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What If Everybody Understood Child Development Straight Talk About Bettering Education and Childrens


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art and essay This is an example of a first year essay which was given a distinction. Click on the highlights to read the comments. Certain words may be unfamiliar to you. Click on them to read their definitions in bettering education the glossary. Bipolar Disorder: Or Fiction? Essay? In this essay, the Rococo and Romanticism periods have been selected to demonstrate how two art periods can have many similarities yet still hold true to their own beliefs, values and principles to create a definitive style . Antoine Watteau#039;s painting, L#039;Indifferent , 1716, oil on canvas, 25cm x 18cm and education Eugene Delacroix#039;s Paganini , 1831, oil on cardboard on wood panel, approx. 43cm x 28cm have been selected to represent the Rococo and Romanticism periods respectively . Rococo was a style of art that followed on from the Baroque period in the early 18th century. The artists of this style typically depicted themes of love, artfully and archly pursued through erotic frivolity and playful intrigue . 1 Both the art and interior design of the time displayed a sense of rhythm in which [e]verything seemed organic, growing, and in motion, an ultimate refinement of illusion. 2 The artists of this period were also starting to express themselves and marshall’s achievements? their feelings about their themes in their work.

Some of the works seem to be edging toward the ideals of the Romanticism period, even though they were at bettering, opposite ends of the 18th century . Romanticism in the late 18th century was a revolt against the sober restraint of the Enlightenment period that had preceded it. 3 This was a period encompassing the desire for freedom - not only jackson political freedom but also freedom of thought, of feeling, of action, of worship, of speech and of taste. 4 Artists wanted only to produce pure, truthful art that was based on the predominance of feeling and imagination. 5 Works in the Romantic period depict not only the Romantic ideal of love but also #039;Gothic#039; horror, as this too could be explored to discover the #039;sublime#039; . The works discussed in this essay share obvious similarities. They are both portraits of performers in full, in the context of their performing environment. In Watteau#039;s L#039;Indifferent , there is a sense of the subject posing for the portrait in a very festive manner which is characteristic of the Rococo period.

By contrast, in Delacroix#039;s Paganini the performer seems to bettering education carry himself with a much more intrinsic purpose, perhaps enacting a more truthful value that is typical of the Romantic ideal. There is, nevertheless, a similarity in the two poses that suggests motion, as both performers seem to be caught in mid movement. This dynamic quality was not typical of the other art movements prior to or during the 18th century, where portraits tended to depict people in staid, sober poses . Watteau#039;s painting of the Pediatric Disorder: Fact, dancer seems soft and flouncy, yet it is obvious that it is a well thought out work. The writer#039;s choice of language have indicated the conditional nature of the observations. The colours are used to education compliment and support the painting#039;s composition, with the hue of the foliage seemingly reflected in the velvet of the dancer#039;s clothes . The colour used in the cape has also been added to the accessories on the shoe and hat. Both of these examples of the use of colour show how the clever composition of the painting successfully draws the viewer#039;s eye around it. When expressing the difference between the Baroque and Rococo periods, one art critic noted that [Rococo] aimed no longer at disease, astounding the bettering education, spectator with the marvellous, but rather at amusing him with the ingenious. Jackson? 6 This statement demonstrates that the attention to compositional detail is both a necessary element of the Rococo period and also of this work by Watteau . Delacroix#039;s painting Paganini also displays a strong attention to colour . However , in this case, it is not just a compositional element, but also contributes to the highly emotive nature of the painting. The colours could be seen to suggest the way the artist felt about the scene before him. This portrayal of the dancer#039;s performance, using the bettering, poignant yet subtle blends of dark earthy background colours which contrast with the smooth deep black tones in the figure, enhances the feeling of balance and melody . This combination of art, music, theatre and dance was of high interest to steel india the Romantic artists as it was a great source of the #039;true#039; or #039;pure#039; emotion which they sought to represent . The seemingly fast, fluent brushstrokes indicate and portray the motion and spirit within the performer. The colour and form seem to be of utmost importance, above the need for line.

Indeed, a stronger use of bettering line would have contained and possibly even restricted the emotive values in the artwork . This style did not go unnoticed by critics. Both Delacroix and Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres were referred to as Rubenistes and american home products Poussinistes respectively, due to their use of the #039;academic#039; style of line or the bettering, #039;romantic#039; truth of colour as the main element in their works, although both are now recognised as Romantic artists. 7. The composition in berger's disease Paganini is flowing and melodious and is greatly enhanced by the aforementioned use of colour and the form of the performer. Education? The posture has been exaggerated to enhance the Romantic principles within the president woodrow fourteen points, composition by expressing the emotion roused by bettering education, the scene. Although there were evident stylistic differences between Rococo and Romanticism, artists in both periods were beginning to express what they wanted to what was one marshall’s major see in the scenes before them. Where Rococo was a time of idealising the frivolity of the upper classes, Romanticism idealised the world around the upper classes, depicting the bettering education, good, the bad, and the ugly equally by looking for the sublime in everything. Both paintings discussed in this essay provide great insight into their own periods but also into jackson, the foundation of the Expressionist movement of the 20th century . Brookner, A. Romanticism and its discontents , London: Penguin, 2000. Honour, H. Romanticism , London: Penguin, 1979. Kleiner, F., Mamiya C. and Tansey, R., Gardener#039;s art through the ages , 11th ed. Orlando: Harcourt College Publishers, 2001. Minor, V. Baroque and Rococo: Art and education culture , New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999.

Peckham, M. The birth of Romanticism 1790-1815 , Florida: Penkevill Publishing Company, 1986. #039;Rococo#039;, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rococo accessed 7.8.2006. Berger's Disease? #039;Romanticism#039;, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanticism, accessed 7.8.06. 1 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and bettering R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , 11th ed., (Orlando: Harcourt College Publishers, 2001), p. American Home? 785. 2 F. Bettering Education? Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 783. 3 #039;Romanticism#039;, Wikipedia, the era reformers, free encyclopedia , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanticism, accessed 7.8.06. 4 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the education, ages , p. 863. 5 F. Kleiner, C. What Was One Of Thurgood Marshall’s Achievements?? Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 863. 6 V. Minor, Baroque and Rococo: Art and education culture, (New York: Harry N. Products? Abrams, 1999), p 14. 7 F. Kleiner, C. Education? Mamiya and american wyeth R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the education, ages , p. Tata India? 870. Problems? Questions?

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paul powell resume Executed March 18, 2010 9:09 p.m. by Electric Chair in Virginia. 11th murderer executed in bettering education U.S. in 2010. 1199th murderer executed in U.S. Pediatric Bipolar Fact. since 1976. 1st murderer executed in Virginia in 2010. 106th murderer executed in bettering Virginia since 1976. (Race/Sex/Age at Murder-Execution) (Race/Sex/Age at Murder) Powell described how he went to the home of 16 year old Stacie Reed because he was angry at her for having a black boyfriend. He attempted to rape her and Pediatric or Fiction? then stabbed her in the heart when she fought off his advances. Bettering Education. Afterward, Powell went downstairs, smoked a cigarette, drank some iced tea and waited for her 14 year old sister, Kristie, to come home from school.

When she arrived, he raped her, slit her throat, stabbed her and left her for dead. Woodrow Points. When police reached her, they asked who had done this to her. Kristie mouthed two words: Paul Powell. Bettering. Kristie survived and testified against home products Powell. Powell's first capital murder conviction was thrown out on bettering, appeal when the court ruled that there was insufficient evidence to prove that he had attempted to rape Stacie.

Believing he no longer could face a death sentence, he wrote the tata Prosecutor an abusive letter in which he admitted he attempted to rape Stacie and boasted about the crimes in horrific detail. Powell v. Commonwealth , 552 S.E.2d 344 (Va. 2001) (Direct Appeal-Reversed). Powell v. Bettering. Commonwealth , 590 S.E.2d 537 (Va. 2004) (Direct Appeal). Powell v. Warden of Sussex I State Prison , 634 S.E.2d 289 (Va.

2006) (State Habeas). Powell v. Kelly , 562 F.3d 656 (4th Cir. Fact Or Fiction?. 2009) (Federal Habeas). Not released to the public. Powell executed for teens 1999 murder in Manassas, by Frank Green. (March 19, 2010) JARRATT -- Paul Warner Powell died in the electric chair last night for the 1999 capital murder of a 16-yearold girl in her Manassas-area home. Powell, 31, was sentenced to death for education, the Jan. 29, 1999, slaying of Stacie Reed, who was stabbed to death with a survival knife. After killing her, Powell then waited for her 14-year-old sister to return home from school, raped her, cut her throat, and left her for dead. Kristie Reed lived and testified against him. Given a chance to make a last statement, Powell declined.

The girls' mother, Lorraine Reed Whoberry, and Kristie were among the witnesses to Powell's electrocution. He was pronounced dead at 9:09 p.m., Larry Traylor, spokesman for the Virginia Department of era reformers Corrections, said outside the Greensville Correctional Center where executions are carried out. A half-dozen members of Virginians for Alternatives to bettering education the Death Penalty held a candlelight vigil in a field near the prison. They prayed for Stacie Reed and expressed their opposition to the death penalty. On Wednesday, Stacie's loved ones got to hear Powell express something for which they had waited 11 years: He said he was sorry. Of Thurgood Major Achievements?. Whoberry, who now lives in Cincinnati and was in education the Richmond area on her way to witness the execution, revealed yesterday that she had a conference call with Powell the previous day. American. He was able to say he was sorry, and he made the bettering education point several times that [the crime] was senseless, it was pointless. . . . He couldn't really give us a reason why, she said. I think it was heartfelt. It wasn't a big to-do thing.

It was just a simplistic, 'I'm sorry,' and I accept that, Whoberry said. Powell's lawyer Jonathan P. Sheldon said immediately after the Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Fact Essay execution that the bettering man that was executed tonight was a different person from the person who committed these crimes 10 years ago. Sheldon said Powell was extremely remorseful and knew he was the only one to blame for what happened. Prince William County Commonwealth's Attorney Paul B. Ebert, a witness to the execution, said: It's a relief he won't be able to taunt any victims anymore. Whoberry's call with Powell was made in Sheldon's Fairfax County office and was attended by Kristie and other family members. Whoberry said one of her sisters, Theresa Davidson of Texas, kind of facilitated the conversation. The call lasted, with some interruptions, for an hour to an hour and a half. As the conversation went on, he was able to open up a little bit more.

He wasn't belligerent, he didn't raise his voice. It was very civil, she said. The questions that we asked, he answered to the best of his ability. I did ask him at some point if he had forgiven himself, and he got emotional and he said, 'No.' And I said, 'Well, I hope your relationship with God is something that you can work through . . . before tomorrow night,' and india we let him know that we are praying for bettering, him and berger's his mom, his family, Whoberry said. Sheldon said last night that he and Whoberry hoped to bettering education work together to get legislation passed that would enable loved ones to visit with inmates on death row. Products. He said that the conference call was so productive for both sides. . . . It allowed him to education take responsibility and to show remorse. However, he said, it being over the telephone took something away from it.

Whoberry said she has forgiven Powell, for president woodrow fourteen, her own sake, and that she had hoped to meet with him. Authorities denied permission for a meeting with Powell, who was abusive toward the education family and law-enforcement officials in letters after his arrest. Powell's first capital murder conviction was thrown out on appeal. The Supreme Court of Virginia ruled that even with Kristie's rape, Powell had to have raped or attempted to rape Stacie to be convicted of capital murder. Believing he no longer could face a death sentence, he wrote Ebert an abusive letter in which he admitted he attempted to rape Stacie and boasted about the crimes in horrific detail. The letter provided grounds for Powell to berger's disease be tried again for bettering, capital murder and sentenced to Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: death.

All of his appeals were rejected, and education Gov. Bob McDonnell turned down his clemency request last week. Powell boasted about the crimes in his letter to disease Ebert. It was heart-wrenching to read that letter. To know a lot of the education details that we couldn't prove or didn't know in the first trial, Whoberry said earlier yesterday at a news conference in Henrico County. Of Thurgood Marshall’s. It was horrible, but I also knew he had signed his own death warrant, she said. The news conference also was attended by Kristie, Whoberry's husband, her mother and two sisters, all of whom were slated to witness the execution. This is the day we've been waiting for, for education, 11 years, Whoberry said yesterday afternoon. Jackson Era Reformers. There really aren't any words to express how I feel right now. . . . I know that for myself, it's been a long road. Hopefully, when this is done and it is final, we can look back and find the positive things that came out of this that we strived so hard to make happen. My thoughts and bettering education prayers go out to his family.

This is going to close a chapter in this journey that we've been on, she said. I can't imagine what he is feeling, she said around 4 p.m. Pediatric Disorder: Fact Essay. But, again, it was his decision to do what he did, not mine. I know that justice will be served according to whatever God has in mind for him. Powell chose to die in the electric chair instead of by injection. Virginia death row inmates were given the choice starting in 1995. If an inmate refuses to choose, injection becomes the default method. Two cycles of electricity are used in executions, each lasting 90 seconds with a slight pause between them. Since the choice was made available, 76 inmates have died by injections and now six by electrocution. Powell's execution was the 106th in Virginia since the U.S.

Supreme Court allowed the death penalty to resume in education 1976. His death leaves 12 men and one woman sentenced to death in the state. Traylor said Powell spent his last day meeting with his immediate family members and lawyers. He said Powell has spiritual advisers, but as of early yesterday afternoon he had not met with them. Before the execution yesterday, Ebert said the process has been difficult for woodrow, Stacie Reed's family. He said that after the execution, I'm hopeful they will have some solace and some closure and will go on about their lives.

Man who bragged about crime executed, by Dena Potter. (Associated Press March 19, 2010) JARRATT - A man who killed a teen girl and then bragged about it to prosecutors once he thought he could not face the death penalty was executed Thursday. Paul Warner Powell, 31, died by electrocution at 9:09 p.m. at Greensville Correctional Center in Jarratt. He chose electrocution rather than lethal injection. Powell appeared emotionless as guards strapped him to the oak chair and attached metal clamps to his right calf and head. When asked if he had any last words, he remained silent and stared at the ceiling. Powell was convicted in 2000 and sentenced to death for fatally stabbing 16-year-old Stacie Reed of Manassas. He also raped and attempted to kill her 14-year-old sister. The Virginia Supreme Court overturned that verdict, and Powell wrote a taunting letter to bettering prosecutors detailing the crime. He was convicted again in 2003. In his four-page, profanity-laced letter to Prince William County Commonwealth's Attorney Paul Ebert, Powell described how he went to Stacie's house because he was angry at her for having a black boyfriend.

He wrote that he attempted to rape her and then stabbed her in woodrow the heart when she fought off his advances. Afterward, Powell went downstairs, smoked a cigarette, drank some iced tea and waited for her younger sister, Kristie, to come home from school. He raped her, slit her throat, stabbed her and left her for dead. Kristie survived and testified against Powell. Education. The Associated Press usually does not identify victims of sexual assault, but Kristie, now 25, gave permission for her name to be used.

Kristie and the girls' mother, Lorraine Whoberry, witnessed the execution with Ebert, who said he believed they got some solace from the execution. Era Reformers. Being able to witness him leave the bettering education earth was an emotional experience for them, but an products wyeth experience that gave them a lot of relief, he said. Earlier Thursday, Whoberry remembered Stacie as a friendly, headstrong girl who decided as a freshman in high school she wanted to be the first female Navy SEAL and a week later shaved off all her hair. During an bettering education afternoon news conference, Whoberry said she hoped the execution would close a chapter in the journey we've been on. Kristie declined to make a statement. Later, the family told the Richmond Times Dispatch that they talked with Powell by steel india, phone for more than an hour on Wednesday.

He was able to education say he was sorry, and he made the point several times that (the crime) was senseless, it was pointless . he couldn't really give us a reason why, Whoberry told the newspaper. It was just a simplistic, 'I'm sorry,' and I accept that. Whoberry said Powell told her he had not forgiven himself and she told him she hoped he could reconcile with God before the woodrow fourteen points execution. We let him know that we are praying for him and education his mom, his family, she said. Berger's. Powell's attorney, Jonathan Sheldon, said Powell was extremely remorseful for his crime. When asked why Powell did not make a final statement, Sheldon said, He made a last minute decision and said, 'You know, the people who need to hear from me heard from me.' Powell was the second consecutive Virginia inmate to choose electrocution over lethal injection. Larry Bill Elliott was electrocuted in November. Sheldon said many inmates fear that the three-drug lethal cocktail used in injections won't be administered correctly and that they'll suffocate. If not done properly, an inmate could be paralyzed by one of the education three drugs used and yet conscious while another of the drugs kills, Sheldon said. Of the 35 death penalty states, seven Southern states still offer electrocution.

Powell was the 106th Virginia inmate executed since the U.S. Supreme Court reinstated capital punishment in 1976. Only Texas, with 451, has executed more inmates. Virginia executes man in 1999 murder of woman, rape of her sister, by Josh White. What Was One Of Thurgood Major Achievements?. (March 19, 2010) Kristie Reed was on the basement floor, her throat and wrists slashed. Her older sister, Stacie, was upstairs, dead from a stab wound to education the heart.

When police reached Kristie, who was then 14 years old, an officer leaned in and asked who had done this to jackson her. Kristie mouthed two words: Paul Powell. On Thursday night, more than 11 years later, Paul Warner Powell, 31, was executed in Virginia's electric chair. He was declared dead at 9:09 p.m. The Jan. 29, 1999, murder of one sister and the rape and education near-slaying of the other in Manassas were among the most notorious crimes in the region's recent history. Besides the savage attacks, the case was known for Powell's boastful jailhouse letter to Prince William County's chief prosecutor, which provided the crucial evidence that resulted in Thursday's execution. But it was Kristie Reed's eyewitness account that led to Powell's arrest and president fourteen points admission just hours after the slaying. She is left with decade-old memories of her sister and bettering a neck laced with what she calls battle scars.

Formerly against the death penalty, Kristie eagerly awaited Powell's execution. I need to know that he's gone, that we don't have to deal with this anymore, said Kristie Reed, now 25 and an advocate for rape victims. I was totally against the death penalty before this happened, and I didn't know why people would want to do it. But those people haven't been through what we've been through. Now I'm totally for it.

He definitely deserves to die. He needs to die for what he did to Stacie. In the end, Powell was silent. The man who was defiant throughout the legal proceedings decided to say nothing after guards strapped him into the oak electric chair in the Greensville Correctional Center. He stared ahead when asked whether he wanted to say anything. Stacie's and Kristie's mother, Lorraine Reed Whoberry, said that the family spoke with Powell by berger's disease, phone Wednesday and bettering that he expressed remorse in his own way.

Powell acknowledged that the crime was a senseless and pointless thing and said he was sorry, she said. The family witnessed Powell's execution, and Whoberry said she was glad she did because now she knows he is gone. Justice was served, and tata steel this chapter has closed, she said. It has been a long decade for Kristie Reed and Whoberry, who have suffered through nearly unbelievable twists and turns. Powell had taunted them with vulgar letters from jail that included threats to kill them. And the bettering education legal case was emotional and difficult. After Kristie Reed took the stand to testify against Powell in 2000 -- she never looked him in the eye -- prosecutors secured the first conviction and of thurgood achievements? death sentence. At the hearing in which the judge imposed the jury's sentence, the bettering education forewoman testified on disease, Powell's behalf, saying that she loved him and bettering had made the wrong decision. In 2001, the Virginia Supreme Court threw out Powell's death sentence, ruling that the steel murder of bettering education one girl and the rape of another could not be considered the same crime -- a factor necessary for the death penalty. After the ruling, Powell wrote an insulting letter to prosecutors.

But in it, he admitted that he had tried to american wyeth rape Stacie Reed, too. That admission tied Stacie's attempted rape to education her slaying and led prosecutors to re-indict him. He was convicted and sentenced to death a second time after another full trial in 2003. Through it all, Powell egged on Prince William County Commonwealth's Attorney Paul B. President Fourteen. Ebert, who has now sent 10 people to Virginia's death chamber, nearly 10 percent of all people executed in the state since capital punishment was reinstated in 1982. Bettering. Usually unflappable, this case has brought Ebert to berger's tears at times and has made him so close to education the Reeds that they consider him part of their family. Post reporter recounts Paul Powell's execution, by Josh White. (March 19, 2010; 8:00 AM) I was on the scene in Manassas on Jan. 29, 1999, shortly after 16-year-old Stacie Reed was murdered and her younger sister was raped and nearly killed in their home. Jackson. It was the first major crime I covered for The Post.

The crime itself was shocking: Two young girls brutally attacked in their own home by education, a man not. much younger than I was. Bipolar Essay. It began an 11-year journey that included nearly unbelievable twists at almost every stage of the bettering education case against Paul Warner Powell, who was executed in Virginia on Thursday night. The trial is the only time Ive ever seen a member of the jury testify on behalf of the defendant. It is the only case Ive covered during which the defendant sent vulgar and intimidating letters to what achievements? the family of his victims. And it is the only case Ive ever heard of that involved a defendant beating his death sentence -- only to turn around and admit additional elements of the bettering education crime to a prosecutor, which then led to another death sentence. It was also one of those rare cases in which there was no question who the assailant was -- Kristie. Reed survived the woodrow fourteen points attack and identified Powell -- and education that he did, in fact, commit the crime. There was overwhelming physical evidence, and he fully confessed shortly after he was caught. The case came to Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: or Fiction? Essay a conclusion with Powells execution in Virginias death chamber at bettering, the Greensville Correctional Center in Jarratt. He was 31 years old.

I have previously described an Disorder: or Fiction? Essay electrocution in Virginias electric chair, as I witnessed Larry Bill Elliotts execution in November. This one was quite similar. Powell was moved from bettering education, death row at nearby Sussex I prison in southern Virginia a few days before the execution and put in one of three cells that directly adjoin the death chamber in Greensvilles L Unit. There, leading up to his death, he was able to meet with with his mother and brother and his lawyers. On Wednesday, Powell spoke to Kristie Reed and her mother, Lorraine Reed Whoberry, in a meeting that Powells lawyer, Jon Sheldon, arranged. The family went to Sheldons office in jackson Fairfax and was able to speak with Powell by phone. Whoberry said Powell was remorseful in his own way, stumbling through an bettering education apology during which he said the crime was senseless and president woodrow fourteen pointless. But the man who had sent Whoberry a naked photograph of a woman and bettering compared her to her dead daughter, and who sent obscenity-laced letters to prosecutors, was this week taking responsibility and saying he was sorry. Sheldon said the phone call was very, very powerful and showed Powells understanding that what he did was horrifying and shameful. But the phone call produced no answer to why the attack happened. Fourteen Points. There is no why, Sheldon said. He was rejected by everyone in bettering his life, he had no real friends and no family support. There isnt a satisfying answer and Bipolar Disorder: Essay its extremely frustrating. Education. Stacie rejected Paul, and for very good reason.

He just couldnt take another rejection. Powell spent Thursday preparing to marshall’s major achievements? die. Education. His head was shaved, as was his right leg, where sponge-lined contacts are placed to complete an electrical circuit. Sheldon said Powell barely ate, and his last meal request was not released to the public. Media witnesses entered the death chamber at 8:40 p.m. We were led into a small room inside the what was one of thurgood chamber. The room is lined with reinforced glass and has 20 hard plastic chairs in four tiered rows that face the electric chair. At 8:53 p.m., Powell, handcuffed, entered the room with four guards through a door to the right of the education room.

He wore the same light blue shirt and dark blue pants that all condemned inmates in Virginia wear. The right pants leg was cut off above the american home wyeth knee. He wore flip-flops. Powell looked gaunt and bettering pale. Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Fact Or Fiction?. He had a stern look and held his chin high. He was placed in the chair and a total of six guards affixed eight straps around his ankles, wrists, upper arms, waist and chest. A clamp was attached to his right leg below the bettering education knee, and a metal skullcap was placed on his head with a chin strap. Powell swallowed hard and his eyes darted around the era reformers room. At 8:58 p.m., an official switched on a microphone in the room and Powell was asked if he had anything to say. He just stared straight ahead and said nothing.

A minute later, a face mask was put in place, covering him from forehead to chin with just his nose exposed. A guard wiped his face and leg with a white towel. Bettering. After a key was turned in the far right rear of the room, activating the system, a man concealed in an adjoining room hit the execute button on a machine that was described as being about the size of a top-loading clothes washer. Bipolar Disorder: Essay. It was precisely 9 p.m. There was a thump as Powells body jerked back into the chair. Bettering Education. His hands clenched into tight fists and disease veins swelled as his arms turned red. Bettering. Smoke rose from his leg. Products. Officials said 1800 volts at bettering, 7.5 amps -- about 13,500 watts, or enough to power 135 100-watt lightbulbs -- flowed through his body for 30 seconds. That was followed by disease, 240 volts at 1 amp for 60 seconds. The cycle repeated. With the second major jolt, smoke and bettering sparks emitted from Powells right leg.

His knee appeared to swell and turn purple. His knuckles went white. At 9:03, the electricity stopped. Everyone waited in silence for president woodrow fourteen, five minutes. At 9:08, a guard walked up to Powell and opened his shirt. A doctor emerged from a door on the left side of the room and bettering placed a stethoscope on Powells chest in search of a heartbeat. President Woodrow Fourteen. There was none. He was pronounced dead at 9:09 p.m., and a curtain was drawn. Whoberry and Reed watched the bettering execution from behind one-way glass. They were joined by Commonwealths Attorney Paul B. Ebert, who has sent 10 criminals to jackson death in bettering education Virginia, nearly 10 percent of all the people executed since Virginia restarted executions in home products wyeth 1982.

Ebert witnessed his first execution in November, when sniper John Allen Muhammad was executed by lethal injection. Three more people Ebert has prosecuted are on Virginias death row, and bettering education another committed suicide before he was executed. Ebert said that to him, lethal injection was an anticlimax, as it appeared Muhammad simply went to sleep. Electrocution, Ebert said, appeared to have more finality to it. It was a little more vivid, Ebert said afterward. It felt more meaningful and impressive. What Was One. But it was still a much more gentle death than Stacies. Richard Leonard, who as a Prince William County police detective interrogated Powell and elicited his confession in 1999, also witnessed the execution and said that it put to rest an 11-year saga and one of the worst cases hes seen in a career that spans more than three decades. Bettering Education. It involved kids. It was horrible, Leonard said. It was such a senseless, terrible thing that happened to a nice family. It changed all of their lives. India. All of these cases are bad, but everyone has one case that haunts them for bettering education, a long period of time. Tata. This is bettering education that case.

Paul Powell dies in electric chair, by Amanda Stewart. (March 18, 2010) JARRATT, Va.Paul Warner Powell, who killed a 16-year-old Yorkshire girl and bragged about berger's it in a letter to education prosecutors, was put to death in Virginias electric chair Thursday. Powell, 31, was pronounced dead at 9:09 p.m. at the Greensville Correctional Center in Jarratt. American Home Wyeth. He did not make statement. Powell spent his last hours meeting with his immediate family and attorneys, Virginia Department of Corrections spokesman Larry Traylor said. Traylor said Powell made a last meal request, but asked that it not be made public. Powell was sentenced to die for education, killing and attempting to rape 16-year-old Stacie Reed. On Jan. Products Wyeth. 29, 1999, Powell entered the Reeds Yorkshire home and confronted Stacie, who was home alone after school, stabbed her and stomped on her throat until she died.

Powell said he was angry that Stacie had a black boyfriend. Powell then waited in the house, drinking iced tea and bettering smoking a cigarette, until 14-year-old Kristie came home from india, school. He tied her up, raped her and stabbed her and left her to die in education the basement. Kristie survived and testified against Powell. Now 25, Kristie witnessed Powells execution, alongside her mother, Lorraine Reed Whoberry. On Wednesday, a day before Powell was set to berger's disease die, Whoberry said she and her family were ready for the execution to happen and to close a chapter in their lives. Were all kind of education anxious, not knowing what to expect, Whoberry said. India. Im trying not to go with any expectations. Education. Im just hoping I can get through this and president be strong for Kristie. Whoberry, who started the bettering education S.T.A.C.I.E.

Foundation to tata steel tell her familys story in seminars to law enforcement agencies around the bettering education country, said she has forgiven Powell, but felt the execution was necessary for woodrow, justice to be served. Bettering Education. Whoberry told the Richmond Times Dispatch that they talked with Powell by phone for more than an hour on Wednesday. He was able to say he was sorry, and he made the point several times that (the crime) was senseless, it was pointless . he couldnt really give us a reason why, Stacies mother, Lorraine Whoberry, told the jackson newspaper. It was just a simplistic, Im sorry, and I accept that. Whoberry said Powell told her he had not forgiven himself and she told him she hoped he could reconcile with God before the execution. We let him know that we are praying for him and his mom, his family, she said. Bettering. Whoberry and her family, who now live in Ohio, also traveled to the area last July to attend Powells execution. That time, the american products United States Supreme Court issued a stay until they could decide whether to hear Powells case. In January, the high court decided it would not intervene. Last week, Virginia Gov. Bob McDonnell also said he would not stay the execution.

It was the first capital case to come before the new governor. Powell was first convicted of capital murder in 2000, but the Virginia Supreme Court overturned that conviction. Bettering Education. Then, thinking he could no longer face the death penalty, Powell wrote a taunting letter to Prince William Commonwealths Attorney Paul Ebert, giving him new evidence by describing how he attempted to rape Stacie. Ebert again indicted Powell for capital murder and in 2003, Powell was convicted and sentenced to die. Ebertwho has put more men on death row than any other prosecutor in tata india the statealso witnessed Powells execution. After the execution, Powells attorney, John Sheldon said Powell was remorseful in education the hours and days leading up to his death. The man that we executed tonight was a different person than the person who committed those crimes ten years ago, Sheldon said. He was very remorseful and very aware that he brought this on himself. Ebert witnessed Powells execution Thursday, alongside Kristie Reed and her mother. I cant speak for tata india, the family, but my sense is bettering education this will give them solace and closure, Ebert said.They can go on with their lives. Powell was the 106th Virginia inmate executed since capital punishment was reinstated in the United States in 1976.

Now there are 13 inmates on death row including two, Justin Wolfe and Joshua Andrews, both 28, who were convicted in Disorder: Fact or Fiction? Essay Prince William County. In January 1999, Robert Culver and his fiance, Lorraine Reed, lived together in a small brick home on McLean Street in Manassas, Virginia, with Reed's two daughters, Stacey Lynn Reed and Kristie Erin Reed. On January 29, 1999, Paul Warner Powell, then 20, went to visit the bettering Reeds' home. Powell was carrying two knives and a 9 mm handgun. Stacey, then 16 years old, left home to fourteen go to work, and Powell remained there alone with Kristie, who was 14. That afternoon, Kristie called her mother by telephone and informed her that Powell refused to leave the home. Bettering. Kristie's mother told Kristie to order Powell to era reformers leave. Bettering Education. Kristie was concerned because Powell kept walking back and forth down the hallway looking in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: or Fiction? Essay the rooms. On the afternoon of January 29, 1999, Kristie arrived home from school and was startled to find Powell in her house.

She asked Powell where Stacey was. He replied, she was in her room. Kristie walked to Stacey's room, but Stacey was not there. Then, Kristie turned to bettering enter her own room and steel india saw Stacey's body lying on the floor. Powell, who had followed Kristie to the bedroom ordered Kristie to go downstairs to the basement. Kristie knew that Powell customarily armed himself with a knife. Education. She had previously observed Powell with a butterfly knife and another long knife that was in what of thurgood a brown pouch type thing.

Powell forced Kristie to accompany him to bettering education the basement, where he ordered her to tata steel remove her clothes. She took her clothes off because she didn't want to die. Powell told Kristie to lay on the floor, and then he raped her. After Powell raped Kristie, he dressed himself, and bettering he used shoelaces taken from president woodrow wilson's, Kristie's shoes to bettering education tie her feet together. He also used shoelaces to tie her arms behind her back. Someone knocked on the door to the house, and Powell went upstairs, leaving Kristie naked and bound on the basement floor. While Powell was upstairs, Kristie was able to free her hands, and she tried to tata india scoot across the floor and hide beneath the basement steps. Powell returned to the basement, removed Kristie's eyeglasses, and bettering strangled her until she was unconscious.

Powell stabbed Kristie in the stomach, and the knife stopped within a centimeter of wilson's fourteen points her aorta. Bettering. He slashed her in her neck numerous times, and the repair of the knife wounds required 61 sutures. She had multiple stab wounds to her neck and abdomen. She also had wounds on her wrists. Robert Culver arrived at the home at was one of thurgood marshall’s major achievements?, 4:15 p.m. on January 29, 1999. He could not locate Kristie or Stacey. Education. He went to the girls' bedrooms and saw that Stacey's room was in disarray. He entered Kristie's room, turned on the lights, and found Stacey's body on india, the floor.

He observed blood on her body and saw that she was not breathing. When Culver went to the basement in search of a telephone, he discovered Kristie lying naked and bound on the floor, bleeding from her neck and education stomach. Jackson Era Reformers. He saw that she had been stabbed in the stomach and her throat was slit pretty severely, many times. Bettering Education. Culver found a telephone, dialed 911, and jackson era reformers spoke to emergency response personnel. In a recent interview, Robert Culver said the worst part for him are the regrets of that day. He says he had a cold and bettering that his boss told him he could leave early on that day. He almost took him up on the offer, but didn't want the girls to think he came home early because he didn't trust them to be alone. Little things like that, he said. I should have been home.

Although Kristie was experiencing life-threatening injuries, she was able to tell police officers and paramedics that Paul Powell was her assailant. Stacey's death was caused by a stab wound to her chest. The wound pattern indicated that the blade of the knife pierced her heart and was twisted upon withdrawal. The blade of american home products wyeth Powell's knife was consistent with the stab wounds. Education. There were numerous bruises on Stacey's head, neck, chest, abdomen, back, arms, and legs. She suffered stab wounds in her back and american home products arm. She also had abrasions on her left hand and wrist that were characterized as defensive wounds. Stacey's body contained bruises on her lower neck that were consistent with someone stepping or stomping on her face and neck. Police officers arrested Powell on January 30, 1999 at the home of a friend.

The police officers also located a blue sports bag that belonged to Powell. A nine-millimeter semiautomatic pistol with a full magazine containing 10 Winchester nine- millimeter cartridges was in the bag. The bag also contained a survival knife with a five and bettering education one-half inch blade inside a black sheath and a butterfly knife with a five inch blade. The survival knife sheath contained a dark reddish-brown stain. The DNA profile obtained from the stain on the sheath was consistent with the DNA profile of home wyeth Stacey Reed and different from the DNA profile of Kristie Reed and Paul Powell. The probability of selecting an unrelated individual with a matching DNA profile is approximately one in 1.1 billion in the Caucasian population.

After his arrest, Powell consented to several interviews with police officers. Bettering. During one interview, he stated that he had been at the Reeds' home on jackson era reformers, January 29, 1999 and that Stacey was dead because she was stupid. Powell told the police officers that he and Stacey had an argument because she had a black boyfriend, and bettering Powell didn't agree with interracial dating. Of Thurgood Major Achievements?. Powell claimed that during the education argument, Stacey attacked him and scratched his face, and then he pushed her to was one marshall’s achievements? the floor. Education. He claimed that Stacey attacked him again, and that she got stuck on his knife. Powell also initially denied raping Kristie. In a second statement to police officers, Powell admitted that he raped Kristie. The detective who interviewed Powell testified that Powell stated that he had to kill Kristie because she was the only witness and disease he would have to go to jail. Powell was sentenced to death in August, 2000. In 2001, the Virginia Supreme Court overturned his death sentence, saying that prosecutors had failed to prove that Powell had raped Stacey which was part of the reason for defining the bettering education case as a capital murder. A murder that is committed in conjunction with another felony is one of the requirements for a death sentence and steel india the appeals court felt that the rape of Stacey's sister Kristie was a separate act.

Under the bettering education erroneous assumption that this meant he could no longer face the death penalty, Powell wrote two letters to the Commonwealth's Attorney of Prince William County, Paul Ebert. Tata India. Below is the content of a letter that Powell wrote, dated October 21, 2001. Mr. Ebert, Since I have already been indicted on first degree murder and the Va. Supreme Court said that I can't be charged with capital murder again, I figured I would tell you the rest of what happened on Jan. 29, 1999, to show you how stupid all of y'all mother f*ckers are. Y'all should have known that there is more to the story than what I told by what I said. You had it in writing that I planned to kill the whole family.

Since I planned to kill the whole family, why would I have fought with Stacie before killing her? She had no idea I was planning to kill everybody and talked and carried on like usual, so I could've stabbed her up at bettering, any time because she was unsuspecting. I had other plans for her before she died. You know I came back to wyeth the house after Bobby's lunch break was over bettering and he had went back to work. When I got back, she was on president wilson's fourteen, the phone so I went inside and I laid down on the couch. When the cab came to education bring me my pager, I ran out of the house and tata steel she jumped and got off the phone and bettering education came off the porch to see why I ran out of the house like I did. When the cab left we went in the house.

I laid on the couch again and she went to her room and got her clothes and went downstairs to Pediatric Bipolar Fact or Fiction? do her laundry. Bettering Education. When she went downstairs, I got up and shut and locked the back door and went downstairs. We talked while she put her clothes in the wash. We continued talking when she had everything in the wash and I reached over what of thurgood marshall’s and touched her ti+ and asked if she wanted to f*ck. Bettering Education. She said no, because she had a boyfriend. I started arguing with her because she had never turned anybody down because of having a boyfriend. Tata Steel India. We started walking upstairs, arguing the whole time.

When we got upstairs we went to her room and she turned the radio off. After she turned the radio off I pushed her onto bettering, her bed and grabbed her wrists and pinned her hands down by her head and sat on top of her. I told her that all I wanted to do was f*ck her and then I would leave and that we could do it the what of thurgood achievements? easy way or the hard way. She said she would f*ck me so I got up. After I got up, she got up and started fighting with me and clawed me face.

We wrestled around a little and then I slammed her to the floor. When she hit the floor I sat on top of her and pinned her hands down again. Bettering Education. She said she would f*ck me and I told her that if she tried fighting with me again, I would kill her. When I got up she stood up and kept asking me why I was doing this and all I kept saying is take your clothes off. Finally she undid her pants and pulled them down to her ankles.

She was getting ready to take them the tata steel rest of the bettering education way off and american wyeth the phone rang. When she heard the bettering phone she pulled her pants back up and said she had to answer the phone. I pushed her back and said no. She said that she wouldn't say anything about me being there and I told her no and to take her clothes off. She tried to get out of the room again and I pushed her back and tata steel india pulled out my knife. I guess she thought I was just trying to scare her and that I wouldn't really stab her because she tried to leave again. Bettering. When she got to me and tried to squeeze between me and the door jam I stabbed her.

When I stabbed her, she fell back against the door jam and just looked at me with a shocked look on her face. When I pulled the knife out she stumbled a couple steps and fell in her sister's room. I walked over and looked at disease, her. I saw that she was still breathing so I stepped over her body and into the bedroom. Then I put my foot on bettering education, her throat and stepped up so she couldn't breathe. Then I stepped down and jackson started stomping on her throat. Education. Then I stepped back onto her throat and moved up and down putting more pressure to make it harder to breathe. When I didn't see her breathing anymore, I left the room and got some iced tea and Pediatric Disorder: Fact or Fiction? Essay sat on the couch and smoked a cigarette. You know the rest of what happened after that point.

I would like to thank you for bettering, saving my life. I know you're probably wondering how you saved my life, so I'll tell you. You saved my life by f*cking up. There were 2 main f*ck-ups you made that saved me. The first was the way you worded my capital murder indictment. Bipolar Fact Essay. The second was the comment you made in your closing argument when you said we won't know because he won't tell us. One more time, thank you! Now y'all know everything that happened in that house at 8023 McLean St. on Jan.

29, 1999. I guess I forgot to mention these events when I was being questioned. Ha Ha! Sike! I knew what y'all would be able to prove in court, so I told you what you already knew. Stacey was dead and no one else was in the house so I knew ya'll would never know everything she went through unless she came back to education life. Since the Supreme Court said I can't be charged with capital murder again, I can tell you what I just told you because I no longer have to worry about the death penalty. Was One Of Thurgood Achievements?. And y'all are supposed to be so goddamn smart.

I can't believe that y'all thought I told you everything. Well, it's too late now. Nothing you can do about it now so f*ck you you fat, c*cksucking, c*m guzzling, gutter slu+. I guess I'll see your bi+ch a$$ on Dec. 18 at trial because I'm not pleading to bettering education shi+. Tell the family to be ready to testify and tata steel india relive it all again because if I have to suffer for the next 50 or 60 years or however long then they can suffer the torment of reliving what happened for a couple of days. Bettering Education. I'm gone. F*ck you and anyone like you or that associates with people like you.

I almost forgot, f*ck your god, too. Jesus knows how to era reformers suck a d*ck real good. Did you teach him? Well, die a slow, painful, miserable death. See ya punk. Do you just hate yourself for being so stupid and for bettering, f*ckin' up and saving me? Sincerely, Paul Powell. In a statement to a police officer on November 2, 2001, Powell gave the following description of Stacey's murder: She walked over to and uh I pushed her back. And then she walked over to me again I think and then I pulled my knife out and you know, and wyeth she looked at me you know. I guess she thought I wouldn't stab her or whatever. So she tried to leave and go to answer the phone.

That's that. . . . . After she got stabbed, she just looked at me for a minute you know and then you know, she . . .she was surprised and them um, I pulled the education knife out, you know she stumbled a few steps, fell down in steel Christy's doorway. Education. I just walked over and looked at her. And I stepped over top of her and stepped on her throat and then stood on her throat and then stomped on her throat . . . then I stood on her throat until I didn't see her breathing no more. . . . .What I'm saying I was stepping on her. I'm saying I put all my weight on her. I'm saying that I put my foot there you know and then I lifted myself up to where I was standing on top of her. Started stomping on her throat. And then man, I just stood on her throat again until I didn't see her breathe no more. Before he raped Kristie, Powell knew that he intended to kill her. In response to a police officer's question: Before you raped Kristie, you knew you were going to kill her; didn't you?, Powell responded: I really didn't have a choice; did I? While incarcerated in jail awaiting his capital murder trial, Powell sent a letter to Lorraine Reed, the mother of Stacey and Kristie.

Powell enclosed a photograph of a partially nude woman. Powell wrote: Lorraine, I was wondering if you might be able to era reformers help me think of something. I found this picture in bettering education a magazine and it kinda looks like someone I know or used to know, but I can't think of the persons name. I think you know the person too, so I was wondering if you could tell me the name of the person this picture resembles so I can quit racking my brain trying to disease think of it? I would appreciate it. If you don't know the person I'm talking about, ask Kristie or Kelly Welch because I know they know who I'm thinking of. If you talk to the person I'm talking about, please give her my address and bettering education tell her to berger's disease write me. The partially nude woman shown in the photograph resembled Lorraine Reed's daughter, Stacey. Powell wrote a letter to a friend while he was incarcerated. He stated: About when you asked me why I wouldn't do to you what I did to Stacie, I couldn't ever hurt you because you mean to bettering much to what was one marshall’s achievements? me.

See Stacie didn't mean anything to me. Education. She was a ni**er lover and some of her wannabe skin head friends were supposed to kill me. That's part of the reason why she died. Almost everything that happened in that house was planned. The only thing that wasn't planned was trying to was one of thurgood marshall’s major achievements? f*ck Kristie. What was supposed to happen was, Stacie was supposed to die, and did, Kristie was supposed to die and then I was going to wait for their mom and stepdad to get home and I was going to kill them and then I was going to take their moms truck and then I was gonna go to bettering North Carolina and tata india knock this dude off that stole all of my clothes and everything else I owned. I had been thinking about doing it for along time but I could never bring myself to bettering education do it. I don't know what happened to make me finally do it.

I feel bad for doing it. Stacie was a good kid. Powell wrote, in steel another letter: Hey babe, what's happening? Not too much here. I writing you to bettering education see if you could get one of your guy friends to do me a favor. You know that Kristie is telling the cops things and that she is going to what was one of thurgood marshall’s achievements? testify against me in court. I was wondering if you could get somebody to go to a pay phone and call Kristie and tell her she better tell the bettering education cops that she lied to india them and tell her she better not testify against me or she's gonna die. Powell sent the following letter to the Commonwealth's Attorney of Prince William County: Fat Ebert, What's up you fat head f*cker? I'm just writing to tell you, since you want to kill me so Goddamn bad for bettering education, killing your ni**er loving whore, set up a court date closer than Oct. 25 so I can go ahead and get this bullshi+ over with and plead guilty so you can kill me and get it over american wyeth with, unless you want to let me out so I can kill the rest of the bettering ni**er lovers and era reformers all the ni**ers, Jews, Sp*cs and everybody else in bettering education this f*cked up country that's not white. That includes you because you are a ni**er loving Jewish f*cking fa**ot.

I will see you in hell bi+ch. your buddy, Paul Powell - P.S. Watch your back! The jury viewed writings and drawings taken from Powell's jail cell that demonstrated his hatred of people who were not Caucasian. Additionally, the jury heard evidence that Powell told police officers that he was a racist and described his violent racial views. He stated, everybody that ain't white shouldn't he needs to die. Powell had told a police officer that he wanted to purchase a gun to kill somebody. Kill a lot of somebodies . . . Jackson. just for something to do.

The jury was aware of Powell's criminal record, including three convictions for contributing to the delinquency of a minor, two larceny convictions, and three felony convictions for abduction, rape, and attempted capital murder of bettering Kristie. In supporting the jury's finding that Powell's conduct was outrageously or wantonly vile, horrible or inhuman in that it involved . . . depravity of mind and. . . aggravated battery to the victim beyond the minimum necessary to accomplish the act of murder, the criminal appeals court in Virginia commented, The day before Powell committed these gruesome crimes, he went to the victims' home and surveyed the interior of the house. He returned the next day and wilson's fourteen points tried to rape Stacey, who struggled with him. He stabbed her in the heart, twisted the knife, and reinserted the knife in her heart. He stomped upon her throat and he placed the entire weight of his body on her throat until she died. Next, he drank a glass of iced tea, smoked a cigarette, and education waited for tata steel india, Stacey's younger 14-year-old sister to return home. Bettering. When Kristie arrived, Powell directed her to her sister's body, forced her downstairs into the basement, and raped her on the floor. He then tied her hands and feet while she was naked, choked her until she was unconscious, stabbed her in the stomach, and slashed her neck numerous times in an attempt to kill her. After the vicious attacks, Powell had snuck out the back door, leaving Kristie for dead.

He drove with a friend to Washington and bought some drugs, then returned to india the friend's girlfriend's house where he drank beer and ordered a pizza. They were still waiting for bettering, it to be delivered when police knocked on what marshall’s major, the door. Education. Powell did not know his younger victim had survived and american home wyeth identified her attacker. Paul Warner Powell. Date of bettering Birth: April 13, 1978. Entered the Row: September 15, 2000. District: Prince William County.

Conviction: Capital murder. Virginia DOC Inmate Number: 285713. On May 5, 2000, a jury in the Circuit Court of Prince William County convicted Paul Warner Powell of capital murder, attempted capital murder, abduction, rape, and grand larceny. Steel India. Powell was 20-years old when he committed the crimes. On January 29, 1999, Powell entered the home of bettering Stacie Reed, a 16-year old acquaintance. Disorder: Fact Essay. Powell was angry because she was dating a black youth and bettering confronted her. After a scuffle, Powell stabbed Reed three times with a survival knife, twice in the heart. Powell remained at the residence until Reeds 14-year old sister arrived home.

Powell then raped her, slit her throat, stabbed her in the abdomen and left her for dead. Home Products Wyeth. Reeds sister survived and later testified against Powell. The jury recommended the death penalty and bettering three life sentences for tata, the convictions. Powell refused to allow his defense to present mitigation evidence during the trials penalty phase. Prince William Circuit Judge Herman Whisenant upheld the jurys recommendation and sentenced Powell to die.

Whisenant rejected a defense motion to overrule the education jury because the sentence had not been unanimous. Jackson Era Reformers. The jury forewoman, Jennifer Melanie Day, testified that had she known life in prison was an option, she would have never voted for a death sentence. In 2001, the Virginia Supreme Court reversed Powells death sentence, saying that prosecutors had failed to prove that Powell had raped Reed, part of the reason for defining the murder as a capital case. In October of bettering education 2001, Powell wrote letters to Prince William County Commonwealth Attorney Paul Ebert and the victims family detailing his crimes. The letters served as new evidence, even if the underlying crime was the same. Powell was retried in 2003 that Powell be sentenced to death. The sentence was upheld by the Virginia Supreme Court in January 2004. Powell has been on jackson era reformers, death row since September 15, 2000. Powell v. Commonwealth , 552 S.E.2d 344 (Va. 2001) (Direct Appeal-Reversed). Defendant was convicted in the Circuit Court, Prince William County, Herman A. Whisenant Jr., J., of capital murder and related offenses and was sentenced to education death.

He appealed. The Supreme Court, Lawrence L. Era Reformers. Koontz, Jr., J., held that: (1) it was reversible error to allow pretrial amendment of indictment to charge two new gradation crimes that were not considered by the grand jury; (2) error was harmless, at guilt phase, in prosecutor's commenting on defendant's failure to education testify; (3) evidence was insufficient to support conviction; and (4) sentencing verdict form should have allowed the woodrow fourteen jury the option to impose a sentence of life imprisonment and a fine of up to $100,000. Education. Affirmed in part, reversed in part, and remanded. G. Sufficiency of the Evidence. Powell assigns error to the trial court's failure to home products wyeth strike the evidence as to the abduction of Kristie on the ground that the evidence was insufficient to support a jury finding that the restraint used exceeded that necessary to accomplish the crime of rape. We disagree. A defendant may be convicted of abduction in education addition to another crime involving restraint of the victim, both growing out of a continuing course of conduct, . only when the detention committed in the act of abduction is what of thurgood major achievements? separate and apart from, and bettering education not merely incidental to, the restraint employed in the commission of the of thurgood other crime. Brown v. Commonwealth, 230 Va. 310, 314, 337 S.E.2d 711, 713-14 (1985). Here, there is sufficient evidence to support the finding of the jury that Powell used greater restraint than was necessary to commit rape.FN11 First, Powell ordered Kristie to go to a more secluded part of the home prior to the rape. See, e.g., Wilson v. Bettering Education. Commonwealth, 249 Va. 95, 103, 452 S.E.2d 669, 675, cert. denied, 516 U.S.

841, 116 S.Ct. 127, 133 L.Ed.2d 76 (1995). Although Powell did not display a weapon to her at that time, it is clear under the circumstances that Kristie was in reasonable fear for her life having just discovered her sister's lifeless body and being aware that Powell was usually armed. Moreover, after the rape was complete, Powell bound Kristie and left her for Pediatric Fact or Fiction? Essay, some time before returning to attempt to kill her. This restraint clearly exceeded that necessary to accomplish the rape. See Hoke v. Commonwealth, 237 Va. 303, 311, 377 S.E.2d 595, 600, cert. denied, 491 U.S. 910, 109 S.Ct. 3201, 105 L.Ed.2d 709 (1989). Accordingly, we hold that the bettering trial court did not err in failing to strike the evidence as to the charge of abduction.

Within the same assignment of error, Powell also asserts that the evidence was insufficient to support his conviction for the capital murder of president woodrow fourteen points Stacey during the commission of or subsequent to the bettering rape of Kristie. There is simply no evidence upon which the jury could have found that Powell committed the rape of Kristie before or during the murder of president points Stacey. Education. Indeed, it is undisputed that the rape occurred after the murder was completed. Accordingly, the evidence was insufficient to support Powell's conviction for capital murder as charged in the amended indictment. FN12. For the reasons previously stated in of thurgood marshall’s achievements? this opinion, Powell's conviction for that crime will be reversed, and he will not be subject to education retrial for that offense. Accordingly, we need not address the error assigned to the trial court's failure to poll the jury with respect to berger's disease whether the rape occurred before, during, or after the murder. Having already determined that Powell's conviction for education, capital murder will be reversed, we now further determine that there is no basis upon Disorder: or Fiction?, which Powell can be retried for capital murder on remand. The poll of the jury establishes that Powell was acquitted of the charge of capital murder in the commission of robbery or attempted robbery.

It is equally clear that there is simply no evidence upon bettering education, which the jury could have relied to find that Powell committed or attempted to commit any sexual assault against Stacey before or during her murder, or that the rape of Kristie did not occur after the murder of her sister. Accordingly, under the circumstances of this case, the evidence at best would have supported a conviction for first degree murder. For these reasons, we will reverse Powell's conviction for capital murder, affirm his convictions for abduction, rape, attempted capital murder, and jackson grand larceny, and remand the case for education, a new trial on a charge of no greater than first degree murder for the killing of Stacey Reed, if the Commonwealth be so advised. Powell v. Commonwealth , 590 S.E.2d 537 (Va. Berger's Disease. 2004) (Direct Appeal). Background: Defendant was convicted in the Circuit Court, Prince William County, Herman A. Whisenant Jr., J., of capital murder and related offenses and bettering was sentenced to death. He appealed. The Supreme Court, 261 Va. 512, 552 S.E.2d 344, affirmed in part, reversed in part, and remanded.

On remand, defendant was convicted in the Circuit Court, Prince William County, Herman A. Whisenant Jr., J., of capital murder in the commission or attempted commission of sexual assault. Defendant appealed. On consolidation of the automatic review of home products defendant's death sentence with his appeal, Holdings: the Supreme Court, Lawrence L. Education. Koontz, Jr., J., held that: (1) fact that Commonwealth's attorney had read defendant's correspondence, stating how stupid all y'all are, was insufficient to disqualify attorney from prosecuting defendant's second murder trial; (2) neither law of the case doctrine nor double jeopardy barred retrying defendant for capital murder; (3) probative value of jackson era reformers evidence that defendant raped and attempted to murder victim's sister was not outweighed by its prejudicial effect; (4) evidence sufficiently corroborated defendant's letter confessing to having attempted to rape the murder victim; and (5) defendant's death sentence was not excessive nor disproportionate to similar cases. Education. Affirmed. OPINION BY Justice LAWRENCE L. KOONTZ, JR. In this appeal, we review the capital murder conviction and sentence of death imposed upon Paul Warner Powell for the murder of Stacey Lynn Reed in tata the commission of, or subsequent to, attempted rape. Code 18.2-31(5).

A. Powell's First Trial and Appeal. Powell was originally convicted of the capital murder of Stacey Lynn Reed in 2000 and sentenced to death. See Powell v. Bettering Education. Commonwealth, 261 Va. 512, 530, 552 S.E.2d 344, 354 (2001). In the india same trial, Powell was convicted of the abduction, rape, and bettering attempted capital murder of Stacey's younger sister, Kristie Erin Reed, and was sentenced to berger's three terms of life imprisonment and fines totaling $200,000 for those crimes.

FN1 The abduction, rape, and attempted capital murder convictions, as well as a conviction for grand larceny, were affirmed in the prior appeal and are not at issue in this appeal. Powell had also been tried for robbery and attempted robbery, Code 18.2-58, and three counts of use of a firearm, Code 18.2-53.1. He was acquitted of those crimes. Upon review of the capital murder conviction and the death sentence imposed upon Powell, this Court reversed the bettering conviction on disease, various grounds including a finding that the indictment charging Powell with capital murder in the commission of bettering robbery and/or attempted robbery had been improperly amended to include a charge of capital murder during the disease commission of or subsequent to rape and/or attempted rape and/or sodomy and/or attempted sodomy. FN2 Id. at 532, 552 S.E.2d at 355-56. Bettering Education. Upon review of the record, we further held that the wording of the indictment limited the Commonwealth to proving that the gradation crime was a rape occurring before or during the killing, id. at 538-39, 552 S.E.2d at 359, and there was no evidence upon which the jury could have found that Powell committed the rape of Kristie before or during the murder of Stacey. Id. at Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Fact, 541, 535 S.E.2d at 361. FN2. Following the presentation of the bettering education Commonwealth's case-in-chief in Powell's first trial, the Commonwealth had conceded that there was no evidence of forcible sodomy or attempted forcible sodomy against Kristie. Powell, 261 Va. at 525, 552 S.E.2d at 351. Thus, that aspect of the amended indictment for capital murder from Powell's first trial is not relevant to any issue raised in this appeal. We summarized the consequence of these holdings in the conclusion of the opinion, stating: there is simply no evidence upon which the jury could have relied to find that Powell committed or attempted to commit any sexual assault against Stacey before or during her murder, or that the rape of berger's disease Kristie did not occur after the murder of her sister. Education. Accordingly, under the circumstances of this case, the evidence at wilson's fourteen, best would have supported a conviction for bettering, first degree murder.

For these reasons, we will reverse Powell's conviction for capital murder . and remand the case for a new trial on a charge of no greater than first degree murder for the killing of Stacey Reed, if the Commonwealth be so advised. Id. at jackson era reformers, 545-46, 552 S.E.2d at 363. The mandate from this Court to the trial court tracked the language of the opinion, and directed that the case is education remanded . for a new trial on was one marshall’s major achievements?, a charge of no greater than first degree murder for the killing of Stacey Reed, if the Commonwealth be so advised. B. Events and education Proceedings Following Remand. On October 21, 2001, Powell wrote an obscenity-laced letter to the Commonwealth's Attorney who had prosecuted Powell in was one marshall’s major his first trial. FN3 Powell stated in the letter that, because he believed he could not be retried for capital murder, I figured I would tell you the rest of what happened on Jan. 29, 1999, to show you how stupid all y'all . are. Admitting that he planned to kill the whole family on that day, Powell further stated that I had other plans for [Stacey] before she died. Powell described how he had attempted to education initiate consensual sexual intercourse with Stacey, which he had previously admitted.

Powell then revealed that when Stacey resisted his advances, he pushed her onto her bed and, while sitting on was one marshall’s major, top of her, told Stacey that we could do it the easy way or the hard way. FN3. Powell had previously written to the Commonwealth's Attorney on July 4, 2001, proposing a plea agreement for a first degree murder charge for the killing of Stacey Reed. Powell then described how Stacey had started fighting with me and clawed me [sic] face. Powell stated that he slammed her to the floor . sat on top of her and pinned her hands down again. Powell claimed that Stacey relented and I told her if she tried fighting with me again I would kill her. Continuing, Powell stated that, at his direction, Stacey began to disrobe, but stopped when the telephone rang. Stacey put her clothes back on so that she could answer the telephone. Powell refused to allow Stacey to answer the education telephone and ordered her to resume disrobing. When she refused, Powell pushed her back and pulled out [his] knife. When Stacey attempted to leave the bedroom, Powell stabbed her.

Stacey fell back and Powell removed the knife. Stacey then stumbled to another bedroom and collapsed. Of Thurgood Major Achievements?. Powell saw that she was still breathing and started stomping on her throat until he didn't see her breathing anymore. The New Indictment Armed with this new evidence, the Commonwealth elected to nolle prosequi the indictment in the remanded case, under which it was limited to trying Powell for first degree murder under our mandate, and education sought a new indictment against Powell for capital murder. On December 3, 2001, the grand jury returned an indictment charging Powell with the capital murder of Stacey Lynn Reed during the what of thurgood marshall’s major achievements? commission of bettering education or subsequent to the attempted rape of Stacey Lynn Reed.

C. Powell's Second Trial. Motions to Dismiss the Indictment. On April 24, 2002, Powell filed a motion to what was one achievements? dismiss the December 3, 2001 indictment. Powell asserted that [w]hen the Supreme Court of Virginia issues an opinion concerning a case, this opinion becomes the law of the case and, thus, the directive of the opinion and mandate from this Court in his first appeal limited his retrial to a charge no greater than first degree murder, regardless whether that trial was conducted under the original indictment or a new indictment. The Commonwealth filed a response to this motion, asserting that the judgment of this Court in Powell's first appeal was not applicable to the December 3, 2001 indictment because Powell had never [previously] been charged with the capital murder of Stacey Reed in the commission or attempted commission [of] sexual assault against [Stacey Reed] because, at the time of [Powell's first] trial, no such evidence existed. Accordingly, the education Commonwealth contended that the December 3, 2001 indictment was a new charge, one that has never been litigated in trial nor considered by the Virginia Supreme Court. Following a hearing on Pediatric Disorder: Fact Essay, this and other pre-trial matters, the trial court overruled Powell's motion to dismiss the education indictment in an order dated May 6, 2002. On May 17, 2002, Powell filed a second motion to dismiss the December 3, 2001 indictment.

The briefs filed in the trial court in support of and in opposition to this motion parallel the arguments made on berger's disease, appeal with respect to bettering this issue and, accordingly, we will only summarize the essential points of those arguments here. Woodrow Points. The import of Powell's argument was that his prior trial and bettering the reversal of his conviction by this Court acted as an implied or judicial acquittal of the tata steel attempted rape of Stacey, thus barring his retrial for her capital murder premised on education, that gradation offense. Steel India. The Commonwealth responded that the issue whether Stacey had been the victim of a sexual assault was not before the jury in his first trial because the bettering bill of particulars provided at Powell's request indicated that only Kristie was the victim of the sexual assault gradation offenses charged in the amended indictment. Similarly, the Commonwealth contended that our comments concerning the woodrow fourteen points insufficiency of the evidence to prove a sexual assault or attempted sexual assault against bettering education Stacey were not directed toward any finding of the jury, but to the contrary were indicative of the fact that the jackson jury did not consider whether Stacey had been the victim of such an assault or attempt. On June 5, 2002, the bettering trial court held a hearing on Powell's second motion to dismiss the fourteen indictment. After hearing argument, the trial court stated that by identifying Kristie as the victim of the rape or attempted rape in the bill of particulars, the Commonwealth had clearly identified her as the victim of those gradation crimes in bettering education the amended indictment for capital murder. The trial court also agreed with the Commonwealth that this Court's reference to woodrow points the lack of education evidence to prove any sexual assault or attempted sexual assault against woodrow fourteen points Stacey was merely a comment on the record, and bettering not an assertion that this was a theory of the case presented by the Commonwealth in Powell's first trial. On July 3, 2002, the trial court entered an order overruling Powell's second motion to dismiss the indictment. Other Pre-trial Motions. On April 25, 2002, Powell filed a motion to have Virginia's statutory scheme for charging a capital crime and imposing a death sentence declared unconstitutional on president woodrow wilson's, various grounds.

On appeal, Powell reasserts only some of these arguments and education does so only in summary fashion. Accordingly, we will not summarize those arguments in detail here, but will address them within the discussion of the relevant assignment of error, infra. On April 26, 2002, Powell filed a motion seeking to disease have the Commonwealth's Attorney's office disqualified from bettering, prosecuting his case. Powell contended that the india Commonwealth's Attorney had a conflict of interest because he was a key chain of custody witness with respect to his receipt of Powell's October 21, 2001 letter confession to bettering education the attempted rape of president woodrow fourteen Stacey. Powell further contended that the bettering offensive nature of Pediatric Disorder: Essay that letter and his other conduct toward the Commonwealth's Attorney had created such a level of animosity that the Commonwealth's Attorney would not be able to education objectively pursue justice, but would instead seek to satisfy a personal vendetta against Powell. Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Essay. Powell further contended that this taint of education bias extended to every attorney in the Commonwealth's Attorney's office, and berger's disease further asserted that these attorneys would be potential witnesses called to give testimony concerning the Commonwealth's Attorney's personal animus against Powell.FN4. FN4. Powell further contended that one of the Assistant Commonwealth's Attorneys while in private practice had represented Powell in an unrelated criminal matter and, thus, had a conflict of interest.

Powell does not reassert this issue on appeal. On May 1, 2002, the Commonwealth filed responses to Powell's motions to have Virginia's statutory scheme for charging a capital crime and imposing a death sentence declared unconstitutional and to disqualify the Commonwealth's Attorney's office. With respect to education the former, the was one major Commonwealth asserted that all the issues raised therein had previously been considered and rejected by this Court, and there was no cause for the trial court to revisit them. As to the latter, the education Commonwealth asserted that there was no evidence of steel india bias on the part of the bettering education Commonwealth's Attorney or other members of his office and denied that there was any such bias, that the manner of establishing the chain of was one of thurgood marshall’s custody of Powell's letter was not the defense's concern, and that the questions of an appearance of impropriety should be raised through a disciplinary complaint proceeding. On May 6, 2002, in the same hearing in which the trial court heard argument of Powell's first motion to dismiss the indictment, the bettering education trial court also heard argument on Powell's motions to have Virginia's statutory scheme for charging a capital crime and imposing a death sentence declared unconstitutional and to disqualify the Commonwealth's Attorney's office from prosecuting the berger's disease case. Following that hearing, the trial court entered an order overruling these motions without comment. On December 11, 2002, Powell filed a motion to exclude any evidence concerning his abduction, rape, and attempted murder of education Kristie Reed from his trial. Powell contended that because he was charged only jackson era reformers with the capital murder of education Stacey Reed predicated on an attempted rape of her, evidence of his subsequent attack on Kristie was irrelevant or that any probative value it might have would be overborne by its unduly prejudicial effect on the jury.

The Commonwealth did not file a response to this motion, but during oral argument in berger's disease a hearing held December 23, 2002, the Commonwealth asserted that evidence concerning the attack on Kristie was part of a continuing criminal enterprise and was relevant to show Powell's motive and intent in attempting the rape of bettering Stacey. Also on December 11, 2002, Powell, alleging that the United States Supreme Court's decision in Ring v. Arizona, 536 U.S. 584, 122 S.Ct. 2428, 153 L.Ed.2d 556 (2002) had called into question prior judgments of this Court concerning the issue, filed a motion seeking to have Code 19.2-264.4(B) declared unconstitutional because it permits a jury to consider evidence relating to the future dangerousness and vileness aggravating factors without full protection of due process to the defendant to confront witnesses. Powell also asserted that the american home products statutory definitions of the aggravating factors are vague and, thus, would likely result in bettering unreliable jury verdicts. The Commonwealth filed a brief in products wyeth response to education this motion, asserting that the india issue of the constitutionality of Code 19.2-264.4(B) is settled law.

On December 16, 2002, Powell filed a motion to suppress various statements he made to police during the education initial investigation of the crimes. Powell alleged that after giving an initial statement following waiver of his Miranda rights, he advised police that he had nothing more to say. Thereafter, Powell contended, any statement he made to police without a readvisement and disease waiver of his Miranda rights should be suppressed. The Commonwealth responded that the bettering education suppression issue had been decided in Powell's first trial and, thus, the tata india doctrine of res judicata barred consideration of the issue in his second trial. FN5 Powell filed a supplemental motion on bettering, December 17, 2002 asserting that a statement taken by an investigator on November 2, 2001, while Powell was in prison following his first trial, should be suppressed because his counsel was not present. India. The Commonwealth responded that Powell had been advised of and waived his Miranda rights prior to giving this statement and that he was not entitled to bettering counsel under the Sixth Amendment at that time because he had not yet been indicted for the offense for which he was then on trial, and Bipolar Disorder: Fact the formal proceedings on the prior indictments had concluded. FN5. Bettering Education. Powell did not contest the trial court's failure to products wyeth suppress his statements in the appeal of his first conviction. In summarizing its rulings on these motions during the December 23, 2002 hearing, the education trial court stated that it found Powell had waived his Miranda rights with respect to berger's disease the statement made after his first trial but prior to the bringing of the second indictment and, thus, the bettering education statement was not barred by woodrow points, either the Fifth or Sixth Amendments. The trial court also indicated that it would deny the motion to bettering education suppress the statements from the initial investigation of the crimes, incorporating by reference the finding made during the first trial with respect to those statements.

The trial court further found that evidence of Powell's attack on jackson, Kristie was admissible as being part of bettering a common scheme and to show consciousness of guilt. The trial court entered an president woodrow points omnibus order denying all these motions as well as the motion challenging the constitutionality of Code 19.2-264.4(B). Powell's second trial commenced on bettering, January 13, 2003. The trial court conducted voir dire of the venire in panels of five potential jurors. In questioning the first panel, the trial court inquired whether any of steel india you have acquired any information about the alleged offense, or of the accused from the news media, or other sources in this particular matter? The five panel members indicated that they had not.

The Commonwealth further inquired whether [i]f during the course of trial you should hear something which would jog your memory about the publicity, would you be able to set that aside and education render your verdict based solely on what you hear in american the courtroom? The five panel members each indicated that they could do so. During his voir dire of the first panel, Powell's counsel attempted to ask the following question: You're going to hear in this case that the Defendant has already been tried and convicted of education capital murder at one point, and he's serving life sentences for other crimes. President Woodrow Points. You're also going to hear that the bettering education Supreme Court of Virginia overturned the- At this point, the Commonwealth objected and during a bench conference, referencing Barker v. Fourteen Points. Commonwealth, 230 Va. 370, 375, 337 S.E.2d 729, 733 (1985), asserted that, as the panel had already indicated that they had not heard of the case previously, Powell's counsel's question concerning the prior trial and appeal may, in fact, taint the members of the panel and disqualify them from serving on the jury. Powell's counsel responded that because the evidence would disclose the fact of his prior convictions and education the reversal of his capital murder conviction and death sentence on appeal, the prohibition of Barker did not apply. He further contended that because a jury's knowledge of a prior conviction was potentially prejudicial to the defendant, it was a tactical decision that we've made . and jackson we wish this evidence to bettering education come forward. Thus, he contended that it was proper to era reformers explore the potential jurors' bias that would result from hearing that evidence. The trial court ruled, even though it agreed that this was a unique case because the evidence would establish the fact of the prior conviction and appellate reversal, the Barker case is still good law. Accordingly, the trial court concluded that we have to start off with a jury that does not have knowledge of the prior trial, conviction, and appeal. Bettering Education. Accordingly, the trial court ruled that Powell could not question the jurors about their potential bias based upon such evidence being likely to be presented during the trial.

The Commonwealth then inquired, Are we going to strike this panel or will the Court instruct the panel to disregard the question? When the trial court indicated that it would instruct the panel to disregard the disease question, Powell's counsel objected that he was not sure that instructing them is sufficient . if they've already been told-. The trial court cut off the objection, stating that the members of the panel had already indicated they were unaware of the case and bettering that all I can do is tell them to disregard the question. Guilt-Determination Phase Apart from the new evidence of Powell's October 21, 2001 letter to steel india the Commonwealth's Attorney in which Powell confessed to education the attempted rape of Stacey, the evidence presented during the guilt-determination phase of wilson's fourteen points Powell's second trial was not markedly different from that received during the first trial. Because we have thoroughly recounted that evidence in education reviewing his first trial, see Powell, 261 Va. at 518-520, 552 S.E.2d at points, 347-348, and Powell does not challenge the bettering education sufficiency of the evidence except with respect to proof of the attempted rape of Stacey, we need not reiterate the full extent of the evidence, but will suffice with a summary of the essential details. Powell, who was twenty years old at the time of the crimes, had been acquainted with Stacey and her family for approximately two-and-a-half years. Disease. Powell, a self-avowed racist and white supremacist, objected to Stacey dating Sean Wilkerson, a black classmate of bettering education Stacey's. Id. at 518, 552 S.E.2d at 347. Stacey arrived home just before noon on January 29, 1999 to find Powell waiting for wyeth, her. When Powell learned that Robert Culver, a friend of the girls' mother, would be home shortly for lunch, Powell left, but returned at about 12:45 p.m., after Culver had left. When Powell returned, he was armed with a survival knife, a butterfly knife, a box cutter, and a 9-millimeter pistol. Id.

During the initial investigation, Powell claimed that he and bettering education Stacey had argued about her relationship with Wilkerson and in an ensuing struggle, Powell drew the survival knife from his belt and Stacey got stuck. Id. Although Powell denied stabbing Stacey deliberately or otherwise injuring her, an of thurgood major achievements? autopsy revealed that she had suffered multiple blunt force injuries to her head, neck, and upper body not consistent with her merely having fallen during a struggle, but consistent with a deliberate stomping. The autopsy also showed that the wound to Stacey's chest was consistent with the knife having been twisted and partially withdrawn and reinserted. Id. at 520, 552 S.E.2d at bettering, 348. Powell denied having attempted to sexually assault Stacey, but when questioned again on that point would not give the investigator a straight answer. Powell later told police that he probably raped Kristie because he didn't get any with Stacey. Leaving Stacey for dead, Powell smoked a cigarette and drank a glass of iced tea in the living room of the home, waiting for Kristie to return home from school. When she arrived, Powell met her at the door.

Shortly thereafter, Kristie discovered her sister's body. Powell then forced her to go to the basement of the home where he brutally raped her and attempted to kill her by strangulation and by cutting her wrists and tata india throat. Bettering. Id. at products, 519, 552 S.E.2d at 347. At the conclusion of the Commonwealth's case-in-chief, Powell moved to strike the bettering education evidence on the ground that the Commonwealth had not presented sufficient evidence to corroborate Powell's confession in the October 21, 2001 letter that he had attempted to rape Stacey. The Commonwealth pointed to the physical circumstances, such as the Bipolar or Fiction? Essay disheveled condition of Stacey's bedroom, Stacey's defensive wounds, and the fact that when her body was discovered her pants' zipper was slightly undone, as corroborating Powell's confession. The trial court denied the motion to strike. Education. Thereafter, Powell elected not to offer any evidence.

The jury was instructed, heard closing arguments, and retired to consider its verdict. American. After two hours of deliberation, the education jury found Powell guilty of capital murder. Powell requested a poll of the jury, which confirmed that the was one verdict was unanimous. Penalty Determination Phase During the education penalty determination phase, the Commonwealth presented evidence of Powell's criminal record, including three convictions for contributing to jackson era reformers the delinquency of a minor, two larceny convictions, and education his convictions for Pediatric Disorder: Fact Essay, the abduction, rape, and attempted capital murder of Kristie. Education. The Commonwealth further presented evidence concerning Powell's extreme racist views. Additional evidence showed that Powell had tortured cats when he was younger and Bipolar Fact or Fiction? Essay that he told an investigator that he wanted to purchase a gun to [k]ill somebody.

Kill a lot of somebodies. Bettering. Just for something to do. Powell also told the investigator that he admired Charles Manson and Adolf Hitler, saying that [t]hey were cool. The Commonwealth also presented evidence that Powell wrote an abusive letter to disease Stacey's mother in bettering which he included a pornographic picture of a woman who resembled Stacey. Powell presented evidence from his parents and younger brother, a social worker, a psychologist, and a probation officer. Berger's. This evidence dealt primarily with Powell's upbringing and transfer of bettering education custody from his mother to the Department of Youth and Family Services following his juvenile offenses. Jackson. The psychologist described Powell's home environment as toxic. The psychologist further testified that, following his incarceration, Powell had received [m]edication to help stabilize his mood, and while medicated Powell has not had any serious disciplinary infractions. The psychologist did not offer a specific diagnosis for Powell's mental-health problems, but testified that Powell's clinical history suggested an anti-social personality disorder and that his behavior as a child suggested Powell had an under controlled temperament. The psychologist further testified that the medication Powell had received in the past was used for manic depressive illness which is now called bi-polar disorder and for certain forms of serious depression. After ninety minutes of deliberation, the jury returned a unanimous verdict sentencing Powell to death. The jury indicated that the bettering education sentence was predicated on both the future dangerousness and vileness aggravating factors. Sentencing On May 8, 2003, the trial court held a sentencing hearing and Bipolar or Fiction? Essay received a pre-sentence report and victim impact evidence from Stacey's mother. Powell's counsel argued that imposition of the death sentence was not appropriate, asserting that so long as Powell were confined and bettering properly medicated, he did not present a continuing danger to society and that a life sentence without possibility of parole was adequate punishment.

The Commonwealth responded that Powell had shown no remorse following his conviction in the first trial. The trial court then confirmed the jury's sentence of death. Was One Marshall’s Achievements?. We consolidated the automatic review of bettering Powell's death sentence with his appeal of the what was one of thurgood achievements? capital murder conviction and expedited the appeal on education, our docket. Code 17.1-313(F). Powell raises twelve assignments of error, the first two of which merely restate the elements of the statutory review of president woodrow points any death sentence mandated by Code 17.1-313(C). We will review Powell's arguments in the order in which the trial court considered the issues below. A. Education. Failure to Dismiss the Capital Murder Indictment In his sixth and seventh assignments of error, Powell contends that the trial court erred in denying his motions to dismiss the capital murder indictment against him. American. This was the principal issue addressed by the parties during oral argument before this Court. The various positions under which Powell asserts that he was not subject to trial under the capital murder indictment can be generally summarized as follows: (1) The opinion and mandate of this Court from Powell's first trial limited his retrial for the killing of Stacey Reed to a charge no greater than first degree murder on any indictment.

(2) Even if retrial on a charge of capital murder was not barred under a new indictment, Powell had been acquitted, either actually or by implication, of the attempted rape of Stacey Reed in education his first trial and, thus, the law of the berger's disease case doctrine barred his being tried for capital murder based upon the attempted rape of education Stacey as the gradation offense. (3) Principles of double jeopardy bar his retrial for a violation of Code 18.2-31(5) because the indictment in his first trial did not specify the victim of the gradation offense. Effect of president woodrow points Prior Opinion and Mandate. We recognize the bettering principle of the mandate rule, stated by the Court of president points Appeals of bettering education Virginia in a different context, that: A trial judge is tata steel india bound by education, a decision and mandate from [an appellate court], unless [the court] acted outside [its] jurisdiction. A trial court has no discretion to disregard [a] lawful mandate.

When a case is remanded to a trial court from an appellate court, the refusal of the trial court to follow the appellate court mandate constitutes reversible error. Rowe v. Rowe, 33 Va.App. 250, 257-258, 532 S.E.2d 908, 912 (2000); see also Frank Shop, Inc. v. Crown Central Petroleum Corp., 264 Va. 1, 6, 564 S.E.2d 134, 137 (2002) (holding that a trial court cannot permit what this Court . [has] said is unlawful in a mandate reversing the trial court's prior judgment and remanding the Disorder: case). Relying on this principle, Powell contends that the trial court was without authority to retry him on a new indictment charging him with the capital murder of Stacey Reed. Bettering Education. Powell's reliance, however, is misplaced. It is self-evident that while the opinion of an appellate court, under the doctrine of stare decisis, applies to all future cases in the trial courts, the mandate, which is the directive of the appellate court certifying a judgment in steel india a particular case to the court from which it was appealed, speaks only to that case. Moreover, the mandate is bettering controlling only as to matters within its compass. Sprague v. Ticonic National Bank, 307 U.S. 161, 168, 59 S.Ct. 777, 83 L.Ed. 1184 (1939).

Thus, while the jackson directive of bettering this Court's mandate binds the circuit court, that court is Pediatric Bipolar Fact or Fiction? Essay not thereby prohibited from acting on matters not constrained by the language of the mandate, construed in bettering education light of the Pediatric or Fiction? appellate court's opinion. Bettering Education. The mandate rule is merely a specific application of the law of the case doctrine, [and] in the absence of exceptional circumstances, it compels compliance on remand with the dictates of jackson era reformers a superior court and bettering forecloses relitigation of issues expressly or impliedly decided by the appellate court. United States v. Bell, 5 F.3d 64, 66 (4th Cir.1993) (quoting United States v. Bell, 988 F.2d 247, 251 (1st Cir.1993)). Undoubtedly, had the trial court permitted the steel india Commonwealth to education retry Powell for capital murder on the original amended indictment invalidated by our decision in reviewing his first conviction, this would have been violative of our mandate and reversible error. Similarly, had the Commonwealth dismissed that indictment and sought a new indictment charging Powell with the capital murder of Stacey Reed prior to the rape of Kristie Reed, it would have been error for president woodrow wilson's, the trial court to permit that indictment to education stand. However, nothing in our opinion or mandate from Powell's first appeal required the Commonwealth to retry Powell on the original indictment, abridged to cure the defects found by this Court to american home wyeth charge only first-degree murder. To the contrary, the education directive of the disease mandate expressly stated that Powell was to be retried on that indictment based on the record that was before this Court at that time, only if the Commonwealth be so advised. Nor did our opinion or mandate expressly preclude the possibility of trying Powell on a new indictment charging capital murder premised on a different gradation offense after dismissal of the former, defective indictment. Powell's October 21, 2001 letter to the Commonwealth's Attorney in which he revealed that he had attempted to rape Stacey before he killed her is an bettering education exceptional circumstance that merits a narrow application of the mandate rule.

We recognize that, generally, serial prosecutions are not permitted where the Commonwealth deliberately refrains from bringing criminal charges arising out disease, of the education same act or transaction while prosecuting others in order to gain the advantage of having multiple trials. See, e.g., Ashe v. Swenson, 397 U.S. 436, 444, 90 S.Ct. 1189, 25 L.Ed.2d 469 (1970). Such was not the case here, however, given the unexpected and possibly unique circumstance of evidence of an uncharged offense that was not previously known or available coming to light after the woodrow fourteen points conclusion of the first trial in the form of the defendant's voluntary confession. Accordingly, we hold that the trial court correctly ruled that the opinion and mandate of this Court from bettering, Powell's prior appeal did not bar the disease Commonwealth from dismissing the indictment against him and bringing a new indictment charging him with capital murder premised upon bettering education, a gradation offense not previously charged by berger's disease, the Commonwealth and education based upon era reformers, evidence that was not previously known or available to the Commonwealth at the time of his first trial. Acquittal under the Law of the Case

Powell contends that although he was not charged in bettering a separate indictment with the attempted rape of steel Stacey in his first trial, the Commonwealth nonetheless presented evidence tending to show that he attempted to education rape Stacey to bolster its claim that her murder was related to a sexual assault. To support this claim, Powell relies upon statements made by the Commonwealth's Attorney during his first trial that the evidence would show that Powell wanted something more from [Stacey] and disease she wasn't going to give it to him and for education, that she lost her life. Powell further notes that during his first trial the Commonwealth had argued against his motion to strike the evidence on Pediatric Essay, capital murder by stating, in part, that we have evidence . [that Powell] was having sex or attempting to have sex with [Stacey]. Powell contends that as neither the bettering amended indictment for was one major, capital murder nor the instructions given to the jury specified the victim of the sexual assault gradation crimes, the Commonwealth intended for the jury in education his first trial to consider the disease possibility that Powell attempted to rape Stacey. Powell notes that because the jury in bettering his first trial sent a question to the trial court seeking clarification whether the rape of Kristie could satisfy the gradation crime requirement for the capital murder of Stacey, Powell, 261 Va. at 526, 552 S.E.2d at 352, this indicated that the jury had considered and rejected the theory that he had attempted to rape Stacey. Relying on Green v. United States, 355 U.S. 184, 189-90, 78 S.Ct. 221, 2 L.Ed.2d 199 (1957), Powell asserts that because the jury in his first trial rejected that theory of the crime, it impliedly acquitted him of the gradation offense and, thus, he contends that the law of the case prohibits the Commonwealth from retrying that issue under a new indictment.FN6 Powell further points to statements in the opinion from his first appeal concerning the of thurgood achievements? insufficiency of the evidence to prove an education attempted sexual assault of Stacey as confirming that he was charged with capital murder based on that gradation offense.

FN6. On brief, Powell also used the term res judicata in describing the effect of his alleged acquittal of the attempted rape of Stacey. During oral argument of this appeal, he conceded that he was relying only on the law of the case doctrine in woodrow wilson's points asserting the bettering preclusive effect of president wilson's his prior trial and appeal. The Commonwealth contends that by identifying Kristie as the victim of the education rape or attempted rape in berger's disease responding to Powell's motion for a bill of particulars, it had clearly indicated that Powell was not charged or on trial for the capital murder of Stacey in the commission of the attempted rape of Stacey. Therefore, the Commonwealth asserts that Powell was never placed in bettering education jeopardy for steel, the commission of that crime and, thus, cannot have been acquitted of that crime or of its gradation offense.

Powell contends that the bill of particulars is irrelevant to the issue of whether the [Supreme] Court previously decided that Powell was charged with capital murder in the commission of the attempted rape of Stacey Reed in bettering his first trial. Powell bases this contention on the statements in the opinion reversing his first conviction for capital murder that [t]he record as a whole is devoid of any evidence that Powell attempted to berger's disease rape . Bettering Education. Stacey, Powell, 261 Va. at 534, 552 S.E.2d at 357, and that there is american home wyeth simply no evidence upon bettering education, which the jury could have relied to find that Powell committed or attempted to commit any sexual assault against Stacey, id. at 545, 552 S.E.2d at 363. Powell contends that by these statements we indicated that the question whether he had raped or attempted to rape Stacey had been at issue in his first trial. We disagree. The question, simply put, is whether the jury in Powell's first trial considered whether Powell attempted to rape Stacey Reed and concluded that he did not. Our guide in resolving that question is Ashe, supra, wherein the United States Supreme Court held that an issue will be precluded from woodrow wilson's, being retried in a subsequent criminal prosecution by education, the law of the case doctrine if, in woodrow wilson's light of the entire record, the previous jury necessarily decided that issue against the prosecution. But if a rational jury could have grounded its verdict upon an issue other than that which the defendant seeks to foreclose from consideration, the bettering education prior judgment will not be taken as deciding that particular issue. Ashe, 397 U.S. at 444, 90 S.Ct. 1189. The inquiry must be set in a practical frame and viewed with an eye to all the circumstances of the proceedings. Id. (quoting Sealfon v. Berger's Disease. United States, 332 U.S.

575, 579, 68 S.Ct. 237, 92 L.Ed. 180 (1948)). Powell's view of the record of his first trial, and of this Court's observation that the education evidence therein was insufficient for the jury to have found that he attempted to rape Stacey, as showing that the previous jury necessarily decided that issue against tata steel india the prosecution fails to take into account the effect of the bill of particulars. Bettering. It is true the bill of particulars is not for the purpose of charging the steel india offense. The indictment must do that. Livingston v. Commonwealth, 184 Va. 830, 837, 36 S.E.2d 561, 565 (1946). However, the bill of particulars and the indictment must be read together. The function of the bill of particulars is to supply additional information concerning an bettering education accusation. Id. A bill of berger's particulars not only informs the accused of the charges against him with sufficient precision to enable him to prepare his defense and avoid surprise, it also enables him to plead his acquittal or conviction in bar of any further prosecution for the same offense. See Wade v. Commonwealth, 9 Va.App. 359, 363, 388 S.E.2d 277, 279 (1990); see also United States v. Davidoff, 845 F.2d 1151, 1154 (2d Cir.1988).

The bill of bettering education particulars in Powell's first trial clearly limited the prosecution of the capital murder of Stacey under Code 18.2-31(5) to proof of the rape or attempted rape of Kristie. Disease. Nevertheless, Powell asserts that the various statements of the Commonwealth during his first trial with respect to Powell's effort to initiate consensual intercourse with Stacey, and his frustration at bettering education, being rebuffed by her, suggested a motive for his subsequent attack on tata steel india, her sister and attempted to influence the jury into believing that Stacey was also the bettering victim of an attempted sexual assault. The fact remains that Powell was not charged with having attempted to rape Stacey, either as a separate offense or as the gradation offense of the capital murder charge. Thus, it is not possible to american home products conclude that the education jury necessarily decided that issue against president points the prosecution. Powell is also mistaken in his interpretation of our statements regarding his first trial that the record contained insufficient evidence for the jury to bettering education have found that Powell attempted to rape Stacey. A careful reading of jackson era reformers our opinion shows that these statements were not intended to convey that this issue was before the jury.

To the contrary, these statements were observations made to clarify that the education amended indictment must have been intended to charge Powell with the capital murder of Stacey premised upon the gradation offense of the rape of Kristie, but was insufficient to do so because of a drafting error. FN7. FN7. Jackson. We also held that the amendment of the bettering indictment, even if properly drafted, would not have been permitted because the grand jury was never called upon to consider [the rape of berger's disease Kristie] as the gradation crime for the capital murder of Stacey. Powell, 261 Va. at bettering education, 534, 552 S.E.2d at jackson era reformers, 357. Powell also contends that even if the jury had not impliedly acquitted him of the capital murder of Stacey premised on the gradation offense of her rape or attempted rape, the effect of bettering education this Court's decision in the appeal of his first conviction nonetheless was to expressly acquit him of that crime because we found the evidence in that trial insufficient to what achievements? support a finding of rape or attempted rape of Stacey. Relying on Burks v. United States, 437 U.S. 1, 5-6, 98 S.Ct. 2141, 57 L.Ed.2d 1 (1978), Powell asserts that, because we held that the evidence at his first trial at bettering education, best would have supported a conviction for first degree murder, the trial court was bound by that determination in american products wyeth any subsequent retrial. Powell contends that Burks stands for bettering, the proposition that the era reformers determination of an appellate court that the trial court erred in permitting the jury to consider a charge not supported by the evidence acts as an acquittal on that charge and bettering that a retrial for the same offense is barred by the prohibition against double jeopardy.

Our conclusion that, lacking evidence of a sexual assault on Stacey or the attempt to jackson commit one, Powell could be retried only for first degree murder was based upon the circumstances of this case. Powell, 261 Va. at 545-46, 552 S.E.2d at bettering education, 363. Jackson. Nothing in that statement implies that Powell had been acquitted of capital murder premised on any possible gradation offense, nor, as we have already demonstrated, did it preclude the Commonwealth from seeking to bettering education indict Powell for the capital murder of Stacey with the steel attempted rape of education Stacey as the gradation offense under the exceptional circumstances occasioned by Powell's voluntary confession. Accordingly, we hold that the trial court did not err in Pediatric Disorder: Fact or Fiction? Essay denying Powell's motions to bettering education dismiss the disease indictment for capital murder on the ground that the Commonwealth was prohibited from proving Powell attempted to rape Stacey by the law of the case of bettering education his former trial and appeal. Double Jeopardy Powell also contends that the trial court should have dismissed the indictment against him because his prosecution under that indictment violated the president woodrow wilson's points guarantee of the Fifth Amendment of the Constitution of the United States against being twice placed in bettering education jeopardy for the same offense. Specifically, he asserts that having been indicted once for a violation of Code 18.2-31(5) for the murder of Stacey Reed, his constitutional guarantee of protection against being placed in double jeopardy prohibited the american home products wyeth Commonwealth from indicting him a second time for that murder under the same subsection of the capital murder statute. During oral argument of this appeal, Powell acknowledged that the Commonwealth may indict and convict an accused for multiple counts of bettering education capital murder of a single victim under different subsections of Code 18.2-31 without violating the constitutional protection against double jeopardy. See Bailey v. Commonwealth, 259 Va. 723, 747, 529 S.E.2d 570, 584, cert. denied, 531 U.S. 995, 121 S.Ct. 488, 148 L.Ed.2d 460 (2000) (a single indictment may charge two counts of capital murder of the same victim under Code 18.2-31(7) and 18.2-31(12)).

Moreover, we have held that where a particular subsection of Code 18.2-31 lists multiple gradation offenses, the Commonwealth may indict the accused for separate offenses of capital murder of a single victim premised on each specific gradation offense. Payne v. Commonwealth, 257 Va. 216, 228, 509 S.E.2d 293, 301 (1999) (indictments properly charged separate violations of Bipolar Disorder: Fact Code 18.2-31(5) premised on rape and bettering object sexual penetration of the same victim). Woodrow Wilson's Points. In Payne, we said that it is clear, as well as logical, that the General Assembly intended for each statutory offense [in Code 18.2-31] to be punished separately as a Class 1 felony. Id. By statutory definition, capital murder is limited to the willful, deliberate, and bettering education premeditated killing of any person under specific circumstances or in berger's the commission or attempted commission of certain crimes enumerated in Code 18.2-31. We have frequently referred to these crimes as gradation offenses because, when committed as part of the same transaction as a murder, they elevate what would otherwise constitute murder of the first degree pursuant to Code 18.2-32 to capital murder. Pertinent to bettering education the present case, Code 18.2-31(5) specifies gradation offenses of rape or attempted rape, forcible sodomy or attempted forcible sodomy or object sexual penetration. In Payne, we concluded that the rape and object sexual penetration of the same victim are separate and distinct gradation offenses and, therefore, support two capital murder convictions consistent with double jeopardy protections. Id.

While Payne is era reformers instructive insofar as it establishes that separate and distinct gradation offenses are enumerated in Code 18.2-31(5), it does not resolve Powell's case. Powell's contention that he was charged with the bettering education same crime rather than with two separate crimes under the amended indictment and the 2001 indictment is Bipolar Fact Essay principally premised upon the fact that the bettering former failed to identify the victim of the rape or attempted rape. Because the berger's disease amended indictment in his first trial, while identifying Stacey as the victim of the murder, did not specify a victim of the gradation offenses of rape or attempted rape, Powell contends that proof of the identity of the bettering victim was not an element of those offenses. Home Wyeth. Thus, he argues that he was placed in jeopardy regardless of whether Stacey or Kristie were proven to bettering education be the what was one marshall’s achievements? victim of the gradation offenses of rape or attempted rape, and the subsequent indictment that expressly identified Stacey as the victim of education attempted rape violated his constitutional guarantee against marshall’s achievements? double jeopardy. We agree with Powell that when an bettering indictment does not specify the identity of the victim of a gradation offense to the crime of capital murder, the identity of the victim of the gradation offense is not an element of the crime. Powell, however, has again overlooked the significance of the bill of particulars provided by the Commonwealth in his first trial. As we have already explained, the Commonwealth expressly identified Kristie as the victim of the gradation offenses for the capital murder of Stacey under Code 18.2-31(5). The bill of Pediatric Bipolar particulars was filed well in advance of the bettering trial and before jeopardy had attached. See Commonwealth v. Washington, 263 Va.

298, 307, 559 S.E.2d 636, 641 (2002) (The right not to be subjected to american home products double jeopardy attaches in a criminal case when the jury is impaneled and education sworn). During oral argument of this appeal, Powell contended that the tata india bill of bettering particulars only what of thurgood marshall’s major limits the education Commonwealth's ability to argue a specific theory of the crime, does not amend the indictment, and jeopardy attaches as to the indictment as worded regardless of whether a bill of particulars has been filed. We disagree. As noted above, while [i]t is true the bill of particulars is wyeth not for the purpose of bettering education charging the offense . the bill of wyeth particulars and the indictment must be read together. Livingston, 184 Va. at 837, 36 S.E.2d at 565. Thus, we hold that where, prior to the attachment of jeopardy, the Commonwealth limits the education prosecution of a capital murder, undifferentiated in the indictment by the identity of the victim of the Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: or Fiction? gradation offense, by bettering, naming a specific victim of the gradation offense in a bill of particulars, jeopardy will attach only to the capital murder charge as made specific by the bill of particulars. For these reasons, we further hold that the trial court did not err in president woodrow points refusing to dismiss the indictment for capital murder as violative of Powell's double jeopardy protection. B. Constitutionality of Virginia's Capital Murder Statutes.

In his third and eleventh assignments of error, Powell attacks the trial court's order overruling his motions to have the Virginia capital murder statutes declared unconstitutional. With respect to the motion filed April 25, 2002 and bettering education overruled by the trial court on May 6, 2002, Powell has restated, in summary fashion, five of his arguments advanced in the trial court, without citation to authority.FN8 The failure to woodrow wilson's adequately brief an assignment of error constitutes a waiver of the argument. See, e.g., Burns v. Commonwealth, 261 Va. Bettering. 307, 318, 541 S.E.2d 872, 880, cert. denied, 534 U.S. American Home Products. 1043, 122 S.Ct. 621, 151 L.Ed.2d 542 (2001) (assignments of error not briefed are waived even where trial record contains written argument addressing same issue). FN8. Education. At trial, Powell further contended that the expedited review of death sentence cases required by Code 17.1-313 violated a defendant's constitutional right to equal protection. Powell contended that by eliminating an intermediate review by the Court of Appeals, a defendant is denied the opportunity to perfect the issues and arguments he wishes to make on appeal. He further contended that expediting death sentence appeals on our docket disadvantaged death-sentence defendants by providing them with substantially less time than other criminal defendants to protect their legal rights. Powell does not reassert these issues on american, appeal. Moreover, the arguments raised by Powell have been previously considered and bettering education rejected by this Court.

The arguments raised by Powell and recent decisions rejecting those arguments are: That the tata india statutes fail to provide meaningful guidance with respect to the vileness and future dangerousness aggravating factors and that the jury is not provided adequate guidance with respect to bettering the application of aggravating and mitigating factors. Rejected in Morrisette v. Commonwealth, 264 Va. 386, 397, 569 S.E.2d 47, 55 (2002), cert. denied, 540 U.S. Jackson. 1077, 124 S.Ct. 928, 157 L.Ed.2d 750 (2003). That permitting evidence of unadjudicated criminal conduct to be used to establish the defendant's future dangerousness fails to education meet the heightened reliability requirement of the 8th and 14th Amendments. Rejected in Bell v. Commonwealth, 264 Va. American Wyeth. 172, 203, 563 S.E.2d 695, 716 (2002), cert. denied, 537 U.S.

1123, 123 S.Ct. Bettering. 860, 154 L.Ed.2d 805 (2003). That the trial court is improperly vested with discretion whether to set aside the death sentence for good cause shown and is permitted to consider hearsay evidence in jackson era reformers the pre-sentence report. Rejected in Lenz v. Commonwealth, 261 Va. 451, 459, 544 S.E.2d 299, 303-04, cert. denied, 534 U.S. 1003, 122 S.Ct. 481, 151 L.Ed.2d 395 (2001). That the mandatory proportionality review procedures employed by this Court fail to meet constitutional standards. Rejected in Lovitt v. Commonwealth, 260 Va. 497, 509, 537 S.E.2d 866, 874 (2000), cert. Bettering. denied, 534 U.S.

815, 122 S.Ct. 41, 151 L.Ed.2d 14 (2001); Bailey, 259 Va. at 740-42, 529 S.E.2d at woodrow fourteen points, 580-81, cert. Education. denied, 531 U.S. 995, 121 S.Ct. 488, 148 L.Ed.2d 460 (2000). With respect to the December 11, 2002 motion, overruled by the trial court on December 23, 2002, Powell asserts, as he did in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: the trial court, that the United States Supreme Court's decision in Ring v. Arizona, 536 U.S. Bettering Education. 584, 122 S.Ct. 2428, 153 L.Ed.2d 556 (2002), requires that many of the procedural safeguards that heretofore have only been required during the guilt/innocence phase of trial must now be extended to the sentencing phase. Powell reasons that because Ring held that it was impermissible in a jury trial to allow the trial judge to determine whether there were aggravating factors sufficient to tata warrant the imposition of the death penalty, id. at 609, 122 S.Ct. 2428, the aggravating factors required to education be found by Code 19.2-264.4(B) before a sentence of jackson death may be imposed are to be treated as elements of the bettering offense of a death-eligible capital murder. Powell contends that the standards of proof and rules of evidence applicable to tata the determination of guilt must also be applied to the determination of sentence, and that, contrary to decisions of this Court made prior to Ring, this precludes the Commonwealth from education, presenting under a relaxed evidentiary standard evidence of unadjudicated criminal conduct or hearsay evidence when the declarant is not available for cross-examination as required by the confrontation clause. The Commonwealth responds that Ring does not alter the what of thurgood marshall’s major achievements? analysis of the constitutionality of the procedures applied during the education penalty determination phase of steel india a capital murder trial in bettering education Virginia. Rather, the of thurgood marshall’s major achievements? Commonwealth contends that the procedures for the admission of relevant evidence during the penalty determination phase under Code 19.2-264.4(B) continue to be fully in accord with the Sixth Amendment due process concerns underpinning the decision in Ring.

We agree with the Commonwealth. First, we note that Powell's expansive reading of bettering Ring is unwarranted for the obvious reason that the berger's statutory scheme at issue in that case, which permitted the judge in a capital murder jury trial to assume the role of the jury in determining whether aggravating factors permitting the education imposition of the home products death penalty were present, is markedly different from bettering, that of Virginia's death penalty sentencing statute. See Ring, 536 U.S. at 588. Tata Steel. Moreover, nothing in the United States Supreme Court's opinion in Ring suggests that the Court intended to revisit broader issues of due process protections afforded in the penalty determination phase of all capital murder trials. We further reject Powell's contention that there is a relaxed evidentiary standard applicable to the penalty determination phase of a capital murder trial in bettering Virginia. To the contrary, Code 19.2-264.4(B) expressly provides, and we have consistently held, that the disease Commonwealth must prove the existence of one or both aggravating factors beyond a reasonable doubt. Bettering. See, e.g., Clark v. Commonwealth, 220 Va. What Was One Of Thurgood. 201, 212, 257 S.E.2d 784, 791 (1979), cert. denied, 444 U.S. 1049, 100 S.Ct. 741, 62 L.Ed.2d 736 (1980).

Powell's contention that the introduction of evidence of unadjudicated criminal acts is not admissible because Ring somehow refines the need for heightened reliability in capital sentencing is, as the Commonwealth notes, nothing more than a reassertion of the bettering same argument raised in his prior motion and consistently rejected by this Court. Jackson v. President Points. Commonwealth, 267 Va. 178, 188, 590 S.E.2d 520, 526 (2004) (today decided). Powell's assertion that Code 19.2-264.4(B) permits the introduction of hearsay evidence not otherwise subject to an exception is bettering education simply wrong.FN9 See, e.g., Lovitt v. Warden, 266 Va. Tata India. 216, 259, 585 S.E.2d 801, 826 (2003); Jackson, 267 Va. at 188, 590 S.E.2d at 526. For these reasons, we hold that the trial court did not err in overruling Powell's motion to education have the Virginia capital murder statutes declared unconstitutional.

FN9. On brief, the Commonwealth suggests that Powell has confused the evidentiary standard applicable to the penalty determination phase with that applicable to the trial court's consideration of the presentence report. Powell did not respond to home this assertion in his reply brief and does not otherwise assert that Ring has any implication to the post-verdict sentencing procedure. Accordingly, we express no opinion on that issue. C. Failure to Disqualify the Commonwealth's Attorney In his tenth assignment of error, Powell contends that the bettering trial court erred in failing to grant his motion to disqualify the Commonwealth's Attorney and his office from prosecuting Powell on the new indictment. Powell asserts the grossly offensive personal attacks on the Commonwealth's Attorney in Powell's October 21, 2001 letter, created a direct conflict of interest because the Commonwealth's Attorney had a personal stake in the outcome of this case. This is Bipolar or Fiction? Essay so, Powell contends, because the personal attacks in his letter undoubtedly led [the Commonwealth's Attorney] to have feelings of animosity towards Powell. The Commonwealth responds that the Commonwealth's Attorney represented to the trial court that he could impartially prosecute the case and that it was a matter within the trial court's discretion to determine whether to disqualify him. We agree with the Commonwealth. The due process rights of a criminal defendant under both the Virginia and United States Constitutions are violated when a Commonwealth's Attorney who has a conflict of bettering interest relevant to the defendant's case prosecutes the defendant. See Cantrell v. American Wyeth. Commonwealth, 229 Va. 387, 394, 329 S.E.2d 22, 26-27 (1985); Ganger v. Peyton, 379 F.2d 709, 714 (4th Cir.1967). However, the question whether there is a conflict of interest is dependent upon the circumstances of the education individual case, and the burden is on the party seeking disqualification of the prosecutor to jackson era reformers present evidence establishing the existence of education disqualifying bias or prejudice.

The determination whether the evidence supports a finding of a conflict of interest is a matter committed to the sound discretion of the trial court. See Lux v. Commonwealth, 24 Va.App. 561, 569, 484 S.E.2d 145, 149 (1997). The issue may arise where the prosecutor has had an tata steel india attorney-client relationship with the parties involved whereby he obtained privileged information that may be adverse to the defendant's interest in bettering regard to the pending criminal charges. Pediatric Disorder: Fact. See, e.g., Commonwealth v. Kilgore, 15 Va.App. 684, 694, 426 S.E.2d 837, 842 (1993). A second situation is where the bettering education prosecutor has some direct personal interest arising from a financial interest, kinship, or close friendship such that his objectivity and impartiality are called into question.

See, e.g., Cantrell, 229 Va. at 391-94, 329 S.E.2d at president wilson's points, 24-27. Neither of education these circumstances applies to era reformers the present case. Beyond these categories of clear and education direct conflicts of tata interest and education ethical bars to a particular attorney prosecuting a particular defendant, there is the broader consideration of whether, on the facts of a particular case, the adversarial nature of the Disorder: Fact Essay judicial process has resulted in such enmity toward the defendant on the part of the prosecutor that it will overbear his professional judgment in seeking fairly and impartially to see justice done. See Lux, 24 Va.App. at 569, 484 S.E.2d at 149. As the United States Supreme Court has observed in a related context, [i]mpartiality is not gullibility.

Disinterestedness does not mean child-like innocence. Liteky v. Bettering. United States, 510 U.S. 540, 551, 114 S.Ct. 1147, 127 L.Ed.2d 474 (1994) (quoting In re J.P. Tata. Linahan, Inc., 138 F.2d 650, 654 (2nd Cir.1943)). We are of opinion that the same can be said of the prosecutor's role. The adversarial nature of bettering criminal prosecutions unsurprisingly tends to president woodrow wilson's points engender some level of friction between the prosecutor and the defendant in difficult cases, especially where, as here, the defendant seems intent on showing his contempt and disrespect for the prosecutor. However, merely demonstrating a history of one-sided acrimony between the defendant and the prosecutor is insufficient to establish a conflict of interest or prosecutorial misconduct with respect to an otherwise proper prosecution. See, e.g., Phelps v. Hamilton, 59 F.3d 1058, 1067 (10th Cir.1995). If such were not the case, a defendant would have an incentive to deliberately incite such enmity.

The evidence must reflect that the prosecutor is bettering education acting not within the dictates of the law, but has strayed outside those parameters in furtherance of a personal animus against the defendant. Powell's October 21, 2001 letter undoubtedly was intended to insult, if not incense, the Commonwealth's Attorney. But, the trial court was within its discretion to accept the Bipolar Disorder: Commonwealth's Attorney's assurance that it had not had an effect on education, his professional judgment in berger's disease seeking fairly and bettering education impartially to see justice done. Moreover, nothing in the Commonwealth's Attorney's conduct of the trial evinces any lack of such professional judgment on tata india, his part. Accordingly, we hold that the trial court did not abuse its discretion in overruling Powell's motion to disqualify the Commonwealth's Attorney. D. Failure to Exclude Testimony of Kristie Reed. In his ninth assignment of error, Powell contends that the bettering education trial court erred in permitting the Commonwealth to call Kristie as a witness and to give testimony concerning Powell's rape and attempted murder of her during the guilt determination phase of his trial.FN10 He asserts that evidence of the events following the was one of thurgood murder of education Stacey was not relevant to prove his culpability for that crime and that such evidence was, in any case, unduly prejudicial.FN11.

FN10. In his pre-trial motion, Powell sought to exclude all evidence of his rape and american home attempted murder of Kristie. On appeal, he has limited his argument to the exclusion of her testimony and the exhibits introduced in bettering its course. FN11. Powell also asserts that Kristie's testimony was unnecessary because it was cumulative of other evidence and should more properly have been received as victim impact testimony during sentencing.

These arguments were not made at trial and, thus, are barred from consideration in this appeal. Rule 5:25. The Commonwealth responds that evidence of the rape and attempted murder of Kristie, including her testimony and its supporting exhibits, was admissible because those acts were interrelated parts of a common criminal plan and, thus, were relevant to prove Powell's identity, motive, and intent as the perpetrator of all the crimes committed in the course of carrying out that plan. In addition, the Commonwealth contends that evidence of the subsequent attack on Kristie was probative of Powell's state of mind during the entire criminal enterprise and, thus, admissible to show premeditation in the killing of president woodrow wilson's fourteen points Stacey to rebut Powell's claim that the killing was accidental. We agree with the Commonwealth. Generally, evidence of other offenses is inadmissible in a criminal prosecution, but it is a well-established exception that such evidence is admissible to show a common criminal scheme when the bettering education various acts are naturally explained as the constituent parts of the defendant's general plan.

See Satcher v. Commonwealth, 244 Va. 220, 230, 421 S.E.2d 821, 828 (1992), cert. denied, 507 U.S. Bipolar Disorder:. 933, 113 S.Ct. 1319, 122 L.Ed.2d 705 (1993); Kirkpatrick v. Commonwealth, 211 Va. Bettering. 269, 272, 176 S.E.2d 802, 805 (1970); McWhorter v. Commonwealth, 191 Va. 857, 870-71, 63 S.E.2d 20, 26 (1951). In Kirkpatrick we explained that: [e]vidence of other offenses is admitted if it shows the conduct and feeling of the steel india accused toward his victim . or if it tends to prove any relevant element of the offense charged. Such evidence is permissible in cases where the motive, intent or knowledge of the education accused is points involved, or where the evidence is connected with . the bettering education offense for which the accused is on trial.

211 Va. at president woodrow, 272, 176 S.E.2d at 805; see also Satcher, 244 Va. at 230, 421 S.E.2d at bettering, 828. There can be no question that it was the Commonwealth's theory in this trial, and taking the evidence in the light favorable to the Commonwealth it is an president wilson's points unassailable fact, that Powell went to the Reed home with the intention of raping and killing both Stacey and Kristie. As such, the evidence of Powell's rape and attempted murder of Kristie was directly probative of bettering education his motive and intent in the attempted rape and murder of Stacey. Moreover, Kristie's eyewitness testimony placing Powell in the home when she arrived and identifying him as her assailant was critical to establishing Powell's identity as the perpetrator of the crimes that preceded the criminal acts committed against her. Powell's contention that the graphic and jackson era reformers emotional testimony of the victim of a brutal rape and attempted murder should have been excluded because its probative value was outweighed by the prejudice it would cause in the minds of the jury is equally without merit.

All evidence tending to prove guilt is prejudicial to an accused, but the mere fact that such evidence is powerful because it accurately depicts the gravity and bettering education atrociousness of the crime or the callous nature of the defendant does not thereby render it inadmissible. Moreover, direct evidence, such as eyewitness testimony, is rarely subject to exclusion on the ground that it would be unduly prejudicial. In any case, determination of the issue is committed to fourteen points the sound discretion of the trial court. Spencer v. Commonwealth, 240 Va. 78, 90, 393 S.E.2d 609, 617, cert. denied, 498 U.S. 908, 111 S.Ct. 281, 112 L.Ed.2d 235, (1990). Accordingly, we hold that the trial court did not err in failing to grant Powell's pre-trial motion to exclude the testimony of Kristie Reed from the bettering education guilt determination phase of the trial.

E. Failure to Suppress Powell's Statements to Police. In his twelfth assignment of error, Powell contends that [t]he trial court erred in not suppressing Powell's statements to police. Although he uses the plural term statements in the assignment of error and makes references to woodrow fourteen the ability of an accused to revoke a prior waiver of his right to remain silent, Powell does not expressly restate the contention made in bettering the trial court that statements made during the initial investigation prior to president woodrow fourteen his first trial should have been suppressed because at the conclusion of his first interview he stated that he had nothing more to say. Because Powell has not expressly raised this issue on bettering education, brief or during oral argument, it has been waived and we will not address it. Burns, 261 Va. at 318, 541 S.E.2d at 880. Powell does assert that the trial court erred in Bipolar or Fiction? Essay not suppressing the statement concerning Powell's October 21, 2001 letter that he made on November 2, 2001 while in prison to bettering an investigator. Powell contends that because he was still represented by counsel from his first trial, the american home products wyeth investigator should not have questioned him without his counsel being present. The Commonwealth responds that the Sixth Amendment right to counsel had not attached with respect to the crime for which the investigator was gathering evidence and for which Powell would be indicted as a result of the evidence in his October 21, 2001 letter. Moreover, as Powell executed a waiver of his Fifth Amendment rights immediately prior to giving the November 2, 2001 statement, the Commonwealth contends that the statement was properly admitted. Bettering. We agree with the Commonwealth. The Sixth Amendment right to counsel arises from the fact that the suspect has been formally charged with a particular crime and home wyeth thus is facing a state apparatus that has been geared up to prosecute him. Arizona v. Roberson, 486 U.S. 675, 685, 108 S.Ct.

2093, 100 L.Ed.2d 704 (1988); see also Alston v. Commonwealth, 264 Va. 433, 437, 570 S.E.2d 801, 803 (2002). We have already determined that the crime for which Powell was tried and convicted in the present case was a separate offense from those for which he had been previously convicted. Bettering Education. Powell had not been formally charged with that offense when he was interviewed on November 2, 2001 and, thus, he was not entitled to have his counsel from his prior trial present during that interview. Eaton v. Commonwealth, 240 Va.

236, 252, 397 S.E.2d 385, 394 (1990), cert. denied, 502 U.S. 824, 112 S.Ct. Was One. 88, 116 L.Ed.2d 60 (1991). Bettering Education. As Powell does not dispute that he freely and knowingly waived his Fifth Amendment right to counsel at the time of the home wyeth interview, we hold that the trial court did not err in failing to bettering suppress Powell's statement. F. Limiting Voir Dire and Failure to Strike Jury Panel.

In his fourth assignment of error, Powell contends that the berger's trial court erred in not permitting him to question prospective jurors about bettering education whether knowledge of Powell's prior conviction for capital murder and its subsequent reversal on appeal would influence their opinion as to his guilt. Powell concedes that a prospective juror with knowledge of a defendant's prior conviction is subject to disqualification on that ground. Barker, 230 Va. at 375, 337 S.E.2d at disease, 733. Bettering Education. But see Patton v. Yount, 467 U.S. Pediatric Disorder: Fact Or Fiction?. 1025, 1035, 104 S.Ct. 2885, 81 L.Ed.2d 847 (1984) (refusing to bettering education grant a new trial where several jurors had pretrial knowledge of the defendant's prior conviction for the same crime). Powell contends, however, that in his case the jury would ultimately learn of his prior conviction during the trial and, thus, asserts that he should have been able to question jurors on the effect this evidence would have on them. The purpose of voir dire is to ascertain whether [a prospective juror] is related to either party, or has any interest in the cause, or has expressed or formed any opinion, or is sensible of any bias or prejudice therein. Code 8.01-358. To that end, prospective jurors may be asked any question relevant to determine whether they may be subject to being removed from the venire for cause.

The test of relevancy is whether the questions relate to any of the four criteria set forth in the statute. If an answer to the question would necessarily disclose, or clearly lead to the disclosure of the Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Fact Essay statutory factors of relationship, interest, opinion, or prejudice, it must be permitted. LeVasseur v. Commonwealth, 225 Va. 564, 581, 304 S.E.2d 644, 653 (1983), cert. denied, 464 U.S. Bettering. 1063, 104 S.Ct.

744, 79 L.Ed.2d 202 (1984) The question that Powell attempted to ask the first panel of the venire was not one that would necessarily disclose, or clearly lead to the disclosure of the statutory factors of relationship, interest, opinion, or prejudice of the prospective jurors. The panel had already indicted that they had no prior knowledge of the case and home products wyeth had not formed an opinion as to Powell's guilt or innocence. Powell's question would not have revealed any preexisting opinion or bias with respect to education his case, but would instead have served to test the american home products jurors' potential response to the evidence that he expected the Commonwealth to present. Whether to permit a party to ask a question that goes beyond what is permissible under Code 8.01-358 is education a matter entirely within the trial court's discretion. Id. We hold that the trial court did not err in refusing to what was one marshall’s achievements? permit Powell to bettering education test the potential response of the products jurors to bettering education the evidence that would be adduced at trial concerning his prior conviction. In his eighth assignment of woodrow fourteen error, Powell contends that, having denied him the opportunity to question the potential jurors on this point, the trial court should have disqualified for bettering education, cause the Pediatric Bipolar or Fiction? five members of the first panel because his attempt to question them provided them with knowledge that he had been previously convicted for the capital murder of Stacey Reed.

Thus, he contends that these jurors were subject to automatic exclusion under Barker. Even if we were to agree that Powell's curtailed question provided the five prospective jurors with sufficient information to bettering education raise the concern for potential prejudice that the jurors' full knowledge of the defendant's prior conviction raised in Barker, that circumstance arose here through Powell's own conduct during the tata voir dire. The record demonstrates that Powell's counsel was fully aware that advising the prospective jurors that Powell had been previously convicted of capital murder carried with it the potential for creating bias against his client, but apparently deemed this risk acceptable in order to seek the strategic advantage of being able to test the jurors' potential response to education the evidence concerning that conviction during the trial. Counsel further recognized the india risk that the trial court would not permit him to pursue that line of questioning, and, as we have just determined, was within its discretion to do so. Under the invited error doctrine Powell may not benefit from his counsel's voluntary, strategic choice to place Powell at a potential disadvantage in the hope, unproductive though it was, of gaining some advantage.

See, e.g., Moore v. Hinkle, 259 Va. 479, 491, 527 S.E.2d 419, 426 (2000); Saunders v. Commonwealth, 211 Va. Bettering. 399, 400, 177 S.E.2d 637, 638 (1970); Clark v. Commonwealth, 202 Va. 787, 791, 120 S.E.2d 270, 273 (1961). No litigant, even a defendant in a criminal case, will be permitted to products approbate and reprobate-to invite error . and then to bettering take advantage of the situation created by his own wrong. Fisher v. Commonwealth, 236 Va. 403, 417, 374 S.E.2d 46, 54 (1988), cert. denied, 490 U.S. 1028, 109 S.Ct. 1766, 104 L.Ed.2d 201 (1989). Accordingly, we hold that the Pediatric Fact or Fiction? trial court did not err in refusing to strike the members of the first voir dire panel for cause under the particular circumstances created by Powell in this case.

G. Education. Failure to Strike the jackson era reformers Evidence. In his fifth assignment of error, Powell contends that the trial court erred in failing to strike the evidence as to capital murder on education, the ground that the marshall’s major Commonwealth had not adequately corroborated his confession in the October 21, 2001 letter of having attempted to rape Stacey. Thus, Powell contends that the evidence at best would have supported a conviction for first degree murder. We disagree. Although the Commonwealth may not establish an essential element of a crime by the uncorroborated confession of the accused alone, only slight corroborative evidence is necessary to show the veracity of the confession. Williams v. Commonwealth, 234 Va. Education. 168, 175, 360 S.E.2d 361, 366 (1987) (quoting Clozza v. Commonwealth, 228 Va. 124, 133, 321 S.E.2d 273, 279 (1984), cert. denied, 469 U.S.

1230, 105 S.Ct. 1233, 84 L.Ed.2d 370 (1985)), cert. denied, 484 U.S. Was One Marshall’s Major. 1020, 108 S.Ct. 733, 98 L.Ed.2d 681 (1988). Education. What is more, if [t]his corroborating evidence is consistent with a reasonable inference that the accused committed the american home wyeth crime to which he has confessed, the Commonwealth need not establish through direct evidence those elements of the crime that are proven by the confession. See Jackson v. Commonwealth, 255 Va. 625, 646, 499 S.E.2d 538, 551 (1998), cert. denied, 525 U.S. 1067, 119 S.Ct.

796, 142 L.Ed.2d 658 (1999). Contrary to Powell's contention that there is not even slight corroborative evidence to support the reliability of his confession, the forensic evidence and direct testimony are consistent with and substantiate Powell's version of the rest of what happened in every relevant respect. Powell's going to the home armed when he knew Stacey would be there alone, Stacey's defensive wounds, the evidence that her pants' zipper was slightly undone, the subsequent rape of bettering Kristie, and Powell's later concession that he raped Kristie because he didn't get any with Stacey all corroborate his confession to the attempted rape of american home products wyeth Stacey in the October 21, 2001 letter. Accordingly, we hold that the trial court did not err in bettering education overruling Powell's motion to strike the evidence as to capital murder premised on the attempted rape of american home products wyeth Stacey. H. Mandatory Sentence Review In his first and second assignments of bettering error, Powell contends that the jury imposed the sentence of president woodrow wilson's fourteen death under the bettering education influence of passion, prejudice, or some other arbitrary factor and that the sentence of death is disproportionate to the penalty imposed in Disorder: Fact Essay other cases considering both the crime and the defendant. Bettering. As noted above, these two assignments of error parallel the mandatory review of every death sentence this Court conducts pursuant to Code 17.1-313(C).

Accordingly, we will combine the mandatory review of Powell's death sentence with our discussion of the issues raised by Powell in berger's his assignments of error. Powell contends that [t]he sensational nature of [Kristie Reed's] testimony virtually assured [Powell] would receive a sentence of death. This is bettering education so, he asserts, because the graphic and irrelevant evidence about the attack on Kristie would have enraged the jury and rendered it unable to Essay reach an impartial verdict. We have already determined that evidence of the rape and attempted murder of Kristie was relevant and admissible during the bettering guilt determination phase of the trial. Similarly, Powell's rape and attempted murder of Kristie was relevant for the jury's consideration of his future dangerousness during the penalty determination phase of the trial. Accordingly, Powell's assertion that the jury was influenced by irrelevant evidence is without merit. However, while graphic evidence of a violent crime is admissible in the guilt determination phase of a capital murder trial, we will also consider the berger's potential impact such evidence may have had on the jury's decision to impose the death sentence during the penalty determination phase. The brutal rape and bettering education attempted murder of a thirteen-year-old child are undoubtedly among the what of thurgood marshall’s major achievements? most abhorrent crimes that can be placed in evidence before a jury contemplating whether to impose a sentence of death upon a defendant.

Nonetheless, the mere fact that the jury is presented with such evidence does not raise a presumption that the jury will be unable to set aside its natural emotions and fairly consider all the bettering education evidence. See Bailey, 259 Va. at 751, 529 S.E.2d at 586 (evidence of infanticide and uxoricide, though abhorrent crimes, did not preclude jury from Bipolar Disorder: Fact or Fiction?, making a rational sentencing determination in education a capital murder trial). Powell further contends that the trial court erred in steel india submitting to the jury a verdict form that permitted it to impose a sentence of life imprisonment and bettering education a fine but which did not expressly parallel the trial court's sentencing instructions by stating that this form was to be used if the jury found that neither aggravating factor had been proven beyond a reasonable doubt. He asserts that this alleged error requires that this Court set aside the death sentence. Powell concedes that he did not raise this issue at jackson era reformers, trial, but nonetheless contends that it is proper for this Court to consider his argument as part of the mandatory review of his sentence, apparently contending that an erroneous verdict form would constitute an arbitrary factor that would influence the jury's sentencing decision. Our review of the record in this case does not disclose that the jury failed to give fair consideration to all the education evidence both in favor and in mitigation of the death sentence. Moreover, the jury was properly instructed upon the sentences available and the basis for imposing them and the record supports the jury's determination to home products wyeth impose a sentence of death upon a finding that both aggravating factors were proven beyond a reasonable doubt. We find nothing to suggest that the jury, or the trial court in reviewing the verdict, imposed the death sentence under the influence of passion, prejudice, or other arbitrary factors.

Accordingly, we hold that the sentence of death was not imposed under passion, prejudice, or any arbitrary factor. In a separate section of his brief, ostensibly related to the assignment of error paralleling the passion, prejudice and arbitrary factor aspect of our mandatory review, Powell asserts that the alleged error in bettering the wording of the life sentence verdict form should result in the reversal of his death sentence and a remand for a new sentencing proceeding. While we consider the entire record of what was one of thurgood marshall’s a capital murder trial to determine whether the sentence of death should be set aside because of improper influence on the jury, we have previously rejected the contention that the arbitrary factor language of Code 17.1-313(C)(1) permits a defendant to bettering raise as a separate issue on appeal an issue barred by the failure to american wyeth make a proper objection in the trial court by bettering, contending that the error influenced the jury's sentencing decision. See Quintana v. Commonwealth, 224 Va. 127, 148 n. 6, 152 n. 7, 295 S.E.2d 643, 653 n. 6, 656 n. 7 (1982) (rejecting assertion in dissenting opinion that mandatory review permitted challenge to Bipolar Disorder: or Fiction? Essay form of jury verdict to be raised for the first time on bettering education, appeal). Accordingly, while Powell is not precluded from president fourteen, arguing that the alleged error in bettering education the life sentence verdict form improperly influenced the achievements? jury's sentencing decision as a basis for commuting the death sentence, we will not consider his separate argument under the same assignment of error as a basis for reversing that sentence and education ordering a new sentencing proceeding.FN12. FN12. Powell also contends that the ends of justice exception of Rule 5:25 would permit us to consider the alleged error in the life sentence verdict form as a basis for reversing his death sentence and ordering a new sentencing proceeding. However, as Powell cannot argue for reversal of jackson era reformers his death sentence under the assignment of error paralleling the mandatory review of that sentence and education failed to make this issue the subject of a separate assignment of error, the issue is not properly before us.

Rule 5:17. Accordingly, we will not address this issue as a basis for reversing the sentence of death and remanding for a new sentencing proceeding. Powell contends that the death sentenced imposed upon american products, him is excessive or disproportionate when compared to similar cases considering both the crime and the defendant. Powell's sole contention is bettering that his history of mental health problems and his failure to receive adequate treatment when in state custody as a juvenile militates against the appropriateness of the wyeth death penalty in his case. We disagree. Code 19.2-264.4(B) lists as a mitigating factor the fact that the capacity of the defendant to appreciate the criminality of his conduct or to conform his conduct to the requirements of law was significantly impaired. The psychologist called by Powell did not offer a specific diagnosis of bettering education Powell's mental health problems, merely classifying them generally as suggesting an anti-social personality disorder and a mood disorder, primarily depressive in nature . Era Reformers. characterized by irritability, short temper and so forth. The psychologist did not testify that Powell lacked the ability to education appreciate the criminality of Fact or Fiction? Essay his conduct or that his condition significantly impaired his ability to conform his conduct to the requirements of the law. The jury heard this testimony concerning Powell's mental health problems, and we must assume that the jury followed the trial court's instruction to bettering consider evidence presented in Pediatric mitigation. The jury clearly concluded that Powell's history of bettering education mental health problems did not mitigate his offense. See Swann v. Era Reformers. Commonwealth, 247 Va. 222, 238-39, 441 S.E.2d 195, 206-07, cert. denied, 513 U.S. 889, 115 S.Ct.

234, 130 L.Ed.2d 158 (1994) (death sentence imposed despite history of mental health hospitalization and treatment); Hoke v. Commonwealth, 237 Va. 303, 313, 377 S.E.2d 595, 601, cert. denied, 491 U.S. 910, 109 S.Ct. 3201, 105 L.Ed.2d 709 (1989) (death sentence imposed despite evidence of defendant's prior confinement in nine or ten mental hospitals); Giarratano v. Commonwealth, 220 Va. 1064, 1076-79, 266 S.E.2d 94, 101-103 (1980) (death sentence imposed despite mitigating evidence of defendant's schizoid personality disturbance and extreme mental and emotional disturbance). Apart from Powell's contention that his history of bettering education mental health problems should preclude the imposition of a death sentence in his case, we are required by Code 17.1-313(C)(2) to conduct a comparative review of the death sentence imposed in this case with other capital murder cases, including those where a life sentence was imposed. Pediatric Bipolar Fact Or Fiction?. The purpose of our comparative review is to reach a reasoned judgment regarding what cases justify the imposition of the death penalty. Orbe v. Bettering. Commonwealth, 258 Va. 390, 405, 519 S.E.2d 808, 817 (1999), cert. denied, 529 U.S. 1113, 120 S.Ct.

1970, 146 L.Ed.2d 800 (2000). In conducting this statutorily mandated review in this case, we have focused on cases in which the victim was murdered during the commission of rape or attempted rape, and in which the sentence of death was imposed based on findings of disease both future dangerousness and vileness. See, e.g., Patterson v. Commonwealth, 262 Va. 301, 551 S.E.2d 332 (2001); Swisher v. Bettering Education. Commonwealth, 256 Va. 471, 506 S.E.2d 763 (1998), cert. denied, 528 U.S. 812, 120 S.Ct. Bipolar Disorder: Fact Or Fiction? Essay. 46, 145 L.Ed.2d 41 (1999); Pruett v. Commonwealth, 232 Va. 266, 351 S.E.2d 1 (1986), cert. denied, 482 U.S.

931, 107 S.Ct. 3220, 96 L.Ed.2d 706 (1987); Coleman v. Commonwealth, 226 Va. Bettering Education. 31, 307 S.E.2d 864 (1983), cert. denied, 465 U.S. 1109, 104 S.Ct. 1617, 80 L.Ed.2d 145 (1984); Mason v. Woodrow Fourteen. Commonwealth, 219 Va. 1091, 254 S.E.2d 116, cert. Bettering. denied, 444 U.S.

919, 100 S.Ct. 239, 62 L.Ed.2d 176 (1979); Smith v. American. Commonwealth, 219 Va. 455, 248 S.E.2d 135 (1978), cert. denied, 441 U.S. 967, 99 S.Ct. 2419, 60 L.Ed.2d 1074 (1979).

We have also considered cases in which defendants received life sentences, rather than the death penalty, for capital murder during the commission of education rape or attempted rape. See, e.g., Horne v. Commonwealth, 230 Va. 512, 339 S.E.2d 186 (1986); Keil v. Commonwealth, 222 Va. 99, 278 S.E.2d 826 (1981). Considering all the factors revealed by the record, both those favoring imposition of the death sentence and those in mitigation against it, we hold that the sentence is neither excessive nor disproportionate to the penalties imposed by other sentencing bodies in the Commonwealth for comparable crimes. Having found no error below and perceiving no other reason to president fourteen commute or set aside the sentence of bettering education death, we will affirm the judgment of the trial court. Powell v. Warden of disease Sussex I State Prison , 634 S.E.2d 289 (Va. 2006) (State Habeas). Background: Following affirmance of bettering his conviction of berger's capital murder and sentence of death, 267 Va.

107, 590 S.E.2d 537, defendant filed petition for writ of bettering education habeas corpus. The Supreme Court entered order rejecting all of defendant's habeas corpus claims. Defendant filed a petition for rehearing. Holding: On grant of petition for rehearing, the Supreme Court, Leroy R. Hassell, Sr., J., held that trial counsel's failure to object during penalty phase to disease admission of bettering education a form that contained an incorrect entry that defendant had a prior conviction for Pediatric Bipolar Fact Essay, capital murder did not prejudice defendant, and thus did not constitute ineffective assistance. Petition dismissed. OPINION BY Chief Justice LEROY R. HASSELL, SR. In this habeas corpus proceeding, we consider whether petitioner, who was convicted of capital murder for bettering, the killing of Stacey Lynn Reed during the commission of or subsequent to tata india an attempted rape in violation of Code 18.2-31(5), suffered prejudice within the meaning of bettering education Strickland v. Washington, 466 U.S. 668, 104 S.Ct. 2052, 80 L.Ed.2d 674 (1984) because his trial counsel failed to object to the admission in evidence of a form that contained an inaccuracy regarding petitioner's criminal history. In September 2000, Paul Warner Powell was sentenced to death for the capital murder of Stacey Lynn Reed.

On direct appeal, this Court reversed the conviction and remanded the case to the circuit court for a new trial on a charge no greater than first-degree murder for the killing of Stacey Reed, if the Commonwealth be so advised. Powell v. Commonwealth, 261 Va. 512, 552 S.E.2d 344 (2001). After the proceeding was remanded, Powell wrote a letter to the Commonwealth's Attorney who had prosecuted Powell during the first trial. Powell described, in detail, the murder and attempted rape of Stacey Reed, and he provided facts that were previously unknown to the Commonwealth. The Commonwealth then nolle prossed the indictment in president the remanded case. A grand jury for education, Prince William County subsequently indicted Powell for the capital murder of Stacey Reed during the commission of or subsequent to an attempted rape. Powell was tried by a jury that convicted him of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Fact Essay capital murder and fixed his punishment at death. The circuit court entered a judgment confirming the bettering jury's verdict and Pediatric Disorder: or Fiction? Essay we affirmed that judgment. Powell v. Commonwealth, 267 Va. 107, 590 S.E.2d 537 (2004).

Subsequently, Powell filed a petition for habeas corpus in this Court alleging numerous claims, including ineffective assistance of counsel. During the education sentencing hearing, the Commonwealth introduced in evidence, without objection, Exhibit 51 that is attached to woodrow wilson's points this opinion. Exhibit 51, captioned Powell's Virginia Criminal Record, consists of five pages and was generated by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, National Crime Information Center. Powell asserts, among other things, that trial counsel were ineffective, and he was prejudiced by their failure to object to this document and the inaccuracy contained therein. We entered an order rejecting all Powell's habeas corpus claims. Powell v. Education. Warden of the Sussex I State Prison, Record No. 042716, 2005 WL 2980756 (Nov. 8, 2005). Powell filed a petition for rehearing and requested that this Court reconsider its order dismissing his habeas claims, including his claim that he was denied effective assistance of counsel because of counsel's failure to american home wyeth object to an erroneous entry on page three of Exhibit 51. This Court granted Powell a rehearing limited to that one claim, and we placed this matter on our argument docket.

III. The following facts were presented to the jury that found Powell guilty of capital murder and fixed his punishment at bettering education, death. In January 1999, Robert Culver and his fiance, Lorraine Reed, lived together in Manassas, Virginia, with Reed's two daughters, Stacey Lynn Reed and Kristie Erin Reed. On January 28, 1999, Powell went to the Reeds' home. Stacey, then 16 years old, left home to go to work, and Powell remained there alone with Kristie, who was 14. That afternoon, Kristie called her mother by telephone and informed her that Powell refused to leave the home. American Home Wyeth. Kristie's mother told Kristie to order Powell to leave.

Kristie was concerned because Powell kept walking back and forth down the hallway looking in the rooms. On the afternoon of January 29, 1999, Kristie arrived home from school and was startled to find Powell in bettering her house. She asked Powell where Stacey was. He replied, she was in her room. Kristie walked to Stacey's room, but Stacey was not there. Bipolar Essay. Then, Kristie turned to enter her own room and saw Stacey's body lying on the floor. Powell, who had followed Kristie to the bedroom, ordered Kristie to go downstairs to the basement.

Kristie knew that Powell customarily armed himself with a knife. She had previously observed Powell with a butterfly knife and another long knife that was in a brown pouch type thing. Powell forced Kristie to accompany him to education the basement, where he ordered her to remove her clothes. She took her clothes off because she didn't want to die. Powell told Kristie to lay on the floor, and then he raped her. After Powell raped Kristie, he dressed himself, and he used shoelaces taken from Kristie's shoes to tie her feet together. He also used shoelaces to tie her arms behind her back. Was One Of Thurgood Marshall’s Achievements?. Someone knocked on the door to the house, and education Powell went upstairs, leaving Kristie naked and bound on the basement floor. While Powell was upstairs, Kristie was able to era reformers free her hands, and bettering she tried to president wilson's points scoot across the floor and hide beneath the basement steps.

Powell returned to the basement, removed Kristie's eyeglasses, and strangled her until she was unconscious. Powell stabbed Kristie in the stomach, and the knife stopped within a centimeter of her aorta. He slashed her in her neck numerous times, and the repair of the knife wounds required 61 sutures. She had multiple stab wounds to her neck and abdomen. Education. She also had wounds on her wrists. Robert Culver arrived at the home at 4:15 p.m. on January 29, 1999. He could not locate Kristie or Stacey. Achievements?. He went to the girls' bedrooms and education saw that Stacey's room was in disarray. He entered Kristie's room, turned on the lights, and found Stacey's body on the floor.

He observed blood on her body and saw that she was not breathing. When Culver went to the basement in search of a telephone, he discovered Kristie lying naked and bound on the floor, bleeding from her neck and stomach. He saw that she had been stabbed in tata india the stomach and bettering education her throat was slit pretty severely, many times. Culver found a telephone, dialed 911, and home products spoke to emergency response personnel. Although Kristie was experiencing life-threatening injuries, she was able to education tell police officers and paramedics that Paul Powell was her assailant. Stacey's death was caused by a stab wound to her chest. The wound pattern indicated that the blade of the knife pierced her heart and was twisted upon withdrawal. Era Reformers. The blade of Powell's knife was consistent with the stab wounds. There were numerous bruises on Stacey's head, neck, chest, abdomen, back, arms, and legs. She suffered stab wounds in her back and bettering education arm.

She also had abrasions on her left hand and wrist that were characterized as defensive wounds. Stacey's body contained bruises on her lower neck that were consistent with someone stepping or stomping on her face and neck. Police officers arrested Powell on fourteen points, January 30, 1999 at the home of a friend. The police officers also located a blue sports bag that belonged to Powell. A nine-millimeter semiautomatic pistol with a full magazine containing 10 Winchester nine-millimeter cartridges was in bettering the bag. American Products Wyeth. The bag also contained a survival knife with a five and one-half inch blade inside a black sheath and a butterfly knife with a five-inch blade. The survival knife sheath contained a dark reddish-brown stain. The DNA profile obtained from the stain on the sheath was consistent with the DNA profile of bettering Stacey Reed and different from the DNA profile of what was one marshall’s major achievements? Kristie Reed and Paul Powell. The probability of selecting an education unrelated individual with a matching DNA profile at the Powerplex loci as contained on the sheath is approximately one in 1.1 billion in the Caucasian population.

After his arrest, Powell consented to jackson era reformers several interviews with police officers. Bettering. During one interview, he stated that he had been at the Reeds' home on January 29, 1999 and steel that Stacey was dead because she was stupid. Powell told the police officers that he and Stacey had an argument because she had a black boyfriend, and Powell didn't agree with interracial dating. Powell claimed that during the bettering argument, Stacey attacked him and scratched his face, and then he pushed her to the floor. He claimed that Stacey attacked him again, and that she got stuck on his knife. Powell also initially denied raping Kristie. In a second statement to police officers, Powell admitted that he raped Kristie. The detective who interviewed Powell testified that Powell stated that he had to kill Kristie because she was the india only witness and he would have to go to jail. The jury was also informed that after this Court's decision in Powell's first appeal, Powell wrote two letters to the Commonwealth's Attorney of Prince William County, Paul Ebert.

Below is the content of a letter that Powell wrote, dated October 21, 2001. Since I have already been indicted on first degree murder and the Va. Supreme Court said that I can't be charged with capital murder again, I figured I would tell you the rest of bettering what happened on Jan. 29, 1999, to show you how stupid all of american home wyeth y'all mother fuckers are. Y'all should have known that there is more to the story than what I told by what I said. You had it in education writing that I planned to kill the whole family.

Since I planned to berger's kill the bettering education whole family, why would I have fought with Stacie before killing her? She had no idea I was planning to kill everybody and talked and carried on like usual, so I could've stabbed her up at any time because she was unsuspecting. I had other plans for her before she died. You know I came back to the house after Bobby's lunch break was over what achievements? and he had went back to work. When I got back, she was on the phone so I went inside and I laid down on the couch. When the cab came to bring me my pager, I ran out of the house and bettering education she jumped and got off the phone and came off the porch to see why I ran out of the house like I did. When the cab left we went in the house. I laid on the couch again and she went to her room and got her clothes and went downstairs to home wyeth do her laundry. When she went downstairs, I got up and shut and education locked the back door and went downstairs. We talked while she put her clothes in the wash.

We continued talking when she had everything in the wash and I reached over and touched her tit and asked if she wanted to fuck. She said no, because she had a boyfriend. I started arguing with her because she had never turned anybody down because of steel having a boyfriend. We started walking upstairs, arguing the bettering education whole time. When we got upstairs we went to her room and she turned the radio off. After she turned the marshall’s radio off I pushed her onto her bed and grabbed her wrists and pinned her hands down by her head and sat on bettering education, top of her. I told her that all I wanted to do was fuck her and then I would leave and american products wyeth that we could do it the easy way or the hard way.

She said she would fuck me so I got up. After I got up, she got up and started fighting with me and clawed me face. We wrestled around a little and then I slammed her to the floor. Bettering Education. When she hit the floor I sat on top of her and pinned her hands down again. Was One Of Thurgood Marshall’s Major Achievements?. She said she would fuck me and I told her that if she tried fighting with me again, I would kill her. When I got up she stood up and bettering education kept asking me why I was doing this and all I kept saying is take your clothes off. Finally she undid her pants and pulled them down to her ankles. She was getting ready to take them the was one of thurgood marshall’s major achievements? rest of the way off and education the phone rang. When she heard the phone she pulled her pants back up and said she had to answer the phone. I pushed her back and said no.

She said that she wouldn't say anything about me being there and jackson I told her no and to take her clothes off. She tried to get out bettering education, of the room again and wilson's fourteen points I pushed her back and pulled out my knife. I guess she thought I was just trying to scare her and that I wouldn't really stab her because she tried to leave again. When she got to me and tried to squeeze between me and the door jam I stabbed her. When I stabbed her, she fell back against the door jam and just looked at me with a shocked look on her face. When I pulled the knife out she stumbled a couple steps and fell in her sister's room. I walked over and looked at her. I saw that she was still breathing so I stepped over her body and into the bedroom. Then I put my foot on her throat and bettering education stepped up so she couldn't breath. Wilson's. Then I stepped down and started stomping on her throat. Then I stepped back onto bettering, her throat and moved up and down putting more pressure to was one of thurgood marshall’s achievements? make it harder to breathe.

When I didn't see her breathing anymore, I left the room and education got some iced tea and sat on the couch and smoked a cigarette. Fourteen Points. You know the rest of bettering what happened after that point. I would like to thank you for saving my life. I know you're probably wondering how you saved my life, so I'll tell you. You saved my life by fucking up. Home Products Wyeth. There were 2 main fuck-ups you made that saved me. The first was the way you worded my capital murder indictment. The second was the bettering education comment you made in your closing argument when you said we won't know because he won't tell us.

One more time, thank you! Now y'all know everything that happened in that house at 8023 McLean St. on Jan. 29, 1999. I guess I forgot to mention these events when I was being questioned. Was One Of Thurgood Marshall’s Major. Ha Ha!

Sike! I knew what y'all would be able to prove in court, so I told you what you already knew. Stacey was dead and no one else was in education the house so I knew ya'll would never know everything she went through unless she came back to life. Since the berger's Supreme Court said I can't be charged with capital murder again, I can tell you what I just told you because I no longer have to worry about the death penalty. And y'all are supposed to education be so goddamn smart. I can't believe that y'all thought I told you everything. Well, it's too late now. Nothing you can do about it now so fuck you you fat, cocksucking, cum guzzling, gutter slut.

I guess I'll see your bitch ass on Dec. Tata. 18 at trial because I'm not pleading to shit. Tell the education family to be ready to american home testify and relive it all again because if I have to suffer for the next 50 or 60 years or however long then they can suffer the torment of reliving what happened for a couple of days. I'm gone. Fuck you and bettering education anyone like you or that associates with people like you. Woodrow Points. I almost forgot, fuck your god, too. Jesus knows how to suck a dick real good. Did you teach him? Well, die a slow, painful, miserable death. See ya punk. Do you just hate yourself for being so stupid and for fuckin' up and saving me?

In a statement to a police officer on education, November 2, 2001, Powell gave the following description of Stacey's murder: She walked over to Bipolar Disorder: or Fiction? Essay and uh I pushed her back. And then she walked over to bettering education me again I think and then I pulled my knife out and you know, and she looked at me you know. Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Or Fiction?. I guess she thought I wouldn't stab her or whatever. So she tried to leave and go to answer the bettering phone. That's that. . [After she got stabbed,] [s] he just looked at me for a minute you know and was one of thurgood marshall’s achievements? then you know, she . she was surprised and them um, I pulled the knife out, you know she stumbled a few steps, fell down in bettering education Christy's doorway. I just walked over and looked at her. Jackson Era Reformers. And I stepped over top of her and stepped on her throat and then stood on her throat and bettering education then stomped on her throat . then I stood on her throat until I didn't see her breathing no more. What I'm saying I was stepping on her. I'm saying I put all my weight on her.

I'm saying that I put my foot there you know and home products then I lifted myself up to where I was standing on top of her. Started stomping on her throat. And then man, I just stood on her throat again until I didn't see her breathe no more.Before he raped Kristie, Powell knew that he intended to kill her. Bettering Education. In response to a police officer's question: Before you raped [Kristie], you knew you were going to kill her; didn't you?, Powell responded: I really didn't have a choice; did I? While incarcerated in jail awaiting his capital murder trial, Powell sent a letter to berger's disease Lorraine Reed, the mother of Stacey and Kristie. Bettering. Powell enclosed a photograph of a partially nude woman. Powell wrote: I was wondering if you might be able to help me think of something. I found this picture in a magazine and it kinda looks like someone I know or used to know, but I can't think of the persons name. I think you know the person too, so I was wondering if you could tell me the name of the person this picture resembles so I can quit racking my brain trying to think of it? I would appreciate it. If you don't know the person I'm talking about, ask Kristie or Kelly Welch because I know they know who I'm thinking of.

If you talk to the person I'm talking about, please give her my address and tell her to write me. The partially nude woman shown in Pediatric Bipolar Fact or Fiction? the photograph resembled Lorraine Reed's daughter, Stacey. Powell wrote a letter to a friend while he was incarcerated. He stated: About when you asked me why I wouldn't do to you what I did to Stacie, I couldn't ever hurt you because you mean to much to me. See Stacie didn't mean anything to me. She was a nigger lover and education some of her wannabe skin head friends were supposed to jackson era reformers kill me.

That's part of the reason why she died. Almost everything that happened in bettering that house was planned. The only thing that wasn't planned was trying to fuck Kristie. Era Reformers. What was supposed to happen was, Stacie was supposed to die, and did, Kristie was supposed to die and then I was going to bettering education wait for their mom and stepdad to get home and I was going to kill them and then I was going to take their moms truck and then I was gonna go to disease North Carolina and knock this dude off that stole all of my clothes and everything else I owned. I had been thinking about doing it for along time but I could never bring myself to do it.

I don't know what happened to make me finally do it. I feel bad for bettering, doing it. Woodrow Fourteen. Stacie was a good kid. Powell wrote, in another letter: Hey babe, what's happening? Not too much here. Bettering. I writing you to see if you could get one of Fact your guy friends to do me a favor. You know that Kristie is telling the cops things and that she is going to bettering education testify against me in court. I was wondering if you could get somebody to go to a pay phone and call Kristie and tell her she better tell the cops that she lied to them and tell her she better not testify against me or she's gonna die. Powell sent the following letter to the Commonwealth's Attorney of Prince William County: What's up you fat head fucker? I'm just writing to tell you, since you want to berger's disease kill me so Goddamn bad for killing your nigger loving whore, set up a court date closer than Oct.

25 so I can go ahead and education get this bullshit over with and plead guilty so you can kill me and tata steel india get it over bettering with, unless you want to let me out marshall’s major, so I can kill the rest of the nigger lovers and all the niggers, Jews, Spics and everybody else in bettering this fucked up country that's not white. That includes you because you are a nigger loving Jewish fucking faggot. I will see you in hell bitch. P.S. Watch your back! The jury viewed writings and drawings taken from Powell's jail cell that demonstrated his hatred of woodrow points people who were not Caucasian. Additionally, the bettering education jury heard evidence that Powell told police officers that he was a racist and described his violent racial views.

He stated, [e]verybody that ain't white shouldn't-he needs to die. Powell had told a police officer that he wanted to purchase a gun to [k]ill somebody. Kill a lot of somebodies . [j]ust for something to Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Fact or Fiction? do. The jury was aware of Powell's criminal record, including three convictions for contributing to the delinquency of a minor, two larceny convictions, and three felony convictions for abduction, rape, and attempted capital murder of Kristie. Powell argues that his trial counsel were ineffective and that he was prejudiced because they failed to bettering object to Pediatric Bipolar Essay the admission of the NCIC form that contained an incorrect entry that Powell had a prior conviction for capital murder. The United States Supreme Court, in Strickland v. Washington, 466 U.S. 668, 104 S.Ct. 2052, 80 L.Ed.2d 674 (1984), articulated the relevant principles that we must apply in the resolution of Powell's claim. Education. In Strickland, the Supreme Court stated: A convicted defendant's claim that counsel's assistance was so defective as to require reversal of a conviction or death sentence has two components. First, the defendant must show that counsel's performance was deficient. This requires showing that counsel made errors so serious that counsel was not functioning as the counsel guaranteed the defendant by the Sixth Amendment. Second, the defendant must show that the deficient performance prejudiced the defense.

This requires showing that counsel's errors were so serious as to deprive the defendant of a fair trial, a trial whose result is reliable. Berger's. Unless a defendant makes both showings, it cannot be said that the conviction or death sentence resulted from a breakdown in the adversary process that renders the bettering result unreliable. Id. at 687, 104 S.Ct. 2052. Disease. Accord Wiggins v. Smith, 539 U.S.

510, 534, 123 S.Ct. 2527, 156 L.Ed.2d 471 (2003); Lockhart v. Bettering. Fretwell, 506 U.S. 364, 369-70, 113 S.Ct. 838, 122 L.Ed.2d 180 (1993); Lenz v. Washington, 444 F.3d 295, 302-03 (4th Cir.2006); Hedrick v. True, 443 F.3d 342, 349 (4th Cir.2006); Vinson v. True, 436 F.3d 412, 418 (4th Cir.2005). Explaining the two-part test enunciated in home Strickland, the Supreme Court noted: An error by bettering, counsel, even if professionally unreasonable, does not warrant setting aside the judgment of a criminal proceeding if the error had no effect on the judgment. Cf. United States v. Morrison, 449 U.S. Of Thurgood Marshall’s Major Achievements?. 361, 364-365 [101 S.Ct.

665, 66 L.Ed.2d 564] (1981). The purpose of the Sixth Amendment guarantee of counsel is to bettering ensure that a defendant has the assistance necessary to justify reliance on the outcome of the proceeding. Accordingly, any deficiencies in counsel's performance must be prejudicial to the defense in order to constitute ineffective assistance under the Constitution. Strickland, 466 U.S. at Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: or Fiction?, 691-92, 104 S.Ct. 2052. As the bettering Supreme Court has instructed, Powell is required to establish that trial counsel's alleged error, in this instance, the failure to tata steel object to the admission of evidence, resulted in prejudice to him.

The Supreme Court stated in Strickland: [A]ctual ineffectiveness claims alleging a deficiency in attorney performance are subject to a general requirement that the defendant affirmatively prove prejudice. Even if a defendant shows that particular errors of counsel were unreasonable, therefore, the defendant must show that they actually had an adverse effect on the defense. Id. at 693, 104 S.Ct. 2052. The Supreme Court has also held that a court need not determine whether counsel's performance was deficient before examining the prejudice suffered by the defendant as a result of the alleged deficiencies. Bettering. If it is easier to berger's dispose of an ineffectiveness claim on the ground of lack of bettering sufficient prejudice, which we expect will often be so, that course should be followed. Id. at what, 697, 104 S.Ct.

2052. The United States Supreme Court has identified three circumstances that are so likely to prejudice the education accused that the cost of litigating their effect in a particular case is unjustified. United States v. Cronic, 466 U.S. 648, 658, 104 S.Ct. 2039, 80 L.Ed.2d 657 (1984); Bell v. Fact. Cone, 535 U.S. 685, 695-96, 122 S.Ct. 1843, 152 L.Ed.2d 914 (2002) ([In Cronic,] we identified three situations implicating the right to counsel that involved circumstances so likely to prejudice the accused that the education cost of litigating their effect in a particular case is unjustified. [ Cronic, 466 U.S. at 658, 104 S.Ct. Disorder: Fact Or Fiction?. 2039]). The United States Supreme Court held that a defect is bettering education presumptively prejudicial if (1) there has been a complete denial of counsel at woodrow wilson's points, a critical stage of the proceedings, Cronic, 466 U.S. at 659, 662, 104 S.Ct. 2039; or (2) counsel entirely fails to subject the bettering education prosecution's case to meaningful adversarial testing, id. at 659, 104 S.Ct. 2039; or (3) counsel is called upon to render assistance under circumstances where competent counsel very likely could not, id. at 659-62, 104 S.Ct. 2039.

Bell, 535 U.S. at 695-96, 122 S.Ct. 1843. Wilson's Fourteen. The admission of the erroneous NCIC entry does not fall into one of these enumerated categories of bettering education error when prejudice is tata steel so likely to result that it will be presumed. Bettering. Accordingly, this Court must apply the india Strickland test to determine whether the error was prejudicial. The Supreme Court's decision in Strickland applies to cases in which a habeas petitioner has been sentenced to death and in Strickland, the Supreme Court discussed the standard that this Court must apply to determine whether Powell suffered prejudice: The defendant must show that there is education a reasonable probability that, but for Bipolar Disorder: or Fiction?, counsel's unprofessional errors, the result of the proceeding would have been different. A reasonable probability is a probability sufficient to undermine confidence in the outcome. . When a defendant challenges a death sentence such as the one at issue in education this case, the question is whether there is a reasonable probability that, absent the errors, the sentencer-including an president woodrow wilson's appellate court, to the extent it independently reweighs the evidence-would have concluded that the balance of aggravating and mitigating circumstances did not warrant death.In making this determination, a court hearing an ineffectiveness claim must consider the education totality of the jackson evidence before the education judge or jury. Some of the major achievements? factual findings will have been unaffected by the errors, and factual findings that were affected will have been affected in different ways. Some errors will have had a pervasive effect on the inferences to be drawn from the evidence, altering the entire evidentiary picture, and some will have had an isolated, trivial effect. Moreover, a verdict or conclusion only weakly supported by the record is more likely to have been affected by errors than one with overwhelming record support. Taking the education unaffected findings as a given, and Pediatric Bipolar or Fiction? taking due account of the effect of the bettering education errors on the remaining findings, a court making the prejudice inquiry must ask if the defendant has met the burden of showing that the decision reached would reasonably likely have been different absent the errors.

Id. at 694-96, 104 S.Ct. 2052.The Supreme Court stated in jackson era reformers Kimmelman v. Morrison, 477 U.S. 365, 382, 106 S.Ct. 2574, 91 L.Ed.2d 305 (1986): As is obvious, Strickland's standard, although by no means insurmountable, is highly demanding. Accord Fitzgerald v. Thompson, 943 F.2d 463, 468 (4th Cir.1991). As the Supreme Court directed in education Strickland, we need not consider whether Powell's trial counsel's performance was deficient because we proceed directly to the issue whether Powell suffered prejudice as a result of the alleged deficiencies. In determining whether Powell has established that there is a reasonable probability that but for trial counsel's errors, the result of the home products proceeding would have been different, this Court must consider the education totality of the evidence before the . jury. Strickland, 466 U.S. at 695, 104 S.Ct.

2052. Powell complains about trial counsel's failure to object to an entry on steel, the bottom of page three of the NCIC form. Education. A review of the form, which is attached to this opinion, reveals that each entry on the form contains information about a particular criminal charge. Each entry contains the name and date of the offense charged with the statutory reference, an home products wyeth arrest date, the education jurisdiction where the steel offense was charged, the resulting conviction if any, a date of disposition, and various codes. Powell contends that he was prejudiced by trial counsel's failure to education object to the entry on products, the bottom of page three of the form that incorrectly stated that Powell was convicted of capital murder. The erroneous entry states that even though Powell was charged with felonious assault in Prince William County on January 30, 1999, he was convicted of capital murder. This entry, which refers to Powell's attack on Kristie Reed, erroneously contains the phrase capital murder when it should have contained the bettering education phrase attempted capital murder. When introducing the NCIC report, the Commonwealth's Attorney accurately recited Powell's criminal record: Your honor, as an initial matter, the Commonwealth would move for the introduction of the products wyeth Certified Copy of the Defendant's prior criminal record consisting of education two convictions in 1997 for contributing to the delinquency of home wyeth a minor.

One conviction in 1999 for that same crime. A petty larceny in 1998 and a grand larceny in 2001 along with the three felony convictions that is; rape, abduction with intent to defile and attempted capital murder involving Kristie. The Commonwealth's Attorney did not include the erroneous capital murder entry on the NCIC form when he summarized these crimes. Instead, he correctly related that Powell had been convicted of attempted capital murder of Kristie. No one, neither the bettering education Commonwealth's Attorney nor Powell's trial counsel, ever mentioned or suggested to the jury that Powell was convicted of a second unrelated capital murder charge. In fact, various statements made by Powell's trial counsel and the Commonwealth's Attorney informed the jury that Powell had never been convicted of an american home wyeth unrelated capital murder charge. For example, Powell's trial counsel told the jury that Powell had been convicted of capital murder only one time. None of the education attorneys referenced the incorrect capital murder conviction on the NCIC report in their arguments to the jury. The erroneous entry on the NCIC report indicates that Powell's attack on Kristie was originally charged as felonious assault and contains the following dates: 01/30/1999 and 01/29/1999. The jury that sentenced Powell to steel death knew, however, that 01/30/1999 was the date of Powell's arrest and 01/29/1999 was the date Powell committed the crimes against Stacey and Kristie Reed.

The erroneous entry refers to Prince William Co. and the jury knew that Prince William County was the location of bettering Powell's crimes against Stacey and Kristie. Thus, it is jackson era reformers clear that the erroneous entry on bettering, the NCIC form referred to of thurgood major achievements? Powell's attempted capital murder conviction concerning Kristie. Upon our review of the totality of the evidence that the jury considered, [t]aking the unaffected findings as a given, and taking due account of the effect of the education errors on the remaining findings, Strickland, 466 U.S. at tata steel india, 696, 104 S.Ct. 2052, we conclude that Powell has failed to demonstrate a reasonable probability that the result of the education capital murder trial would have been different and hence he has not suffered prejudice as required by the highly demanding standard that the Supreme Court established in Strickland.FN* Contrary to the Supreme Court's instructions in Strickland, the dissent focuses solely upon steel, the improperly admitted evidence and does not consider the totality of the evidence before the jury. The dissent argues that we have usurped the jury's very broad discretion and engaged in bettering speculation by berger's disease, considering the weight of the bettering education Commonwealth's evidence against india Powell. However, in order to perform the review mandated by education, Strickland, we must weigh the evidence to determine whether there is president woodrow wilson's fourteen points a reasonable probability that the bettering education error affected the outcome of the proceedings. Wiggins, 539 U.S. at 534, 123 S.Ct. 2527; Yarbrough v. Warden, 269 Va. 184, 197-202, 609 S.E.2d 30, 38-40 (2005); Lovitt v. Era Reformers. Warden, 266 Va. 216, 250-57, 585 S.E.2d 801, 821-26 (2003).

Code 19.2-264.2 prescribes the education conditions that must be satisfied before a jury can impose the sentence of death in Virginia: In assessing the penalty of any person convicted of an president fourteen points offense for which the death penalty may be imposed, a sentence of death shall not be imposed unless the court or jury shall (1) after consideration of the bettering past criminal record of convictions of the defendant, find that there is a probability that the defendant would commit criminal acts of violence that would constitute a continuing serious threat to society or that his conduct in committing the offense for which he stands charged was outrageously or wantonly vile, horrible or inhuman in that it involved torture, depravity of mind or an aggravated battery to the victim; and (2) recommend that the penalty of what marshall’s major death be imposed. The jury that imposed the sentence of death upon Powell concluded: We, the jury, on the issue joined, having found the defendant, PAUL WARNER POWEL [sic], guilty of capital murder in that he did willfully, deliberately, and education premeditatively kill and murder one Stacey Lynn Reed, and, having found unanimously and beyond a reasonable doubt after consideration of his history and background that there is tata a probability that he would commit criminal acts of bettering education violence that would constitute a continuing serious threat to jackson society and having found unanimously and beyond a reasonable doubt that his conduct in committing the offense was outrageously or wantonly vile, horrible or inhuman in that it involved . [d]epravity of bettering mind . American Home Products. [a]ggravated battery to the victim beyond the bettering minimum necessary to accomplish the act of murder [a]nd having considered all the evidence in mitigation of the offense, unanimously fixed his punishment at death. The day before Powell committed these gruesome crimes, he went to the victims' home and surveyed the interior of the house. Berger's. He returned the next day and tried to bettering rape Stacey, who struggled with him. He stabbed her in the heart, twisted the knife, and reinserted the knife in american wyeth her heart. He stomped upon her throat and he placed the entire weight of his body on her throat until she died. Next, he drank a glass of iced tea, smoked a cigarette, and waited for Stacey's younger 14-year-old sister to return home. When Kristie arrived, Powell directed her to bettering education her sister's body, forced her downstairs into tata india, the basement, and bettering raped her on the floor.

He then tied her hands and tata steel india feet while she was naked, choked her until she was unconscious, stabbed her in bettering the stomach, and slashed her neck numerous times in an attempt to kill her. We conclude that the jury's finding that Powell's conduct was outrageously or wantonly vile, horrible or inhuman in that it involved . President Wilson's Fourteen. [d]epravity of education mind [and] . [a]ggravated battery to what was one of thurgood marshall’s achievements? the victim beyond the minimum necessary to bettering education accomplish the act of murder is untainted by the admission of the NCIC report and amply supported. The jury's consideration of Powell's past criminal offenses is related to the issue of future dangerousness but has nothing to disease do with vileness of the act which serves as the basis of the bettering capital offense. The instruction given to berger's the jury on this issue and the verdict form confirm that the jury was instructed to consider the defendant's criminal history only with regard to future dangerousness. For example, the bettering education jury was instructed that it could fix the punishment at death if it found: 1.

That, after consideration of his history and background, there is a probability that he would commit criminal acts of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Fact violence that would constitute a continuing serious threat to bettering education society; or. 2. That his conduct in committing the offense was outrageously or wantonly vile, horrible or inhuman, in that it involved torture, depravity of mind or aggravated battery to the victim beyond the minimum necessary to era reformers accomplish the act of murder. Both the instruction and the verdict form were given without objection and became the law of the case. Spencer v. Commonwealth, 240 Va. 78, 89, 393 S.E.2d 609, 616 (1990). Additionally, Powell does not challenge this language in the instruction or verdict form in bettering this habeas proceeding. We also observe that Powell's own statements provided compelling evidence of his future dangerousness. Powell's letters and confessions to police demonstrate that he planned to kill the victims' entire family and that he continued to taunt the tata steel victims' family even while he was incarcerated awaiting his capital murder trial by sending the victims' mother a photograph of a partially-nude woman who resembled the deceased victim.

Powell also sought to bettering education intimidate Kristie by having another individual contact her by telephone and Bipolar tell her that she would be killed if she testified against Powell. He also bragged about his desire to kill people who are non-Caucasian. As the Supreme Court instructed in Strickland, a verdict or conclusion only bettering education weakly supported by the record is more likely to have been affected by errors than one with overwhelming record support. 466 U.S. at tata, 696, 104 S.Ct. 2052. In Powell's case, there was overwhelming record support for the jury's sentencing decision.

The jury's finding that Powell's crime was outrageously or wantonly vile was wholly unaffected by the erroneously admitted evidence. Additionally, the Commonwealth's Attorney correctly stated Powell's previous convictions, including his attempted capital murder conviction, and never emphasized or referred to the erroneous entry. Taking the unaffected findings as a given, and taking due account of the effect of the errors on the remaining findings, we hold that Powell has not met the burden of showing that the education decision reached would reasonably likely have been different absent the errors. Id. Upon our review of the totality of the american home products wyeth evidence that Powell constitutes a continuing serious threat to bettering education society and disease that his acts were vile in that he committed an aggravated battery to the victim beyond the minimum necessary to accomplish the act of murder, and that he demonstrated depravity of mind, we conclude that Powell failed to satisfy the high standard of bettering prejudice established by berger's disease, the Supreme Court's holding in Strickland. Accordingly, we will dismiss the petition for habeas corpus. Dismissed.

Justice KEENAN, with whom Justice LACY and Justice KOONTZ join, dissenting. Justice KEENAN, with whom Justice LACY and Justice KOONTZ join, dissenting.I respectfully dissent and would hold that Powell is bettering education entitled to a new sentencing hearing. My concern is based on the incorrect evidence the jury received that Powell had been convicted of an additional capital murder committed on the same day as the present offense, when in fact he had not committed any such other offense. I cannot imagine a more prejudicial error in the admission of sentencing evidence. When a jury in this Commonwealth is asked to decide whether a defendant convicted of capital murder should live or die, the jackson jury undertakes one of the most serious tasks that any citizen can be asked to perform. An essential component of this decision is the jury's consideration of the defendant's criminal record. Under Code 19.2-264.2, a jury must satisfy two statutory requirements before it may recommend a sentence of death. Education. Ultimately, the jury must find that one of the american home products statutory aggravating factors has been proved. Education. As an initial matter, however, the berger's jury must consider the defendant's criminal record of convictions.

Code 19.2-264.2 requires that the jury analyze the statutory aggravating factors only after consideration of the past criminal record of convictions of the bettering education defendant. Thus, a review of the defendant's criminal history is a prerequisite that applies regardless of which aggravating factor may finally be proved. Here, the what was one major achievements? sentencing proceedings conducted by the circuit court failed to education comply with the first requirement of Code 19.2-264.2, which plainly contemplates that the jury will have considered an jackson era reformers accurate record of a defendant's criminal history before recommending that the education defendant receive the american wyeth death sentence. Bettering. Thus, the error in this case cannot be categorized as the mere improper admission of evidence. Because of this failure in the sentencing process, the jury was unable to perform a mandatory duty assigned by statute. In my opinion, the majority's holding further suffers from extensive speculation and a failure to Bipolar or Fiction? Essay address the broad discretion afforded a jury in making a death penalty determination.

Even when a jury has determined that the Commonwealth has proved both statutory aggravating factors beyond a reasonable doubt, the bettering jury still can recommend that the defendant serve a sentence of life imprisonment. See Code 19.2-264.2, -264.4; Smith v. Commonwealth, 219 Va. 455, 472, 248 S.E.2d 135, 145 (1978); see also Tuggle v. Thompson, 57 F.3d 1356, 1371 (4th Cir.), vacated on other grounds by Tuggle v. Netherland, 516 U.S. 10, 116 S.Ct. 283, 133 L.Ed.2d 251 (1995); Briley v. Bass, 750 F.2d 1238, 1241 (4th Cir.1984). The jury may impose a sentence of life imprisonment for any reason based on any mitigating circumstance, and is not required to what was one achievements? weigh the evidence in mitigation against the evidence in aggravation of the crime. See Swann v. Commonwealth, 247 Va. 222, 236-37, 441 S.E.2d 195, 205 (1994); see also Tuggle, 57 F.3d at 1362. The absence of any weighing requirement is a core concept of our death penalty jurisprudence, which provides the jury the bettering education broadest possible discretion in choosing to recommend a sentence of life imprisonment or a sentence of death. Pediatric Bipolar Or Fiction?. Thus, the two main arguments on which the majority relies, namely, the weight of the Commonwealth's evidence against Powell, and the jury's determination that the Commonwealth proved both statutory aggravating factors, are not dispositive of the issue before us. A jury's exercise of this very broad sentencing discretion is particularly difficult to assess under the Strickland test because the bettering education jury can sentence a defendant to life imprisonment even in tata india the face of overwhelming evidence in aggravation of a crime.

Nevertheless, as directed by Strickland, we must answer whether there is a reasonable probability that the jury would not have recommended a sentence of death if the jury had received accurate sentencing information. The Supreme Court provided guidance in Strickland when it defined the term reasonable probability. The Court stated: A reasonable probability is a probability sufficient to undermine confidence in bettering the outcome. Strickland, 466 U.S. at 694, 104 S.Ct. 2052; see Lovitt v. Warden, 266 Va. 216, 250, 585 S.E.2d 801, 821 (2003); Hedrick v. Warden, 264 Va. 486, 497, 570 S.E.2d 840, 847 (2002). The Court has further elaborated that the president woodrow points reasonable probability standard is a standard lower than more likely than not. See Holland v. Jackson, 542 U.S. 649, 654, 124 S.Ct. 2736, 159 L.Ed.2d 683 (2004); Woodford v. Bettering Education. Visciotti, 537 U.S. Pediatric Disorder: Essay. 19, 22, 123 S.Ct.

357, 154 L.Ed.2d 279 (2002). The Supreme Court's definition of the term reasonable probability underscores one of my major concerns in the present case. In my view, a court cannot have confidence in education the outcome of a death penalty determination when the of thurgood major achievements? court's Strickland analysis relies on speculation. Yet, here, the majority resorts to speculation in assessing the potential impact of the incorrect sentencing information. The majority opines that the jury ultimately would have been able to determine that the additional capital murder conviction shown on the NCIC report was an erroneous entry.

Although the majority, as skilled members of the legal profession, can easily identify this inaccuracy, the majority simply speculates that the jurors had sufficient knowledge of the bettering education law to reach the same conclusion. Based on the evidence presented, the products jurors could easily have viewed the NCIC report as proof that Powell committed a separate capital offense in Prince William County on the same day, brutally murdering an additional victim. The majority also suggests that because the bettering prosecutor did not reference the incorrect sentencing information when he summarized the contents of the american home products wyeth NCIC report at the time of its admission into evidence, his oral summary of bettering Powell's crimes would likely have resolved any confusion created by the erroneous written exhibit. The majority further relies on defense counsel's comments, noting that he indicated that Powell had been convicted of one capital murder offense. The majority's reasoning, however, is flawed because it requires an assumption that the jury disregarded the instructions of the circuit court. Home Wyeth. In every jury trial in education this Commonwealth, the court instructs the jury that the what of thurgood marshall’s major statements of counsel are not evidence in the case and bettering may not be considered as such. Yet, here, the majority's holding requires a conclusion that the jury disregarded the evidence appearing on the NCIC report in favor of the comments of counsel. Thus, the majority's rationale extends beyond simple speculation and also requires an berger's improper conclusion that the jury rejected duly admitted evidence in favor of counsels' remarks. Because a Strickland analysis cannot rest on such speculation and improper assumptions, I am required to education conclude that the jury viewed the era reformers NCIC report as uncontested evidence that Powell had committed another capital murder.

This incorrect information went to the very heart of the sentencing determination, namely, whether the death penalty was appropriate based on the defendant's personal history and the crime for which he was being sentenced. I would hold that the jury's receipt of incorrect information of such magnitude negates any reasonable confidence in the outcome of Powell's sentencing proceeding. My concerns, however, reach far beyond the present case. In my opinion, such a serious mistake in a capital murder case may well cause the public to question whether our courts adequately ensure the fair application of our death penalty statutes. Bettering. When a jury has determined that a defendant should die for the commission of a heinous murder, the public should be able to have confidence that this determination was made without fundamental errors having occurred in the sentencing process. A central premise in support of the death penalty is that society exacts this penalty only in rare instances, and jackson only after the penalty has been determined with full and fair adherence to constitutional, statutory, and evidentiary safeguards.

Because those safeguards failed in bettering education this case when a very able prosecutor made an unintentional error, I would grant a writ of habeas corpus limited to the award of a new sentencing proceeding. Powell v. Kelly , 562 F.3d 656 (4th Cir. 2009) (Federal Habeas). Background: Following affirmance of conviction for capital murder and steel sentence of death, 267 Va. 107, 590 S.E.2d 537, petition for writ of habeas corpus was filed. The United States District Court for bettering, the Eastern District of Virginia, Thomas Selby Ellis, III, Senior District Judge, 531 F.Supp.2d 695, dismissed the disease petition. Bettering. Petitioner appealed.

Holdings: The Court of Appeals, Shedd, Circuit Judge, held that: (1) state court's determination that Double Jeopardy Clause did not bar petitioner's prosecution was reasonable, and (2) state court's determination that defense counsel was not ineffective was not an unreasonable application of federal law. Affirmed. Gregory, Circuit Judge, filed opinion concurring in part and dissenting in part. SHEDD, Circuit Judge: Paul Warner Powell, a Virginia capital inmate, appeals the what of thurgood marshall’s major denial of bettering education his petition for a writ of habeas corpus. We granted a certificate of appealability (COA) on three issues: (1) whether the imposition of a death sentence is precluded by the Double Jeopardy Clause of the Fifth Amendment of the United States Constitution; (2) whether trial counsel rendered ineffective assistance by berger's disease, failing to object to bettering education the admission of an inaccurate National Crime Information Center report; and (3) whether trial counsel rendered ineffective assistance by failing to american home products wyeth develop and present available mitigating evidence. Bettering. For the following reasons, we affirm. We begin with a summary of the facts pertaining to the underlying crimes, as articulated by of thurgood, the Supreme Court of Virginia in education Powell's first direct appeal: Powell was acquainted with Stacey Lynn Reed (Stacey) for two and a half years prior to was one achievements? the commission of the crimes in education question. Jackson Era Reformers. Kristie Erin Reed (Kristie), Stacey's younger sister, described her sister and bettering Powell as [f]riends. Powell, who was 20 years old at the time of the murder, had wanted to major date Stacey, who was 16 years old, but recognized that she was underage and he could go to jail for that. Powell, a self-avowed racist and white supremacist, was aware that Stacey, who was white, was dating Sean Wilkerson, who is black. Wilkerson had recently moved to another locality, but he and Stacey remained in contact.

Stacey was a member of her high school's Junior Reserve Officer's Training Corps and planned to attend a military ball with Wilkerson. Just before noon on January 29, 1999, Stacey arrived home from school early, having completed her examinations that were being given that day. Education. Powell was waiting for her at her home when she arrived. When Powell learned that Robert Culver, a friend of the tata india girls' mother, would be home shortly for bettering education, lunch, Powell left and returned at president woodrow wilson's, about 12:45 p.m., after Culver had left. When Powell returned, he was armed with a survival knife, a butterfly knife, a box cutter, and a 9-millimeter pistol. Stacey was talking to Wilkerson on the telephone. After Stacey ended the telephone conversation, Powell confronted her about her relationship with Wilkerson.

He demanded that Stacey end her relationship with Wilkerson. According to bettering Powell, he and jackson Stacey argued, and the argument grew into a struggle. Powell drew the survival knife from bettering education, his belt and Stacey got stuck. Powell denied stabbing Stacey deliberately. The struggle continued briefly until Stacey collapsed on the floor in her sister's bedroom. Although Powell did not know whether Stacey was still alive, he made no effort to determine her condition or call for medical assistance. American Home. Powell wandered around the house, got some iced tea, had a cigarette. Kristie arrived home from school shortly after 3 p.m. and was met at the door of the home by bettering, Powell. Powell told her that Stacey was in her room, but moments later Kristie discovered her sister's body in Kristie's bedroom. She dropped her schoolbooks and began to cry.

Powell ordered Kristie to go to the basement. Kristie, who knew that Powell was usually armed, complied because she didn't want to die. In the Pediatric Bipolar Essay basement, Powell ordered Kristie to remove her clothes and to lie on the floor. Powell then raped Kristie, and she begg[ed] him not to bettering kill her. Powell later admitted that he knew that Kristie, who was 14 years old at the time of the rape, had been a virgin. While Powell and Kristie were in the basement, Mark Lewis, a friend of Kristie, came to the house and president points knocked on the door. When Powell heard the knock, he tied Kristie's legs together and tied her hands behind her back with shoelaces he cut from her athletic shoes. Bettering. Powell then dressed and went upstairs. While Powell was upstairs, Kristie managed to loosen the bonds on her hands and attempted to home products scoot across the bettering education floor to berger's disease hide under the basement steps. Hearing Powell coming back to the basement, she returned to the position on the floor where he had left her. Powell then strangled Kristie with a shoelace and she lost consciousness. Bettering Education. While she was unconscious, Powell stabbed Kristie in the abdomen and woodrow fourteen points slit her wrists and throat. Powell returned upstairs, searching for anything worth taking. He fixed another glass of iced tea, which he took with him when he left the bettering education home a short time later. Powell went to disease a friend's house and then drove with the education friend to the District of Columbia to jackson era reformers buy crack cocaine. Kristie regained consciousness sometime after Powell had left her home.

About 4:10 p.m., she heard Culver return home, and she called out his name. Culver discovered Kristie in the basement, called the 911 emergency response telephone number, and began rendering first aid to her. He later discovered Stacey's body upstairs. Bettering Education. Shortly thereafter, paramedics arrived. In response to a question from one of them, Kristie identified Powell as her attacker. Powell was arrested later that day at home, the home of his friend's girlfriend, where he and the friend had gone after buying drugs. Kristie was transported by helicopter to Inova Fairfax Hospital where she received treatment for her injuries. It was ultimately determined that the education wounds to her throat and abdomen each came within one centimeter of severing a major artery which likely would have caused her death.

An autopsy revealed that Stacey had died from a knife wound to the heart. Products. The medical examiner testified that there was a single entrance wound and two exit wounds indicating that the knife had been withdrawn, at least partially, and then reinserted into the heart. One wound path pierced the left ventricle and the other went through both the left and right ventricles, exiting the heart at the back of the right ventricle. Stacey's body also exhibited a number of bruises on the head, chest, abdomen, back, arms, and education legs, abrasions on the face, a stab wound to Bipolar Essay the back, and education a cut and scrapes on the left forearm. The autopsy further revealed that Stacey had been struck on the head with sufficient force to tata steel cause bleeding inside her scalp and in bettering education the membranes surrounding her brain prior to death. These injuries were not consistent with Stacey merely having fallen during a struggle.

The DNA profile obtained from the blood found on wilson's, Powell's survival knife was consistent with the DNA profile of Stacey's blood. The DNA profile obtained from sperm fractions from swabs taken from Kristie's vagina and perianal area was the same profile as that obtained from Powell's drawn blood sample. While in jail, Powell wrote letters to friends in which he admitted having committed the murder, rape, and attempted murder because of Stacey's relationship with a black man. He further claimed that he had planned to bettering kill Stacey's family and tata steel india steal the family's truck. Powell also wrote to a female friend and asked her to get one of [her] guy friends . to go to a pay phone and call Kristie and tell her [that] she better tell the cops she lied to them and tell her [that] she better not testify against education me or she's gonna die. Powell told another inmate that he had become angry with Stacey when she refused to have sex with him after talking to fourteen Wilkerson. Powell told the inmate that he stabbed Stacey twice and that when he attempted to cut Kristie's throat, his knife was too dull, [s]o he started stepping on her throat trying to stomp her throat. To another inmate, Powell described Stacey's killing as a human sacrifice and expressed satisfaction in bettering education having raped a virgin. Powell v. Fact. Commonwealth, 261 Va.

512, 552 S.E.2d 344, 347-348 (2001) ( Powell I ). B. In the original indictment, Powell was charged with a single count of capital murder in which the gradation crime was the commission, or attempted commission, of robbery.FN1 In 2000, Powell was convicted of the capital murder of education Stacey and sentenced to berger's death. In addition, Powell was convicted of the abduction, rape, and attempted capital murder of Kristie, and he was also convicted of grand larceny. On these non-capital convictions, Powell was sentenced to three terms of life imprisonment and fines totaling $200,000. Powell was acquitted of robbery, attempted robbery, and three firearm charges. FN1. Education. Virginia's capital murder statute includes fifteen gradation offenses, which when accompanied with the willful, deliberate, and premeditated killing of tata a person, make the defendant eligible for the death penalty.

See Va.Code 18.2-31. In June 2001, the Supreme Court of Virginia reversed Powell's capital murder conviction, holding that the trial judge erred by allowing a pretrial amendment of the capital murder indictment to charge two new gradation crimes that were not considered by the grand jury. See Powell I, 552 S.E.2d at 355-56. The additional gradation crimes were the commission, or attempted commission, of rape and education the commission, or attempted commission, of sodomy. The court held that including these additional counts of capital murder expanded the nature and character of the charges against Powell in a manner not allowed by Va.Code 19.2-231. Berger's. Id. at 357.FN2. FN2. Va.Code 19.2-231 allows the government to bettering education amend an indictment to correct a defect in the form of the indictment or a variance between the allegations and the evidence offered in what was one proof thereof, so long as the amendment does not change the nature or character of the offense charged. Based on the circumstances then existing, the state supreme court also concluded that there was no basis to bettering try Powell for capital murder on remand. Id. at 363.

In making this determination, the court noted that Powell had been acquitted of robbery or attempted robbery, thereby eliminating these offenses from being gradation offenses for the capital murder charge. Further, the court held that the evidence was insufficient to support [Powell's] conviction for was one marshall’s achievements?, the capital murder of education Stacey during the commission of or subsequent to the president woodrow fourteen rape of Kristie because the evidence clearly showed the rape of Kristie occurred after the murder of Stacey. Id. at 361. Finally, the court noted that there was no evidence of Powell having raped or attempted to rape Stacey. Id. at 363.

C. While awaiting retrial and believing that he could no longer be tried for capital murder, Powell wrote the bettering Commonwealth's Attorney and disclosed new evidence regarding the circumstances surrounding Stacey's death. In Powell's second direct appeal, the Supreme Court of of thurgood marshall’s major achievements? Virginia summarized the events as follows: FN3. FN3. For purposes of education clarity, we have omitted any footnotes within this summary that are irrelevant to the disposition of the issues before us. On October 21, 2001, Powell wrote an obscenity-laced letter to the Commonwealth's Attorney who had prosecuted Powell in his first trial. Powell stated in the letter that, because he believed he could not be retried for capital murder, I figured I would tell you the home rest of what happened on Jan. 29, 1999, to show you how stupid all y'all . are. Admitting that he planned to kill the whole family on that day, Powell further stated that I had other plans for [Stacey] before she died. Powell described how he had attempted to initiate consensual sexual intercourse with Stacey, which he had previously admitted.

Powell then revealed that when Stacey resisted his advances, he pushed her onto education, her bed and, while sitting on top of her, told Stacey that we could do it the easy way or the hard way. Powell then described how Stacey had started fighting with me and clawed me [sic] face. Powell stated that he slammed her to the floor . sat on was one of thurgood marshall’s achievements?, top of her and pinned her hands down again. Powell claimed that Stacey relented and I told her if she tried fighting with me again I would kill her. Continuing, Powell stated that, at his direction, Stacey began to disrobe, but stopped when the telephone rang. Stacey put her clothes back on so that she could answer the telephone. Powell refused to allow Stacey to answer the telephone and bettering ordered her to resume disrobing. When she refused, Powell pushed her back and pulled out [his] knife. When Stacey attempted to leave the bedroom, Powell stabbed her. Stacey fell back and Powell removed the knife. Stacey then stumbled to another bedroom and collapsed. Powell saw that she was still breathing and Bipolar Essay started stomping on her throat until he didn't see her breathing anymore. Armed with this new evidence, the Commonwealth elected to nolle prosequi the indictment in the remanded case, under which it was limited to bettering education trying Powell for first degree murder under our mandate, and sought a new indictment against Powell for capital murder. On December 3, 2001, the grand jury returned an indictment charging Powell with the steel india capital murder of Stacey Lynn Reed during the commission of or subsequent to the attempted rape of Stacey Lynn Reed. On April 24, 2002, Powell filed a motion to bettering dismiss the December 3, 2001 indictment.

Powell asserted that'[w]hen the tata steel Supreme Court of Virginia issues an bettering education opinion concerning a case, this opinion becomes the law of the case' and, thus, the directive of the opinion and mandate from this Court in his first appeal limited his retrial to a charge no greater than first degree murder, regardless whether that trial was conducted under the original indictment or a new indictment. President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points. The Commonwealth filed a response to this motion, asserting that the judgment of this Court in Powell's first appeal was not applicable to bettering education the December 3, 2001 indictment because Powell had never [previously] been charged with the wilson's points capital murder of Stacey Reed in the commission or attempted commission [of] sexual assault against bettering education [Stacey Reed] because, at was one marshall’s, the time of [Powell's first] trial, no such evidence existed. Accordingly, the Commonwealth contended that the December 3, 2001 indictment was a new charge, one that has never been litigated in trial nor considered by bettering education, the Virginia Supreme Court. Following a hearing on this and other pre-trial matters, the trial court overruled Powell's motion to dismiss the indictment in an order dated May 6, 2002. On May 17, 2002, Powell filed a second motion to dismiss the american wyeth December 3, 2001 indictment. Bettering. The import of Powell's argument was that his prior trial and the reversal of his conviction by [the Supreme Court of Virginia] acted as an implied or judicial acquittal of the woodrow wilson's fourteen attempted rape of Stacey, thus barring his retrial for her capital murder premised on that gradation offense. The Commonwealth responded that the issue whether Stacey had been the victim of a sexual assault was not before the jury in his first trial because the bill of particulars provided at Powell's request indicated that only Kristie was the victim of the sexual assault gradation offenses charged in the amended indictment. Similarly, the Commonwealth contended that our comments concerning the insufficiency of the bettering evidence to prove a sexual assault or attempted sexual assault against Stacey were not directed toward any finding of the president woodrow fourteen points jury, but to the contrary were indicative of the fact that the jury did not consider whether Stacey had been the victim of such an assault or attempt.

On June 5, 2002, the education trial court held a hearing on Powell's second motion to dismiss the indictment. Disorder:. After hearing argument, the trial court stated that by identifying Kristie as the victim of the education rape or attempted rape in the bill of particulars, the Commonwealth had clearly identified her as the victim of those gradation crimes in president woodrow wilson's points the amended indictment for bettering, capital murder. The trial court also agreed with the Commonwealth that this Court's reference to president woodrow wilson's the lack of evidence to bettering education prove any sexual assault or attempted sexual assault against Stacey was merely a comment on era reformers, the record, and bettering not an assertion that this was a theory of the case presented by home, the Commonwealth in bettering Powell's first trial. On July 3, 2002, the trial court entered an order overruling Powell's second motion to steel india dismiss the indictment. Powell v. Commonwealth, 267 Va. 107, 590 S.E.2d 537, 544-545 (2004) ( Powell II ). D. In January 2003, Powell was convicted of the education capital murder of Stacey during the commission of products rape or attempted rape of Stacey and sentenced to death. Powell appealed his conviction claiming, inter alia, that the education second indictment should have been dismissed on various grounds, including the Double Jeopardy Clause. In Powell II, the Supreme Court of Virginia rejected Powell's claims and affirmed his conviction. Powell next challenged his conviction and sentence in collateral state proceedings. See Powell v. Warden of home products wyeth Sussex I State Prison, No. Bettering Education. 042716, 2005 WL 2980756 (Va.2005) ( Powell III ).

Powell raised numerous claims that the what of thurgood major achievements? state supreme court found were procedurally defaulted, including an allegation that the Commonwealth violated his right against double jeopardy by trying him twice for the same offense. Education. Among the new claims Powell asserted was an objection to the admission of a National Crime Information Center report (NCIC report) containing inaccurate information about Powell's criminal history during sentencing and a claim that his trial counsel provided him ineffective assistance by failing to investigate and present compelling mitigating evidence. What Was One Major Achievements?. The Supreme Court of Virginia denied relief on all grounds. Subsequently, the bettering education state supreme court granted rehearing on Pediatric Bipolar Disorder:, the question of whether counsel was ineffective in bettering education the sentencing phase for failing to jackson era reformers object to the NCIC report. See Powell v. Bettering. Warden of steel india Sussex I State Prison, 272 Va. 217, 634 S.E.2d 289 (2006) ( Powell IV ). Ultimately, the court rejected this claim and denied Powell's petition for a new sentencing hearing. Id. Thereafter, Powell filed a petition for a writ of habeas corpus in federal district court.

See 28 U.S.C.A. 2254. Powell asserted nine claims for relief. See Powell v. Kelly, 531 F.Supp.2d 695, 705 (E.D.Va.2008) ( Powell V ). On the Commonwealth's motion, the bettering education district court dismissed Powell's petition. As noted, we granted a COA on three issues: (1) whether the imposition of a death sentence is era reformers precluded by the Double Jeopardy Clause; (2) whether trial counsel was constitutionally ineffective in failing to object to bettering the admission of an tata inaccurate NCIC report; and (3) whether trial counsel was constitutionally ineffective in failing to develop and present available mitigating evidence. We address each in turn.

We review the district court's dismissal of Powell's petition de novo. Education. See Tucker v. Ozmint, 350 F.3d 433, 438 (4th Cir.2003). However, under 28 U.S.C. 2254, the scope of our review is highly constrained. Jackson v. Jackson Era Reformers. Johnson, 523 F.3d 273, 276 (4th Cir.2008). We may only education grant Powell relief if the state court's adjudication of his claims (1) resulted in a decision that was contrary to, or involved an unreasonable application of, clearly established Federal law, as determined by the Supreme Court of the United States, 28 U.S.C. 2254(d)(1); or (2) resulted in a decision that was based on an unreasonable determination of the facts in light of the evidence presented in the State court proceeding, 28 U.S.C. 2254(d)(2). The contrary to and fourteen unreasonable application clauses of 2254(d) have independent meanings. Tucker, 350 F.3d at 438. A state court's decision is contrary to clearly established federal law under 2254(d)(1) when it applies a rule that contradicts the governing law set forth by the United States Supreme Court, or confronts a set of facts that are materially indistinguishable from a decision of education . [the Supreme] Court and nevertheless arrives at a result different from . [that] precedent, Williams v. Taylor, 529 U.S. 362, 405-06, 120 S.Ct. Was One Of Thurgood Marshall’s. 1495, 146 L.Ed.2d 389 (2000).

A state court's decision involves an bettering education unreasonable application of clearly established federal law under 2254(d)(1) if the state court identifies the correct governing legal rule from . [the Supreme] Court's cases but unreasonably applies it to the facts of the particular state prisoner's case. Williams, 529 U.S. at tata steel, 407, 120 S.Ct. 1495. This standard is quite deferential: The state court's application of clearly established federal law must be objectively unreasonable, and a federal habeas court may not issue the writ simply because that court concludes in its independent judgment that the bettering education relevant state-court decision applied clearly established federal law erroneously or incorrectly. Robinson v. Polk, 438 F.3d 350, 355 (4th Cir.2006) (quoting Williams, 529 U.S. at 411, 120 S.Ct. Was One Of Thurgood Major Achievements?. 1495). Moreover, when assessing the bettering reasonableness of the state court's application of federal law, the federal courts are to review the result that the state court reached, not whether [its decision] [was] well reasoned. Wilson v. Ozmint, 352 F.3d 847, 855 (4th Cir.2003) (quotation marks omitted). Similarly, a petitioner alleging that a state court based its decision on an unreasonable determination of the american products facts under 2254(d)(2) must satisfy a demanding standard: The question . is not whether a federal court believes the state court's determination was incorrect but whether that determination was unreasonable-a substantially higher threshold. Schriro v. Bettering Education. Landrigan, 550 U.S.

465, 127 S.Ct. 1933, 1939, 167 L.Ed.2d 836 (2007). Finally, 2254(e)(1) provides that a state court's factual decisions shall be presumed to era reformers be correct and that the petitioner bears the burden of bettering education rebutting the presumption of correctness by clear and convincing evidence. 28 U.S.C 2254(e)(1).FN4. FN4. Moreover, in president fourteen points cases proceeding under either 2254(d)(1) or 2254(d)(2), we can only grant the petitioner relief if the error had a substantial and injurious effect or influence in bettering education determining the jury's verdict. Brecht v. Abrahamson, 507 U.S. 619, 637, 113 S.Ct. 1710, 123 L.Ed.2d 353 (1993) (quotation marks omitted). B. We begin with Powell's double jeopardy claim. Powell asserts two arguments in this regard. First, he contends that the gradation offenses charged at both trials were the same-that is, he was tried for capital murder during the rape or attempted rape of Stacey in products wyeth both trials.

Alternatively, if we decide the same offense was not charged in both trials, Powell nevertheless argues that the crime charged in bettering education the second trial had actually been litigated in the first trial, even if not formally charged. Conversely, the Commonwealth argues that the capital murder charges were different in each trial-that is, Powell was charged with the capital murder of Stacey during the rape or attempted rape of Kristie in Pediatric Bipolar or Fiction? the first trial and charged with the capital murder of Stacey during the bettering rape or attempted rape of Stacey in the second trial. The Double Jeopardy Clause prohibits any person from what marshall’s major achievements?, being put in jeopardy twice for education, the same offence. Jackson Era Reformers. See U.S. Const. amend. Bettering. V. The Supreme Court held in Sanabria v. Tata Steel. United States, 437 U.S. 54, 64, 98 S.Ct. 2170, 57 L.Ed.2d 43 (1978) (citing Ball v. United States, 163 U.S. 662, 670, 16 S.Ct.

1192, 41 L.Ed. 300 (1896)), that the Fifth Amendment prohibits subjecting a defendant to a second trial on the same offense for which he has been acquitted. Education. In Sanabria, the Court stated that when a defendant is woodrow points charged with several violations of the education same criminal statute, the appropriate double jeopardy inquiry is whether the legislature intended the charged violations to be separate allowable unit [s] of prosecution. Id. at 70, 98 S.Ct. 2170. Stated differently for purposes of this case, the issue is whether the Virginia legislature intended that a defendant could be charged with multiple counts of capital murder where there is one murder victim accompanied by multiple gradation offenses. The Supreme Court of president wilson's Virginia adjudicated Powell's double jeopardy claim on direct appeal and rejected both of his arguments. Bettering Education. Powell II, 267 Va. 107, 590 S.E.2d 537.

In analyzing Powell's first argument, the Pediatric Fact or Fiction? Essay court cited its precedent holding that the General Assembly of Virginia intended that a defendant may be prosecuted for multiple violations of the Virginia capital murder statute where, as here, there is a single murder victim but different gradation crime victims. Id. at 553 (citing Payne v. Education. Commonwealth, 257 Va. 216, 509 S.E.2d 293 (1999)). The state court found that the capital murder charge in the second trial alleging the murder of Stacey and was one of thurgood marshall’s major attempted rape of Stacey was a distinct and separate crime from the offense charged in the first trial-namely, the capital murder of education Stacey during the commission of, or subsequent to, Powell's rape of Kristie. The court concluded that Powell's second capital murder trial was not barred by the Double Jeopardy Clause. As to Powell's first argument, we hold that the Virginia Supreme Court's decision was consistent with Supreme Court precedent and was not an Pediatric Disorder: Essay unreasonable application of federal law. Bettering Education. The analysis that the state court conducted was precisely the analysis Sanabria mandates. Therefore, the decision was not contrary to clearly established federal law. Further, the jackson court's determination was not an unreasonable application of the Supreme Court's clearly established precedent. Sanabria requires a court to bettering education determine whether the legislature intended to allow multiple charges under the statute.

In this case, the Virginia Supreme Court decided that under Virginia law, a defendant can be charged for multiple capital murder counts where there is a single murder victim accompanied by multiple gradation offenses. Id. Thus, the state court did not apply the Supreme Court's precedents to the facts in woodrow wilson's fourteen an objectively unreasonable manner. The Virginia Supreme Court also rejected Powell's alternative double jeopardy argument that the attempted rape of Stacey charged in the second trial had already been litigated in the first trial. Education. The court relied on settled state law that Stacey's attempted rape was not at issue in the first trial because the tata india Commonwealth's bill of particulars limited the first trial solely to the capital murder of Stacey subsequent to, or in the commission of, the rape of Kristie.

See Powell II, 590 S.E.2d at 554 (holding that by naming a specific victim of the gradation offense in a bill of particulars, jeopardy will attach only to the capital murder charge as made specific by the bill of particulars).FN5 In reaching this result, the court followed its precedent holding that the bill of particulars and the indictment must be read together as specifying the crime charged. Bettering. See Livingston v. Commonwealth, 184 Va. 830, 36 S.E.2d 561, 565 (1946). The court recognized that the Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Fact Essay original indictment in the first trial did not identify the name of the victim of the gradation offense. However, upon Powell's request, the Commonwealth specified in a bill of particulars that the charged offense only involved Kristie as the victim of the gradation offense. Bettering. Thus, the court concluded that Powell was only tried in the first trial for tata steel, the capital murder of Stacey during the commission of, or subsequent to, the rape of bettering Kristie. See Powell II, 267 Va. Products Wyeth. 107, 590 S.E.2d 537. Based on established state law principles, the court ruled that Powell's second trial was not a double jeopardy violation because the indictment in the second trial charged a crime not charged in the first trial.

FN5. A defendant does not have a right to a bill of particulars in Virginia. Bettering Education. See Quesinberry v. Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Fact Essay. Commonwealth, 241 Va. 364, 402 S.E.2d 218, 223 (1991) (holding whether the bettering Commonwealth is required to file a bill of particulars lies within the discretion of the trial court). Further, there is no federal constitutional right to a bill of particulars. See United States v. Bales, 813 F.2d 1289 (4th Cir.1987) (internal citations omitted). The purpose of a bill of jackson particulars is to state sufficient facts regarding the crime to inform an accused in advance of the offense for which he is to be tried. Quesinberry, 402 S.E.2d at 223 (citing Hevener v. Bettering. Commonwealth, 189 Va. 802, 54 S.E.2d 893, 899 (1949)).

Importantly, at the time Powell requested a bill of particulars, he was the only person who knew that the unidentified gradation victim could be either Stacey or Kristie. Thus, he benefitted from the Commonwealth informing him that Kristie was the era reformers victim of the gradation offense in preparing his defense. Finally, in bettering education a jury trial, jeopardy attaches when a jury is empanelled and sworn. Serfass v. Berger's Disease. United States, 420 U.S. 377, 388, 95 S.Ct. 1055, 43 L.Ed.2d 265 (1975) (citing Downum v. United States, 372 U.S.

734, 83 S.Ct. 1033, 10 L.Ed.2d 100 (1963)). Education. It is clear that at the time the jury was sworn in Powell's first trial, Powell was only in tata steel jeopardy, so far as is relevant here, for the murder of Stacey during the rape of bettering education Kristie as specified by the bill of particulars. Powell argues that this holding was an unreasonable determination of the facts in light of the evidence presented at trial. He claims, among other arguments, that the bill of particulars did not limit the charge because the jury heard argument from the Pediatric Disorder: Fact prosecutor that Powell wanted something more from Stacey, the bettering education jury heard testimony from major achievements?, witnesses suggesting that Stacey refused to education have sex with Powell, and the jury was not told about the limitation of the disease bill of particulars. Powell's argument falls short of showing an unreasonable determination of the facts in light of the bettering education evidence presented. First, under settled Virginia precedent, the india court determined that, as a matter of bettering state law, Powell was not charged with the berger's attempted rape of Stacey in the first trial. Bettering Education. Second, because Powell wanted something more does not mean that Powell attempted to rape Stacey. It is entirely plausible that wanted something more meant only that Powell wanted a sexual relationship with Stacey, but she was uninterested. This is not a basis for a charge of attempted rape. Finally, there was testimony in the first trial that Stacey had refused to have sex with Powell.

Again, rejecting sexual advances, without more, is not evidence of an attempted rape. Berger's Disease. The evidence of Powell attempting to rape Stacey after her refusals only came to light after the first trial was over. If the Commonwealth had been prosecuting Powell for education, this gradation offense, it would not have restricted the bill of particulars to identifying only Kristie as the victim of the gradation offense. Clearly, the state court's determination that the charge that Powell had attempted to rape Stacey was not litigated in the first trial was not an president wilson's unreasonable determination of the bettering facts in light of the evidence presented. American Products. FN6 Accordingly, we find no error in the state court's application of federal law.FN7. FN6.

The dissent's criticism of our decision rests on a misunderstanding of the facts of this case. When one reviews the record of the first trial it becomes clear that no one involved litigated as though Powell was being tried for murder during the rape or attempted rape of Stacey. The Commonwealth certainly did not offer evidence on bettering, that purported charge during that trial. Moreover, the bill of particulars unambiguously identified Kristie only as the victim of the rape or attempted rape, and Powell's trial counsel clearly recognized this fact as evidenced by their comments to the court and to jackson era reformers the jury. See, e.g., Record, Vol. 2, at 1068 (The rape involved Kristi[e], not Stac[ey]); Record, Vol. 2, at 1052 (Stac[ey] is the victim or alleged victim on the capital murder, the robbery, and bettering education the attempted robbery. President Fourteen. And . Kristi[e] the victim or alleged victim on rape . ); Record, Vol. 2, at 995 (and on the rape allegation, obviously, Kristi[e] Reed); Record, Vol.

2, at 935 (I might also add in the Bill of Particulars that Your Honor ordered, the Government identified the victim of the alleged rape and attempted rape . as being Kristie, not Stac[ey], but Kristie). The trial judge likewise recognized this fact. For example, the trial judge instructed the jury that [s]exual intercourse means an actual penetration, no matter how slight, of the bettering education Defendant's penis into the sexual organ of Kristi[e] Reed. Record, Vol. Jackson Era Reformers. 2, at 1024-25. Bettering Education. Although the dissent contends that the trial judge's response to steel india the jury question suggests that he was confused as to the identity of the rape victim, the proceedings that followed the receipt of the question demonstrate that the judge was not confused on that point. It is clear that the trial judge was not concerned with who the victim of the rape was; instead, he was concerned with the timing of the rape of Kristie and bettering education whether the murder of Stacey could be found to have occurred subsequent to or during the jackson era reformers commission of the bettering education rape of Kristie. See J.A. 53-55, 62. FN7. Related to his double jeopardy claim, Powell argues that his second trial is barred by principles of collateral estoppel. See Ashe v. Swenson, 397 U.S.

436, 443, 90 S.Ct. 1189, 25 L.Ed.2d 469 (1970). Although the tata steel state argues this claim is procedurally defaulted, we find that it lacks merit in any event. For substantially the reasons given by the district court, we affirm the dismissal of this claim. See Powell V, 531 F.Supp.2d at 724-25. C. We next turn to Powell's claim that his trial counsel was ineffective in not objecting to the admission of the NCIC report. The report incorrectly stated that Powell had been convicted of capital murder and referenced a pending capital murder charge, presumably the charge for which Powell was standing trial. Finally, the education report contained correct entries that Powell asserts were inadmissible at trial, such as charges that were nolle prossed or for which Powell was found not guilty. In Strickland v. Washington, 466 U.S.

668, 104 S.Ct. 2052, 80 L.Ed.2d 674 (1984), the Supreme Court articulated the relevant standard for a claim of jackson era reformers ineffective assistance of counsel: A convicted defendant's claim that counsel's assistance was so defective as to require reversal of a conviction or death sentence has two components. First, the defendant must show that counsel's performance was deficient. This requires showing that counsel made errors so serious that counsel was not functioning as the counsel guaranteed the defendant by the Sixth Amendment. Second, the defendant must show that the deficient performance prejudiced the bettering defense. This requires showing that counsel's errors were so serious as to deprive the defendant of a fair trial, a trial whose result is reliable. Unless a defendant makes both showings, it cannot be said that the conviction or death sentence resulted from a breakdown in the adversary process that renders the result unreliable.

Id. at 687, 104 S.Ct. 2052. The Supreme Court of Virginia found, in was one of thurgood marshall’s achievements? its first opinion denying Powell's state habeas petition, that there was a single capital murder conviction entry listed on the NCIC report. Powell III, 2005 WL 2980756, at 14. The court determined this entry referenced Powell's first conviction for education, the capital murder of Stacey, which was reversed in Powell's first direct appeal. Id.

Powell petitioned the court for rehearing on this issue and berger's the court granted his motion. Education. See Powell IV, 272 Va. 217, 634 S.E.2d 289. On rehearing, the court found that there was an additional incorrect capital murder conviction entry in the NCIC report that referred to Powell's conviction for the attempted capital murder of Kristie. After acknowledging these errors, the tata court found that there was no valid claim for ineffective assistance of counsel under Strickland because Powell could not demonstrate prejudice. Id. at bettering, 299, 272 Va. 217.

Powell contends that the state court's interpretation of the inaccuracies in american the report is bettering itself error because the Bipolar Disorder: Fact or Fiction? Essay court's determinations of bettering education what the state capital convictions actually meant was based on speculation. Jackson Era Reformers. However, Powell's arguments fails. We must presume the education correctness of a state court's factual determination unless the habeas petitioner rebuts the presumption of correctness by clear and convincing evidence. 28 U.S.C. 2254(e)(1). Powell has offered no clear and convincing evidence to rebut the presumption of correctness that we afford the state court's factual findings. Next, Powell contends that the state court unreasonably applied Strickland because he has shown that his trial counsel was ineffective in failing to tata india object to the NCIC report. We disagree. Under Strickland, Powell must show that there is a reasonable probability that, absent the education errors, the sentencer . would have concluded that the balance of aggravating and mitigating circumstances did not warrant death. Strickland, 466 U.S. at 695, 104 S.Ct. 2052.

Stated differently, Powell can show prejudice and berger's is entitled to bettering education relief only if he can show that had the NCIC report not been admitted, there is a reasonable probability that at least one juror would have struck a different balance. Wiggins v. Smith, 539 U.S. 510, 537, 123 S.Ct. 2527, 156 L.Ed.2d 471 (2003). Absent this showing, Powell is era reformers not entitled to relief. The Supreme Court of education Virginia's analysis was not objectively unreasonable. The court listed the overwhelming evidence presented to the jury that demonstrated Powell's future dangerousness. This evidence included, inter alia: 1) the heinous details of the crimes; 2) the letter Powell wrote to the prosecutor following the first trial divulging of the circumstances of Stacey's attempted rape and death; 3) a taunting letter Powell wrote to Stacey's mother; FN8 4) another letter Powell wrote to the Commonwealth's Attorney stating that he wanted to home products get out of prison to kill . everybody else in this f[* *]ked up country that's not white; 5) a letter Powell wrote asking a friend to threaten Kristie; and 6) Powell's admission to police that he wanted to bettering [k]ill a lot of american products somebodies . [j]ust for education, something to do. See Powell IV, 634 S.E.2d at 290-94. The court also pointed out that the Commonwealth's attorney relied very little on Powell's criminal history in arguing future dangerousness. See Id. at president wilson's, 297, 272 Va. 217.

The prosecutor correctly summarized Powell's prior convictions and never suggested that Powell had been convicted of other capital murder charges. FN8. While incarcerated, Powell sent a letter to Lorraine Reed, the mother of Stacey and Kristie. Bettering Education. Powell enclosed a photograph of a woman who resembled Stacey and who was naked from the waist up. Among other things, Powell asked Lorraine for her help in identifying who the woman in the picture resembled, directed Lorraine to jackson era reformers ask Kristie for education, help if she could not determine who it resembled, and asked Lorraine to give his address to the person about whom he was referring. The state court balanced the aggravating evidence against the limited use of the NCIC report and noted that a verdict or conclusion only disease weakly supported by the record is education more likely to have been affected by errors than one with overwhelming record support. Id. at 298, 272 Va. 217 citing Strickland, 466 U.S. at era reformers, 696, 104 S.Ct. 2052.

The court then concluded that, in light of the overwhelming aggravating evidence of Powell's future dangerousness, Powell had not shown that but for the admission of the NCIC report, at least one juror would have chosen not to sentence him to death. Thus, Powell had not shown that any alleged deficiency by trial counsel had affected the outcome of his sentence. Powell's ineffective assistance of bettering counsel claim fails. The state court properly applied Strickland to the facts of this case. First, it is reasonable to believe the jackson era reformers jury understood Powell had not previously been convicted of the bettering education capital murder of two other victims in president woodrow wilson's fourteen addition to Stacey. The jury knew Powell's previous conviction of the capital murder of Stacey had been successfully appealed and bettering vacated based on the contents of Powell's letter to the Commonwealth's attorney. Further, Powell's own attorney made statements that Powell had successfully appealed a capital murder conviction. The jury was aware of the crimes that had been committed against Kristie, including the resulting attempted capital murder conviction. See id. Thus, it is home reasonable that the jury, upon seeing the two entries for capital murder, would understand that the NCIC report's entries were inaccurate and actually referred to the attempted capital murder of Kristie and the vacated conviction for the capital murder of bettering Stacey.

In sum, Powell has failed to meet his burden to show the unreasonableness of the state court's determinations. Berger's. We conclude that the state court's determination that Powell had not shown prejudice is not an unreasonable application of Supreme Court precedent or based on an unreasonable determination of the facts in light of the evidence presented at trial. Therefore, we affirm the dismissal of education this claim.FN9. FN9. Powell asserts three other reasons that the state court unreasonably applied federal law.

First, Powell argues the state court failed to jackson era reformers consider the totality of the evidence in education performing its prejudice analysis. Jackson. Second, Powell argues the state court improperly relied on the existence of an untainted aggravating factor to support the death sentence when the court explained that Powell's criminal history has nothing to do with vileness. We have reviewed the bettering record in this regard and find no basis for fourteen points, relief. Finally, Powell argues that the state court unreasonably applied Strickland by using an improperly elevated standard of prejudice. The state court described Strickland's standard as highly demanding. Powell IV, 634 S.E.2d at 296 quoting Kimmelman v. Morrison, 477 U.S.

365, 382, 106 S.Ct. 2574, 91 L.Ed.2d 305 (1986). Bettering Education. Powell's argument in this regard is not persuasive. Bipolar Or Fiction? Essay. In reviewing the state court's opinion, it is clear that it did not require a more demanding showing under Strickland; rather, the court was simply commenting that the bettering standard was high and Powell had not met it. We now turn to Powell's final claim that his trial counsel was ineffective by failing to of thurgood achievements? investigate and education present all reasonably available mitigating evidence. Powell contends that there was compelling mitigation evidence to counter the Commonwealth's evidence of aggravation. Was One Major Achievements?. Powell maintains that counsel failed to counter the Commonwealth's arguments that, inter alia, he: held racist beliefs and tortured animals; was inherently violent; had no remorse; and was of above average intelligence. Generally, Powell contends that counsel was ineffective in failing to offer the following evidence: that Powell made racist statements for their shock value on listeners, rather than as expressions of true beliefs; that he was actually kind to animals; that he had never been inherently violent; that numerous persons witnessed him showing serious remorse for his crime; and that he is bettering not of american home wyeth above average intelligence.

It is well-established that an individual claiming ineffective assistance of counsel must show, first, that counsel's performance was deficient, in that it fell below an objective standard of reasonableness. Strickland, 466 U.S. at 688, 104 S.Ct. 2052. Bettering. Once counsel conducts a reasonable investigation of was one achievements? law and facts in a particular case, his strategic decisions are virtually unchallengeable. Id. at 690, 104 S.Ct. 2052. Bettering Education. Tactical or reasonable professional judgments are not deficient but a failure to investigate a material matter due to woodrow fourteen inattention may be deficient. When the claim is that counsel failed to present a sufficient mitigating case during sentencing, the inquiry is not whether counsel should have presented a mitigation case but whether the investigation supporting counsel's decision not to introduce mitigating evidence . was itself reasonable. See Wiggins, 539 U.S. at 523, 123 S.Ct. 2527 (internal citations omitted). The Supreme Court of Virginia properly analyzed this claim under Strickland. Therefore, our review is limited to whether the state court's application of federal law was unreasonable. The Supreme Court of education Virginia examined each claim and properly made a determination under Strickland of whether Powell had shown deficiency of counsel's performance and what of thurgood major prejudice.

We have examined each of Powell's contentions and find that the state court's determinations were not an unreasonable application of Strickland. Therefore, we affirm the dismissal of bettering education this claim. Based on president woodrow fourteen points, the foregoing, we affirm the district court's order denying Powell's habeas petition. AFFIRMED GREGORY, Circuit Judge, concurring in part and bettering dissenting in jackson part:I concur with the reasoning of the majority's opinion on Powell's ineffective assistance of counsel claims. However, I find nothing reasonable about the Supreme Court of Virginia's finding in Powell II that the bill of bettering particulars nullified the Commonwealth's conduct at Powell's first trial. This conduct unquestionably put him in jeopardy for the attempted rape of Stacey Reed. Even taking into account the president woodrow wilson's points nearly insurmountable burden placed on bettering, Powell by virtue of the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 (AEDPA), I am left with the firm conclusion that the Supreme Court of Virginia's post-hoc rationalization in Powell II is an unreasonable determination of the facts in disease light of the education evidence presented, and thus Powell's conviction for berger's, capital murder must be reversed. The Fifth Amendment to education the United States Constitution provides that no person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jackson era reformers jeopardy of education life or limb. There can be no doubt that Powell was actually put in jeopardy for woodrow wilson's fourteen, the gradation offense of the attempted rape of bettering education Stacey during the american home wyeth first trial, and thus his second capital murder trial violated the Double Jeopardy Clause. Bettering Education. Although the bill of particulars purportedly identified Kristie Reed as the victim of the marshall’s major gradation offense, the Commonwealth nevertheless argued throughout the first trial that Powell attempted to rape Stacey prior to her murder.

In the Commonwealth's opening argument, counsel stated: Stacie [sic], the older girl, knew the Defendant, had met him sometime before. They had a friendship, a social acquaintance. You'll hear evidence that he wanted more from her than that. Education. You'll hear evidence that she was cool towards him. . And on the afternoon of the tata 29th, there was nobody home with Stacie [sic] when he came over and they argued about this boy that she was dating.

And he wanted something from her and she wasn't going to give it to him and for that she lost her life. (J.A. 24-25 (emphasis added).) During the trial, the Commonwealth put on circumstantial evidence suggesting that Powell had attempted to rape Stacey, and bettering education even argued as much to the trial court. In response to Powell's motion to strike the indictment for insufficiency of the evidence, counsel argued that. [W]e have evidence here, again, from Mr. Neff that according to of thurgood marshall’s major him [Powell] was having sex or attempting to have sex with Stacie [sic] when the phone rang. When she got up and answered the phone, then she wanted nothing to do with him, and at that point in time he got mad and said-the testimony was, he said, It was that nigger, wasn't it? He pulled out his knife and stabbed her. Again, evidence, in that regard of his intent to rape and bettering have sex and wanting sex. (J.A. 43 (emphasis added).) Furthermore, the Commonwealth elicited testimony from steel india, Officer Daigneau, who testified that a physical evidence recovery kit had been obtained from Stacey and such kits are routinely done in cases of sexual assault. (J.A. 29; see also J.A.

29-31.) Tellingly, at no time during the trial did the Commonwealth ever specifically identify Kristie as the bettering education victim of the gradation offense.FN1 Nor did the trial court make any attempt to clarify that the bill of particulars identified Kristie as the victim of the gradation offense. In its instructions to the jury, the trial court stated that. FN1. While the majority points out that the evidence presented by the Commonwealth during the berger's disease first trial was not a basis for a charge of attempted rape (Maj.Op. 667), that analysis conflates the issue of whether an individual was put in jeopardy for an offense with the issue of whether the prosecution put on sufficient evidence to convict an bettering education individual for of thurgood marshall’s major, that offense. Bettering. The Commonwealth did not fail to prosecute Powell for products, the attempted rape of Stacey, it just failed to do so successfully, and the majority misses that point in its analysis. [t]he Commonwealth must prove beyond a reasonable doubt each of the following elements of that crime:1. That the defendant killed Stacie [sic] Reed; and. 2. Bettering. That the killing was willful, deliberate and premeditated; and.

3. That the killing occurred during the commission of robbery and/or attempted robbery and/or during the commission of, or subsequent to rape. (J.A. 59 (emphasis added).) With regard to first-degree murder, the trial court gave similarly broad instructions:If you find from the evidence that the Commonwealth has failed to prove that the killing was deliberate and premeditated, but the killing was willfully committed during the commission of robbery or attempted robbery and/or rape or attempted rape, you shall find the defendant guilty of first degree murder. (J.A. 60 (emphasis added).) Given the lack of specificity in the jury instructions, it is not surprising that during deliberations the jury asked: Can a guilty verdict for the rape of Kristie be used to satisfy jury instruction number 4, element 3? FN2FN2.

In fact, the president woodrow wilson's fourteen trial judge initially indicated that the answer to bettering education this question was no. (J.A. 53.) Such an answer would only woodrow wilson's fourteen make sense if the judge thought that the bettering attempted rape of Stacey would satisfy the requirement of the gradation offense and home that the education jury could convict Powell of that offense. (J.A. 62.) The fact that the jury needed to berger's ask this question demonstrates that the jury was unaware that the bill of particulars identified Kristie as the sole victim of the gradation offense, and it further implies that the jury was considering the rape or attempted rape of bettering both Stacey and Kristie in reaching its verdict. On appeal, the Supreme Court of Virginia itself recognized that Powell had been put in jeopardy for the rape or attempted rape of Stacey, and indeed based its decision in part on that finding. Wyeth. See Powell I, 552 S.E.2d at 363. After reversing Powell's capital murder conviction because the indictment had been improperly amended, the court continued: [W]e now further determine that there is bettering education no basis upon american home products, which Powell can be retried for capital murder on bettering education, remand. The poll of the berger's disease jury establishes that Powell was acquitted of the bettering charge of capital murder in Bipolar Fact or Fiction? Essay the commission of robbery or attempted robbery. It is equally clear that there is simply no evidence upon bettering, which the jury could have relied to find that Powell committed or attempted to Bipolar Disorder: Fact or Fiction? commit any sexual assault against Stacey before or during her murder, or that the rape of bettering Kristie did not occur after the murder of her sister.

For these reasons, we will reverse Powell's conviction for capital murder, affirm his convictions for abduction, rape, attempted capital murder, and grand larceny, and remand the case for a new trial on a charge of no greater than first degree murder for steel india, the killing of Stacey Reed, if the Commonwealth be so advised. Id. (emphasis added). It is bettering perplexing that the Supreme Court of jackson Virginia would have made such a finding if, in fact, the bettering education rape or attempted rape of Stacey had not been litigated in the first trial. In affirming Powell's capital murder conviction in jackson Powell II, however, the Supreme Court of Virginia reversed course. The court characterized its earlier references to the sexual assault of Stacey as merely the circumstances of bettering education this case as they existed at the time of the first trial, 590 S.E.2d at 552 (quoting Powell I, 552 S.E.2d at 363). This recharacterization is unreasonable in light of the proceedings in the first trial. At every turn, the Commonwealth, the trial court, the jury, and even the Supreme Court of steel india Virginia acted as though Powell were on trial for bettering, the murder of Stacey in the commission of any rape or attempted rape, and tata not specifically on bettering education, trial for india, the murder of Stacey in the commission of the rape of Kristie. Like the education Supreme Court of of thurgood marshall’s major achievements? Virginia, the bettering majority claims that no one involved litigated as though Powell was being tried for american products wyeth, murder during the rape or attempted rape of bettering education Stacey. (Maj. Op. 667 n. 6.) Yet, the majority provides no explanation for why the Commonwealth elicited testimony that police officers performed a physical evidence recovery kit on Stacey or made intimations that Powell attempted to sexually assault Stacey. ( See J.A.

29, 24-25.) These actions demonstrate that the Commonwealth did litigate as if Powell were on home products, trial for the murder of Stacey in the commission of her rape or attempted rape. In further support of its finding that Powell had not already been put in jeopardy for the rape or attempted rape of bettering education Stacey, the Supreme Court of Virginia found that the bill of particulars served to narrow the offense of jeopardy to include only the rape of Kristie: [W]here, prior to the attachment of jeopardy, the Commonwealth limits the prosecution of a capital murder, undifferentiated in the indictment by woodrow wilson's fourteen, the identity of the bettering victim of the gradation offense, by naming a specific victim of the gradation offense in a bill of particulars, jeopardy will attach only to the capital murder charge as made specific by the bill of particulars. Powell II, 590 S.E.2d at 554. The majority now relies on this holding in finding that the Supreme Court of tata steel india Virginia committed no reversible error in its application of federal law. ( See Maj. Education. Op. 665-67.) Even assuming that this holding is not unreasonable as a matter of jackson law, it overlooks the fact that the Commonwealth did not actually limit its prosecution for capital murder to the rape of Kristie. Moreover, neither the prosecution nor the trial court ever specified to the jury that the bill of education particulars identified Kristie as the victim of the gradation offense.

Had the was one marshall’s major trial court excluded evidence suggesting that Powell had attempted to rape Stacey or clarified that the attempted rape of Stacey could not satisfy the requirements of the gradation offense, the education Commonwealth would have a stronger argument that the bill of era reformers particulars had a limiting effect-but that is not the case here. Instead, the bill of particulars operated as a double-edged sword for Powell: on one hand, the Commonwealth ignored its import in putting on circumstantial evidence suggesting that Powell had sexually assaulted Stacey before her murder, while on the other hand the Commonwealth was able to use the bill of particulars as a safety valve to later retry Powell for capital murder when new evidence came to light. Notwithstanding the above analysis, the majority concludes that the rape or attempted rape of Stacey was somehow not litigated because Powell's trial counsel clearly recognized the bettering education limiting effect of the what was one bill of bettering education particulars, as evidenced by was one marshall’s achievements?, their comments to the court and to the jury. (Maj. Op. 667 n. 6.) Again, the majority misses the point. I agree that Powell's trial counsel understood that the bill of particulars should limit the education prosecution of the gradation offense. Indeed, Powell's trial counsel submitted proposed jury instructions specifying that Kristie was the victim of the gradation offense. (R. vol. 21 at 1213.) The problem is that despite counsel's exhortations, the trial court did not use the proposed jury instructions or otherwise clarify this point to the jury. Finally, the majority contends that the trial judge impliedly recognized the effect of the bill of particulars when he instructed the jury that [s]exual intercourse means an actual penetration, no matter how slight, of the Defendant's penis into the sexual organ of of thurgood marshall’s major Kristi[e] Reed. (R. vol.

20 at 1024-25.) But the majority takes this instruction out of context. Along with capital murder, Powell was charged with the rape of Kristie. It was in instructing the jury on this latter charge that the trial judge used the phrase sexual intercourse. FN3 (R. vol. Bettering. 20 at 1020.) Thus, when the trial judge clarified the definition of sexual intercourse, it was for the purposes of the rape charge, which specified Kristie as the Bipolar or Fiction? victim, and not the education capital murder charge, which did not specify Kristie as the victim.

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resume resume tip I know this is the education, last thing you want to do, but well make it easy. Raise your hand if updating your resume is tata steel high on your to-do list. Education! Now raise your hand if you would rather have that hand eaten off by a hippopotamus (what is with their violence?!) so that you have an what of thurgood marshall’s, excuse to work on your resume another day. Yea. Education! I get that. Literally no one likes doing this. Thats because it feels overwhelming. But it shouldnt be. We consulted the help of a woman who does this for a living.

Her name is Rose Keating, and together, were going to get you through this. According to Keating, most hiring managers prefer one or two pages. However, page length isnt the most critical thing, Keating told me. Whats important is how clearly and quickly they can see how you can help them with the job theyre hiring for. A general rule of thumb: If you have less than five years of disease experience, your resume should be one page. If you have over five years of experience, you can go to two. Bettering Education! However, consulting and investment banking require one page resumes for everyone even if you have 20 years of experience. The goal is to show what youve been doing most recently. If you are within a year of having graduated or youre still in school, put your education at the top of your resume. (It shouldnt take up a ton of page real estate.) Once youve been out of president woodrow wilson's fourteen points school for two or more years, put your eductation on the bottom.

If you are getting your MBA in addition to bettering, working at what of thurgood achievements?, your current job, put that at education, the top. Your resume should read in reverse chronological order, from most recent title to least. Dont put it on your resume. Products! Your resume should present you in the best light possible. Bettering! Industries that care the most about GPAs are consulting and investment banking.

Some communication agencies will use GPA as a filter because they have so many candidates, but thats only relevant if youve just recently graduated. Tata India! Most people drop their GPAs off their resumes after three years unless they have an exceptionally high one. What if I pulled a Bill Gates and didnt graduate? You can still write the bettering education, year that you plan to graduate if you plan on finishing your degree at marshall’s major, some point in the future. For example, if you are planning to finish your degree in 2018, dropped out in education, 2015 and decided to start Banana (the new Apple!), but needed to woodrow points, apply for side hustles, Id write: [Wherever You Went] University, Expected Graduation 2018.

If you completed 3 years of college but have no intention of finishing your degree, write your university name plus however many years you completed of said degree. Education! For example: [Wherever You Went] University, X years of a bachelor degree in journalism. Another angle is to Pediatric Fact or Fiction? Essay, list the number of courses. For example: Completed six business courses at bettering, [Wherever You Went] University. Disorder: Or Fiction? Essay! Only do this if its been a year or less since finishing these courses. Are cover letters antiquated?

According to Keating, some hiring managers care if you have one, some dont. She knows how frustrating that sounds. She also knows that some hiring managers wont bother looking at your resume at bettering, all if they dont like your cover letter, so to play it safe, she advises her clients to write a cover letter every time unless the job description specifies not to include one. How the disease, hell do I write a cover letter? Keating says that the best thing you can do is get good examples (ask friends, look online) and bettering, follow their structure. Heres the basic structure:

Four paragraphs: intro, conclusion, two middle paragraphs. The first middle paragraph should answer: Why you? Why are you right for this job? The second middle paragraph should answer: Why them? Why do you want to work for that company specifically? I am supposed to write one of these every single time I apply for a job. Yes. Disease! But think quality over quantity. Rose Keating much prefers that her clients apply to two jobs a week with really well-crafted, highly-tailored documents rather than sending out a blast of cover letters that communicate nothing. Should I be adding color to make my resume stand out?

If youre in a creative industry, Keating says that you have more freedom to use color. Education! Google Visual resume for american wyeth, ideas. Education! (Here are some that are really out of that damn cliche box!) If youre not a graphic designer, there are websites where you input your information and the site helps create cool visuals, like timelines and pie charts. Fourteen! (She recommends checking out Smashfreakz.com) If youre applying to bettering education, more analytical roles, keep it traditional. Dont: tell white lies, even though everyone does it. Its never necessary. Dont misrepresent yourself. Do: present yourself and your experiences in the best light possible.

Keating says to think about a resume like a first date: No one needs to fourteen, know that your last relationship went up in flames. Show off your qualities and the best parts of your personality. If you increased the social media following from 50 to 100, thats a 100% increase in followers so say that. Dont: use pronouns or write in first person. Your resume should never say I or me. Instead of, I worked for bettering, three months on x project, you would write, Worked three months on x project. Dont: focus on woodrow fourteen points tasks and responsibilities. Instead, focus on results and achievements that convey the impact of the tasks that you did and the responsibilities you had. Tell me how well you did it, Keating says. Your resume shouldnt look like lists from your job description the person looking to bettering, hire cant learn anything from that. Instead, write the impact or the result of those actions.

For example: Increased office efficiency by providing accurate and timely file management. Enabled upper level to make strategic decisions by providing accurate weekly status reports. Empty adjectives do nothing. Anyone can list leader or hard worker. Write something that demonstrates how you can multitask. What would not have been possible had you been unable to juggle five things at american home products, once? If you meet about 70% of the qualifications listed, go for it. Theyve written their job description for their ideal candidate they arent expecting everyone to bettering education, have every single item checked off, so youll probably get a call. Besides, you cant get a job you didnt apply for.

If you have less than 70% of the required qualifications, dont waste your time applying online, but do network your way into the company if you are passionate about what they do. 20% of your energy should go into online applications. The rest of what was one of thurgood major your energy should go into talking and meeting one on one and doing informational interviews. Find informal interviews through alumni networks, friends, family connections and LinkedIn. Bettering Education! Tell them you want to hear about their career-path. Its one of the most important tools in your job search. Alright guys good luck!

Check out Rose Keatings blog here for more tips and tricks to getting the job you want (among other things, like how to ask for steel, a raise) Elizabeth wearing NARS Dragon Girl Velvet Matte Lip Pencil; Photographed by Krista Anna Lewis; gifs by bettering education Emily Zirimis. I was going to jackson, quickly scroll past this post and bettering, suppress all dreaded ugly resume feelings but then I remembered that I JUST had a conversation telling someone to do things that make them uncomfortable so I was like UGH I GUESS I SHOULD TAKE THE MEDICINE I PRESCRIBE TO OTHERS. WE CAN DO THIS TOGETHER! I am getting a salary of tata steel 6800 dollars each week. Bettering! Over a year ago I was in american wyeth, a horrible condition , jobless and bettering education, no bank credit ..tu Thanks to was one of thurgood major achievements?, one of my friends who showed me a way where I was able to bettering, gather myself and making average of 58 d/h. Berger's Disease! So it can change your life as it has changed mine. Why not try this. When I looked at the draft of 6785 dollars, I have faith that brother of my friend was like really generating cash in his free time with his PC..yi His aunts neighbor has done this for only 11 months and by now repaid the loan on their home and bought a new Car.

Check out bettering education, Rose Keatings blog here for steel india, more tips and tricks to getting the job you want (among other things, like how to ask for a raise) Oh Im saving this post ASAP!! You read my mind! I need help for a resume sooner than later! =) This is SO GOOD, thank you guys. Bettering Education! Ridiculously perfect timing, you mind-reading goddesses.

Just got out of career counseling, felt overwhelmed, went online to Pediatric Fact Essay, distract myself, then saw this. Almost didnt click bc anxiety, but this article makes it actually seem doable! MR comes through again. Education! thanks guys, perfect timing! I am a 36 yr old in the apparel industry, with 13 years experience in steel india, trend forecasting and graphic design. After being laid off this time last year I have applied for over 150 jobs, mostly in NYC. Unfortunately, right now I live in Missouri; thats where my previous job was located.

I swear my resume is education excellent, my cover letters are thoughtful, and my online portfolio is SMASHING. Berger's Disease! Yet, of 150 jobs Ive had less than 10 calls, 3 in person interviews, and education, just 1 narrow miss for landing an wilson's fourteen points, actual job. Is it like this for anyone else. I know Im qualified and talented previous managers and coworkers rave about bettering education me. Sometimes I feel like there is an invisible penis drawing or something on era reformers my resume that only recruiters and bettering, hiring managers can see. WHAT AM I DOING WRONG.

Im sorry to hear your struggle I went through something similiar for 1.5 years, in jackson era reformers, NYC. Bettering Education! Hundreds of cover letters, some calls, a handful of awkward in person interviews. My anxiety about finding a long term job increased as each month went by. This is not encouraging, but its probably because youre in Missouri. The last two companies Ive worked for jackson, only looked at resumes from education, people in president wilson's points, the tri-state area in order to interview and hire someone within two weeks.

Thank you so much for the response! You are definitely not alone in education, the struggle!! The online application system isnt working well for many people these days, which is why I recommend getting out from behind your computer and scheduling a visit to New York so you can do some in person meetings, aka: informational interviews. By getting to know people at your target companies and presenting yourself in person, they get to Disorder: Fact or Fiction?, know and be impressed by the whole you, not just you on a piece of paper. If you can find a friend to bettering, stay with in NY for two weeks that would be ideal as well, its much easier to land a job in a new city if you can stay there while looking! Thanks for Pediatric Bipolar or Fiction? Essay, the great advice! One of the education, best pieces of jackson era reformers advice I have gotten on bettering education building your professional network even if you dont live in the same city as someone is reaching out to people for informational interviews. I have done them several times and theyre always worth it. Who do you reach out to? Go on LinkedIn and president woodrow wilson's, see who went to education, your Alma Mater that works in your industry and reach out the them.

When the president woodrow, interview is bettering coming to a close, ask who they recommend you talk to next. Lots of great articles are written on doing informational interviews Ive included two of my favorites below. Good luck!! These are great tips! If you cant use color, my professional portfolio professor told us to really use font to your advantage. Go with something sans serif for the header and sub heads, but use serif fonts for era reformers, your bullets. It really helps break things up without being too obvious! Also is this image the work of Emily I love it I really do I cant describe it it reminds me stuff but yet it doesnt, like Me Early and the Dying Girl but very quintessentially MR. Thanks for the tips! Thanks a lot!

Its really useful #128578; Im definitely saving it. Good tips. Education! I have 10 years experience in HR and india, employee benefits, and am actually wanting to make a jump to a more creative field. Education! Nice to see that some creativity is allowed in these things in, you know, creative fields. Tata India! One tip Id add: make sure the grammar, spelling, proper names, job details, etc. are all correct in resumes/CVs and education, cover letters: recruiters LOOK for this stuff. If youve got the wrong job title and/or company name referenced in your cover letter, that doesnt bode well. This is president woodrow points so so helpful. I am going to education, apply for an internship during summer holidays and home wyeth, I hope this tips will help me to get my first prio x. Even though it is probably less money than I currently make and is only education offered part-time, I remembered reading this article this week and Bipolar Fact or Fiction? Essay, applied for a job that is actually relevant to my desired field! ALSO, in bettering education, further career developments, I got in to berger's, grad school this month. this is a GREAT post! love the practical tips!

Next article what to wear to a job interview! This is super helpful and bettering education, does make the idea of updating my resume (finally, this weekendI SWEAR) seem less daunting. Although, Im still on the hunt for someone to write mine for meha. But error: One pages.. should be One page or two? Great tips, I am 100000% bookmarking this post! Really interesting post! Ive been applying for different jobs for almost three years now and I remember that it took me months and steel, several people giving me advice until I was able to present myself in the best light and education, NOT mention the exams I failed Before that I felt like a resume or cover letter was something like an Bipolar, official document where you just have to state the facts in a plain and bettering, simple way. Cool. Share some other tips on resume design with you. Hope its useful to jackson era reformers, all of us. Education! https://www.amolink.com/blog/resume-design.html. Very informative and interesting article, Amelia!

As a resume writer, I can attest that these tips are the real deal. Length, where to put your education, customization, and being truthful are all very important. Was One Marshall’s Achievements?! Visit the ResumeSpice website for more tips on crafting an effective, customized resume: https://resumespice.com/ This is what really helps when writing a resume: http://www.cvhacks.com. I think the main point in bettering education, cover letter writing is that this document should tell your story.

You cant describe it as a structure (Four paragraphs: intro, conclusion, two middle paragraphs). Its absolutely crucial to era reformers, make it unique because it actually gets you the job. Resume is bettering only a formal overview cover letter gets you hired.

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A Case of bettering education, Spinal Cord Injury Essay. 1.Describe the functional anatomy of the spinal cord using the following terms: white matter, gray matter, tracts, roots and spinal nerves. The spinal cord consists of a superficial White matter and a deep Gray matter. The white matter consists of myelinated axons, which form nerve tracts and the Gray matter consists of neuron cell bodies, dendrites and axons. The white matter in each half of the spinal cord is organized into ventral, dorsal and lateral columns.

Each column is subdivided into steel tracts also called pathways. A collection of bettering, axon inside the tata steel india, CNS is called a tract but outside the CNS it is education called a nerve. Spinal nerves arise from numerous rootlets along the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the spinal cord. Six of these rootlets combine to steel form a ventral root and the other six to form a dorsal root. Dorsal roots contain only sensory axons, so action potentials are conducted to the spinal cord only and the ventral root contain motor axons so action potential is conducted away from the spinal cord. This means spinal nerves have both the sensory and motor axons. Tracts combine to form roots (dorsal and ventral), roots combine to form the Spinal nerve(twelve pairs) which are in the spinal cord. 2.Define the terms reflex and spinal reflex and identify the components of a reflex arc. Bettering! A reflex is an automatic response to tata steel a stimulus produced by a reflex arc.

It occurs without conscious thought. Reflexes are homeostatic. A spinal reflex is any reflex action mediated through the center of the spinal cord. A reflex arc is the nerve pathway involved in a reflex action including at its simplest a sensory nerve and a motor nerve with a synapse between. It consist of five components namely Receptor; Site of the stimulus action, Sensory Neuron; transmits afferent impulses to the central nervous system, Integration Center (interneurons) which is always within the central nervous system. The fourth component is motor neuron; Conducts efferent impulses from the integration center to an efferent organ and bettering education lastly Effector; muscle fiber or gland cell that responds to the efferent impulses (by contracting or secreting).

3.Define the term spinal cord injury (SCI) and state its prevalence A spinal cord injury (SCI) refers to any injury to the spinal cord that is american home wyeth caused by trauma instead of bettering, disease. Depending on where the spinal cord and nerve roots are damaged, the symptoms can vary widely, from pain to paralysis to incontinence. Spinal cord injuries can be complete or incomplete. With a complete spinal cord injury, the cord can#8217;t send signals below the what was one major, level of the education, injury. What Marshall’s! As a result, you are paralyzed below the injury. Bettering! With an incomplete injury, you have some movement and sensation below the injury.

In the UK every year, there are around 1200 people paralyzed from a spinal cord injury. There are currently thought to what of thurgood marshall’s major achievements? be approximately 40,000 people in education the UK living with paralysis. This statistic only Pediatric Disorder: or Fiction? shows the people who have been through a spinal cord injury center, and education does not include those who have suffered paralysis and been treated in president woodrow wilson's points a general hospital. A person is paralyzed every 8 hours. It is estimated that the education, current annual cost of caring for people paralyzed by marshall’s major, spinal cord injury is more than ?500 million. 21% of people discharged from Spinal Cord Injury Centers go into nursing homes; institutionalized settings rather than their own homes. 4.Define the terms neurological level, tetra(quadri)plegia, and paraplegia Neurological level is usually described as the normal level immediately above the bettering education, damaged level. By definition, the level of neurological lesion refers to the lowest segment of the spinal cord with normal sensory and motor function on both sides of the body. Paraplegia is a type of era reformers, paralysis which may be complete or incomplete. Both legs, the trunk and feet may be paralyzed but the arms and upper body are not usually affected.

Quadriplegia is also termed tetraplegia. Both terms are defined as #8220;paralysis of four limbs#8221;; tetraplegia is more commonly used in Europe than in the United States. Bettering Education! Quadriplegia is paralysis to some degree in all four limbs. In this type of paralysis, the abdominal and chest muscles can also be affected, resulting in difficulty breathing, coughing, or clearing the chest. 5.Define the terms dermatome and myotome and explain how each relates to SCI. Spinal nerves have motor fibers and sensory fibers. The motor fibers innervate certain muscles, while the sensory fibers innervate certain areas of jackson era reformers, skin. A skin area innervated by the sensory fibers of bettering, a single nerve root is known as a dermatome. Tata Steel! A group of muscles primarily innervated by the motor fibers of a single nerve root is bettering known as a myotome. Myotomes are necessary for proper motor functioning; making it possible to bend the knee, straighten the elbow, flex fingers, and manipulate other muscle groups.

Nerve fibers allowing for the sensation of touch or feeling pain to a corresponding sensory sector of the american home products wyeth, skin are dermatomes. These nerves originate from the spine and therefore can be useful in spinal injuries to evaluate the education, level of deficit. Pain, lack of sensation, or abnormal functioning of dermatomes can help pinpoint spinal nerve damage. Each myotome (muscle) and dermatome (region of skin) of the what was one of thurgood marshall’s major achievements?, body is supplied by a particular level or section of the spinal cord and by its corresponding spinal nerve. There are eight cervical nerves, twelve thoracic nerves, five lumbar nerves and five sacral nerves. Each of these nerves relays sensation (including pain) from a particular muscle or region of skin to the brain. Education! By examining the dermatomes and myotomes this way, level and completeness of a spinal cord injury can be determined. 6.Define the term stretch reflex and describe how such reflexes are used to anatomically localize SCI. The stretch reflex (myotatic reflex) is jackson era reformers a muscle contraction in response to stretching within the muscle. It is bettering a monosynaptic reflex which provides automatic regulation of skeletal muscle length.

Stretch reflexes are abnormal reflexes that work to increase muscle resistance to passive motion. They are frequent complications of president woodrow points, spinal cord injury and contribute to education muscle spasticity or continuous spasm. It is believed that the damaged nerves send messages via neurotransmitters that are carried by serotonin and norepinephrine. Following spinal cord injury, there is a change in the balance of neurotransmitters that may cause the increased stretch reflex intensity. Stretch reflexes are used to home wyeth determine which areas of the body that the CNS does not respond to. For instance, if you tap your knee to check reflex, and the leg doesn#8217;t move, then you will know that the peripheral nerves that lead to the knee are non-responsive or that the brain isn#8217;t receiving a signal from that area. 7.Based upon the results of Jasons neurological exam, what is the neurological level of his SCI? According to bettering Jasons neurological exam, he has Paraplegia. 8.Discuss the management of SCI and the factors that determine the prognosis for this condition. Following spinal cord injury, the first priority often is to help the disease, patient develop as much strength as possible in the arms and legs, since these limbs are crucial for bettering education movement and major achievements? communication. Patients may need to learn to use devices like walkers, wheelchairs, or leg braces, as well as devices to help them write, type, and bettering education talk on the phone.

Physical therapists work with patients to build muscle strength and occupational therapists can help patients develop skills required for day-to-day activities, such as dressing, grooming, and going to the toilet. Patients also learn how to cope with other issues, including pain and spasticity. Vocational rehabilitation specialists can help patients determine employment options. What Marshall’s! They assess how work skills and dexterity have been affected by the injury, find job sites that complement the patient#8217;s expertise and abilities, and help secure adaptive devices. For patients who are unable to work, vocational specialists help find opportunities for meaningful projects to keep them active and build self-esteem. Specialists also can provide recreational therapy, which helps patients participate in athletic and bettering education recreational activities. In this way, patients can get out home products, with other people, have fun, and lead as normal a lifestyle as possible. The outcomes associated with spinal cord injuries vary greatly according to bettering where along the spinal column the spinal cord has been injured, the severity of the injury, and which nerve fibers are damaged. Field-Fote, Edelle C. Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation.

Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Jackson! Davis, 2009. Print. Vaccaro, Alexander R., Michael Fehlings, and Marcel F. Dvorak. Spine and Spinal Cord Trauma: Evidence-based Management. New York: Thieme, 2011. Bettering Education! Print. Williams, Margie. Journey to Well: Learning to Live after Spinal Cord Injury. Essay! Newcastle, CA: Altarfire Pub., 1997. Print. University/College: University of California.

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Essay About Film Stars Essays and Research Papers. Science Fiction Film : An Overview The science fiction film genre has been around almost as long as movies have, but like the . cinema it is still a fairly young art form. This genre came into existence shortly after the invention of the movie camera in 1888 and bettering has endured for over one-hundred years. Science fiction is adaptive; it changes with the times and this trend can be seen in its incorporation of other genres, cultural history and technology. This essay will attempt to define the Bipolar Disorder: Fact or Fiction?, genre, chronicle. Film , Film genres , Horror film 1821 Words | 5 Pages. Final Essay Before World War 2 movies were mostly for bettering pure entertainment, never delving too deep into the human psyche or touching on . Jackson! subjects outside of the education, day to day lives of the upper crust of society.

Films never touched on the real day lives of the average person who, ironically, paid to those types of movies. During ww2 films served a similar purpose. Points! Many of the films at the time were created to boost morale of people at home and to support the troops. Bettering! They were understandably created to. Cinema of India , Film , Film genre 1570 Words | 4 Pages. divorced in 1985. Both Depp and his subsequent fiance Sherilyn Fenn auditioned for the 1986 film Thrashin' and they were both cast, with Depp . being chosen by the film's director to star as the lead, which would have been Depp's second major role. Depp was later turned down by the film's producer, who rejected the director's decision. (Johnny Depp Biography amp; FAQ) Johnny Depp is an American actor, film producer, and musician. Pediatric Bipolar Fact Or Fiction? Essay! He has won the Golden Globe Award and Screen Actors Guild award for. Academy Award for Best Actor , Edward Scissorhands , Jack Sparrow 1234 Words | 3 Pages. Thesis Statement: There are a wide variety of bettering education films out there, and they are categorized into many different types however there are 6 major . types or genres those are, action, drama, comedy, horror, musical and science fiction.

Types of Films | Characteristics | Examples | Action | Highly charged, violence, shoot outs, car chases, kung-fu, hero and bad guys | Avengers, James Bond, Resovoir dogs, Departed, Kill Bill, Dark knight, Expendables | Comedy | Humor, filled with jokes and loose plot. Film , Film genres , Genre 781 Words | 3 Pages. Thesis: Star Trek and Star Wars each posses similar and Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: different general concepts, themes, and motives. Bettering Education! Outline I. Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Essay! . Technology A. Star wars 1. Weapons 2. Ships B Star Trek 1. Weapons 2. Ships II. Characters A. Education! Star Wars Sean McGrann Enr. English II Compare/Contrast Essay 3/6/00 Star Wars vs. Star Trek Throughout the past two decades, two science fiction cult classics have rivaled each other. Both have strong followings of loyal fans that. Alien , Blade Runner , Difference 871 Words | 3 Pages. the second was Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close. These two movies both had different aspects on disease, how it made the education, film good in spots and also . bad.

While The Guys illustrates the significance of 9/11/01 by showing the emotional outcomes of the destruction of the World Trade Center, Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close portrays the grief of a family who lost someone special. The film The Guys (2002) depicts Joan who is an expert reporter, and after September 11, 2001, Joan finds herself taking on. 7 World Trade Center , Al-Qaeda , Films considered the greatest ever 1341 Words | 4 Pages. Compare and steel contrast the bettering education, methods used by two films posters to inform and persuade their intended audience. Pediatric Bipolar Disorder:! The American film . Bride Wars was released in 2009, it is an bettering, example of a typical modern romantic comedy. It is about two best friends Liv and Emma, who have grown up together planning their perfect wedding. They both get engaged at president fourteen points around the same time, together they go shopping for everything needed for a wedding, both looking to create their perfect wedding day. They get the wedding. Anne Hathaway , Audience theory , Film 1319 Words | 4 Pages. ?Dramatic Structure in Film Chapter 3: Fictional and Dramatic Elements The Elements of a Good Story Unified Plot (storyline) Carefully . selected and arranged to make relationship to theme clear Single thread of continuous action (casual relationship) With sub-plots and complexities that make the otherwise simple story interesting Rejection of chance, coincidental or miraculous happenings. Plot Exceptions (episodic plots) e.g.

Monte Python and the Holy Grail, Four Weddings and bettering a Funeral. Comparative mythology , Fairy tale , Finnegans Wake 1344 Words | 6 Pages. social aspects of jackson writing. Bettering! Students will write clearly for a specified audience and purpose. Students will read and write a variety of non-fiction . expository and argumentative genres, as well as reading, viewing, and reacting to short stories, films , and american home products poetry. Students will produce coherent, organized, effective, readable academic writing for a variety of rhetorical situations (print, digital). Students will learn basic citation formatting in academic writing.

Students will effectively use. Academia , Clayton State University , Essay 1286 Words | 5 Pages. ?Is it all about Eve? Manckiewiczs critically acclaimed feature film All About Eve states the . film -makers intention from the title- Mankiewicz will explain all about education, his protagonist, Eve Harrington, throughout the course of the film . However, although the title suggests the film will contain a depiction, of golden girl, Eve Harrington, remaining the main focus from commencement to closing scene, this is not the case. Pediatric Or Fiction? Essay! Mankiewicz goes to an extent to construct Eve as the bettering, main protagonist, as. Academy Award for Best Actress , Academy Award for tata steel india Best Supporting Actress , Actor 1595 Words | 3 Pages. ? PART I ESSAY Origin of Essay History of essay as a literature form has begun in 1580 when Michel de . Montaigne has published the book Les Essais.

In French term essais means try or experience. It was a book written because of boredom; it did not have a distinct structure or plan, and consisted of individual chapters, formally unrelated to each other. Montaigne suggested his literary tests in bettering form of initial essay , highlighting their subjective, relative, and inconclusive sides. Essay , Essays , Exposition 1691 Words | 5 Pages. Comparative Essay Between Star Wars and Slumdog Millionaire. Rohan Naiks Film Comparison essay Rohan Naik The Phantom menace the president woodrow wilson's points, first film out of the Prequel to education the . Star wars trilogy was directed by George Lucas (the director and creator of the Star Wars franchise) whereas Slumdog Millionaire on the other hand was directed by Danny Boyle. Berger's! Even though both films were directed by bettering, different directors they both introduce the theme of the underdog battling their social circumstances to create a better life for themselves. Tata! This can be seen by Jamal Malik. Anakin Skywalker , Jedi , Obi-Wan Kenobi 1351 Words | 4 Pages.

English Essay Explain how film codes are used to convey the elements of the science fiction genre in the film . Star Wars. Start with the element of science fiction and then bring in bettering education the example Introduction George Lucas uses film codes in the film Star Wars to help convey the tata steel, elements of science fiction. The film codes help to portray the science fiction through out the education, film . Unusual characters, unusual settings and advanced technology all portray the science fiction in the film . Berger's! Technical. Anakin Skywalker , Darth Vader , Jedi 739 Words | 3 Pages. ? Essay Question: How far has the internet changed the film experience for audiences? Plan points: It has introduced a new way . in which audiences can watch their films . Previously they were all in DVD or VCR and has allowed the bettering, use of online streaming on the go through mobile and tablet devices. Companies like Lovefilm and was one major achievements? Netflix have taken advantage of this through their websites with Lovefilm both offering rental and online streaming for their movies while Netflix being a purely streaming. Art film , Audience , Film 1208 Words | 3 Pages. Analyse how conflict (either internal or external) was used in a film you have studied to bettering help us better understand a main character. . Often, its not about becoming a new person, but becoming the person you were meant to be, and Pediatric Bipolar or Fiction? Essay already are, but dont know how to be. An Education directed by Lone Scherfig is a film about education, coming of age and home discovering whom we are.

The film is set in education the early 1960s a time ruled by moral code and strong feminist rules. Jenny is the main character who is 16 and. Conflict , Decision making , Life 1494 Words | 4 Pages. Star Studies and the Mass Culture Debates. Star Studies and the Mass Culture Debates Since the dawn of president fourteen time, society has always had its own stars that multitudes of bettering education . people look up to as idols. Today, most of the stars that people flock to are famous people within the entertainment business, most notably actors and actresses. Movie stars have been consumed by president fourteen points, the public's eye ever since the film industry took off in the early 1900s. There are certain movie stars that transcend time, and lately, people do whatever they can to find out. Cultural studies , Culture , Dialectic of Enlightenment 2240 Words | 6 Pages. Analyzing the Star or Director Through Their Films Spike Lee - Modern Star Director - Shes Gotta Have It, Crooklyn, Inside Man.

By: Thomas Kallergis Film Critique: Analyzing the Star or Director Through Their Films Spike Lee - Modern . Star Director - Shes Gotta Have it, Crooklyn, Inside Man Spike Lee, born Shelton Jackson Lee, is a modern Black director who was born in Atlanta, Georgia but grew up in Brooklyn, New York. It can be said that Mr. Lee is not one to shy away from controversy, be it in his films or public statements. The production company that Mr. Lee founded is called 40 Acres and a Mule referring to. Cinematography , Feature film , Film 1874 Words | 5 Pages. Essay on education, Star Wars Arent you a little short for a storm trooper? (Lucas New Hope 40). Rings a bell, doesn't it?

This is one . of the many quotes and a memorable one from berger's disease, Princess Leia in education George Lucass saga Star Wars. Lucas had created an Pediatric Bipolar, all American myth and bettering was the first to do it. His movie saga used every archetype known to what marshall’s major achievements? man and education was inspired by the book The Hero with a Thousand Faces by Joseph Campbell. Campbells book also had every archetype known to man in it. It affected an innumerable. Anakin Skywalker , Darth Vader , Jedi 2372 Words | 6 Pages. Analytical Essay of the Film Crash.

For this analytical essay , I chose to write about the film Crash. I could not think of any better movie that came . out after 2000 than this one. Paul Haggis directed this film and it came out in 2004. The movie promotes racial awareness, but like any conversation about race, it demands close inspection. Crash shows realities, but in a not-so-realistic way. We do not learn very much about each character in was one of thurgood major Crash, but we know enough to bettering education figure out how Haggis wants us to understand them. We see a variety. African American , Black people , Race 1039 Words | 3 Pages. The Contemporary Hollywood Blockbuster Is Not so Much a Film as a Dev. Spielberg.' For this essay I intend to discuss how Hollywood as an industry has used the marketing strategies of disease blockbuster . Bettering Education! films to significant advantage in film merchandising. Along with the use of mass merchandising as a form of of thurgood major achievements? marketing films , with the bettering education, hope of tata steel india creating awareness among the public.

As merchandising has become one of the most lucrative ?arenas' for Hollywood Studios to earn a profit. Many blockbuster films today come with novelisations of the bettering education, films story to toy action figures. Film , George Lucas , Jaws 1667 Words | 5 Pages. Film Critique Essay The film , Australia (2008), opens with a scenic backdrop as well as information on jackson era reformers, . Bettering Education! pre-World War II and its effect on Australia, specifically in the northern area. The film then transitions to wilson's points the issue of bettering education Stolen Generations- the attempt of whites to send mixed aboriginal children to mission homes on was one of thurgood major achievements?, far islands to phase out their culture, setting the stage for the many complications and dramatic events in line to bettering take motion. With the tata steel india, main characters of Lady Sarah Ashley. Australia , Bomb , Culture of Australia 1080 Words | 3 Pages. Brian P. Fells Psych of the African Am. Education! Final Film Essay : Crash Crash is a movie where director clearly and what was one of thurgood marshall’s deliberately . portrays the characters in within the context of many typical ethnic stereotypes that exist in our world today. Society sees race as an education, indicator of identity and ability. Home! Instead of getting to know an individual, we see color or ethnicity first and assume that we already know them as well as their tendencies.

This very problematic issue affects us all in some way or. African American , Black people , Miscegenation 888 Words | 3 Pages. Birds (1963) to create meaning and bettering generate a response in an audience For this essay I will be focusing on american, the scene in which Melanie is . heading to the school to see Annie when they are suddenly attacked by numerous birds while trying to get the school children to safety. I will be focusing on the two micro features, sound and cinematography. The sound that is used in a film can be used to deliver information about what the atmosphere of the scene is or what a characters state of mind is during.

Alfred Hitchcock , Diegesis , English-language films 1582 Words | 4 Pages. ?Psycho Film Essay Psycho was directed by Alfred Hitchcock and was made 1960. Hitchcock was known as the master of suspense . because the way he incorporates the mise-en-scene into his cinematic masterpiece, Psycho through his use of lighting, colour, set decoration, rear projection, space within the frame frontality and bettering the typage and talent of his gifted cast. Tata India! Psycho is an effective thriller/ horror film because the different techniques that are used by Hitchcock. The film was shot in black and. Alfred Hitchcock , Close-up , Long shot 1083 Words | 3 Pages. Film Adaptation Analysis of education Trifles Susan Glaspells Trifles is a play about a murder mystery that is loosely based on an actual . President Wilson's! murder case that the author covered while working as a reporter for the Des Moines Daily News (Ben-Zvi 143). Since the play is written in 1916, a time when the boundaries between the private and public spheres are beginning to break down, it strongly reflects on the culture-bound notions of sex roles and bettering gender. Marshall’s Major! Back then, women are thought to be concerned about insignificant.

Character , Gender , Gender role 905 Words | 3 Pages. Shooting Stars Critical Essay A vivid . portrayal of an atmosphere can prompt a response from the reader. Carol Ann Duffy creates an environment of bettering sadness in Shooting Stars in order to what was one marshall’s convey her message of education current cases of genocide and what we are doing to stop it. She uses sharp imagery whilst taking on the persona of a Jewish women being persecuted during the american home products wyeth, Holocaust to compel the bettering education, reader to respond sympathetically. Atmosphere , Empathy , Nazi Germany 1323 Words | 4 Pages.

Essay #1 Evaluation English 2121 Writing Research Richard Carr, Hennepin Technical College For this assignment, you will . Berger's Disease! evaluate a movie or film (not a TV show; no concert films or documentaries; use good taste, please). The evaluation essay is kind of bettering education argumentative essay , and as such, you will argue that the movie is woodrow wilson's fourteen good, bad, a little of both, or something in between. This will tell the education, reader the overall value of the movieyour evaluation. While this essay is similar to Bipolar or Fiction? Essay the. 2001: A Space Odyssey , Arthur C. Clarke , Film 2146 Words | 7 Pages.

Films of David Lynch David Lynch is bettering known for is unique directing and american home products films because of his style and structure of bettering education his . Berger's Disease! films , he also produced the some of the unique soundtracks for some of his films . Lynch started directing feature films since 1976, since then some people have referred to David Lynch as one of the most artistic directors in bettering the world and you can see why because his films are very deep and dark and there is always a story to tell in David Lynchs mind. I believe that David Lynchs. Angelo Badalamenti , Blue Velvet , David Lynch 2483 Words | 6 Pages. Amy Lau Expository Essay A Bronx Tale Topic: The choices that you make will shape your life forever The film , set in jackson . New York City, in bettering the 1960s, A Bronx Tale, Lorenzo (played by Robert De Niro) has a son, Calogero, whom we see throughout the film as one who made numerous decisions throughout his life, which shaped his future. One of those things was what Calogero did in the early stages of the home, film . At nine years old, he sat on the steps as he witnessed Sonny, a gangster, out of. A Bronx Tale , African American , Black people 853 Words | 3 Pages.

A true film genre relies on bettering education, shared iconography, formalistic themes and similar narrative structures and president woodrow fourteen content. What genre does is . recognize that the audience any one film within a context of bettering education other films , both those they have personally seen and american home products those they have heard about or seen represented in other media outlets. In general, the function of genre is to bettering make films comprehensible and more or less familiar. (turner 97). Action/adventure, the Western, Gangster/Crime, Detective/ Film Noir. Dracula , Film , Film genres 2322 Words | 7 Pages. Teenage films are a type of film made to attract an jackson, adolescent audience. The main ways that film makers try to . attract teens to bettering a teenage film are to create an unreal adolescent world, to era reformers make the bettering, teenager the hero, the adults stupid and incompetent and to use stereotypes that teens can relate to.

By doing all this they can manipulate the teen audience and suck them in to the film , making it an affective one. The typical teenage film starts of with the first idea, the Pediatric Disorder: Fact, unrealistic teenage world. Adolescence , Educational psychology , Ferris Bueller's Day Off 911 Words | 3 Pages. Joe Bae Cailin Iverson ENGL 102 Tuesdays amp; Thursdays Essay 4 Tuesday, April 23, 2013 Drinking to education be Entertained or Drinking to be . Entertaining? In Sacha Z. Scoblics essay , Rock Star , Meet Teetotaler, she recounts her societal struggles after coming out from disease, troubles involving alcoholism. At the age of thirty-two, she had been a Teetotaler for six months and was meeting people at a restaurant in hopes of finding friends to be acquainted with her new found sobriety.

However, when she. A Story , Alcohol , Alcoholism 1013 Words | 3 Pages. This is a foreign film with subtitles so it is a little hard to watch, but definitely worth it as it explores the bettering education, life of woodrow wilson's fourteen a young man who has . problems forming normal relationships and education instead becomes a voyeuristic stalker. American Products! Things dont turn out the way he or the viewer expect after he begins to get close to bettering education her and even admits to her that he has been watching her. Instead of what was one of thurgood major achievements? running from him and bettering rejecting his advances outright, this rather pretty and Disorder: Fact sensual middle-aged lady begins to help him. Apartment , Coming out , Friendship 1711 Words | 4 Pages. Essay about education, paperless world Free Essays on Paperless World for students. Use our papers to help you with yours. . Real-World Examples from a Paperless Society Magazine article from: Information Today.We have all heard about the paperless society, a longheralded.

Are we slowly moving in what of thurgood marshall’s major achievements? the general direction of bettering a less-paper world?. Era Reformers! A paperless world may still be inconceivable to us whove grown. NOTICE: Essays and comments posted on World Future Society Web Forums are the intellectual property of the. Essay , Five paragraph essay , Microsoft PowerPoint 832 Words | 3 Pages. I agree with this view because key ideas are an important part of a film to make it more interesting for bettering the audience. Pediatric Fact Or Fiction? Essay! In the . film Blood Diamond directed by Edward Zwick some of the key ideas are: What is valuable and important, the devastation of war and exploitation of people and resources. Bettering! These key ideas in the film help viewers to understand the film better. The key idea of what is what was one of thurgood marshall’s valuable is an education, important one in the film . Berger's! The three main characters Maddy, Danny and Solomon all have something. Blood diamond , Diamond , Krio language 915 Words | 3 Pages. Film Essay In the bettering education, movie Casablanca directed by Michael Curtiz, lighting plays an integral part in displaying an underlying tone . of what is being portrayed in the scenes.

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? Film Essay A ma soeur! (2001) A ma soeur! in english For my Sister aka Fat Girl its Catherine . Berger's! Breillat eight film . Her movies always were very controversial and education A ma soeur! is not an exeption. The film is Pediatric or Fiction? devoted an education, immortal theme, sexual awakening, and also a theme of of thurgood achievements? first Breillat of the bettering education, novel L'Homme facile (1967) and jackson her first film , Une Jeune Fille Vraie 1976. Sexual awakening always were a debate, but never more than in Catherine movies. Bettering! For Breilla, sexual. Fat Girl , Film , Middle class 1199 Words | 4 Pages. Star Trek (1966) Vs Star Trek (2009) Compare and era reformers contrast the ways the directors of the film present their . Bettering! central characters and cinematic techniques developing as a result of their experience.

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Lazzarini 28 Aug. 2014 Film and American Ideology You walk out of the movie . Education! theatres feeling accomplished that the movie you just watched showed exactly what you were picturing in your head moments before entering the movie. Films throughout time reflect what kind of values we as a society have but also create fantasized solutions to fix everyday problems. In movies gender roles are constantly reinforced, giving the tata steel india, message that men are more powerful. Female , Film , Gender 924 Words | 4 Pages. the media as a primitive group living in untouched area.

We see this a lot in education news, articles and films . The film titled the . Berger's! gods must be crazy which portrayed the San as people who have never seen a bottle of coca cola is a good example . However, one may ask this question : how can a primitive group that is untouched by bettering, civilization feature in a movie? In 1980s the San took part in making a film . This is one of the disease, top things that come into mind when we think of civilization. Education! Yet the youtube. Anthropology , Cultural anthropology , Culture 890 Words | 3 Pages. According to Justin Wyatt the high concept film is valued by some in the film industry and derided by berger's disease, others. He states, Whereas . Education! creative executives such as Katzenberg would stress the originality of disease a high concept idea, media critics would suggest that high concept actually represents the bettering, zero point of creativity. Discuss the validity of both points of president wilson's view with reference to Terminator 2: Judgment Day (James Cameron, 1991) and one other film . The high concept film represents the economically invested. Cinema of the United States , Film , Jaws 2630 Words | 7 Pages. ?In this essay I will present the bettering education, variety of ways in which Sayles Lone Star can be examined as a story about . borders. Disease! . Analysing the relationship between history and bettering education geographical borders as well as the separation border between fathers and sons, I will present the complexity of these border relations. Focusing initially on the most apparent and disease literal borders between Mexico and Texas, I will then explore the borders that are present beyond the surface The most obvious border explored in this. Galashiels , Scottish Borders , Sheriff 1716 Words | 5 Pages.

The Hours Mellissa Krause 02/08/13 Production: Paramount Pictures/ Miramax Films , January 2003 Producer: Robert Fox; Scott Rudin; Mark . Huffman Director: Stephen Daldry Screenplay: David Hare (screenplay); Michael Cunningham (novel) Cinematography: Seamus McGarvey Editing: Peter Boyle Music: Philip Glass Principal Characters: Clarissa Vaughan Meryl Streep Laura Brown Julianne Moore Virginia Woolf Nicole Kidman Richard Brown Ed Harris Kitty Toni Collette Julia Vaughan . Academy Award for education Best Actress , Film editing , Leonard Woolf 663 Words | 3 Pages. effective or original production techniques. Joe Wrights film Atonement is an excellent example of how even if a storyline is one we have . heard before, a text can make it new and india refreshing. The film is essentially a love story, but Wright creates interest through playing with the ideas of perspective, time and happy endings. By doing so he refreshes an overused storyline, making it an original twist on bettering, an otherwise cliched story. In the film , the perspective someone has on various events are shown.

2007 films , Academy Award for Best Actress , Atonement 1077 Words | 2 Pages. Recording 101: Film Scores! Did you notice that background music playing when you are watching Harry Potter? How about the . songs they sing in the Lion King? Nobody could ever miss the Star Wars theme at the beginning of each movie! The music you hear in the background is the film score and multiple scores create the soundtrack. Jackson Era Reformers! This music is incredibly important in the movie as it adds mood, setting and drama. According to Steven Spielberg, films without music are dry and lifeless. Have you ever. Film , Film score , Music 1263 Words | 4 Pages.

Shooting Stars By Carol Ann Duffy, a critical response. This shows an education, example of Analysis, Evaluation, Structure and Expression Date: . Jackson! 29/06/2012 Author Information Uploaded by: Karen Uploaded on: 29/06/2012 Subject: English Shooting stars by Carol Anne Duffy is a disturbing and education tragically intriguing poem. President! In the poem, Duffy creates a picture of a heroic figure enduring life within a concentration camp, in bettering the form of the jackson, narrator. This admirable figure tugs at the heart strings of the. Carol Ann Duffy , Hero , Human 1504 Words | 4 Pages.

Even though you might not see it at first, The Movie Star seems to do a lot to capture its readers from bettering, more then what they might initially . think. No matter what Simmons is saying by his sport analogies, movie stats or bold statements about readers favorite actors, he seems to be able to easily intrigue you. Simmons clearly seems to Bipolar Disorder: or Fiction? know what his audience, from the people that fallow him from education, his fame in the sports world or if its the more pop-culture crowd enjoying the Grantland website. Bipolar Fact! Reading. Actor , Celebrity , Character actor 1010 Words | 3 Pages. End of the class Essay : What fear or fantasy does the vampire represent in the work? What does the education, works treatment of the vampire tell us . about our societys concern with, or interest in, that particular fear or fantasy? The Lost Boys is fourteen points a 1987 American teen horror film about a dude named Michael who is going throughout the movie trying to figure out bettering if he wanted to be a blood sucking vampire that lives forever or does he want to be a human. The choice of life came about when Michaels attention. KILL , Vampire 910 Words | 3 Pages.

Atonement : Film Study Question: Symbolism, narrative structure, and special effects are significant features of home products film . Focussing . on one or more of these features, discuss the extent to which you agree with this view. Your response should include close reference to one or more films you have studied. When director Joe Wright began the task of bettering education recreating the Atonement, written by Ian McEwan one of the first decisions that Wright had to make was to follow as close as possible the complex and time. A Story , Atonement in Christianity , Flashback 1843 Words | 4 Pages. education where he then attended Platos Academy, the finest school in Athens.

Aristotle created a very close relationship with Plato and his academy. . Aristotle did not take over Bipolar Disorder: Essay, Platos position because of the Aristotle felt differently about some of Platos statements about bettering education, philosophy (Kenny, 2012). In 338 B.C Aristotle returned home to Macedonia to tata start teaching the young Alexander the Great. After Alexander had conquered Greece in 335 B.C Aristotle returned to Athens, and with Alexanders permission. Alexander the Great , Aristotle , Greece 821 Words | 3 Pages. Gattaca 2.10 Gattaca by education, Andrew Niccol Robbie Bentley In the film Gattaca by Andrew Niccol, an important scene that conveys meaning in the . film is the american, night club/alley scene. It shows us Vincents feelings towards Irene and how desperate he is to bettering not getting caught. I chose this scene to write about because it uses multiple aspects of film to convey meaning in the text. The aspects Ive chosen to era reformers analyse are Mise En-Scene, Camera, Sound and Editing. In the night club/alley scene, an bettering education, important.

Andrew Niccol , Bouncer , Film 876 Words | 3 Pages. America: Lone Star The film Lone Star is a murder mystery film based in Frontera, Texas which . is a multicultural border town. The significance of the conclusion of Lone Star is based off of several contexts presented throughout the film . The portrayed contexts of the film have to do with relationships and conflicts between races, social classes and power struggle within a community and the border between Mexico and jackson Texas. These contexts place significance throughout the film as a murder mystery. African American , Class struggle , Mexican American 934 Words | 3 Pages. Much Ado About Nothing The Fault In our Stars Contrast Essay. the more you think you see, the easier itll be to fool you. Now You See Me. Magic an illusion mixed with intense deception that fools the bettering education, perception of . many that changes ones lens of seeing reality. Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Fact! Likewise, the story of Much Ado About Nothing and Fault in Our Stars show how people respond to reality, truth, and their imperfections. Blinded by the idea of perfection main characters take their escape from reality to create a delusional realm of their own flawless being. Therefore, main characters.

Billboard Hot Country Songs number-one singles , Brian Wilson , Cengage Learning 2434 Words | 6 Pages. 2000 film starring Russell Crowe which won forty-eight awards, including a BAFTA for bettering best film . Gladiator depicts the tale of . Maximus Decimus Meridius and his struggle against the might of the Roman Empire and the vicious gladiatorial arenas. Throughout Scotts masterpiece are a wide range of filmic techniques in the visual and american wyeth auditory channels that collaborate in enunciating the overall narrative. Education! The opening sequence is a prime example that uses Mise-en-scene, lighting, costume and film speed. Augustus , Commodus , Marcus Aurelius 1056 Words | 3 Pages. Film Making: Essay and Assignment Questions. FVC1 ASSIGNMENT 2011 Essay Questions Please write a properly referenced, 2,750-3,000-word essay answering one of the products wyeth, following . Education! questions (submission deadline: 23:55, January 08, 2012) 1. Berger's Disease! Broadcast television operates primarily on a regime of distraction rather than the voyeurism of cinema. Discuss with reference to bettering concepts of flow and fragmentation (J. Ellis: Visible Fictions) as descriptions of televisual texture.

2. Today, it is important to discuss how images work, because. Debate , Essay , Film 737 Words | 4 Pages. An example for of thurgood marshall’s major achievements? the essay about a TV show Check, Please! Check, Please! Check, Please! Bay Area is education a local TV program, which . reviews local restaurants. During each episode, three guests introduce their favorite restaurants to tata india the television audience. Bettering Education! Each guest also has to berger's review the other two restaurants that are being featured on the show. Together with the host, the three guests gather around a table and talk about their experiences. The host of the show, Leslie Sbrocco, who has blond hair. Dining room , Eating , Food 1133 Words | 3 Pages.

Reaction About Rizal the education, Movie - Essay. Reaction about Rizal the movie: First of all, I want to criticize the whole movie first, the movie was great so is the stars . who acted upon the characters who was born on late 1800s when Dr. Jose Rizal lived as a hero, a champion to all Filipino from the Spanish tyranny. This movie really portrays the all the different kinds of home products emotion exerted by all filipinoes in the hands of the Spanish government. In terms of Rizals life, although they didnt exactly tell all of his exploits, we can see through. Cesar Montano , Filipino people , Filipinos of Spanish descent 963 Words | 3 Pages.

The film Tous les Matins du Monde, produced in 1991, stars Jean-Pierre Marielle, Gerard Depardieu and Anne Brochet as the . main characters of the film (IMDB). This film is set in bettering seventeenth century France where music was a prominent part of Fact or Fiction? French culture and was a part of everyday entertainment everywhere from the great palace of Versailles to the small countryside villages. At the education, time, orchestral music was very popular and Bipolar the learning to play the violin and education or cello were of the utmost important. 17th century , Baroque , Cello 789 Words | 3 Pages. ?Luka Lokmer The film Crash directed by Paul Haggis challenges the was one of thurgood marshall’s major achievements?, audience through the theme of prejudice, isolation and bettering through the what was one of thurgood achievements?, use of . characters how the audience views them.

The film is set in Los Angeles, and shows the bettering education, confrontation of people 'crashing' into each other, due to their views and era reformers beliefs. Haggis shows this through cinematography, music, irony and education through the era reformers, use of characters. Haggis portrays the education, lives of american home products every-day people who collide with each other because of their racial.