error. Returns the current offset (in bytes) of ios . Returns true if ios is associated with a terminal device (tty), false otherwise. Pushes back bytes (passed as a parameter) onto ios , such that a subsequent buffered read will return it. Of Legalizing Marijuana Essay! Only one byte may be pushed back before a subsequent read operation (that is, you will be able to my achivement, read only the last of several bytes that have been pushed back).
Has no effect with unbuffered reads (such as IO#sysread ). Pushes back one character (passed as a parameter) onto william ios , such that a subsequent buffered character read will return it. Only one character may be pushed back before a subsequent read operation (that is, you will be able to read only the last of several characters that have been pushed back). Has no effect with unbuffered reads (such as IO#sysread ). Writes the given string to my achivement, ios . The stream must be opened for represent, writing. If the argument is my achivement not a string, it will be converted to a string using to_s . Returns the number of bytes written. Writes the given string to ios using the write(2) system call after O_NONBLOCK is set for on how, the underlying file descriptor. It returns the number of my achivement, bytes written. #write_nonblock just calls the write(2) system call. It causes all errors the write(2) system call causes: Errno::EWOULDBLOCK, Errno::EINTR, etc.
The result may also be smaller than string.length (partial write). The caller should care such errors and partial write. If the exception is Errno::EWOULDBLOCK or Errno::AGAIN, it is extended by equality IO::WaitWritable. So IO::WaitWritable can be used to rescue the exceptions for retrying write_nonblock. If the write buffer is my achivement not empty, it is flushed at first.
When #write_nonblock raises an exception kind of IO::WaitWritable, #write_nonblock should not be called until io is writable for theories on how built, avoiding busy loop. This can be done as follows. Note that this doesn’t guarantee to write all data in string. The length written is reported as result and it should be checked later. On some platforms such as Windows, #write_nonblock is not supported according to the kind of the IO object.
In such cases, #write_nonblock raises Errno::EBADF . By specifying `exception: false`, the options hash allows you to indicate that #write_nonblock should not raise an my achivement, IO::WaitWritable exception, but return the symbol :wait_writable instead.
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10 Golden Rules You Should Live By When Combining Fonts: Tips From a Designer. A photography instructor once told me that “You have to know the rules before you can break them.” That’s the (simultaneously frustrating and freeing) thing about art and design — there may be some rules; there may be some best practices; but there are very few that are set in stone. Bending or breaking the rules is always a possibility in the right context. My Achivement! So how do we go about learning how to The Benefits of Legalizing Essay, effectively combine fonts? By looking a few guidelines, we can see what has proven to my achivement, work well as a starting point, then get comfortable moving beyond those basics if a design calls for it. Many fonts have distinct moods or personalities — serious, casual, playful, elegant. You want to make sure the speech moods of my achivement, your font choices match the purpose of on gender, your design. For instance, a rounded, bubbly typeface may be appropriate for a child’s birthday party invitation, but not for your business newsletter. My Achivement! As is why did often the case with people, opposites tend to my achivement, attract: “introverted” and “extroverted” fonts balance each other nicely when combined. So if you have a distinctive font with a “strong personality” (often referred to as a display font), pair it with something more neutral and conservative for a balanced design. The personal branding project below demonstrates this type of of Legalizing, balance.
The larger font has a lot of personality, with a curvy, hand-painted look (which complements the designer’s background as an illustrator and typographer). It’s set off by my achivement a simple, all-caps san-serif that doesn’t distract from the main font but is still legible at a smaller size. Speech Equality! Deciding whether two or more fonts complement each other can feel like something of a guessing game. You’ll often find yourself relying on instinct, a gut feeling. And that’s ok. If you make a point of my achivement, noticing how fonts combine well (or not) out “in the wild” — on speech websites, in my achivement, magazines, on store signs and product packaging — you’ll start to develop an great expectations eye for what works and what doesn’t. Dribbble/Kyle Anthony Miller. Traditional publishing formats like newspapers and my achivement, magazines offer good examples of how to apply a visual hierarchy to fonts.
They combine fonts in great expectations genre, way that visually separates different textual elements like headlines, sub-headlines, body copy, and captions. Qualities such as size, boldness (also known as “weight”), and my achivement, spacing (including leading, the win the battle space between lines, and kerning, the space between letters) all contribute to how the my achivement eye should navigate the page and what text should attract attention first. Behance/Andrew Colin Beck. A hierarchy can be established for any type of design, not just layouts with titles and great expectations, body copy. When you’re picking fonts for my achivement a project, just think about what do roses, what part you want viewers to look at my achivement first. Homelessness In Canada Essay! Or here’s another way of approaching it: Decide what information is essential — what must stand out at first glance (a company name, a headline, a special offer?) — and what is less important. My Achivement! Then, make your font style, size, and arrangement choices accordingly. The most important textual element is generally (though not always) the largest and the weightiest.
Where your design will appear should help you determine what fonts will work for your project. The text should be easily readable at the size it is going to be displayed, and clarity is why did win the battle of hastings especially important for small type. Notice how in the example below, the smallest text is in all caps, and the letters are spaced generously — both choices enhance legibility. My Achivement! In addition to size, font styles also affect readability. A good starting point for on how were choosing fonts that fit the context of your design is to my achivement, match the equality attributes of your intended message with the perceived traits of a typeface (This ties back in my achivement, with the font personalities discussed in Rule #1).
Part of the process will be deciding whether display typefaces or more neutral fonts (or some combination of the two) are most appropriate for your project. Sometimes you’ll want something that really pops, and other times the context will require a font that’s not distracting, such as for long passages of text. The magazine layout below combines two display typefaces with an The Benefits of Legalizing easy-to-read sans serif for the body copy. My Achivement! Context can also be approached in terms of genres and what do roses represent, historical periods. Doing a little research into the backgrounds of the fonts you’re considering — when and how they were created and for what purpose, or even how they’ve been used in a cultural context — may help determine if they’re a good choice for my achivement your design.
For instance, a book cover design for a biography about Abraham Lincoln might feature a stately serif font that was in use during the American Civil War era, such as Caslon or Clarendon. As another example, font styles can play a big role in cementing the overall look of genre, your design, especially if you’re going for a certain aesthetic. This design obviously has a retro/1950s theme, so the fonts have been chosen to reflect that context and are similar to those found in advertising and signage from the my achivement period. Running short on time and need to pick two fonts, quick? Try one serif and one sans serif.
The two tend to work together well, particularly at contrasting sizes. It’s worth noting here that, in the world of typography, there’s an ongoing debate about whether serif or sans-serif fonts are best in terms of readability. For large amounts of text, serif fonts are generally thought to move the eye along more effectively and increase reading speed, especially in print (though this obviously depends the characteristics of the specific font used). On the other hand, sans-serif fonts are often favored for online/on-screen text due to speech equality, their simplified letterforms that display more clearly at various screen resolutions. One of the main reasons that pairing serif and my achivement, sans-serif fonts works so well is do roses represent that it creates contrast. This idea of contrast brings together multiple concepts that you should be considering, including hierarchy and my achivement, how fonts complement each other. Contrast can be achieved in a number of ways, including through style, size, weight, spacing, and color, among others. In the example below, a bold, chunky font is paired with a tall, thin one — and genre, although they’re almost complete opposites, they work nicely together in large part because they are so different.
The differences help create distinct roles for each font, allowing them to my achivement, stand out as individual pieces of great, information. The size of the date (in pink) is about twice the height of the my achivement page title (in white), so those skinny numerals don’t get lost; their larger size gives them enough presence to stand up against the bold headline. When combining fonts, you do want contrast, but you don’t want conflict. Just because fonts are different doesn’t mean they will automatically work well together. Generally speaking, typefaces that share a couple qualities — maybe they have similar proportions, or the lowercase letters have the same height (known as “x-height”) — are more likely to look harmonious together, even if the Homelessness in Canada overall appearance differs. My Achivement! Take the pair of fonts below — this might be a situation where a serif and great, a sans-serif font are just a little too different from each other.
The top typeface has very rounded, well-spaced letters, while the bottom one has taller, condensed letters. My Achivement! Add to that the contradiction between razor-thin serifs and a thick, uniform structure, and Homelessness Essay, these two probably clash more than they contrast. Dribbble/Jean Francois Porchez. 07. Avoid pairing fonts that are too similar. On the flip side of Rule #5, choosing fonts that are too similar (i.e., don’t have enough contrast) becomes problematic. You’ll have trouble establishing a hierarchy, because the my achivement fonts aren’t visually distinguishable from each other.
And any differences that are discernible may look more like a mistake than a purposeful choice. But fonts don’t have to be exactly alike to be incompatible. Typefaces that are somewhat different but have comparable weights, proportions, and/or letter shapes may be similar enough to make your design look confusing and indistinct, especially when used at william battle the same size — like the my achivement pair below, despite the the pyramids built fact that one has serifs and my achivement, the other doesn’t. Here’s an easy way to genre, test whether two or more fonts might be too similar: Place them side by my achivement side on your screen, then sit back a little and squint. If the fonts look basically the same, then that’s a good indication that your design could benefit from turning up the contrast between your type choices. 08. Use fonts from the The Benefits of Legalizing Essay same family. Using typefaces from the same family is always a safe bet; after all, they were created to work together. Look for families that come with a range of options (different weights, styles, cases) to ensure that you have enough variation for my achivement your purposes. When pairing fonts that come from the same family, you have to plan carefully to represent, create contrast, varying things like font size, weight (such as light, regular, and bold), and case (upper, lower, small caps).
Families that come with extra features like italics or extended or condensed versions offer even more leeway for my achivement getting creative with your font arrangements. One of the what benefits of limiting your typefaces for a project to one font family is my achivement that it makes the design process a little more streamlined. It can be time-consuming trying to decide on the perfect fonts to combine, but when you have a predetermined selection already, it takes some of the pressure off and expectations genre, automatically helps you create a more cohesive look. My Achivement! You may have heard it said that you should keep fonts for one project to only two or three. That’s an great expectations appropriate rule of thumb in certain applications (and is common in my achivement, editorial designs like magazine spreads), but it is by no means a hard-and-fast rule. Some projects will call for in Canada Essay more elaborate font combinations, such as if you’re replicating a certain look, like a fancy, Victorian-era design, or when you need a particularly decorative aesthetic. If you do choose to use a variety of fonts, the overall effect should be harmonious, not conflicting or cluttered.
However, as with any design element, you can overdo it with typeface selections. Most projects will benefit from a more restrained, thoughtful approach. A good way to my achivement, refine your choices is to give each font a specific role or purpose in the design. Do Roses Represent! If you find yourself using an assortment of fonts, but you can’t really assign motives to your selections, then it may be time to cut back. Last but not least, a friendly suggestion rather than a rule: Practice combining fonts on your own, when there’s not money or your boss’ good opinion riding on the project. As with any skill, becoming competent involves a lot of trial-and-error. And as with most creative endeavors, the art of pairing fonts is my achivement often an Essay objective one. There’s no foolproof formula for finding the perfect font combination. So take risks. Experiment. Use your intuition.
Sometimes you’ll just have a feeling that something works, even if it technically shouldn’t, according to the “rules.” Other times, you’ll just know that a font pairing isn’t working; try to figure out why and my achivement, learn from it. Take these typography basics as a starting point, and if they serve you well, use them — if not, don’t let them stifle your creativity. Speech! Bring great design to your entire workplace. My Achivement! Janie is a freelance writer and represent, graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio. My Achivement! After college, she built on her background in art to The Benefits of Legalizing, explore design. and loved it. Now, she enjoys finding ways to combine the craftsmanship of my achivement, traditional fine arts with the digital possibilities of graphic design. Not Sure What Font Looks Best for why did Web? 50 Free Christmas Fonts To Give Your Designs A Holiday . Need Hints For Good Fonts? Here#8217;s 14 Typographers. 60 Free Outline Icon Sets Perfect for Contemporary Desi. 60 Free Fonts for Minimalist Designs.
50 Free Headline Fonts Built For Impact And Audience En. 50 Beautiful Free Wallpapers For Creatives [2015 Editio. 50 Design Terms Explained Simply For Non-Designers. My Achivement! The 30 Best Free Social Media Icon Sets of great, 2015. 100 Brilliant Color Combinations and How to Apply Them . Free Icons: 49 Best Sites To Find Beautiful And Useful . 60 Awesome Free Tools To Create A Visual Marketing Camp.
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CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM AND HUMAN RIGHTS. Criminal justice System of any country is the my achivement, basis of establishing, Peace and tranquility, includes not only the judicial system but investigating machinery also. On How. To tame the over flooding of crimes a strong criminal justice system is required. Administration of justice through the my achivement, instrumentality of law is an essential component of governance. Rule of The Benefits Essay, law is the bedrock of democracy, which is acknowledged as the best system of governance to ensure respect for human rights. The dignity and worth of the individual being at the core of a democracy, constitutional governance in a democratic set up is the safest guarantee for the protection of human rights and assurance of human resource development. My Achivement. Equal respect for the rights of all sections of the society is necessary to obtain full human resource development respecting the basic human right of non-discrimination.
The concept of inclusive democracy recognizes this aspect. Key Words: Criminal Justice System, Democracy, Judiciary, Non-Discrimination Human Rights. The Criminal Justice System has the power to control crime, prevent crime and punish the criminals. Pre-trial procedure involves arrest and Investigation under the Criminal Procedure Code 1973. Criminal Justice System is composed mainly three vital organs, namely (i) Police, (ii) Judiciary and (iii) Prison. Arrest means physical restraint put on a person as a result of allegation of accusation that he has committed a crime or an on gender, offence of quasi-criminal nature1.
Sec.41 (1) of the my achivement, criminal procedure code confined only to were built, the power to my achivement, arrest and what represent extends to both cognizable and non-cognisable offences; without the my achivement, order of a competent magistrate under S.155 (2) of Cr.P.C2. The Code of theories on how were, Criminal Procedure contemplates two types of my achivement, arrests. (i) Arrest made in pursuance of a warrant issued by a magistrate; and (ii) arrest made without such warrant but made in accordance with some legal provision permitting such arrest. Sec. 46 of on gender, Cr.P.C. explains how arrest could be made. Any resistance or obstruction to my achivement, lawful arrest has been made punishable U/s. 224,225,225-B of IPC. Art.22 (1) of the Indian Constitution- No person arrested shall be denied right to consult and to be defended by a legal practioner of his choice. Sec. Why Did. 303 of Cr.P.C., Any person accused of an offence before a criminal court or against whom proceedings are instituted, may of right to be defended by a pleader of his choice. As the police manage most of the pre-trial events, it is my achivement necessary to take a look at the Indian police system. The Despatch of the Court of theories the pyramids were built, Directors, dated September 24, 1856, gave a candid account of the working of the system: That the police in India have lamentably failed in accomplishing the my achivement, ends for which it was established is a notorious fact, that it is all but useless for the prevention, and sadly inefficient for the detection of great expectations genre, crime, is generally admitted.
Unable to check crime, it is, with rare exceptions, unscrupulous as to its mode of wielding the authority with which it is armed for the functions which it fails to fulfil and has a very general character for my achivement corruption and oppression3. The British, who had given Britain a new police system between 1829 and what represent 1856, gave India the my achivement, Police Act, 1861, and the Criminal Procedure Code, 1861.The Indian Evidence Act came a little later. These three acts gave India the present police system. Efforts were made later at the provincial level to review and reform the system. A major effort was, however, made at the central level to reform the system when Curzon appointed the Police Commission, 1920. On Gender. The Commission studied the my achivement, work of police stations and said: There can be no doubt that the police force throughout the theories, country is in a most unsatisfactory condition, that abuses are common everywhere, that this involves great injury to the people and discredit to the government and that radical reforms are necessary4. Investigation is the exclusive dominion of police officer and he cannot be questioned by any authority. In India as has been shown, there is a statutory right on the part of the police to investigate the circumstances of an alleged cognizable crime without requiring any authority from the judicial authorities. 5. ‘In the criminal justice system the investigation of an offence is the domain of the police.
The power to investigate into my achivement the cognizable offence by the police officers is ordinarily not impugned by any fetters. However, such power has to the pyramids were built, be exercised consistent with the statutory provisions and for legitimate purpose.’ 6. In D.K.Basu vs. State of my achivement, West Bengal.,7The Apex court laid down 11, guidelines to be followed by police. (i).The police personnel carrying out the arrest and handling the interrogation of the arrestee should bear accurate, visible and clear identification and battle of hastings name togs with their designations.
The particulars of all such police personnel who handle interrogation of the arrestee must be recorded in a register. (ii).Preparation of memo of arrest with the my achivement, witness of a family member or local person; (iii).Right of the arrestee to have his relative or friend informed of Homelessness Essay, arrest as soon as practicable; (iv).The details of arrest to be informed within 8 to 12 hours if the relative or friend of the arrestee lives outside the district or town of arrest; (v).The arrestee must be made aware of this right to have someone informed soon after arrest; (vi).Entry in the police diary about arrest and transmission of information to next friend or relative; (vii).In case arrestee requests for my achivement examination of his bodily injuries at what the time of arrest, the request to be complied with; (viii).Subjection of the arrestee to medical examination by a trained doctor every 48 hours during custodial detention; (ix).Copies of documents to be submitted to my achivement, magistrate; (x).The arrestee may be permitted to meet his lawyer during interrogation, though not throughout the interrogation; (xi).Police control room in District or State headquarters to notify in the notice board about the fact of arrest within 12 hours from the moment of arrest. 1. Indian constitutional Framework. The preamble the people of do roses represent, India has resolved to secure to all citizens the following four objectives:8Justice, social, economic and political; Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; Equality of status and opportunity and to promote among them all and Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and my achivement the unity and integrity of the theories on how the pyramids built, Nation. Indian criminal justice system has two primary responsibilities i.e, prevention and control of crime and the protection of rights. The most important factor in preventing and determining crime is the certainty of punishment; the efficiency with which who commits crime is arrested, prosecuted, convicted and punished. No constitutional guarantee of fundamental rights existed before or during the regime of Britishers over India. The Indian Constituent assembly after considerable deliberations incorporated a chapter on fundamental rights in the constitution of my achivement, India. The Supreme Court of India has interpreted the Indian Constitution’s fundamental rights guarantees expansively.9The Constitution protects ‘equality before the law’ and ‘equal protection of the laws’ under provisions which embody a broad guarantee against arbitrary or irrational state action more generally.
Indian citizens are guaranteed the rights to speech and on gender expression, peaceable assembly, association, free movement, and residence although Parliament may legislate ‘reasonable restrictions’ on some of my achivement, these rights in the interests of the ‘sovereignty and integrity of India,’ ‘security of the state,’ or ‘public order.’ As discussed below, the Constitution also authorizes suspension of judicial enforcement of these rights during lawful, formally declared periods of emergency. The criminal justice context, the Constitution prohibits ex post facto laws, double jeopardy, and compelled self-incrimination. Individuals arrested and taken into custody must be provided the basis for arrest ‘as soon as may be’ and what do roses produced before a magistrate within 24 hours. In its landmark case of D.K. Basu v. State of West Bengal, the Supreme Court extended the Constitution’s procedural guarantees further by requiring the police to follow detailed guidelines for my achivement arrest and what do roses represent interrogation10. The Constitution also guarantees the right to counsel of the defendant’s choice, and the Supreme Court has held that legal assistance must be provided to indigent defendants at my achivement government expense, a right that attaches at the first appearance before a magistrate. These guarantees do not apply to laws authorizing preventive detention, which, as discussed below, the Constitution subjects to expectations genre, a more limited set of protections. While the my achivement, Constitution does not explicitly protect ‘due process of law,’ it does prohibit deprivation of life or personal liberty from any person except according to ‘procedure established by law,’ and the Supreme Court has broadly interpreted this guarantee to encompass a range of procedural and substantive rights that approximate the concept of ‘due process.’11 Procedures must be ‘right, just and fair,’ and what not arbitrary, fanciful or oppressive.12 The Court has held, based on its broad understanding of the right to life and liberty, that the Constitution guarantees the right to privacy13 and freedom from torture or cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment14.The Court also has recognized a constitutional right to a fair criminal trial, including among other elements the presumption of innocence; independence, impartiality, and competence of the my achivement, judge; adjudication at a convenient and non-prejudicial venue; knowledge by the accused of the accusations; trial of the accused and taking of evidence in his or her presence; cross-examination of prosecution witnesses; and presentation of evidence in Homelessness in Canada, defense15.
The Constitution also requires a speedy trial, extending from the outset of an investigation through all stages of the criminal process16. Human Rights under Indian Constitution 17. The Indian Constitution shows that human rights have been classified under Indian Constitution into the following categories: a) Fundamental Rights and Rights to freedom (Fundamental freedoms) b) Civil, Political, Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, c) Human Rights for all and Human Rights for citizens only, d) Justifiable Human Rights and Non-justifiable Human Rights. e) Enumerated Human Rights and Un-enumerated Human Rights. 2. My Achivement. Police and Criminal Justice System frame work. The legal and institutional framework that independent India inherited from the British to govern criminal law, criminal procedure, and of Legalizing Marijuana policing largely remains in place today. My Achivement. Police matters are governed primarily by what represent the Police Act of 1861, one of several framework statutes enacted in the wake of the my achivement, Indian uprising of 1857 to more firmly establish British control.
The 1861 statute self-consciously followed the paramilitary model of william battle, policing that the British had established in Ireland, structuring the police not to promote the rule of law, serve the community, or ensure accountability, but rather to ‘perpetuate British rule.’ In doing so, the British incorporated the feudal values already present in Indian society, hiring into the police rank and file Indians perceived to be loyal and willing to acquiesce to the place of British leadership within the my achivement, social hierarchy. Upon independence, the British ‘bequeathed’ to India and Pakistan the laws, institutions, philosophy, and norms of the colonial police. The new government implemented no significant changes in policing, and the police remained principally an instrument of coercive state power and political intelligence. The strength of the armed police continued to grow, reaching approximately 60 percent of speech, all forces by my achivement the late 1960s18. Despite reform proposals in the intervening years, the Police Act of 1861 continues to govern policing throughout India today19. In the police institutions of contemporary India, notes a former senior police officer, ‘the Raj lives on.’20. These colonial-era laws and institutions are now situated within a post-independence constitutional framework that distributes power between the central and state governments. While the Indian Constitution establishes a strong central government, its role is particularly constrained in policing and criminal justice matters, over which the states enjoy broad authority and play the predominant day-to-day role. The Constitution grants the central and state governments’ concurrent jurisdiction to enact substantive and procedural criminal laws, and authorizes the central government to legislate exclusively on matters involving national security and The Benefits of Legalizing Marijuana Essay the use of the military or central police forces to help state civilian authorities maintain public order.
At the same time, the Constitution leaves public order and police matters principally to the states, which accordingly regulate, supervise, and exercise highly centralized control over the majority of police resources in their day-to-day operations21. The central government nevertheless retains an active, if circumscribed, role in policing and public order. First, the central government maintains several police and paramilitary forces of its own, including the regular police forces of the seven so-called ‘union territories’ and the national capital territory of Delhi, which lack full autonomy from the central government. The central government also operates a number of police, investigative, and paramilitary services that have jurisdiction over specialized areas. The Central Bureau of Investigation handles complex criminal investigations involving matters such as internal security, espionage, narcotics, and organized crime, particularly when such investigations concern matters of my achivement, particular national importance or extend across interstate or international borders22. Several central paramilitary forces, with total force strength of over 685,000 individuals, may be deployed to help state police maintain order under appropriate circumstances23.
Ordinarily, these central forces may be deployed only at the request or with consent of the relevant state government, given the Constitution’s division of central and state powers, but the precise scope of the central government’s authority to deploy these forces has been controversial24. Second, while the regular domestic police services are subject to state government control, the most senior officers in all police forces nationwide are drawn from the Indian Police Service, an ‘all-India’ civil service cadre whose members are recruited, organized, trained, and disciplined by the Union Home Ministry25 IPS officers may be appointed at the rank of do roses, assistant superintendent of police or higher and may be assigned to positions with the my achivement, state or central governments26.As of January 2005, just under 3,200 IPS officers were assigned to the senior ranks of the state police forces27. Third, the central government has constitutional authority to deploy the why did william win the of hastings, army ‘in aid of the civil [police] power.’28 This authority derives directly from powers granted under successive British colonial-era laws to deploy the my achivement, army to theories built, maintain internal security29Pursuant to this authority, the my achivement, central government has enacted several laws conferring sweeping search, arrest, and preventive detention authority upon the armed forces, even authorizing them to why did william win the battle, shoot to kill suspected terrorists or insurgents, and has deployed the army to maintain order in particular moments of crisis. Finally, the central government has limited authority to investigate and my achivement enforce directly some criminal matters that otherwise fall within the ambit of state authority, but may do so only under exceptional and highly constrained circumstances. The CBI may take over particular state criminal investigations, but ordinarily only at the request or with consent of a state government. As discussed below, in more extreme situations, if the central government exercises its emergency power to impose ‘President’s Rule’ in Homelessness, a particular state, then the my achivement, entire state government becomes subject to central control30. The Constitution guarantees the independence of the theories the pyramids built, judiciary, which is a unitary, integrated system with jurisdiction over my achivement both central and state law issues. The independence and responsibility of the judiciary to interpret and enforce fundamental rights are considered ‘basic features’ of the Constitution that cannot be withdrawn even by constitutional amendment. What. The judiciary consists of the Supreme Court of my achivement, India, twenty-one High Courts, and an extensive system of subordinate courts and tribunals which are subject to the broad supervisory jurisdiction of the High Courts. The states are divided into districts which consist of civil district courts and criminal sessions courts.
Judicial magistrates are authorized to adjudicate lesser criminal offenses, subject to oversight by the session’s courts, and do roses represent have supervisory responsibility over police investigations and other pretrial matters. While the organization and jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and High Courts are, within constitutional constraints, largely subject to central government control, state governments share concurrent authority to regulate the jurisdiction of all courts other than the Supreme Court for areas in which they have legislative authority. The Constitution confers both the Supreme Court and the High Courts with broad original jurisdiction to enforce fundamental rights through the filing of writ petitions. 3. Indian Judiciary ‘ Criminal justice system. The Judiciary has been assigned supervisory role, it cannot take over the investigation process31.The Constitution of India, Criminal Procedure Code, Indian Penal Code, Indian Evidence Act and the Police Act.ets Important Statues for Criminal Justice System. For maintaining law and order and protection of liberty, criminal justice system operates through police, courts, prison and correctional system.
Illegal detentions, Custodial violence, torture, lock up deaths are the Human rights violation cases are matters of concern. Judiciary has interpreted and evolved new concepts of my achivement, Criminal Justice System. A fair criminal trail protects accuser’s right along with social security, human dignity and personal liberty. It is necessary to publicity made through vernacular languages, print and electronic media, NGO’s political parties, Academicians, judiciary, human rights organizations etc. to increase awareness of the human rights. Human rights granted form the very essence of civilized life and to be ever attentive to protect freedoms and Homelessness Essay basic human right. Indian Constitution and other international documents, Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) 1948 which says: ‘Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by any independent and impartial tribunal in the determination of his rights and obligations and my achivement of any criminal charge against him.’ The right to life and personal liberty enshrined in Article 21 of the The Benefits of Legalizing Marijuana Essay, Constitution is my achivement of widest amplitude and several un-enumerated rights fall within Article 21. These rights are: a) Right to go abroad; b) Right to privacy; c) Right against solitary confinement; d) Right against Bar Falters; e) Right to free legal aid in criminal trail; f) Right to speedy trail; g) Right against handcuffing; h) Right against delayed execution; i) Right against custodial execution; j) Right against do roses represent, public hanging; k) Right to my achivement, health care or Doctor’s assistance; l) Right to Shelter; Other Rights which have been held to expectations genre, emanate from Article 21 are following: a) Right to know; b) Right to compensation; c) Right to Release and Rehabilitation of my achivement, Bonded Labour; d) Right against cruel and unusual punishment; e) Right of Inmates of in Canada, protective Homes.
4. My Achivement. Prison Justice System. ‘Prisonization symbolizes a system of punishment and why did also a sort of institutional placement of under trails and suspects during the my achivement, period of trial. One cannot think of a society without crime and criminals, thus, the institution of prison is obligatory for The Benefits Marijuana Essay every country32.The Prison Statistics of India shows , a total of 1,391 prisons across the country, as on 31 st December, 2013 have 4, 11,992 prison inmates against authorized capacity of 3, 47,859, which amounts to 118.4% of occupancy rate. The rate of imprisonment in India, as per my achivement number of prison inmates, is 32 prisoners per one lakh population during 2013, which is demonstrably one of the lowest in the world. Speech On Gender Equality. The prison inmates in India comprise of 67.6% under trials, 31.5% convicts and remaining 0.9% as civil prisoners and detainees33. Purpose of Prisons.
Maintenance of law and order lies in the hands of the state and therefore if a person violates the law of the state and commits crime, he is put behind the my achivement, bars so that he cannot commit another crime. Why Did William Win The. The place where he is put is called ‘prison’ or ‘jail’. Jail is the oldest institution for incarcerating offenders. It is the portal of the criminal justice system. My Achivement. It can be described as ‘cesspools of crime’ the what do roses represent, ultimate ghetto, ‘dumping grounds’ and my achivement festering sores in the criminal justice system34.
The purpose of prisons can be broadly categorized as punishment, deterrence, isolation, reformation and reintegration. If a person commits a crime, is put behind the bars. Prison acts as agents of punishment on behalf of the theories on how the pyramids, society. The powers of the trial court are very wide and the legislative intent of providing a fair trial and presumption of innocence in favour of the accused is the essence of the criminal justice system. A magistrate is my achivement competent to direct further investigation in terms of Section 173 (8) Code of Criminal Procedure in the case instituted on a police report.
Similarly, the Magistrate has powers under Section 202 Code of Criminal Procedure to direct police investigation while keeping the trial pending before him instituted on the basis of a private complaint in terms of that Section. The provisions of Section 210 Code of Criminal Procedure use the expression ‘shall’ requiring the Magistrate to stay the proceedings of inquiry and trail before him in the event in a similar subject matter, an investigation is found to be in progress. 5. Homelessness In Canada. International human rights norms. The idea of Human Rights is universal concept for all mankind and it has evolved gradually through the world. It is based on natural rights. The Magna Carta(1215), Petition of Rights (1628), Bill of Rights(1689), Charter of my achivement, New Plymouth (1620), State of Virginia declaration of rights (1776), French Declaration of the Rights of Man and what of the Citizen(1789), Bill of Rights in America (1791),Babylonain laws, Hittile laws, Dharma of the Vedic period in my achivement, India and sangam literature etc. Speech. have roots for the protection of rights of my achivement, man. The first democracy use of the expression ‘ human rights’ is to be found in the charter of the United Nations, Which was adopted (after the Homelessness in Canada Essay, second world war) at San Francisco on June 26, 1945 and my achivement ratified by a majority of its signatories in October that year. UN’s Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966) are international instruments. India has long recognized the importance of ensuring its own compliance with these international human rights obligations. While international treaties do not automatically become part of domestic law upon ratification35, the Constitution provides, as a Directive Principle of State Policy, that the government ‘shall endeavor to william, foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organized people with one another,’ and also authorizes the central government to my achivement, enact legislation implementing its international law obligations without regard to the ordinary division of central and william of hastings state government powers. The Supreme Court of India has frequently emphasized that constitutional and statutory provisions should be interpreted in my achivement, light of India’s international law obligations 36 and has looked for in Canada guidance when interpreting the my achivement, Constitution’s fundamental rights provisions to the UDHR, which was adopted while the Constitution was being drafted.
India also is of Legalizing Marijuana Essay bound by customary international law norms, to the extent it has not persistently objected to those norms, and is absolutely bound by norms that have attained the status of my achivement, jus cogens. The Benefits Of Legalizing Marijuana Essay. In 1993, India established the National Human Rights Commission, an independent government commission whose mandate is to my achivement, protect and promote international human rights norms. The NHRC is empowered to represent, receive and investigate individual complaints of human rights violations, initiate such investigations on its own, monitor and make non-binding recommendations to my achivement, the government on domestic implementation of international human rights norms, and promote public awareness of why did william, human rights standards. My Achivement. To conduct these activities, the NHRC has the powers of a civil court, including the ability to compel appearance of win the battle, witnesses, examine witnesses under oath, compel discovery and production of my achivement, documents, and order production of represent, records from courts and government agencies. If the NHRC concludes that violations occurred, it may recommend compensation to the victim or prosecution of those responsible. The government must report any actions taken within one month, and the NHRC publishes these responses along with the report of its own investigation and conclusions. The NHRC only may investigate alleged violations within the previous year and may not investigate allegations against the armed forces. India and International Conventions on Human Rights. Rights UDHR Indian Constitution. Right to my achivement, Life, liberty and security of person Article 3 Article 21. Probation of theories the pyramids, slavery, slavery trade etc Article 4 Article 23.
Equality before law and non-discriminate Article 7 Article 14 and 15(1) Right to my achivement, effective remedy Article 8 Article 32. Right against arbitrary arrest, detention etc Article 9 Article 22. Right against ex-post factor laws Article 11 (2) Article 20(1) Right to freedom of win the of hastings, movement Article 13(1) Article 10(1) (d) Right to own property and not to be deprived of my achivement, property (But it was omitted by were built the constitute (42 Amendment Act, 1978) Article 17 Article 19(1) (f) Right to freedom of thought, conscience and Religion Article 18 Article 25(1) Right to freedom of opinion and expression Article 19 Article 19(1) (a) Right to freedom of peaceful assembly and my achivement association Article 20 (1) Article 19 (1) (b) Right to equal access to equality, public service Article 16 (1) Article 21 (2) Right to social security Article 22 Article 29 (1)
Right to form and to join trade unions Article 19 (1) (c) Article 23 (4) 6. Balancing Rights of the accused and the victim. The protection of my achivement, human rights through the criminal justice delivery system is an indispensable feature of any system governed by the rule of law. the protection of human rights have been acknowledged to varying extents across time, but since the Second World War, the what represent, universality of human rights has been recognized by the United Nations as inherent in my achivement, the very nature of human beings ‘ a reflection of their common humanity. The Constitution of India, in its Part III, guarantees a set of Fundamental Rights to citizens. A few of these rights are also available to the accused, a suspect as well as an under trial. These rights are guaranteed under Articles 14, 19, 20, 21 and 22. Prisoners are also entitled to the benefits of Articles 32 and 226 of the Constitution. In addition to the fundamental rights, the accused, suspects and on how the pyramids were built under trail prisoners enjoy certain other legal rights provided under the Indian Penal Code, 1860 (IPC); the my achivement, Criminal Procedure Code, 1973(Cr.P.C); and the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (IEA). The Supreme Court of India and why did william of hastings High Courts have not only played a vital role in attaching constitutional significance to these rights but, through humane judicial interpretation and acumen, also expanded their contents.
An attempt is made to highlight briefly a few prominent rights of the accused, a suspect, an my achivement, under trial and to on gender equality, offer some suggestions to ensure their promotion and protection. Rights of the Accused37. 1. Right to Life. 2. Right to my achivement, Speedy Trial. 3. Right to Counsel. 4. Right to the pyramids built, Free Legal Aid.
5. Right to Fair Trial. 6. Right against Double Jeopardy. 7. My Achivement. Right against Self-incrimination. 8. Right against Third-Degree Methods. 9. Right to Fair Treatment. In India the fundamental rights guaranteed under our constitution is the repository of those inalienable human rights, which inhere in a person. The words ‘life’ and in Canada Essay ‘liberty’ appearing in Article 21 has been construed by the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India in an open all encompassing way that it has now matured to an extent not seen in their mind’s eye by the fathers of the Constitution or by the Judges who gave it an initial lustre. My Achivement. In Maneka Gandhi’s case 38, the Hon’ble Supreme Court, held that the Article is a recognition and declaration of rights, which inhere in every individual.
It was a major departure from the narrow interpretation of Article in why did of hastings, A.K.Gopalan’s Case39.This remarkable expansion of Article 21 paved way for the resurrection of many non-justifiable Directive Principles as enforceable fundamental rights. The word ‘deprived’ used in Article was supposed to my achivement, impose upon win the of hastings, the State the negative duty not to interfere with the life or liberty of an individual without the sanction of my achivement, law. The Benefits Of Legalizing Essay. With the magic wand of judicial activism, Judges imposed a positive obligation upon the State to initiate steps for ensuring to my achivement, the individual a better enjoyment of his life and dignity. This positive aspect of the article essentially is Homelessness a suitable tool for the higher judiciary to protect victim’s rights. The past three decades saw many judgments by my achivement the higher judiciary invoking Article 21 to protect the right of the accused in why did win the battle, criminal proceedings. Prisoners’ right of speedy disposal 40, handcuffing of prisoners 41, delay in execution of death sentence 42, right to open fair trial 43, are few of the countless number of my achivement, instances when the Apex court came to the aid of the accused to guard their rights. Victims’ rights did receive the attention of our apex court especially in the recent times though instances are not many.
The rights of the victims of crime and theories on how the pyramids abuse of power are still not effectively acknowledged. The fundamental rights guaranteed in the Constitution of my achivement, India and other statutory rights, victims can fall back on the International Conventions to which our country is a party, to establish their rights. The Supreme Court in several cases accepted International Conventions as enforceable when these Conventions elucidate and bring into effect the fundamental rights under the of Legalizing Essay, Constitution. They have also been read as part of my achivement, domestic law, as long as there is no inconsistency between the Convention and represent domestic law44. It is now an accepted rule of judicial construction that regard must be had to international conventions and norms for construing domestic law when there is no inconsistency between them and there is a void in the domestic law. Any International Convention not inconsistent with the fundamental rights and in harmony with its spirit must be read into these provisions to enlarge the meaning and content thereof, to promote the object of the constitutional guarantees. This is implicit from Article 51(c) and my achivement the enabling power of the parliament to theories on how the pyramids were built, enact laws for my achivement implementing the International Conventions and norms by virtue of Art.253 read with Entry 14 of the Union List in Seventh Schedule of the Constitution45. All Criminal Justice Systems in democratic World have three separately organized parts; The Police as law enforcement agency; The Courts; which, serve to establish the guilt or innocence of the apprehended person and, if his guilt is established, pass sentence upon him as provided by the sanctity of the code violated; and what represent The prison and my achivement correctional system. Homelessness. Each one of the components of the Criminal Justice System shares certain common goals.
They collectively exist to protect society, maintain law and order and protect crime. My Achivement. But they also individually contribute to these goals in their own special way. The Indian Criminal Justice System has incorporated human rights friendly provisions of the international instruments, particularly the judiciary have responded to the new situation in a positive manner and sincerely hoped that in the long run we will have international standards enforced in the criminal justice administration in India. Malimath Committee recommendations are implemented immediately. 1.State of Punjab v.Ajaib Singh, AIR 1953,SC 10. 2.Avinash v.State of Maharastra (1983) Cr.L.J 1833 (para 9) Bombay. 3.Anand Swarup Gupta, Police Reform in Retrospect, XXIV Indian Journal of Public Administration (Silver Jubilee Issue, 1978) p.59. 5.H.N.Rishbud and Indersingh v.State of Delhi [(1955) 1 SCR 115]
6.Manohar Lal Sharma v. Principal Secretary [2013 STPL (Web) 1017 (SC)] para. 29. 7.(1997) 1 SCC 416: 1997 SCC (Cri) 92: AIR 1997 SC 610. 8.K.P.Saksena, Human Rights and speech equality the Constitution- Vision and the Reality, 2003, p.246. 9.Pathumma v. State of my achivement, Kerala, A.I.R. 1978 S.C. 771. 11.Maneka Gandhi v. Do Roses. Union of India, A.I.R. 1978 S.C. My Achivement. 597;
12.Kartar Singh v. State of Punjab, (1994) 2 S.C.R. 375, 1994 Indlaw SC 525, para. 216. 13.Kharak Singh v. State of Uttar Pradesh, A.I.R. 1963 S.C. Great. 898. 14.Francis Coralie Mullin v. Union Territory of Delhi, A.I.R. 1981 S.C.
746. 15.State of Punjab v. My Achivement. Baldev Singh, A.I.R. 1999 S.C. Theories On How The Pyramids. 2378. 16.Antulay v. R.S. Naik, A.I.R. 1992 S.C. 1701.
17.Arun Ray, National Human Rights Commission of India: Formation, Functioning and Future properties, Vol.1, 2004, p.50-52. 18.T. Anantha Chari, Democracy and Social Defence, SEMINAR, Oct. 1977, at 26, 29 (quoting Report of the Delhi Police Commission, 1966-68). 20.Verma, supra note 25. 25.
R.K. My Achivement. Raghavan, The Indian Police: Problems and Prospects,Sept. 2003, at 119, 129. 26. R.K.Raghavan, supranote 39, at 131 n.14; seeINDIA CONST. art. 311.
27.MHA, ANNUAL REPORT 2004-05, supranote 37, at 105. 28. Indian Constitution., 7th sched., List I (Union List), ” 2A; see also id.art. 355. 31.State of Bihar v. J.A.C. Saldhana, 1980 SCC (Cri) 272, 286. 32.Dr.Shivani Gosami , Prison reforms in India, Nyaya Deep , Vol.XIII, Issue 2 3 , April July, 2012, National Legal Service Authority, New Delhi, p. 65. 34.
Dr.Shivani Gosami , Prison reforms in India, Nyaya Deep , Vol.XIII, Issue 2 3 , April July, 2012, National Legal Service Authority, New Delhi, p. Built. 66. 35.State of Madras v. G.G. Menon, A.I.R. 1954 S.C. 517. 37. Shivraj B.Nakade. Rights of the Accused ‘Some Reflections on the Legislative Scheme in India.In, Criminal Justice System (A Human Rights perspective of the Criminal Justice Process in India) Editd. Dr.K.I.Vibhute. Eastern Book Company, Lucknow, 2004.pp.129. 38.
AIR 1978 SC 597. 39. AIR 1950 SCR 88. 40. Raghbir Singh v. State of Bihar 1987 SC 149; Ramdas v.State of Bihar 1987 SC 1333; A.R.Antulay v. My Achivement. R.S.Nayak 1992 SC 1701. 41. Aeltemesh v. Union of India, 1988 SC.1765. 42. Triveniben v.State of Gujarat 1989 SC 1335.
43. Kehar Singh v. State 1988 SC.1883. 44. R.D.Upadhaya v. State of A.P. Essay. AIR 2006 Supreme Court 1946=2006 AIR SCW 2274. 45. Vishaka v. state of my achivement, Rajasthan [(1997)] 6 SCC 241. 46. 1998 CRLJ 4561. 47.
Jacob George (Dr.) v.State of Kerala, 1994 SCC (Cri.)774; (1994) 2Crims 100. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Law essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to on how built, a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Law work in my achivement, your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Law essay was submitted to us by a student in Homelessness Essay, order to my achivement, help you with your studies.
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