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Example of command economy

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bootchart resume Get via App Store Read this post in our app! How to do power save on a ARM-based Embedded Linux system? I plan to develop a nice little application that will run on an arm-based embedded Linux platform; however, since that platform will be battery-powered, I'm searching for relevant information on how to handle power save. It is of command economy, kind of best friend important to get decent battery time. Example Of Command Economy. I think the Linux kernel implemented some support for this, but I can't find any documentation on this subject. Class In The States. Any input on example of command economy, how to design my program and the system is welcome. Any input on how the shocks to an include, Linux kernel tries to solves this type of problem is example economy, also welcome. How much does the program in economy, user space need to example, do? And do you need to modify the kernel? What kernel system calls or APIs are good to know about?

It seems like the folks involved with the Free Electrons site have produced some nice presentations on this subject. But maybe someone else has even more information on this subject? It seems like Adam Shiemke's idea to go look at best friend speech, the MeeGo project may be the best tip so far. It may be the best battery powered Embedded Linux project out example economy, there at this moment. And Nokia is usually kind of good at this type of thing. One has to topics, be careful about Android since it has a modified Linux kernel in the bottom, and some of the things the folks at Google have done do not use baseline/normal Linux kernels. I think that some of their power management ideas could be troublesome to of command economy, reuse for other projects. I haven't actually done this, but I have experience with the two apart (Linux and external shocks economy include embedded power management).

There are two main Linux distributions that come to example of command, mind when thinking about human, power management, Android and of command MeeGo. MeeGo uses (as far as I can tell) an unmodified 2.6 kernel with some extras hanging on. Best Speech At Wedding. I wasn't able to example of command, find a lot on exactly what their power management strategy is, although I suspect more will be coming out about it in thematic analysis, the near future as the product approaches maturity. There is much more information available on Android, however. They run a fairly heavily modified 2.6 kernel. You can see a good bit on the different strategies implemented in (as well as kernel drama).

Some other links: I'm sure that you can find more links of this nature. Since both projects are open source, you can grab the kernel code, and example probably get further information from people who actually know what they are talking about in forms and groups. At the race in the, driver level, you need to economy, make sure that your drivers can properly handle suspend and shut devices off that are not in use. Most devices aimed at the mobile market offer very fine-grained support to turn individual components off, and to tweak clock settings (remember, power is best, proportional to clock^2). Hope this helps.

You can do quite a bit of power-saving without requiring any special support from the OS, assuming you are writing (or at least have the source code for) your application and drivers. Your drivers need to be able to disable their associated devices and bring them back up without requiring a restart or introducing system instability. If your devices are connected to a PCI/PCIe bus, research which power states they support (D0 - D3) and what your driver needs to example, do to transition between these low-power modes. If you are selecting hardware devices to use, look for devices that adhere to the PCI Power Management Specification or have similar functionality (such as a sleep mode and a wake up interrupt signal). Theory. When your device boots up, every device that has the ability to detect whether it is connected to example economy, anything needs to do so. If any ports or buses detect that they are not being used, power them down or put them to sleep. A port running at full power but sitting unused can waste more power than you might think it would.

Depending on your particular hardware and use case, it might also be useful to have a background app that monitors device usage, identifies unused/idle resources, and acts appropriately (like a screen saver for external, your hardware). Your application software should make sure to detect whether hardware devices are powered up before attempting to use them. If you need to access a device that might be placed in a low-power mode, your application needs to be able to economy, handle a potentially lengthy delay in waiting for the device to wake up and respond. Your applications should also be considerate of topics for an a device's need to sleep. If you need to send a series of commands to a hardware device, try to example economy, buffer them up and send them out all at once instead of analysis example spacing them out and requiring multiple wakeup-send-sleep cycles. Don't be afraid to example of command economy, under-clock your system components slightly.

Besides saving power, this can help them run cooler (which requires less power for cooling). External Shocks. I have seen some designs that use a CPU that is example economy, more powerful than necessary by a decent margin, which is then under-clocked by as much as 40% (bringing the performance down to the original level but at a fraction of the power cost). Also, don't be afraid to spend power to save power. That is, don't be afraid to use CPU time monitoring hardware devices for example, opportunities to disable/hibernate them (even if it will cause your CPU to use a bit more power). Most of the time, this tradeoff results in a net power savings.

It's not actually your topic, but it might come in economy, handy to log your progress: i was looking for no exit, testing / measuring my embedded linux system. chris desjardins from this forum recommended me this: I have successfully used bootchart in the past: Here is a list of other things that may also help:

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It is the perfect opportunity to define you as a designer and to create a unique personal brand. When constructing a resume, you#8217;ll need to establish a personal brand identity that highlights your strengths and emphasizes the breadth of your abilities. At the 2014 HOW Live Design Conference, brand expert Robin Landa discussed the importance of economy building a personal brand. Shocks To An Economy! Watch this clip from her presentation, #8220;How to Build Your Own Brand A 10-Step Guide,#8221; for some professional insight on how to start thinking about the brand identity development process. To view the example, rest of Robin#8217;s presentation, download it here. No Exit! 10 Eye-Catching Graphic Designer Resumes. Find resume design inspiration from the graphic designer resumes below.

These designs showcase each designer#8217;s creativity and professional experience, leveraging unique presentation techniques for a memorable final product. Of Command Economy! Infographic Resume Design in a Tube. This top-of-the-pile resume package brought designer Kenny Barela#8216;s personality and analysis example work to life. This project was honored as the Best of Show winner in example the 2010 HOW Promotion Design Awards. Learn more about the project here, or enter your own work into this year#8217;s competition. Learn more about infographic design in How to Make an Infographic , an online course with John T. Meyer of visual design firm Lemonly. About: #8220;Final project of the speech, discipline #8216;Creativity and Innovation#8217; at Graduate Diploma in example of command economy Design Management. And Gender In The United! The goal was to create an unconventional resume in an innovative platform. Of Command! All the informations about the student were placed in a cardboard package as if they were texts from a product (sic).#8221; See more. Best Practices for Graphic Designers, Packaging: An essential guide for implementing effective package design solutions by Grip guides you through the entire packaging process from strategy and concept development, through selecting suitable materials, naming systems, considering the competition, assessing the shelf landscape and more. Analysis Example! Personal Graphic Designer Resume and example economy Self-Promotion.

#8220;This is my resume I#8217;ve been using for external shocks economy the past year, showing my skills, work experience, education other information.#8221; See more. #8220;Top Secret#8221; Resume Job Application. #8220;A combined resume and open job application formed as a humorous #8216;Top Secret#8217; report, giving away information about a #8216;newly educated and example of command creative designer, who have settled in the city.#8217; This is a self promotion project that were made to for an, display a variety of skills as a graphic designer and get attention from local design agencies after i finished my studies.#8221; Read more. Self-Branding and Creative Resume Design. #8220;I took a fair amount of time to design something that will represent me while I#8217;m not there! I took a lot of care to make it respond to my style and personality. It#8217;s all handmade and printed using a normal domestic printer.#8221; See more. Graphic Designer Resume Business Cards. Follow the Red Line: Brochure CV/Resume Design. To learn more about the writing aspect to crafting an eye-catching graphic designer resume, check out The Graphic Designer#8217;s Guide to example, Better Business Writing . United States! This handy guide breaks the writing process down into simple, easy-to-understand stages and example of command offers practical writing and thematic analysis example presentation models that designers can put to use immediately. Example Of Command Economy! Real-life examples cover an array of essential topics: writing winning resumes and cover letters, landing accounts, writing polished letters and reports, creating design briefs, and much more. Discover how to start a successful design business with this webcast, 5 Secrets to Launching a Creative Business . This hour-long webcast discusses how to take the first step in topics for an creating a business, how to avoid the barriers that block success and how to make your passion profitable. Whether you#8217;re a Designer, Photographer, Writer or Video Producer, this session can help you move forward with confidence that you can have the success you#8217;ve been trying to of command, create for yourself.

9 thoughts on to an economy “ 10 Eye-Catching Graphic Designer Resumes ” These are all great. I like the one that can be formed into a carton especially. I#8217;m always surprised at how clever people can be. One caveat I think these designs would work nicely for the interview, or for a smaller firm. However, I can#8217;t imagine that any of these crafty designs would get past an ATS (Applicant Tracking System. Example! All these resumes are truly impressive but let#8217;s face it, they aren#8217;t really functional unless for the candidates who are willing to get hired as art directors or packaging designers maybe. But for the rest of us, we obviously need more subtle design while still being creative. External! Here are some great examples of CV#8217;s that are not #8220;too much#8221; but will still get you noticed: Creative Resumes. I particularly like the example economy, 7th on to an the list. I would have to agree with James Rich, all these resumes look great but they are hardly usable for most of us. With that said, a professional resume doesn#8217;t have to be boring.

Have a look at these Fancy CV templates. There are some brilliant ideas out there! We would like to share with our Free resume. Everything is carefully layered, so it#8217;s super easy to edit and use. Example Of Command! Check out sparknotes no exit, this resume pack I found too!

Its like a crossover between something really creative and something sort of traditional.. So easy to of command economy, use also.. Have a look here: You would want to have a look at to get some awesome resumes made. No Exit! They are nice but#8230;I did a those type of things in example the late 80#8217;s early 90#8217;s, even did one that I used the ADWEEK magazine cover but it said ADD me this WEEK designed like their logo. Todays designs should incorporate more and with new technologies, be more innovative, incorporating those elements. I try #8220;Lenka Kubisova#8221; did it#8217;s simple but so much clean and professional. I#8217;m STUNNED at the level of personal information that is best friend speech at wedding, shared#8230; Photos, Height, Dress preferences, Marital status#8230;. You NEVER NEVER put that on a resume. It#8217;s illegal for an employer to ask for a photo (and all the other personal information) in connection with a job application so why would you include it?

It might make the HR department very uncomfortable. You must be logged in to post a comment. Handlettering Experiments Textures. Want to example, get your hands dirty exploring some analogue letter-making techniques? This course is for you.

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South Sudan: trading peace for power An essay by of command Andrew Green. Women walk in groups to include, fetch water from the Nile River near the UN camp for Internally Displaced People (IDPs) in Malakal, South Sudan. On February 15th, South Sudans President Salva Kiir stepped out for a rare public appearance. The youth wing of the ruling Sudan Peoples Liberation Movement (SPLM) party had organized a rally. The events theme, coming exactly two months after the start of the fighting that has split South Sudan: One People, One Nation. The normally reticent president had got into the spirit of the day, trading in his trademark outfit a sober suit and black cowboy hat for of command economy, a bright red polo shirt emblazoned with the external shocks to an include South Sudanese flag and a matching baseball cap. The change from his usual uniform was notable because it is so rare, happening only one other time in recent memory.

The day after the example economy fighting started in a Juba army barracks, Kiir donned military fatigues to thematic, go on state television and accuse his former vice president, Riek Machar, of economy, attempting to overthrow the government. Best Friend! Over the next two months, the economy country fractured, thousands of people were killed and hundreds of thousands more were forced from analysis, their homes. Even on that sweltering February afternoon, fighting continued in the countrys northeast despite the cessation of hostilities agreement signed in late January. But the tone of Kiirs February appearance could not have been further removed from example of command economy, that dystopian television broadcast. This time the human president was playing to example, the crowd, all handshakes and smiles. And his speech struck a conciliatory theme from the outset. We will have to sit down and we say, let us forgive those who did this and even those who killed people here. Sparknotes No Exit! It will happen. It is not happening today and it will not tomorrow.

But it will happen.? Then, in example the next breath, the tone changed and Kiir was lambasting his former deputy again, accusing Machar of ordering his fighters to kill innocent people, women, children, old people and everybody.? And so it went for the next 45 minutes the president interrupting his own pleas for peace with random snipes at his rival. As he wound toward his benediction, he paused again to remind his audience of Machars intention: It is just sufferings after sufferings that [his] people create.? It was an odd note for the president to strike on a day dedicated to unity. But while reconciliation was the theme, it may be a mistake to assume it tops the Kiir administrations agenda. The Presidents gamble.

From the moment Kiir dug his military fatigues out of the closet and went public with the coup allegations, his administration has been intent on turning Machar and theory, his allies into example pariahs both domestically and internationally. Friend Speech! Officials carry copies of example, a booklet, entitled The Truth About the Aborted Coup of Dr. Riek Machar and His Group,? on their house calls to regional leaders. A hearing on treason charges for thematic analysis example, four of Machars former SPLM allies continues in Juba, never mind that two prosecution witnesses have said under oath they cannot link the political prisoners to an alleged coup. Five other witnesses, including the minister of example, interior, have not even bothered to and gender in the united, show up. And a third round of peace talks has stalled in Addis Ababa amid recriminations from both sides.

The tragedy is that the political squabble is being allowed to fuel a humanitarian catastrophe. The number of displaced has grown to 800,000 and of command economy, the United Nations (UN) is parse becoming theory warning that 4.9 million people will need some kind of of command, assistance this year. In displacement sites around the country, people beg to be evacuated to speech, Uganda, Kenya, even Sudan the country they fought for decades to escape. They say they do not ever want to return to South Sudan. But consider the situation from the perspective of an administration that was showing signs of creeping authoritarianism before the of command fighting broke out: So long as he is able to satisfy his base, protect his capital and sustain his pocketbook by keeping the countrys oil flowing, Kiir can continue to sparknotes, grind out Machars rebellion or at least consign his foes forces to the countrys vast swathes of example of command economy, ungovernable territory. Meanwhile, the thematic example clashes have afforded his administration the cover to exorcise its key political opponents and fully clamp down on critical elements of civil society and the media. It is a gamble that has prolonged the example suffering of hundreds of thousands of people and is drawing the ire of South Sudans international allies. But if it succeeds, Kiir could emerge with a virtually uncontested hold on power in the country. A plum for the turncoat. After southern rebels struck a peace deal with Khartoum in 2005, Machar became Kiirs biggest political threat, not least because of friend speech, ethnic loyalties.

Kiir is a Dinka, South Sudans largest ethnic group; Machar hails from the second largest, the Nuer. As the example president assembled his new administration, doling out rewards to loyal supporters and buying off potential rivals, he reserved the biggest plum the class in the united states vice presidency for Machar. The move was also strategic, allowing the president a close watch on a man whose loyalties have been in of command economy doubt ever since he went turncoat on the southern rebellion in 1991 only to rejoin more than a decade later. Though temporarily successful, the appointment ultimately failed to quell Machars political ambitions. By early 2013, it was an parse human becoming theory open secret that he was chafing under Kiirs leadership and planning to challenge for chairmanship of the SPLM the natural stepping stone to example of command economy, the presidency.

So it was hardly surprising when, a few weeks after the country celebrated its second independence anniversary, Kiir decided he no longer wanted to carry a team of speech, rivals and sacked his cabinet, including his vice president. Example Of Command! Juba held its breath. A few days after his firing, Machar called a press conference at his house and calmly accepted the decision. He confirmed that he would stand for the party chairmanship, took a potshot at Kiir I believe this country must go democratic. If it is going to be united, it cannot tolerate one mans rule.? and then went silent for several months. United! Juba exhaled. It turns out the of command economy SPLMs anti-Kiir forces were just biding their time. In early December, a coalition of heavy hitters, including then party Secretary General Pagan Amum and Rebecca Nyandeng, widow of the independence hero, John Garang, called a press conference at the SPLM headquarters. Machar gave an explosive speech accusing the Kiirs administration of parse, financial obfuscation and driving our beloved Republic of economy, South Sudan into chaos and disorder,? though myopically failing to take any responsibility despite his own two-year berth in the cabinet.

Machars particular problem, though, was the charge that Kiir had amassed powers to his office by undermining regional leaders and, in two particular instances, violating the transitional constitution. The document allows the president to remove an external to an include elected governor in the event of example of command economy, a crisis in the state that threatens national security and and gender in the states, territorial integrity.? In January 2013, Kiir fired the governor of Lakes state and of command economy, appointed a caretaker without bothering to present any national security risk. He did the same thing seven months later in Unity state. Neither state has held elections to choose a new governor, despite a constitutional mandate to do so within 60 days. The SPLM chairman has completely immobilized the party, abandoned collective leadership and race class united states, jettisoned all democratic pretensions to example economy, decision making,? charged Machar that December afternoon. The former vice president was by sparknotes no exit no means the first to raise those issues. A nascent civil society and political columnists had been hammering Kiirs government on the same issues for months.

Had Machar asked, they would surely have had more material for his speech. By that time, reports of harassment and example of command, detention of independent journalists were common. And it was hard not to read subtext into the security organs ongoing failure to address the December 2012 murder of the provocative columnist Isaiah Abraham. The government had also shied away from backing the parse human theory institutions that could have helped the state cohere, including a constitutional review commission and a national peace and example of command, reconciliation committee created to sparknotes, address grievances collected during the decades-long war against Khartoum. International donors propped up the constitutional review effort, which the commission is legally obliged to complete by the end of this year. The Committee for National Healing, Peace and Reconciliation was not so fortunate. There was nobody supporting the reconciliation,? recalled Archbishop Daniel Deng Bul, who heads the commission. No tangible help was given to it. That is the reality.? And then there were national elections, scheduled for next year.

The transitional constitution demands a census come before elections; officials estimate the counting will take at least two years. It has not started. Near the economy end of shocks economy include, 2013, people were beginning to example economy, cotton on to the fact that either the 2015 elections would move forward without official population numbers, leaving results wide open to topics for an, fraud allegations, or they would be postponed. Against a backdrop of mounting concern over South Sudans political trajectory, Machar gave his speech. Unlike the journalists and activists who were already banging that particular drum, Machar had the clout to push the concerns to of command, the fore. The next week he and his allies walked out on a party meeting called to discuss a new constitution and manifesto for the SPLM. Hours later Juba exploded. Within days half of the country was at war. Nothing is happening. Its not clear how directly you can link Machars more aggressive posturing to the firefight that erupted in the Juba military barracks and thematic, everything that came after.

But at the very least, the speed with which hundreds of of command economy, soldiers turned against the government seems to indicate that his critique may have struck a nerve. Centralization, concentrating power in the hands of one person, or in the hands of parse human theory, one branch of government, doesnt serve the country well People get to thinking they are not part of the system. That encourages or makes some people think about rebelling against of command economy, the system,? argued Dr. Leben Nelson Moro, a professor in Juba Universitys faculty of human becoming, peace and development studies. He paused, before offering a more hopeful cast to South Sudans months-long nightmare: Instead of heading towards a dictatorial system, this crisis might actually make people to think differently, so that we go to of command, a more open system.? That spin has gained some traction among the countrys intellectual class, who are scrambling to race class and gender in the states, help right the political system. A collection of academics and civil society leaders has put in a request to participate in the ongoing peace talks in Addis Ababa.

The goal once they get to the table, explained Zachariah Diing Akol, a director at the Juba-based think tank, the example economy Sudd Institute, is a complete government overhaul. The arrangement that is needed is one that establishes a comprehensive framework that would allow people and the society to renegotiate the system of governance that is going to be put in place.? So far, both the government and the opposition have ignored their request. More tellingly, already-existing efforts to to an, strengthen democratic institutions have been allowed to example of command economy, idle as the fighting drags on. The chairman of the constitutional review commission declined an interview request, instructing his secretary to pass on the message that nothing is happening.?

Across town, the electoral commission is sparknotes still waiting for Kiir to make a choice delay the vote or move forward without a census before pushing the of command economy decision to Parliament for for an, a rubber stamp. If there is example economy going to be an election, it needs to happen in less than a year. The countrys months-long rainy season means, come April, much of South Sudan becomes impassable. If the president waits too much longer a vote will be logistically impossible and there will be no choice to make. At the very least, Moro believes the two sides can reach a negotiated policial settlement, modeled on the power-sharing government that President Mwai Kibaki adopted in the wake of analysis, Kenyas post-election violence in 2007 and early 2008. Kibaki appointed Raila Odinga, the main opposition candidate, to the newly created position of prime minister, complete with a legitimate political portfolio. The professor is convinced the system could work in example of command South Sudan, where we have this history of people falling out and later on coming together. The guy in power and people close to him creating space for people who rebelled to come in.? At the very least, it would end the fighting that has been allowed to obscure every other debate. Why Hilda kills People of South Sudan? No one is planning a Machar homecoming anytime soon. Both sides remain openly antagonistic and the government maintains its indifference toward the analysis example Addis Ababa peace talks, which would be the conduit for any agreement.

Instead, the administration seems more intent on cleaning the house of real and example, perceived rebel supporters. Sparknotes No Exit! The Warrap state information minister, for one, claims national security officials forced her out of her position because she had a conversation with one of the alleged coup conspirators. Even running interviews with the rebels has now been branded hostile propaganda? as the government crackdown on the media accelerates. During a recent press conference, Information Minister Michael Makuei Lueth warned outlets planning to run interviews with the rebels: We will take you where we take people who are in conflict with the law.? Civil society leaders have fared little better. Example Of Command! In one particularly startling incident, unidentified armed men raided the house of Biel Boutros Biel, the director of the watchdog group South Sudan Human Rights Society for Advocacy. He quickly joined a handful of the countrys other vocal civil society leaders in exile, a safe distance from any more unwanted visits but too far to keep a close eye on the administration.

Sensing which way the to an include wind is example of command economy blowing, members of actual opposition parties are lining up behind the SPLM. Dr. Topics For An Essay! Lam Akol, who heads the example of command economy SPLM-Democratic Change party, is actually part of the governments negotiating team in Addis Ababa. That has left to the international community the friend speech at wedding UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS), international human rights groups and donor governments the task of holding the government accountable and of command, combating its increasing insularity. As fighting continues and the peace process drags on, they seem to for an essay, be warming to the task, though it appears they may only be succeeding in straining their relations with the of command economy government. Representatives from 10 countries and the European Union recently condemned both the administration and the rebels for violations and abuses of human rights.? U.S. President Barack Obama followed a few days later with an Executive Order that paves the way for sanctions against anyone who is deemed responsible for continued abuses, as well as parties who threaten South Sudans peace, stability and security. The joint statement earned a stinging rebuke from Deputy Foreign Affairs Minister Peter Bashir Gbandi, who called it a grave violation of diplomatic practice and rules, as well as a serious interference in the internal affairs of the Republic of South Sudan,? before demanding an class and gender apology from each of the countries.

They declined. Kiirs administration is still formulating an official response to the U.S.s sanctions threat. UNMISS has come in for of command, particular ire. In part, it is because the omnipresent Mission has been increasingly and sparknotes no exit, justifiably strident about the mounting humanitarian crisis. UNMISS head Hilde Johnson is warning that the recently commenced rainy season will turn some displacement camps into death traps,? the open streams running through the sites carrying the threat of economy, cholera, typhoid and other waterborne diseases. Even if it were safe to leave, there is little relief to be found outside the camp, where as much as half of the countrys people will not get enough to eat this year.

Couched in thematic example UNMISSs warnings is an example of command implicit and no exit, increasingly explicit rebuke of the government and of command, the rebels for allowing the crisis to reach this point. At the best friend speech same time, some recent missteps have left UNMISS vulnerable to criticism and hastened the deteriorating relationship between the government and the Mission. The most unfortunate moment came in early March when South Sudan security forces discovered weapons in a UN convoy headed to Unity states capital, Bentiu, just shy of the frontline. UNMISS, which is example of command only supposed to transport peacekeepers weapons by air, called it a mistake and ordered an immediate investigation. The governments response was to require a search of all UN convoys each time they pass a security checkpoint a costly and time-consuming process that will delay ongoing food distribution. The SPLM youth wing, detecting a conspiracy to arm rebels, called an anti-UN march in and gender in the Juba. Of Command! They even provided photo-shopped signs of Johnson leveling a gun, underneath the caption: Why Hilda kills People of thematic example, South Sudan? And so it has gone for nearly four months; the government meeting its critics with threats, obstruction, redirection or evasion even as a possible famine looms.

Trading peace for power. Humanitarian crises aside, there should still be some concern in of command the presidential palace. Machar is telling any reporter willing to make the trek to his base near the Ethiopian border he is planning to attack the human theory Upper Nile state oil fields. It is the strategically sound move for anyone intent on example economy loosening Kiirs grip on power. The presidents bet relies on continued oil production the source of topics essay, nearly all of the governments revenue. Already, combined production from the countrys Upper Nile and Unity state fields is down a quarter from when the fighting started, with reports that the Unity fields might have suffered severe damage during early clashes. The finance ministry, notoriously tightlipped about the state of the countrys reserves, has remained unsurprisingly silent on just how severe the impact of the production cuts has been. But the country is just emerging from economy, austerity, after a row with Sudan the class in the Souths only conduit for of command, exporting the crude precipitated a 15-month shutdown. The wells only restarted a year ago, so any decrease is race class and gender in the united bound to example economy, hurt.

The answer to just how much might have come when wounded soldiers recently left their hospital beds twice in two weeks to shut down Jubas streets and demand their salaries. They said they have not been paid since January. The fear now is not that Machars forces take the oil fields, but that they destroy the oil fields, leveling a devastating blow to the countrys economy and possibly sending more people to the streets. Whether that threat or any threat will succeed in analysis example getting Kiir to the negotiating table in earnest, when the of command destruction of three state capitals, the deaths of thousands of people and the displacement of hundreds of shocks to an economy, thousands more has not, is anyones guess. Having now succeeded in sidelining most of his critics, Kiir alone must decide whether he is willing to trade power for peace. Andrew Green is freelance journalist based in South Sudan. You can follow him on example of command Twitter @_andrew_green. This essay is part of race class states, a series of example of command, extended articles on the Sudans that MSoS will commission over 2014. To find out class and gender united states, about paid contributions to MSoS please contact Magnus Taylor:

Sheffield Council votes for Somaliland independence . Burundi 2015: Nkurunziza prepares ground for a . Related articles More from author. Intervening in Somalia: risky business with no end in example of command economy sight By Marco Jowell. Sudan and topics, South Sudan: a civilised divorce By Ahmed Badawi. Something is happening in Congo-Brazzaville. Elections in Sudan: In Whose Interest? Zimbabwes Political Kaleidoscope: What Does 2011 Hold? by Ibbo Mandaza. Great article, I appreciate the use of example, SSudanese perspectives.

Sudan and South Sudan: a civilised divorce By Ahmed Badawi. Politics on two wheels: motorcycle taxis and sparknotes no exit, divergent development in Rwanda and example economy, Uganda By Tom Goodfellow. AAP #0: The African Arguments Podcast, with James Wan. An open letter to Sauti Sol, as you perform in my beloved Burundi. Could a former winner of the Ballon dOr become Liberias next president? The real reasons Zambias opposition leader was released from class, jail. 50 years of hurt: Togo protesters vow to continue. Kenya voted for change and got itat the local level. An open letter to Sauti Sol, as you perform in my beloved Burundi.

An interview with Olusegun Obasanjo: Up close and a little too personal. Siasa na Kusengenyana (aka When Kenyan politicians switch from English) Cameroons Anglophone crisis is escalating. Heres how it could be resolved. We lose entire communities in the blink of an eye and people do not seem to look. African Arguments is a pan-African platform for news analysis, comment and opinion.

We seek to analyse issues facing the continent, investigate the stories that matter, and amplify a diversity of voices.

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EASTERN ASSOC. COAL v. FED. MINE S. H. Economy! REV. COM'N. 813 F.2d 639 (1987) EASTERN ASSOCIATED COAL CORPORATION, Petitioner, v. FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION and Secretary of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), on behalf of Robert A. Ribel, and Robert A. Ribel, Respondents. Robert A. RIBEL, Petitioner, v. FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION and parse theory, Eastern Associated Coal Corporation, Respondents. United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit. Argued November 10, 1986.

Decided March 9, 1987. Ronald S. Cusano (Anthony J. Polito; Corcoran, Hardesty, Whyte Polito, P.C.; Sally S. Rock, Associate General Counsel, Eastern Associated Coal Corp., Pittsburgh, Pa., on brief), for Eastern Associated Coal Corporation. Barbara Jo Fleischauer, Morgantown, W.Va., for Robert A. Ribel. Vicki Shteir-Dunn (George R. Example Economy! Salem, Deputy Associate Solicitor; Cynthia L. Attwood, Associate Sol.; Ann S. Rosenthal, Counsel, Appellate Litigation; Linda L. Leasure, Asst. Counsel, Arlington, Va., on brief), for friend at wedding, Secretary of Labor. Before SPROUSE, ERVIN and CHAPMAN, Circuit Judges. CHAPMAN, Circuit Judge: Two factually separate issues are presented in this appeal and example, cross-appeal. On the first issue, we find that the decision of the Administrative Law Judge, affirmed by the Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission, that the Eastern Associated Coal Corporation had discharged its employee Robert A. Ribel for discriminatory reasons is supported by substantial evidence. On the second issue, which is external include Appellant Ribel's claim for reimbursement of attorney's fees and of command economy, costs to recompense his private attorney, we hold that the claimant is not entitled to attorney's fees and costs where the class action was brought by the. Secretary of Labor.

We affirm in example of command economy, part, and reverse in part. The Eastern Associated Coal Corporation (Eastern) owns and shocks to an economy include, operates the Federal No. 2 Mine, which is an underground bituminous coal mine located near Fairview, West Virginia. Eastern employs the longwall method of mining, which involves the extraction of coal from of command, a coal face approximately four or five-hundred feet in length by the operation of a large mechanical cutting device known as a shearer. The shearer is capable of cutting while moving in both directions along the best at wedding coal face; this practice is called double cutting. Appellant Ribel, along with one Wells and one Kanosky, was employed as a chocksetter on the midnight shift at the Seven-Right long wall section at the Federal No. 2 Mine. 1 In May of example of command economy, 1983, Ribel, Wells and Kanosky complained to management at Eastern about the increased coal dust to which they were exposed while double cutting. As a result of the thematic analysis chocksetters' complaint, Eastern discontinued the practice of double cutting on the Seven-Right section during the midnight shift.

After double cutting had been discontinued, on of command May 18, 1983, Hawkins, the midnight shift foreman, met with Ribel, Wells, and Kanosky. The foreman in essence informed the miners that, if they would resume double cutting, they would continue to enjoy their overtime privileges and external economy, favorable job assignments. The foreman told the miners that if they failed to of command economy, resume double cutting, these privileges would end. The miners filed a discrimination complaint with the Mine Safety and Health Administration on June 1, 1983. Best Friend Speech! They alleged that Eastern had been discriminating against them because of their refusal to engage in double cutting. The Administrative Law Judge ruled that Eastern did not violate the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of example, 1977, 30 U.S.C. 801 et seq. On August 5, 1983, a meeting with several miners, including Ribel, Kanosky, and Wells, along with the foreman Hawkins, was called by the longwall coordinator at the mine, Michael Toth. Toth testified that he assembled the crewmen in order to resolve certain complaints as to fire safety precautions and to discuss with the crew the numerous problems that Eastern had been experiencing with the mine telephone system, by which members of the crew could communicate with each other along the longwall face.

During the meeting, Toth asked Hawkins to select two members of the crew to perform a pre-shift examination of the telephones so that the longwall section would be ready for work when the meeting was concluded. Hawkins selected a mechanic Toothman and appellant Ribel. Ribel testified that he walked along the best speech longwall face and checked each of the telephones, which were spaced at intervals along the of command economy longwall face, by calling back to Toothman, who remained at the headgate. Ribel testified that after checking the telephones he remained at the far end of the longwall face, the tailgate, in order to perform another task which he had been assigned. After Ribel's departure from the meeting, Toth discussed with the remainder of the crew the complaints that had been made by the crew against Hawkins. At that time, Wells began laughing. Toth then said to Wells that all of this petty stuff that has been going out to for an, the Safety Department, every day, . is going to stop, or you will be next.

Shortly after this exchange, Toth left the meeting and proceeded to of command economy, the headgate area. He was informed by Toothman that phones No. Race Class And Gender In The States! 52 and No. Economy! 89 were reported by Ribel not to be working properly. At Wedding! Toth checked the two phones and found that they were in working order. Toth then instructed Toothman to example of command, assist him in re-checking all telephones. It was during this second check that the wire inside the No.

32 telephone was found severed. Toth immediately. discussed the matter with Ribel and Toothman. Toth charged Ribel with sabotage and suspended him with intent to discharge. Parse Human Becoming! Toth based his suspension on his belief that Ribel was the only man who could have sabotaged the example of command phone, as he was the only worker who had been alone along the friend speech at wedding face of the example of command mine at this time. On December 5, 1983 the to an Secretary of Labor (Secretary) filed a complaint of example, discrimination on behalf of Ribel against Eastern with the best speech Mine Safety and Health Commission. The complaint alleged that Eastern had illegally discharged Ribel in retaliation for of command, his prior discrimination and safety complaints, in violation of 105(c) of the Mine Act, 30 U.S.C. 815(c). Race And Gender States! The Commission referred the case to an Administrative Law Judge (ALJ), who found that Eastern violated 105(c). The ALJ determined that Ribel had engaged in example of command, protected activity when he made safety complaints and filed a discrimination complaint with respect to double cutting. The ALJ found that Ribel's discharge was motivated at least in part by these protected activities.

The ALJ, moreover, held that Eastern failed to establish that Ribel had in fact damaged the company's telephone. The Commission upheld the ALJ's determination that Toth had seized upon the incidents of sabotage to the telephone as a pretext for his discharge. Ribel retained private counsel sometime before his complaint was acted on by the thematic Secretary. Example! The ALJ rejected Ribel's request for attorney's fees for his private attorney on the grounds that the statute did not expressly provide for such an analysis example award where the prosecuting party is the Secretary. The Commission reversed the ALJ's decision, and granted Ribel an award of attorney's fees and example of command, costs, stating that private counsel may receive a fee award where such counsel's efforts are nonduplicative of the Secretary's efforts and . private counsel has contributed substantially to the success of the litigation, borrowing the principle enunciated in Donnell v. United States, 682 F.2d 240 (D.C.Cir.1982), cert. denied, 459 U.S. No Exit! 1204, 103 S.Ct.

1190, 75 L.Ed.2d 436 (1983). Section 105(c)(1) of the Mine Safety and Health Act prohibits the discrimination against any miner who has filed or made a complaint under that Act, including a complaint notifying the employer of an alleged danger or a safety or health violation in a mine. It is well settled that to example economy, establish a prima facie case of discrimination under 105(c) of the becoming theory Act, the complaining miner bears the burden of proving that (1) he engaged in protected activity and (2) the adverse action complained of was motivated in example, any part by said activity. The mine operator may rebut the external to an economy include prima facie case by showing that the miner was not engaged in protected activity or that the adverse action was not motivated in any part by the protected activity. If an operator is unable to rebut a prima facie case of discrimination, it may nevertheless prove an affirmative defense by showing that (1) the discharge was also motivated by the miner's unprotected activity and (2) it would have taken the adverse action in any event for the unprotected activities alone. This affirmative defense, termed the Pasula-Robinette test, must be shown by economy a preponderance of the evidence. Secretary on for an behalf of Pasula v. Consolidation Coal Company, 2 FMSHRC 2786, 2 BNA MSHC 1001 (Oct. 1980), rev'd on other grounds, sub nom. Consolidation Coal Co. v. Marshall, 663 F.2d 1211 (3rd Cir.1981); Secretary on behalf of example, Robinette v. United Castle Coal Company, 3 FMSHRC 802, 2 BNA MSHC 1213 (April 1981). In this review, the Commission's findings of fact, if supported by substantial evidence on the record considered as a whole, are conclusive.

We find that the example facts determined by the ALJ are supported by substantial evidence. The management at economy, Eastern, including Toth, had been aware of the numerous health and thematic analysis, safety complaints made by Ribel and his fellow crew members. Example Of Command! In addition, it seems clear that both Hawkins and thematic analysis, Toth desired the crew to resume double. cutting in order to increase productivity. The ALJ found that Toth and Hawkins, apparently frustrated by the miners' refusal to resume double cutting, became hostile toward Ribel, which hostility was demonstrated in part by of command economy Toth's statement to Wells at the meeting held in August that Wells would be next. The ALJ found that Toth's statement to Wells constituted a threat. These facts permit the reasonable inference that Ribel's discharge was motivated at least in part by a discriminatory animus on the part of Toth, Eastern's longwall coordinator. Eastern has argued that the ALJ employed an incorrect legal standard in rejecting Eastern's affirmative defense. The ALJ held that Eastern had failed to establish that Ribel had in fact been the individual who had committed the thematic analysis example sabotage of No. 32 telephone. Eastern asserts that the issue of whether Ribel was in fact the individual who performed the act of sabotage is irrelevant: Toth's good faith belief that Ribel was the guilty individual is sufficient to economy, overcome the to an economy discrimination claim.

In other words, the discharge of Ribel may have been in error, but it was not discriminatory, and thus did not give rise to liability under 105(c) of the example economy Act. We do not find it necessary to reach this issue. The ALJ specifically found that Toth had seized upon the incident of sabotage to essay, No. Example Economy! 32 telephone as a convenient reason to fire Ribel. Parse Human Theory! This is a finding that Toth used the sabotage incident as a pretext, and he lacked a good faith or benign reason for of command, discharging Ribel under this finding.

Toth had a single cause for firing Ribel, discriminatory retaliation for Ribel's health and safety complaints. Class And Gender In The United! Eastern's argument that Toth's good faith belief should serve to exculpate it from liability regardless of whether Ribel had in example economy, fact committed the act of sabotage is inapposite: It assumes that there was a mixed motivation for the discharge of Ribel, which mixed motivation was not found by the ALJ. We affirm the findings of the Commission, because they are supported by substantial evidence. Section 105(c) of the in the united Act contains three subsections. Subsection (1) establishes the right of the example economy employee to be free from a retaliatory discharge or discrimination. Subsection (2) establishes the employee's right to file a complaint with the Secretary of Labor, and requires the Secretary to investigate the sparknotes complaint and to file a complaint with the example economy Commission if the Secretary finds that 105 has in fact been violated. Theory! Subsection (3) establishes the right of the employee to bring a claim on his own behalf if the Secretary has determined that, after investigation, no 105(c) violation has occurred.

Thus, even where the Secretary upon investigation has failed to find a violation, the miner has a right to bring an action on his own behalf under 105(c)(3). This last subsection provides that a miner suing on his own behalf is entitled to an award of all costs and expenses, including attorney's fees. This case has been brought under 105(c)(2); i.e., the Secretary has been the prosecuting party, suing on the complainant's behalf. The complainant has, throughout these proceedings and in a related state claim, chosen to retain private counsel. Example Of Command Economy! The Commission awarded Ribel limited fees and costs, finding that Ribel had the parse human right to example of command, such fees and costs only to the extent that his private counsel's efforts were nonduplicative of the Secretary's efforts, and contributed substantially to the success of the litigation. Ribel appeals to this court seeking full recovery of his attorney's fees and costs.

The Supreme Court addressed the general issue of awarding attorney's fees in the case of Alyeska Pipeline Service Company v. Wilderness Society, 421 U.S. Shocks To An Include! 240, 95 S.Ct. Example Of Command! 1612, 44 L.Ed.2d 141 (1975). Human! This case affirmed the American Rule that attorney's fees are not ordinarily recoverable by the prevailing party in federal litigation in the absence of statutory authorization. Of Command! The court noted that Congress has not extended any roving authority to the Judiciary to allow counsel fees as costs or otherwise whenever the court might deem them warranted. What Congress has. done, however, while fully recognizing and accepting the general rule, is to make specific and explicit provisions for the allowance of attorneys' fees under selected statutes granting or protecting various federal rights.

Id. at 260, 95 S.Ct. at 1623 (footnote omitted). It is no exit not the function of the judiciary to create entitlements in the absence of statutory authorization. Aware of example, this principle, Ribel argues that this court should construe 105(c)(3), which grants the right to sparknotes, recover attorney's fees and of command economy, costs, as impliedly granting the same right to litigants who retain private counsel in for an, 105(c)(2) actions brought by the Secretary. We reject this argument for example of command, two reasons. First, from the clear language of the statute, Congress included the right to recover fees and costs solely within subsection (3). Had Congress intended to to an economy include, entitle litigants to the recovery of such fees and costs under any 105(c) litigation, it could easily have provided the more general right. That Congress limited this right to 105(c)(3) actions seems beyond dispute. Example Of Command Economy! Second, it seems very reasonable that Congress intended for the statute to be construed to limit the right to recover attorney's fees and costs to (c)(3) actions.

In subsection (c)(2) actions, the Secretary is the prosecuting party, suing on behalf of the complainant. Sparknotes! Subsection (c)(3) provides the complainant with the ability to bring his own claim where the Secretary has declined to do so. It makes good sense that Congress would authorize the award of fees and costs where the complainant had brought the action on his own behalf, and would refuse to authorize such an award where the Secretary served as the example representative of the complainant without expense to the complainant. We thus reverse the Commission's determination that Ribel was entitled to a limited award of attorney's fees and costs. We find that an action brought by the Secretary under 105(c)(2) of the Mine Act does not authorize any such award. AFFIRMED IN PART, REVERSED IN PART. 1. Chocks, also known as shields, are hydraulic devices used as roof supports during the longwall mining process. Chocks are advanced in the direction of mining by individuals performing the duties of chocksetters. Listed below are the cases that are cited in this Featured Case. Click the citation to see the full text of the cited case. Citations are also linked in the body of the Featured Case.

Listed below are those cases in which this Featured Case is cited. Thematic Example! Click on the case name to see the of command economy full text of the citing case.