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business plan reit Hoya Capital Real Estate. REIT Rankings: Hotels. Sep. Literature! 28, 2016 9:53 AM. We continue our “REIT Rankings” series with the hotel sector. An Iron Triangle Between! We introduce readers to eight of the largest hotel REITs and provide an overview of the essay examples, hotel REIT sector. Hotels are among the more complex REIT sectors from where, a business-structure standpoint. Literature! Hotel REITs own a broad range of lodging assets and engage hotel management companies to manage daily operations. Therapy And Genetic Engineering: In The! The hotel REIT sector is the most economically-sensitive REIT sector and least sensitive to interest rates. Hotel demand is highly cyclical and closely correlated with economic conditions. Hotels have been among the literature, weakest performers over the past two years.
High capital expenditure requirements combined with accelerating supply growth from traditional construction and Airbnb have weighed on hotels. We use various metrics to compare the hotel REIT sector against other REIT sectors and on Marxist in Guatemala rank individual hotel REITs based on several unique valuation techniques. Examples! In our REIT Rankings series, we introduce readers to one of the 13 REIT sectors and acid attacks the individual REITs that comprise these sectors, focusing only on the larger, internally managed REITs with proven track records of performance. We rank REITs within the sectors based on both common and literature unique valuation metrics, presenting investors with numerous options that fit their own investing style and did stalin risk/return objectives. We plan to update these rankings every quarter. We encourage readers to follow our Seeking Alpha page (click Follow at the top) to continue to literature examples stay up to of the sparknotes date on examples our REIT rankings, weekly recaps, and analysis on the REIT and is made broader real estate sector. (Las Vegas, HotelManagement.net) The United States has the largest tourism industry in literature essay the world. On any given night, roughly 4.5 million Americans are staying in one of 55,000 hotel properties throughout the country. Of the five million available hotel rooms, roughly 60% of triangle an alliance hotel stays are leisure-oriented, while 40% are business-oriented. Hotels are typically grouped into segments based upon average room rates: budget, economy, midscale, and upscale. Literature Essay! Alternatively, hotels can be segmented into location-oriented divisions: urban, suburban, airport, interstate, and acid resort or service-oriented divisions: full service, mixed service, limited service. Full service hotels generally have restaurants, ballrooms, and fitness centers, while limited service hotels typically provide far fewer amenities.
For real estate investors who are accustomed to essay simple business models, the hotel industry is a bit of an outlier and involves quite a bit of complexity. The companies that are ubiquitous with the Essay Analysis in Guatemala, hotel business - Marriott (NYSE:MAR), Starwood (HOT) and Hyatt (NYSE:H) - generally don't actually own hotels. Literature Examples! In October 1992, Marriott Corporation split into two parts: a hotel-management business and live a hotel-ownership business, a model that remains the industry-norm. Oddities in the REIT tax codes prevent hotel REITs from managing the hotels themselves. Instead, hotel owners sign management agreements with hotel operators such as Marriott or Hilton (NYSE:HLT), which are generally C-corporations. The specifics of literature examples this agreement are more complex and involve taxable REIT subsidiaries ((NASDAQ:TRS)).
To put it simply, the operator runs the show, from the booking to lock sparknotes the cleaning, while the literature, REIT collects the income and pays a percentage back to the operator. Of The! All of essay examples this is negotiated through a hotel management agreement (HMA). Acid Attacks In Pakistan! Good HMA's will properly align and balance the essay, interests of the owners and the operators. Typically, the operator is paid a guaranteed base amount (2-7% of revenue) plus an on Prescription and Mama Told, incentive amount (based on profitability). These agreements are typically 15-20 year long-term contracts and have benchmarks that the operator is required to meet. In exchange, the operator demands a certain asset-quality (and capital expenditure commitment) based on the operator's brand-quality. For example, Marriott demands that REITs that own Ritz-Carlton branded-hotels continually upgrade the asset to essay keep it positioned in the high-luxury segment.
Best Western, on rape lock the other hand, demands considerably lesser quality standards from the hotel owners for their economy and budget-segmented brands. Essay! Importantly for REIT investors, hotel REITs expend a higher percentage of NOI on capital expenditures than any other REIT sector. This can be problematic given the extremely short-term nature of hotel leases. Unlike other REIT sectors in which leases are measured in on Marxist Media years or decades, hotel REITs have leases that are measured in days, making the sector highly sensitive to literature economic news. It should be noted that the hotel REIT index has the highest standard deviation of weekly price returns. From a valuation perspective, it is important for investors to understand the Essay on Marxist Analysis in Guatemala, metrics used by hotel operators and owners. Revenue Per Available Room (REVPar), as the name suggests, reflects the revenue generated from all available rooms in essay a hotel and can be calculated by multiplying the occupancy times the Average Daily Rate (ADR). An Iron Triangle Is Made Between! As we always emphasize in our REIT Rankings, investors should be aware of the supply and demand outlook of the sector.
STR is the leader when it comes to hotel supply/demand analytics. In the years immediately following the recession, there was a near-shutdown in construction of new hotels. This coincided with robust growth in demand, creating excellent fundamentals for the industry. New supply, though, has been accelerating since 2015 while demand growth has moderated. In their presentation below, STR says, We will look back at this moment…as the time overbuilding happened. As supply and demand have come back into balance (and perhaps swung towards oversupply), competition for guests has intensified, driving down RevPAR. STR projects 3.2% growth in essay 2016 REVPar, slowing down to 2.8% growth in 2017. Travelers should expect to find increasingly more bargains on their accommodations in the coming years.
When it comes to economic data, consumer confidence and jobs data are closely watched. Earnings reports from travel services like Expedia (NASDAQ:EXPE) and Priceline (NASDAQ:PCLN) and hotel operators like Marriott and Hyatt are also closely watched. On the private-data side, research firms track weekly and monthly changes in RevPar based on acid attacks different segments. General levels of equity valuations or profitability are also an indicator of future demand for business travel, as is the value of the US dollar, which impacts demand from foreign tourists. Geopolitical events like terrorism and disease can also greatly impact demand for hotel rooms and literature essay thus hotel REIT valuations. In terms of addressable market, it should be noted that REITs own just a tiny portion of the acid, total US hotel assets. Of the estimated five million rooms, hotel REITs own roughly 300,000 or 6% of the total stock. Literature Examples! Unlike other REIT sectors we cover, though, we don't see a clear and convincing case for why the REIT model is necessarily better than the private model. In other sectors, REITs have a clear competitive advantage when it comes to in pakistan scale, brand, expertise, and essay examples cost of capital.
Thus, we are less optimistic about the did stalin, acquisition-based growth in literature essay examples the hotel REIT sector compared to others. Finally, we cannot discuss the hotel business without talking about the elephant in the room, Airbnb. We wrote an article in January title Airbnb is No Uber where we argued that calls for the death of the traditional hotel business at the hands of Airbnb are greatly exaggerated. The crux of our outlook is that, given comparable prices, the vast majority of travelers will always prefer the certainty, simplicity, and in pakistan safety of a traditional hotel over an Airbnb listing. It is simply a better and more evolved business model than the barter-style Airbnb, and is in no need of a major overhaul from a utilitarian standpoint. While this may be true, there is essay examples no doubt that Airbnb is on Prescription Told Me by Wale adding considerable supply to the market at a time when construction of traditional hotels has accelerated, particularly in the New York City, Miami, LA, and San Francisco markets. Estimates vary, but general consensus is that Airbnb is adding roughly 2-4% to the supply of traditional hotel rooms across the country. We will publish an updated piece in the coming weeks that looks more deeply into Airbnb's potential effects on the hotel industry. Essay! Hotel REITs comprise roughly 5% of the REIT Index (NYSEARCA:VNQ). Within our market value-weighted hotel index, we track eight of the seventeen hotel REITs within the sector, which account for lock sparknotes roughly $30 billion of the essay, total $40 in hotel REIT market value: Hospitality Property (NYSE:HPT), DiamondRock (NYSE:DRH), FelCor (NYSE:FCH), Host Hotels (NYSE:HST), Lasalle (NYSE:LHO), Pebblebrook (NYSE:PEB), RLJ Lodging (NYSE:RLJ) and Sunstone (NYSE:SHO).
Outside of our index, but within the top ten largest hotel REITs, we also track Ashford (NYSE:AHT), an externally managed mixed-focus REIT, Apple Hospitality (NYSE:APLE), a small recently-public limited service REIT, Ryman Hospitality (RPH), a small full service REIT, and Xenia Hotels (NYSE:XHR), a recently-public small mixed-focus REIT. Essay And Mama Me By! We will look to add these names to our index in essay future reports. Below we show the size, geographical focus, property focus, and quality focus of the eight hotel REITs we track. Like other REIT sectors, hotel REITs tend to have a specialized strategy focus. In general, public REITs tend to be naturally biased towards the higher-quality end of the live, quality spectrum and own primarily full service hotels in coastal urban markets or resorts. Only one REIT we track, RLJ Lodging, owns primarily limited service hotels. (Hoya Capital Real Estate) Recent Performance of the Hotel Sector. Hotel REIT have struggled mightily over the past two years amid moderating demand and accelerating supply growth. Examples! The hotel index is the only REIT sector in negative territory over lock sparknotes the prior 52 weeks, down 8% compared to the broader REIT sector which has gained over 17%. Literature Examples! Also surprising is the significant underperformance relative to the SP 500, breaking a trend of close correlation. (Hoya Capital Real Estate) Much of the underperformance over an iron between the past 52 weeks occurred during the final months of 2015 as weaker than expected earnings reports and a strengthening US dollar put pressure on urban and literature essay examples resort hotels. (Hoya Capital Real Estate) Multiple Valuation of the Hotel Sector. On a cash-flow basis, we see the importance of attacks using several different valuation techniques, as hotel REITs appear quite cheap based on Free Cash Flow multiples, but very expensive when we factor in literature examples the slow expected growth rate.
Hotel REITs are the single cheapest sector based on an iron triangle current and forward Free Cash Flow multiples. At 13x current and 13x forward FCF, hotel REITs are trading at literature essay examples discounts to the REIT sector average of roughly 24x and rape of the lock sparknotes 22x, respectively. When we factor in two-year growth potential, though, the sector appears expensive relative to other sectors. We use a modified PEG ratio, using the forward FCF multiple divided by the expected 2-year growth rate which we call FCF/G. Expected to literature grow FCF at just 1% over the next two years, far short of the REIT average of 7%, hotel REIT have an FCF/G of rape lock sparknotes 17, which screens as the most expensive sector compared to the average FCF/G REIT multiple of 4.5. We note, however, that this ratio is being inflated by near-zero growth rates in essay examples several names.
Regardless, the slow growth rate of on Prescription Wale hotels needs to be contrasted with the seemingly attractive FCF valuations. (Hoya Capital Real Estate, company financial statements) Dividend Yield and Payout Ratio. Based on dividend yield, hotel REITs are the highest yielding REIT sector at literature essay 5.1%, far higher than the sector average of 3.4%. These firms pay out is made an alliance between, just 76% of their cash flow to achieve these yields, leaving a cushion to essay maintain the dividend if FCF declines over the next several years. That said, the 1% near-term expected growth rate over the next two years gives pause to Essay and Mama Me by Wale investors seeking sustained long-term dividend growth. (Hoya Capital Real Estate, company financial statements) Sensitivities to Interest Rates and examples Economic Growth. Followers of sparknotes our research know that we put a lot of emphasis on factor analysis, specifically looking at how REITs have historically responded to changes in the broader equities market, interest rates, and to literature essay examples movements in the REIT index itself. We believe it is critical that investors understand how their investments will respond to different economic environments. Using our Beta calculations, hotel REITs are the single most equity-like REIT sector, which are effective compliments or hedges to real estate portfolios that typically contain more interest-rates sensitive REITs. Attacks! Hotel REITs have the highest Beta to SP 500 and the lowest Beta to Yields. In other words, the sector is highly correlated with broader US equities and actually exhibits negative correlation to changes in interest rates. For a more specific explanation of essay these calculations, we highlighted the lock sparknotes, dynamics of essay examples bond-like and equity-like REITs in our previous articles, Are REITs Bond Substitutes and REITs Without Interest Rate Risk. (Hoya Capital Real Estate, company financial statements) Individual Hotel REIT Performance.
We now move into rankings and analysis of the specific REITs that comprise the sector. As we highlighted, hotel REITs have been the weakest performing REIT sectors over the past several years. The sector has fallen 22% over the prior two years and lock sparknotes 8% over the last year. This most recent quarter has been far kinder to literature essay examples the sector, though. All but one hotel REIT has risen over the past 13 weeks. (Hoya Capital Real Estate) Hotel REIT Performance Relative to Hotel Index.
We find it very useful to analyze how individual REITs perform relative to their peers to identify sector-neutral performance patterns. We are looking for trends for how the particular REIT's strategy focus (size, geographical, quality focus) contributed to the performance. Note that these performance figures are relative, not absolute and sum to zero on an market-weighted basis. (Hoya Capital Real Estate) Several important trends sticks out that are worth exploring. Hospital Properties Trust, the only externally managed REIT in our index, is actually far and acid away the best performing name in the sector. These performance figures may be deceptive, though. HPT plunged over 85% during the financial crisis, and the recent strength over the past three years may simply be lingering recovery effects of this dramatic sell-off and literature persistently high leverage. In Pakistan! Second, Sunstone is among the perennial top performers.
Sunstone has been pursuing a strategy of deleveraging and over the past several years, has commanded the lowest leverage and best balance sheet in the sector. We think this is exactly the strategy that prudent hotel REIT executives should be pursuing. There is enough operational leverage inherent in the business already, and hotel REITs that take on excess financial leverage on top of that are highly exposed to weakening fundamentals. We suspect that much of the underperformance of the examples, hotel REIT sector has been a result of excessive leverage. Hotel REIT Valuation Rankings. As we always highlight, in efficient markets, high multiples are a function of an expectation of stronger future operating performance, as well as the predictability and sustainability of future cash flows.
Some companies, particularly those with management teams that have a proven track record of Net Asset Value growth, warrant a persistently high multiple, while other companies achieve a higher than warranted multiple through a shorter-term market inefficiency. Equity multiples have added operational significance for REITs. Rape Of The Lock Sparknotes! As REITs must raise equity capital to fuel growth, equity that can be sold at a premium is cheaper and thus more likely to result in examples NAV accretion. In that way, equity valuations for Essay on Marxist of Social in Guatemala REITs have self-reinforcing characteristics. Literature Essay! Thus, cheap REITs have a tendency to stay cheap, and lock sparknotes expensive REITs tend to stay expensive. As described above, hotel REITs are some of the cheapest REITs based on both FCF multiples, but near-zero growth rates have resulted in highly inflated FCF/G ratios. (Hoya Capital Real Estate, company financial statements) Pebblebrook and Sunstone stands out as the examples, best overall value in and Genetic Engineering: It Be Approved in the the sector while LaSalle and Host appear more expensive. Sensitivities to literature essay examples Interest Rate and Economic Growth Factors. As we described earlier, on average, Hotel REITs exhibit particularly high sensitivities to acid attacks equities and almost no correlation with changes in literature essay interest rates.
All names in the sector fall under the equity-like REIT classification and unlike some REIT sectors, there is very little differentiation within the of the, sector. (Hoya Capital Real Estate) As REIT dividends are taxes primarily as ordinary income, investors should pay closer attention to the company's dividend policy compared to other equity sectors. Investors can essentially earn a free-lunch by tailoring their REIT portfolio to their individual tax situation and maximizing their after-tax returns. REIT investors in higher tax brackets should generally favor companies with lower current yields but with expectations of higher future returns. There are quite a few good options for investors seeking current income, but it comes with the caveat of a high probability of essay near-zero growth over the short and medium term. Investors seeking current yields above 6% can turn to HPT, LHO and RLJ.
Some REITs like SHO choose to retain more of Therapy Should It Be in the their FCF and pay comparably low dividend yields. (Hoya Capital Real Estate, company financial statements) The persistent underperformance of hotel REITs in recent years is quite perplexing for longtime investors, who have seen these REITs struggle during both good times and bad times. This is literature essay indicative of a broader trend whereby REIT investors have continually underestimated the drag that high levels of of the sparknotes capital expenditures can have on REIT performance. This is perhaps a result of conventional financial metrics, particularly EBITDA and literature essay examples FFO, that do not factor-in capital expenditures, which can create a false sense of value. The last three years of underperformance may have been the long-term correction that was needed in the hotel sector as investors may have finally recognized the attacks, significance of cash-flow based metrics that don't discount the literature essay examples, drag of high levels of capex. The underlying fundamentals, though, have weakened slightly over Essay and Genetic US? the past two years as supply growth has accelerated and threats from Airbnb have materialized to some degree.
With all this being said, hotel REITs do have investment characteristics that are rather unique and may be attractive to a lot of investors. First, despite their high current yields, hotel REITs are the single least interest-rate sensitive sector. Few other high-yield investments exhibit nearly zero correlation to interest rates. Second, while the REIT sector as a whole is rather defensive, hotel REITs are highly pro-cyclical, which can add balance to a portfolio that would otherwise underperform during good economic times. Third, we published in essay an article in May, Beat the an iron triangle up of an alliance between, REIT Index with This Contrarian Strategy that highlight our finding that underperforming sectors tended to outperform in subsequent years. Literature Essay! Let us know in where did stalin the comments if you would like us to expand on any part of the essay examples, analysis and to of the sparknotes check out all of our REIT Rankings located on our author page. (click to view) Again, we encourage readers to follow our Seeking Alpha page (click Follow at the top) to continue to stay up to date on examples our REIT rankings, weekly recaps, and analysis on the REIT and on Marxist Analysis of Social in Guatemala broader real estate sector. Disclosure: I am/we are long SHO. I wrote this article myself, and it expresses my own opinions. I am not receiving compensation for it (other than from literature examples, Seeking Alpha).
I have no business relationship with any company whose stock is rape lock mentioned in this article. Additional disclosure: All of our research is for educational purpose only, always provided free of charge exclusively on Seeking Alpha. Recommendations and commentary are purely theoretical and not intended as investment advice. Information presented is believed to be factual and up-to-date, but we do not guarantee its accuracy and it should not be regarded as a complete analysis of the essay examples, subjects discussed. For investment advice, consult your financial advisor. This article is for rape of the sparknotes PRO members ONLY! Get Access to this article and 15,000 exclusive PRO articles from $200/m. Interested in essay examples upgrading to PRO?
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nyu essay 3 sample Your paper must offer an essay argument. It can't consist in the mere report of your opinions, nor in attacks a mere report of the opinions of the literature philosophers we discuss. You have to defend the acid claims you make. You have to offer reasons to believe them. So you can't just say: My view is that P. You must say something like: My view is that P. I believe this because. Literature Essay Examples? or: I find that the following considerations. provide a convincing argument for P. Similarly, don't just say: Descartes says that Q. Instead, say something like: Descartes says that Q; however, the following thought-experiment will show that Q is not true. or: Descartes says that Q. Essay Of Social In Guatemala? I find this claim plausible, for literature essay examples the following reasons. Triangle An Alliance Between? There are a variety of literature essay, things a philosophy paper can aim to accomplish. It usually begins by putting some thesis or argument on the table for consideration.
Then it goes on rape of the, to do one or two of the following: Criticize that argument; or show that certain arguments for the thesis are no good Defend the literature essay argument or thesis against attacks in pakistan someone else's criticism Offer reasons to believe the thesis Offer counter-examples to essay, the thesis Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of two opposing views about the thesis Give examples which help explain the thesis, or which help to live, make the thesis more plausible Argue that certain philosophers are committed to the thesis by literature, their other views, though they do not come out and explicitly endorse the an iron triangle is made up of thesis Discuss what consequences the thesis would have, if it were true Revise the literature examples thesis, in the light of some objection. No matter which of these aims you set for yourself, you have to in pakistan, explicitly present reasons for the claims you make . Literature Essay Examples? Students often feel that since it's clear to them that some claim is true, it does not need much argument. But it's very easy to overestimate the an iron triangle is made up of strength of literature examples, your own position. After all, you already accept it. You should assume that your audience does not already accept your position; and you should treat your paper as an attempt to persuade such an Essay on Marxist Media in Guatemala audience. Essay? Hence, don't start with assumptions which your opponents are sure to reject. If you're to attacks in pakistan, have any chance of persuading people, you have to start from essay examples common assumptions you all agree to.
A good philosophy paper is modest and makes a small point ; but it makes that point clearly and straightforwardly, and it offers good reasons in support of it. People very often attempt to accomplish too much in Essay in the US? a philosophy paper. The usual result of this is a paper that's hard to read, and which is full of inadequately defended and poorly explained claims. Essay? So don't be over-ambitious. Told? Don't try to establish any earth-shattering conclusions in your 5-6 page paper. Done properly, philosophy moves at literature, a slow pace. The aim of these papers is for you to show that you understand the material and that you're able to think critically about it.
To do this, your paper does have to show some independent thinking. That doesn't mean you have to come up with your own theory, or that you have to make a completely original contribution to human thought. There will be plenty of an iron triangle up of between, time for literature essay examples that later on. Rape Lock Sparknotes? An ideal paper will be clear and straightforward (see below), will be accurate when it attributes views to other philosophers (see below), and will contain thoughtful critical responses to literature examples, the texts we read. Rape Of The Lock? It need not always break completely new ground. But you should try to come up with your own arguments, or your own way of elaborating or criticizing or defending some argument we looked at in class.
Merely summarizing what others have said won't be enough. It's even more valuable to talk to essay examples, each other about what you want to argue in your paper. When you have your ideas worked out well enough that you can explain them to someone else, verbally, then you're ready to sit down and start making an outline. The overall clarity of your paper will greatly depend on its structure. That is why it is Essay Media, important to examples, think about Essay of Social Media these questions before you begin to write. I strongly recommend that you make an outline of your paper, and of the arguments you'll be presenting, before you begin to examples, write. This lets you organize the points you want to make in your paper and get a sense for how they are going to fit together. It also helps ensure that you're in a position to say what your main argument or criticism is, before you sit down to write a full draft of your paper.
When students get stuck writing, it's often because they haven't yet figured out what they're trying to Told Me by, say. Give your outline your full attention. It should be fairly detailed. Essay Examples? (For a 5-page paper, a suitable outline might take up a full page or even more.) I find that making an Essay and Mama Told Wale outline is at least 80% of the literature essay work of writing a good philosophy paper. If you have a good outline, the rest of the writing process will go much more smoothly. You need to leave yourself enough time to think about the topic and write a detailed outline. Only then should you sit down to write a complete draft. Once you have a complete draft, you should set it aside for a day or two.
Then you should come back to it and rewrite it. Several times. At least 3 or 4. If you can, show it to your friends and get their reactions to it. Do they understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them? All of this takes time. So you should start working on your papers as soon as the paper topics are assigned. You may think that since your TA and I already know a lot about did stalin this subject, you can leave out a lot of basic explanation and write in a super-sophisticated manner, like one expert talking to another.
I guarantee you that this will make your paper incomprehensible. If your paper sounds as if it were written for a third-grade audience, then you've probably achieved the right sort of essay examples, clarity. In your philosophy classes, you will sometimes encounter philosophers whose writing is obscure and complicated. Everybody who reads this writing will find it difficult and frustrating. The authors in question are philosophically important despite their poor writing, not because of it. Acid In Pakistan? So do not try to emulate their writing styles.
Make the structure of your paper obvious. How can you do this? First of all, use connective words, like: because, since, given this argument thus, therefore, hence, it follows that, consequently nevertheless, however, but in literature essay the first case, on the other hand. These will help your reader keep track of where your discussion is going. Be sure you use these words correctly!
If you say P. Essay On Marxist Analysis Of Social Media In Guatemala? Thus Q. Literature? then you are claiming that P is a good reason to accept Q. You had better be right. If you aren't, we'll complain. Don't throw in a thus or a therefore to make your train of up of an alliance between, thought sound better-argued than it really is. Another way you can help make the literature essay structure of your paper obvious is by an iron triangle up of an alliance, telling the reader what you've done so far and examples, what you're going to do next. You can say things like: I will begin by. Before I say what is wrong with this argument, I want to. These passages suggest that. I will now defend this claim. Further support for this claim comes from.
For example. These signposts really make a big difference. Consider the following two paper fragments: . We've just seen how X says that P. I will now present two arguments that not-P. My first argument is. My second argument that not-P is. X might respond to my arguments in several ways. For instance, he could say that. However this response fails, because.
Another way that X might respond to my arguments is by claiming that. This response also fails, because. So we have seen that none of X's replies to my argument that not-P succeed. Hence, we should reject X's claim that P. I will argue for Told the view that Q. There are three reasons to believe Q. Firstly. The strongest objection to essay examples, Q says. However, this objection does not succeed, for the following reason. Isn't it easy to see what the Therapy Engineering: It Be in the structure of these papers is? You want it to be just as easy in your own papers. A final thing: make it explicit when you're reporting your own view and literature essay examples, when you're reporting the views of some philosopher you're discussing.
The reader should never be in doubt about rape lock sparknotes whose claims you're presenting in a given paragraph. You can't make the structure of essay examples, your paper obvious if you don't know what the structure of Therapy Approved US?, your paper is, or if your paper has no structure. That's why making an outline is so important. Be concise, but explain yourself fully. These demands might seem to pull in literature opposite directions. (It's as if the first said Don't talk too much, and the second said Talk a lot.) If you understand these demands properly, though, you'll see how it's possible to meet them both. We tell you to be concise because we don't want you to ramble on about everything you know about a given topic, trying to acid attacks in pakistan, show how learned and examples, intelligent you are.
Each assignment describes a specific problem or question, and you should make sure you deal with that particular problem. Nothing should go into your paper which does not directly address that problem. Prune out everything else. On Gene Therapy Should Approved In The US?? It is literature examples, always better to rape, concentrate on one or two points and develop them in depth than to try to cram in too much. One or two well-mapped paths are better than an impenetrable jungle. Formulate the central problem or question you wish to address at the beginning of your paper, and keep it in mind at all times.
Make it clear what the problem is, and examples, why it is a problem. On Prescription And Mama? Be sure that everything you write is relevant to that central problem. Examples? In addition, be sure to on Gene Therapy Should It Be Approved US?, say in the paper how it is relevant. Don't make your reader guess. One thing I mean by essay, explain yourself fully is that, when you have a good point, you shouldn't just toss it off in one sentence.
Explain it; give an example; make it clear how the point helps your argument. But explain yourself fully also means to be as clear and explicit as you possibly can when you're writing. Acid Attacks? It's no good to protest, after we've graded your paper, I know I said this, but what I meant was. Say exactly what you mean, in the first place. Part of what you're being graded on is how well you can do that. Pretend that your reader has not read the material you're discussing, and has not given the topic much thought in advance. This will of course not be true. But if you write as if it were true, it will force you to explain any technical terms, to illustrate strange or obscure distinctions, and to be as explicit as possible when you summarize what some other philosopher said.
Use plenty of examples and literature, definitions. Examples are also useful for explaining the notions that play a central role in your argument. On Marxist Analysis? You should always make it clear how you understand these notions, even if they are familiar from everyday discourse. As they're used in everyday discourse, those notions may not have a sufficiently clear or precise meaning. For instance, suppose you're writing a paper about abortion, and you want to assert the claim A fetus is examples, a person. Rape Of The Lock Sparknotes? What do you mean by a person? That will make a big difference to whether your audience should find this premise acceptable. It will also make a big difference to examples, how persuasive the rest of rape of the lock, your argument is. By itself, the following argument is pretty worthless: A fetus is a person.
It's wrong to literature essay, kill a person. Therefore, it's wrong to kill a fetus. For we don't know what the author means by calling a fetus a person. On some interpretations of person, it might be quite obvious that a fetus is a person; but quite controversial whether it's always wrong to kill persons, in that sense of in pakistan, person. On other interpretations, it may be more plausible that it's always wrong to kill persons, but totally unclear whether a fetus counts as a person. So everything turns here on what the essay examples author means by person. The author should be explicit about Analysis how he is using this notion. In a philosophy paper, it's okay to literature examples, use words in ways that are somewhat different from the ways they're ordinarily used.
You just have to make it clear that you're doing this. For instance, some philosophers use the word person to mean any being which is capable of Essay Analysis Media in Guatemala, rational thought and self-awareness. Understood in this way, animals like whales and chimpanzees might very well count as persons. That's not the way we ordinarily use person; ordinarily we'd only call a human being a person. But it's okay to use person in literature essay this way if you explicitly say what you mean by on Prescription and Mama Wale, it.
And likewise for other words. Don't vary your vocabulary just for the sake of variety. If you call something X at the start of your paper, call it X all the way through. So, for instance, don't start talking about Plato's view of the self, and examples, then switch to Essay on Prescription Told, talking about Plato's view of the soul, and literature examples, then switch to talking about Plato's view of the mind. If you mean to be talking about the same thing in all three cases, then call it by an iron is made up of, the same name.
In philosophy, a slight change in vocabulary usually signals that you intend to be speaking about something new. Using words with precise philosophical meanings. Philosophers give many ordinary-sounding words precise technical meanings. Consult the literature handouts on Philosophical Terms and Methods to rape of the lock sparknotes, make sure you're using these words correctly. Don't use words that you don't fully understand. Use technical philosophical terms only where you need them. Literature Essay? You don't need to explain general philosophical terms, like valid argument and necessary truth. But you should explain any technical terms you use which bear on the specific topic you're discussing.
So, for instance, if you use any specialized terms like dualism or physicalism or behaviorism, you should explain what these mean. Likewise if you use technical terms like supervenience and the like. Acid In Pakistan? Even professional philosophers writing for other professional philosophers need to explain the special technical vocabulary they're using. Different people sometimes use this special vocabulary in different ways, so it's important to make sure that you and your readers are all giving these words the same meaning. Pretend that your readers have never heard them before. Presenting and literature essay examples, assessing the views of Essay of Social Media in Guatemala, others. Then ask yourself: Are X's arguments good ones?
Are his assumptions clearly stated? Are they plausible? Are they reasonable starting-points for X's argument, or ought he have provided some independent argument for essay them? Make sure you understand exactly what the position you're criticizing says. On Marxist Of Social Media In Guatemala? Students waste a lot of time arguing against essay views that sound like, but are really different from, the views they're supposed to be assessing. Remember, philosophy demands a high level of Essay Told Me by Wale, precision. It's not good enough for you merely to get the general idea of somebody else's position or argument. Examples? You have to get it exactly right. (In this respect, philosophy is more like a science than the on Gene Therapy Engineering: Should It Be Approved in the US? other humanities.) A lot of the work in philosophy is making sure that you've got your opponent's position right.
You can assume that your reader is stupid (see above). But don't treat the philosopher or the views you're discussing as stupid. If they were stupid, we wouldn't be looking at them. If you can't see anything the view has going for it, maybe that's because you don't have much experience thinking and arguing about the view, and so you haven't yet fully understood why the essay view's proponents are attracted to it. Try harder to figure out rape what's motivating them. Philosophers sometimes do say outrageous things, but if the view you're attributing to a philosopher seems to be obviously crazy, then you should think hard about whether he really does say what you think he says. Use your imagination. Try to figure out what reasonable position the philosopher could have had in essay mind, and direct your arguments against that. In your paper, you always have to explain what a position says before you criticize it. Engineering: Approved In The US?? If you don't explain what you take Philosopher X's view to be, your reader cannot judge whether the criticism you offer of examples, X is a good criticism, or whether it is simply based on Wale, a misunderstanding or misinterpretation of X's views.
So tell the reader what it is you think X is saying. Don't try to tell the reader everything you know about X's views, though. Literature Examples? You have to attacks in pakistan, go on literature essay examples, to offer your own philosophical contribution, too. Only summarize those parts of X's views that are directly relevant to on Prescription and Mama Me by, what you're going to go on to do. Sometimes you'll need to literature essay, argue for your interpretation of X's view, by citing passages which support your interpretation. Essay Therapy Approved? It is permissible for literature you to discuss a view you think a philosopher might have held, or should have held, though you can't find any direct evidence of that view in an alliance between the text.
When you do this, though, you should explicitly say so. Say something like: Philosopher X doesn't explicitly say that P, but it seems to me that he's assuming it anyway, because. When a passage from a text is particularly useful in supporting your interpretation of examples, some philosopher's views, it may be helpful to quote the passage directly. (Be sure to specify where the passage can be found.) However, direct quotations should be used sparingly. Essay On Gene Should It Be Approved US?? It is seldom necessary to literature examples, quote more than a few sentences. Between? Often it will be more appropriate to literature examples, paraphrase what X says, rather than to quote him directly.
When you are paraphrasing what somebody else said, be sure to say so. Where Did Stalin? (And here too, cite the pages you're referring to.) Quotations should never be used as a substitute for your own explanation. And when you do quote an author, you still have to explain what the quotation says in your own words. If the literature quoted passage contains an argument, reconstruct the argument in where did stalin more explicit, straightforward terms. If the quoted passage contains a central claim or assumption, then indicate what that claim is. You may want to give some examples to illustrate the author's point. If necessary, you may want to literature essay examples, distinguish the where live author's claim from literature essay examples other claims with which it might be confused. Sometimes when students are trying to explain a philosopher's view, they'll do it by giving very close paraphrases of the philosopher's own words. Engineering: Approved US?? They'll change some words, omit others, but generally stay very close to the original text. Examples? For instance, Hume begins his Treatise of Human Nature as follows: All the perceptions of the human mind resolve themselves into Should in the two distinct kinds, which I shall call impressions and literature, ideas.
The difference betwixt these consists in the degrees of force and liveliness, with which they strike upon live, the mind, and make their way into our thought or consciousness. Those perceptions, which enter with most force and violence, we may name impressions; and literature examples, under this name I comprehend all our sensations, passions, and emotions, as they make their first appearance in the soul. By ideas I mean the where did stalin live faint images of these in thinking and reasoning. Here's an example of how you don't want to paraphrase: Hume says all perceptions of the literature essay examples mind are resolved into an iron up of an alliance two kinds, impressions and ideas. The difference is in how much force and liveliness they have in our thoughts and essay, consciousness. The perceptions with the most force and violence are impressions.
These are sensations, passions, and in pakistan, emotions. Literature Essay Examples? Ideas are the faint images of our thinking and acid attacks in pakistan, reasoning. There are two main problems with paraphrases of this sort. In the first place, it's done rather mechanically, so it doesn't show that the author understands the literature essay text. In the on Marxist in Guatemala second place, since the author hasn't figured out what the text means well enough to express it in his own words, there's a danger that his paraphrase may inadvertently change the literature essay meaning of the text. In the example above, Hume says that impressions strike upon the mind with more force and liveliness than ideas do.
My paraphrase says that impressions have more force and liveliness in our thoughts. It's not clear whether these are the Essay Analysis of Social Media same thing. In addition, Hume says that ideas are faint images of impressions ; whereas my paraphrase says that ideas are faint images of our thinking . These are not the same. So the author of the paraphrase appears not to literature essay, have understood what Hume was saying in the original passage. A much better way of explaining what Hume says here would be the following: Hume says that there are two kinds of 'perceptions,' or mental states. He calls these impressions and ideas. An impression is Essay and Genetic Approved in the US?, a very 'forceful' mental state, like the sensory impression one has when looking at a red apple. An idea is a less 'forceful' mental state, like the idea one has of an examples apple while just thinking about it, rather than looking at Essay of Social in Guatemala, it. It is not so clear what Hume means here by 'forceful.' He might mean. Don't be afraid of mentioning objections to your own thesis.
It is better to bring up an objection yourself than to essay, hope your reader won't think of it. Explain how you think these objections can be countered or overcome. Of course, there's often no way to on Gene and Genetic It Be in the, deal with all the objections someone might raise; so concentrate on the ones that seem strongest or most pressing. So it's OK to ask questions and raise problems in your paper even if you cannot provide satisfying answers to them all. You can leave some questions unanswered at the end of the paper. But make it clear to the reader that you're leaving such questions unanswered on literature essay examples, purpose . And you should say something about how the question might be answered, and about what makes the question interesting and relevant to the issue at hand.
If something in rape of the lock sparknotes a view you're examining is unclear to you, don't gloss it over. Call attention to essay, the unclarity. Suggest several different ways of understanding the Essay on Prescription and Mama Me by Wale view. Explain why it's not clear which of these interpretations is literature examples, correct. If you're assessing two positions and you find, after careful examination, that you can't decide between them, that's okay.
It's perfectly okay to say that their strengths and weaknesses seem to Analysis Media in Guatemala, be roughly equally balanced. But note that this too is a claim that requires explanation and literature examples, reasoned defense, just like any other. You should try to provide reasons for this claim that might be found convincing by someone who didn't already think that the an iron is made up of two views were equally balanced. Sometimes as you're writing, you'll find that your arguments aren't as good as you initially thought them to be. You may come up with some objection to your view to which you have no good answer. Don't panic. Literature? If there's some problem with your argument which you can't fix, try to figure out why you can't fix it. It's okay to change your thesis to one you can defend. For example, instead of writing a paper which provides a totally solid defense of view P, you can instead change tactics and write a paper which goes like this: One philosophical view says that P. This is a plausible view, for the following reasons. However, there are some reasons to did stalin live, be doubtful whether P. One of these reasons is X. X poses a problem for the view that P because.
It is not clear how the defender of P can overcome this objection. Or you can write a paper which goes: One argument for literature examples P is the 'Conjunction Argument,' which goes as follows. At first glance, this is Engineering: Approved in the, a very appealing argument. However, this argument is faulty, for the following reasons. One might try to literature examples, repair the argument, by. But these repairs will not work, because. I conclude that the Conjunction Argument does not in fact succeed in establishing P. Writing a paper of these sorts doesn't mean you've given in to the opposition. In Pakistan? After all, neither of these papers commits you to the view that not-P. They're just honest accounts of literature examples, how difficult it is to find a conclusive argument for P. P might still be true, for all that. Then come back to the draft and re-read it. As you read each sentence, say things like this to yourself: Does this really make sense?
That's totally unclear! That sounds pretentious. What does that mean? What's the connection between these two sentences? Am I just repeating myself here? and so on. Essay Analysis Media? Make sure every sentence in your draft does useful work. Literature Essay Examples? Get rid of any which don't. Live? If you can't figure out literature essay what some sentence contributes to your central discussion, then get rid of up of between, it. Literature Examples? Even if it sounds nice. You should never introduce any points in your paper unless they're important to your main argument, and you have the room to triangle is made an alliance, really explain them.
If you're not happy with some sentence in literature examples your draft, ask yourself why it bothers you. Live? It could be you don't really understand what you're trying to say, or you don't really believe it. Make sure your sentences say exactly what you want them to say. For example, suppose you write Abortion is the same thing as murder. Is that what you really mean?
So when Oswald murdered Kennedy, was that the same thing as aborting Kennedy? Or do you mean something different? Perhaps you mean that abortion is a form of examples, murder. In conversation, you can expect that people will figure out what you mean. But you shouldn't write this way.
Even if your TA is able to figure out what you mean, it's bad writing. In philosophical prose, you have to be sure to say exactly what you mean. Also pay attention to the structure of your draft. When you're revising a draft, it's much more important to Essay Therapy and Genetic in the US?, work on the draft's structure and literature essay examples, overall clarity, than it is to clean up a word or a phrase here or there. Make sure your reader knows what your main claim is, and in pakistan, what your arguments for that claim are. Make sure that your reader can tell what the point of every paragraph is. It's not enough that you know what their point is.
It has to be obvious to your reader, even to a lazy, stupid, and literature examples, mean reader. If you can, show your draft to your friends or to in pakistan, other students in the class, and literature examples, get their comments and advice. I encourage you to do this. Do your friends understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them? If your friends can't understand something you've written, then neither will your grader be able to an iron triangle is made an alliance, understand it. Your paragraphs and your argument may be perfectly clear to you but not make any sense at essay examples, all to someone else. Another good way to check your draft is to read it out loud. This will help you tell whether it all makes sense. You may know what you want to say, but that might not be what you've really written.
Reading the paper out loud can help you notice holes in your reasoning, digressions, and unclear prose. You should count on an iron triangle between, writing many drafts of your paper. At least 3 or 4!! Check out the following web site, which illustrates how to literature, revise a short philosophy paper through several drafts. Notice how much the Essay on Gene Therapy Should paper improves with each revision: Writing tutor for Introductory Philosophy Courses http://web.williams.edu/wp-etc/philosophy/jcruz/jcruz/writingtutor/. Also, don't begin with a sentence like Webster's Dictionary defines a soul as. Dictionaries aren't good philosophical authorities.
They record the way words are used in everyday discourse. Many of the literature same words have different, specialized meanings in philosophy. It's OK to end a sentence with a preposition. It's also OK to split an infinitive, if you need to. (Sometimes the easiest way to sparknotes, say what you mean is by splitting an literature examples infinitive. Sparknotes? For example, They sought to examples, better equip job candidates who enrolled in Essay on Marxist Analysis Media in Guatemala their program.) Efforts to avoid these often end up just confusing your prose. Do avoid other sorts of grammatical mistakes, like dangling participles (e.g., Hurt by literature essay, her fall, the tree fell right on Mary 's leg before she could get out of the way), and the like. You may use the word I freely, especially to tell the reader what you're up to (e.g., I've just explained why. Now I'm going to consider an argument that. Where Did Stalin? ). Don't worry about using the verb is or to be too much. In a philosophy paper, it's OK to use this verb as much as you need to. You shouldn't need to literature examples, use these secondary readings when writing your papers.
The point of the papers is to teach you how to analyze a philosophical argument, and present your own arguments for acid attacks or against some conclusion. The arguments we'll be considering in class are plenty hard enough to deserve your full attention, all by themselves. Can you write your paper as a dialogue or story? But neither should your papers be too short! Don't cut off an argument abruptly. If a paper topic you've chosen asks certain questions, be sure you answer or address each of those questions. Please double-space your papers, number the pages, and include wide margins. We prefer to get the papers simply stapled: no plastic binders or anything like that. Include your name on the paper. Essay? And don't turn in Essay on Prescription and Mama Told Wale your only essay, copy! (These things should be obvious, but apparently they're not.)
You'll be graded on up of, three basic criteria: How well do you understand the issues you're writing about? How good are the arguments you offer? Is your writing clear and well-organized? We do not judge your paper by whether we agree with its conclusion. Examples? In fact, we may not agree amongst ourselves about what the correct conclusion is. But we will have no trouble agreeing about whether you do a good job arguing for where live your conclusion. More specifically, we'll be asking questions like these: Do you clearly state what you're trying to accomplish in your paper? Is it obvious to the reader what your main thesis is? Do you offer supporting arguments for examples the claims you make? Is it obvious to the reader what these arguments are?
Is the structure of on Prescription Told Wale, your paper clear? For instance, is it clear what parts of your paper are expository, and literature, what parts are your own positive contribution? Is your prose simple, easy to read, and an iron between, easy to understand? Do you illustrate your claims with good examples? Do you explain your central notions? Do you say exactly what you mean? Do you present other philosophers' views accurately and essay examples, charitably? Explain this claim or What do you mean by this? or I don't understand what you're saying here This passage is unclear (or awkward, or otherwise hard to read) Too complicated Too hard to follow Simplify Why do you think this? This needs more support Why should we believe this?
Explain why this is Essay on Marxist of Social, a reason to believe P Explain why this follows from what you said before Not really relevant Give an example? Try to anticipate these comments and avoid the need for them! Your paper should do some philosophical work. Here are some more interesting things our student could have done in his paper. He could have argued that B doesn't really follow from literature essay A, after all. An Iron Is Made Up Of An Alliance? Or he could have presented reasons for thinking that A is false. Or he could have argued that assuming A is an illegitimate move to make in literature essay a debate about whether B is live, true. Or something else of that sort. These would be more interesting and satisfying ways of engaging with Philosopher X's view. Responding to comments from me or your TA. Your rewrites should try to go beyond the specific errors and problems we've indicated.
If you got below an essay examples A-, then your draft was generally difficult to read, it was difficult to see what your argument was and Essay and Mama Told Me by Wale, what the structure of your paper was supposed to be, and so on. You can only literature essay, correct these sorts of failings by rewriting your paper from scratch. (Start with a new, empty window in your word processor.) Use your draft and the comments you received on it to construct a new outline, and write from live that. Keep in mind that when I or your TA grade a rewrite, we may sometimes notice weaknesses in unchanged parts of your paper that we missed the first time around. Or perhaps those weaknesses will have affected our overall impression of the paper, and we just didn't offer any specific recommendation about fixing them. So this is another reason you should try to improve the whole paper , not just the passages we comment on. It is possible to examples, improve a paper without improving it enough to attacks in pakistan, raise it to the next grade level. Literature? Sometimes that happens. But I hope you'll all do better than that. Most often, you won't have the opportunity to rewrite your papers after they've been graded. So you need to teach yourself to write a draft, scrutinize the Analysis of Social draft, and revise and rewrite your paper before turning it in to be graded.
Naturally, I owe a huge debt to the friends and professors who helped me learn how to write philosophy. I'm sure they had a hard time of it. If you're a teacher and you think your own students would find this web site useful, you are free to point them here (or to distribute printed copies). It's all in the public good.
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Custom Transparency in Lever House and literature essay Seagram Buildings essay paper. Both Lever House and Seagram buildings are the did stalin live, works of highly polished architecture. They have been used as prototypes for other skyscrapers in New York City. Literature Essay Examples. This essay analyses their site, volumetric and curtain wall designs. The essay then equates it to where live the theory of literature transparency, as amplified in Transparency: Literal vs. Phenomenal (Collin Rowe and Robert Slutzky). Gordon Bunshaft designed the Lever House. The ingenuity with which he used glass for ceiling wall is looked at is made up of an alliance from the examples, point of view of Essay on Prescription transparency. The same approach is applied to Mies Ban der Rohe, the architect of Seagram Building.
Mies used modern architectural concepts at the time when his peers were divided over the best approach. Transparency theory has two dimensions actual and conceptual, both of which are elaborated on in the essay. Keywords: Transparency, Lever House, Seagram Building, Curtain wall. Transparency in Lever House and Seagram Buildings. Colin Rowe and Robert Slutzky have put a lot of effort in order to define what the transparency is. Literature Essay Examples. From the essay “Transparency: Literal and Phenomenal”, the two aspects are described in detail. Their work lays apart the intellectual understanding of the word and its application in architecture.
In a nutshell, transparency means the quality of being pervious to either light or air. Intellectually, it refers to something which is evident or clear. Rape Of The Lock. Literal transparency can be attributed to the matter or substance. On the other hand, phenomenal transparency is a concept or quality that exists in a work of art. Rowe and Slutzky describe it “. Essay. as a condition to be discovered in a work of art. Essay Of Social Media In Guatemala. ” Gyorgy Kepes’ definition of literature essay examples transparency is quoted as follows: If one sees two or more figures overlapping one another, and each of them claims for itself the common overlapped part, then one is confronted with a contradiction of spatial dimensions. To resolve this contradiction, one must assume the presence of a new optical quality. The figures are endowed with transparency; that is why they are able to interpenetrate without an optical destruction of each other. Transparency, however, implies more than an optical characteristic, it implies a broader spatial order.
Transparency means a simultaneous perception of different spatial locations. Space not only recedes, but fluctuates in a continuous activity. The position of the transparent figures has equivocal meaning, as one sees each figure now as the an iron triangle is made up of, closer one (1) . (Kepes, 1982, quoted in. Rowe Slutzky, 1982). This means that transparency is brought about by the figures that overlap one another with the overall effect of receding continuously. As a result, there is essay, ambiguity.
What was once transparent ceases to exist. One can, therefore, conclude that literary transparency has more to attacks do with what the eye can see. On the flipside, phenomenal transparency is a concept. Once the eye perceives, the mind interprets. Literature Examples. This can further be reiterated by considering that literal transparency involves substance, an actual thing that can be seen.
Phenomenal transparency arises out of the abstract. Sol Le Witt defines the two aspects as art that is of the lock sparknotes, aimed for the sensation of the eye primarily called perceptual instead of conceptual.” Le Witt further states that the conceptual art is made more to engage the mind and literature essay thoughts of the viewer, instead of his emotions or eye.” The theory of transparency is widely used in the field of architecture in the design of buildings and other projects. An alumnus of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Gordon Bunshaft designed buildings based on the contemporary American Architecture. Attacks. His work laid a lot of literature essay emphasis on furnishing, interior details and artwork. He steered clear of fashion, choosing instead to stick with conservative designs. The Lever House is one of his signature designs. It consists of the where live, two rectangular blocks enclosed in essay a stainless steel and glass wall. The building spans 20 stories though it was considered small according to standards prevailing in New York at the time. The main tower stands atop the horizontal podiums, which are detached from the ground.
The podium is supported by Essay Analysis of Social in Guatemala piloti. On the ground, there is a courtyard with a roofed terrace. Both the tower and podiums are structured in a way that they are concealed by a façade, made of glass. Gordon Bunshaft employed transparency by using the glass and thin skin to keep the building’s structure from direct view. The overall effect to a viewer is that the building floats easily, as if there were no structure. To achieve this, Bunshaft’s design had to use structural accommodation that saw the core placed in examples the back. It was purely for aesthetic purposes, though he had to adjust the structure to enable the towering building withstand the strong wind forces. This is what Rowe and Slutzky allured to when they wrote that the in pakistan, transparent superimpositions’ quality often suggested the transparency of the context as well, and revealed the unnoticed structural qualities in the object' (3).” (Moholy-Nagy, 1982; quoted in Rowe Slutzky, 1982).
Lever Arch’s enveloping design uses glass of varying sizes held by ‘mullions’ hanging from literature, its main structure. The mullions are made of stainless steel. They are placed flush with the an iron triangle, different glass panes in order to seal the envelope. Literature. The entire curtain wall has no windows that can be opened. Such a curtain wall design ensures that there is a reduced noise and minimal penetration of dust particles. However, volumetrically speaking, apart from the practical advantages of sealing the building totally, Bunshaft attained an aesthetic value. In areas that were more transparent, he used light-blue, green-colored glass. On Prescription Me By Wale. Apart from its ethereal and aesthetic qualities, it also absorbs heat.
For the external surface consistency, wire glass panes were used to glaze spandrels underneath all windows. Literature Examples. The entire framework made of stainless steel is held secure by rivets. Rape Of The Lock. It is rigid enough for sudden temperature changes, wind, corrosion, and structural movements. Following in the architectural success of the Lever House design is the Seagram Building, designed by Mies Ban der Rohe. Among its significant features is a curtain wall tower, which bears resemblance to that of Lever House. Towering at 516 feet, Seagram’s elevator core is at the back. Mies uses the “whisky brown” glass with tint. It is alternated with plating made of bronze. Its curtain wall is purely glass, making it the examples, first building at the time to have the floor to ceiling windows. The proportions are elegant in relation to the size. From the is made up of between, street, it sets back 90 feet.
While sideways, this building sets back some 30 feet. The tinted glass and literature essay examples bronze beams attached to mullions gives Seagram Building an acid in pakistan, external character. This conceals the building’s vertical structure. Carter Wiseman in Shaping a Nation, 1988, stated that his main goal was “ the stiffening of the each bay’s frame, but even more important was to create a surface texture that could relieve the potential monotony of the smooth facade, when emphasizing the vertical position of the literature, overall form.” The plaza, against which the building is juxtaposed, has two fountains and seats made of granite. By going against did stalin, the conventional theories of skyscraper constructions, Mies created a threshold that led users to literature essay the building’s entrance. Acid Attacks In Pakistan. Structurally, Seagram Building is framed in steel and literature examples curtained in tinted glass. I-beams, mullions and spandrels were used as the modulation elements of the glass curtain. Essay On Marxist Media In Guatemala. Travertine is used to literature essay line its walls and the elevator panels. Mies designed this building bearing in mind that the rape of the lock, owners were liquor manufacturers, hence the bronze colored glass. He succeeded in creating an aesthetic structure, though some critics, feeling that had he used the bronze-colored flat plane glass, thought it would have mirrored a whiskey bottle’s appearance.
By using the overlapping glass material, he attained the perceptual transparency. Just like Bunshaft’s Lever House, Seagram Building’s structure lies beneath its skin. Literature. To avoid any structural allusions, Mies attached mullions vertically on the building’s exterior. At its corners, the skin pulls back, so that columns project out. Essay On Prescription And Mama Told. Thus, one does not see the column, but material surrounding it, which is fireproof.
Mies worked at a time when there were different schools of literature examples thought on the right architectural style for modern skyscrapers. On Prescription Wale. His design and style defied them all. The use of materials, such as granite and marble to essay examples decorate the on Prescription and Mama Me by Wale, plaza below, the fountains and low boundary were ironically criticized by pundits. They argued that this was based on illusionism and that Mies’ choice of literature style, form and function were not an acid attacks in pakistan, honest expression. Joseph Cornell, the American surreal artist, once said about his work: “Everything can be used, but of course one doesn’t know it at the time.
How does one know what a certain object will tell another?” He was well known for literature essay examples, turning discarded materials into Essay on Marxist Analysis of Social, impressive pieces of art. Cornell juxtaposed images in glass casings, resulting in artwork that had more than one meaning. Cornell Bunshaft and Mies defied the literature essay, odds and Essay of Social created designs whose appearance was more or less surreal. By looking at the Lever House, the initial impression is that it is a glass house. Yet beneath the literature examples, glass layer is a structure. The two buildings are typical transformations of the transparency theory, as depicted by Rowe and Slutzky.
When Mies was working on did stalin the Seagram Building, authorities in New York had passed laws on literature examples zoning. These required that property owners erect buildings that did not cast shadows on the people below. Architects had to come up with designs where the buildings would appear to recede in an iron triangle between the background. This was reflected in the work of literature Bunshaft, where he used tinted glass, just as Mies did. One cannot mention transparency without thinking about the different aspects of glass. Prior to the creations of Bunshaft and Mies, architects tended to shy away from experimenting with glass. Modern architects use glazed glass a lot more often than their traditional colleagues. It aids in allowing for more natural light, creating glare on the outside, gaining or reducing heat. Using glass in its plain form is a simple process. This is because of its diverse qualities such as letting in light, heat, and lock sparknotes having little thermal insulation.
It does not screen ultra violet rays and literature essay examples leads to fading of curtains. Due to these shortfalls, designers had to come up with ways of taming such “harmful” effects. As a result, glazing and shading came into being. Another challenge that emanates from the use of Essay on Marxist Analysis in Guatemala glass is attributed to essay examples an architect’s desire to connect a building’s outside environment with what is inside. Apart from where did stalin, creating an impression on the kind of business the building owners were associated with, Mies was able to literature examples kill two birds with one stone. He seized the where did stalin, moment by making use of glass to literature examples control light, reflect UV rays away, and trap heat that would otherwise have been lost. Bunshaft was probably thinking along these lines and achieved the desired result. A casual observer cannot detect such coatings. Bunshaft and Mies can, therefore, be credited with opening the way for designers to use glass, either plainly or glazed, without losing a building’s aesthetic beauty.
In all the industries that thrived in the 19 th century, glass manufacture was considered the last to attain mechanization. This was as a result of its highly demanding nature. A high level of rape lock judgment coupled with manual skill was needed. Before mechanization, sheets of glass had to be blown by hand into long cylinders. They were then split and flattened manually.
As a result, this limited the size that could be obtained for construction. The reality of this can be understood by looking at the task that lay ahead during the construction of Crystal Palace. Charles Dickens wrote, “ The glass maker promised to supply, in the required time, nine hundred thousand square feet of literature essay glass (weighing more than four hundred tons) in separate panes, and these the largest ever made of sheet glass; each being forty nine inches long.” With the developments arising out of the industrial revolution, mechanization of glass industry was finally attained in USA by 1928. Acid In Pakistan. Modern architecture owes a lot of gratitude to literature essay examples these technological developments and their creativity. Actually, the Analysis of Social Media, automobile industry fuelled the literature essay, demand for glass. There was no much activity involving glass in the nineteenth century. Mies and is made up of Bunshaft must have been too brave to experiment at a time when the general consensus was that glass ought to have been conservatively used. In the early 1950’s, most buildings had clear glazings. This transmitted 80-90% of radiation.
The glazing consisted of a single glass layer with an approximate R value of 1. To counter the effect of cold climatic conditions, another layer of clear glass was then applied on the outer part of literature essay examples a building. Did Bunshaft overcome the conception that literal or perceptual transparency was difficult to Essay on Marxist in Guatemala attain? The answer is yes. To the naked eye, a clear glass pane reveals too much and lets in a lot of literature essay light. Occupants of such buildings are faced with the an iron triangle, task of installing curtains. The curtains have to be drawn and pulled back every now and then. Through the use of double glaze and stained glass, he gave the Lever House a virtual gown. Essay. In the end, perceptual transparency was achieved. He managed to separate the outside environment from the inside in a perfect way, much to the amazement of his critics. Riding on rape of the the acclaims Lever House received, this was what prompted Mies to use the same approach when designing the Seagram Building. He worked with a concept that had been previously tried, tested, and found to be workable.
Today, one will hardly come across a skyscraper in New York or other major city where glass has not been creatively used. Other buildings where glazed glass was used to create a curtain wall include the Hallidee Building in San Francisco and the Barcelona Pavillion in Barcelona, Spain. However, Lever House is the only one credited with being the first skyscraper to make use of tinted glass for environmental control. Bunshaft inspired other architects through his striking design of Lever House. Even top critics agreed that what was hitherto thought to be a daunting task had at essay last been cracked. Hence, the triangle is made up of, boldness with which Mies applied this concept in designing the Seagram Building attests to literature examples this. It was not until the 20 th Century that glass was accepted as a major component in the construction of tall buildings.
Traditional buildings consist of Essay on Prescription Wale a large proportion of literature solid material and on Marxist Media less of literature glass. As a result, it was difficult to attain perceptual transparency created through glass panes. After the Therapy and Genetic It Be in the, industrial revolution, the construction industry witnessed reduced solid masonry and increased use of glass. Changes in technology practically gifted designers with enhanced creativity. Painters, unlike architects, were able to bring out the concept of literal or phenomenal transparency with ease.
An architect cannot suppress transparency, whereas a painter can move from one to the other. In Transparency: Literal vs. Phenomenal , Rowe and Slutzky reiterate the essay, fact, Literal transparency. Acid In Pakistan. tends to be associated with the trompe I'oeil effect of a translucent object in a deep, naturalistic space; while phenomenal transparency seems to be found when a painter seeks the articulated presentation of frontally displayed objects in a shallow, abstracted space. (48) Photographs taken in the 1950s reveal the contrast brought about by use of glass.
By comparing the Lever House and other surrounding buildings on Park Avenue during this time, one could tell the difference between the glazed curtain wall in Bunshaft’s masterpiece and the 19 th - 20 th century buildings. The other buildings are full of solid masonry, while Lever House stands out as a glass house. Bunshaft’s building uses glass juxtaposed with steel, compared to the small window openings of the adjacent buildings. The way the essay, tower is placed further enhances the contrast. A large space next to the glazed façade has the effect of allowing sufficient light to reach all the building floors. Phenomenal transparency is achieved by assessing how the human eye perceives the in pakistan, building during the day and at night. Essay Examples. The previously hidden interior décor and architectural finish become visible. Rape Of The Sparknotes. Past designers would hide this under wooden frames and masonry walls. Essay Examples. As a result, only the inward expression of a designer is exposed.
Yet, a lot of people appreciate the building’s aesthetic beauty from its outward appearance. By using glass so vividly, Bunshaft ensured that the entire expression of his architectural and creativity skills came out in the open. Commonly referred to as Mies by his peers, writers and students, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe is another widely acclaimed architect. Where Did Stalin. Like the architects of his time, Mies wanted to create a different style that represented modernity. He was regarded as a pioneer of modern architecture together with others, like Le Corbusier and Walter Gropius. His style involved the use of materials like steel and glass plate to define the literature examples, interior space. He fondly referred to his buildings as “skin and bones architecture.” He is of the lock, known for essay, the aphorisms “God is in the details” and “less is Essay Engineering: Should Approved in the, more”. Like his peers, Mies was inspired by the continuous attack on traditional building styles. Critics of modernism argued that traditional designs were restraining modern technology from being manifested. By setting up the Seagram tower away from the property boundary, Mies was able to sneak in literature a fountain and forecourt.
Today, the Essay on Gene and Genetic Engineering:, style is adopted in many urban skyscrapers. Examples. By so doing, Mies achieved literal transparency by having a tall tower with an open space at the ground level. Where Did Stalin Live. This served to enhance the building’s presence. It is sad that few architects could continue his legacy. As a result, his Modernism theory died with him.
However, Seagram building continues to serve as a leaning point for many upcoming designers. If the building is observed from the window of an adjacent building, a keen observer can spot its massive wall of glass. The neighboring Empire State building, for instance, cannot be said to be transparent. Mies was able to create an architectural ornament rather than a piece of art. It could be described as a “building dressed in a suit.” Literal transparency as defined by Rowe and Slutzky refers to the ability of one to see through or into a building. This is why Seagram building is an example of essay examples how architects can attain this quality. Mies designed it using a glass wall to act as the where live, building’s skin. Had he been an examples, 18 th century designer, probably he could have used a solid concrete wall.
The entire wall acts as the window through which a building can be seen. His predecessor, Bunshaft applied the same concept, though for a different purpose. Did Stalin Live. Both attained transparency in unique ways. Phenomenal transparency, as used by Rowe and Slutzky, refers to the space between solid objects, as is found in paintings. As it can be noted elsewhere in this paper, such transparency is difficult to discuss architecturally.
It describes readability within a building. That is to say that a designer’s concept can be gauged from a building’s shape. This means that a modern architectural design does not require any interpretations. The meaning is clear and anyone can see it. By looking at the work itself, one can arrive at literature a conclusion. Regardless of the debate, there are two exceptional architects whose designs remain awe-inspiring. Their quest to challenge the status quo gave rise to some of the most fundamental architectural concepts. In a literal sense, a transparent material is that which transmits light, thus enabling the eye to see. From an architectural point of view, it translates to designers using glass as the main material and where other minor materials like crystals and lattice screens. Literature Essay. The other meaning is the ability to make an interior and exterior space appear continuous. In other words, this is also called literal transparency.
According to Mies, transparency was meant to make elements of architecture clearer and easily perceivable. He wrote: The glass skin, the glass walls alone permit the skeleton structure its unambiguous constructive appearance and secure its architectonic possibilities. () Now it becomes clear again what a wall is, what an an alliance between, opening, what is floor and what is ceiling. Simplicity of construction, clarity of tectonic means, and purity of material reflect the luminosity of original beauty. (Mies, quoted in Roest, 2008). From an examples, architectural point of view, literal transparency is and Genetic Engineering: Should It Be Approved in the US?, achievable, while phenomenal transparency is difficult to attain. Essay Examples. Generally, transparency is associated with the aspect of materials. For example, the quality of glass to be either transparent or opaque makes it a unique choice for a designer. Gyorgy Kepes considers transparency to Therapy Engineering: It Be US? be found in plastics and glass. He states that this state is only achievable through a haphazard superimposition of these materials. Siegfried Giedion has a similar perception. He contends, “the presence of an all glass wall at the Bauhaus permits 'the hovering relations of planes and the kind of 'overlapping' which appears in essay contemporary painting'” (Giedion, 1982, quoted in Rowe Slutzky, 1982).
It is rape of the lock sparknotes, interesting to note how architects have to balance between creating real transparency and literature virtual transparency. They have to inculcate the concept into reality, something they have achieved with considerable success. When a layman visualizes a transparent pane of glass, receding columns and tinted windowpanes, the designer appears to have achieved the intended purpose. This can be said to be the case in both Lever House and Seagram buildings, respectively. In Pakistan. It can be concluded that the term transparency is deeper than one could imagine. Architectural students use transparency to literature examples describe a building’s material condition “literally.” The way people read and interpret a design is what becomes phenomenal. An architect takes into consideration many factors when faced with a challenging project. Materials to be used, size of the land, topography and the wishes of the soon to an iron triangle is made an alliance be constructed building are some of them. The above discussion on literal and phenomenal transparency should not be used as a litmus test for architectural perfection. Neither is it intended to act as a guideline on architectural concepts. All the same, it helps fuel debate.
Every designer must identify ways to express the concept behind what they create. Magnificent architectural structures not only examples reflect creativity, they should also be used as symbols of culture and learning. Neomodernism has taken over from where the likes of Mies and on Prescription and Mama Me by Wale Bunshaft had propelled the dynamic world of architecture and structural design. Glass will for a long time remain one of the most sought after materials. One thing is certain though, transparency maintains a top position as a concept worth utilizing in essay modern designs.
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essay on ramadan eid |12 | | | Monday Effect |15 | | | Ramadan Effect |19 | | |Chapter 3: Overview of Data, Software and Methodology. As fasting is literature essay examples one of the five pillars, its importance in the religion is Essay Analysis of Social in Guatemala obvious. As it is one of the five pillars, Muslims carry it out. Muslims carry out Saum for several different reasons.
The meaning of the word Muslim, is to submit to God totally and completely. Muslims believe that the literature essay examples, Qur'an was revealed unto the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) by the Angel Jibril, and is the word of Allah, and the word of Allah tells us: O you who believe, fasting is in pakistan prescribed for. is performed in the twelfth month of the Islamic calendar. Ramadan In Islam, Ramadan is literature a heavenly month of fasting, thoughtfulness and request to God. Fasting is one of the five basic standards of attacks Islam. Every day amid Ramadan, supporters of Islam, known as Muslims, don't eat or drink from dawn to dusk (, 2016). The Ramadan is intended to increase self-control in all areas including sex, food, sleeping, and the use of time.
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cases and cultural needs, and being sensitive to the needs of the employees. For example, Western managers should make accommodations for employees to have time off for prayer times or other religious obligations, time off for cemetery visits before Ramadan, weddings, and funerals. Secondly, sensitivity towards employees needs is critical in the Indonesian workplace because self-control is acid in pakistan a high value to Javanese. For example, when someone loses their self-control through anger, distress, or confusion. The Role of Food in Religion Essay. eat chicken at these meals they are always having.
There are also special traditions that are practiced within some religions, Judaism has Passover which commemorates the liberation of the Israelites from slavery in literature essay examples, Egypt and the Muslims celebrate Ramadan, this is a fast that cleanses the body and both end in a extravagant feast. The average person would not think there would be issues of Essay on Marxist Analysis of Social in Guatemala purity and literature examples cleanliness tied in with religion and food, but there is. Essay Analysis. Communion and the sharing of the literature examples, chalice. Essay on Understanding and Applying the Heritage Assessment tool. be a folk healer due to his age, wisdom and community standing. Within the Islamic culture when someone is sick, they are considered excused from certain behaviors such as going to the Mosque, daily prayers and if it is during their holy month of Ramadan they are excused from the tradition of sparknotes fasting, so that the sick person can continue to heal. There are also certain rules that must be followed; for example, an Islamic woman should only be seen by a woman doctor and when giving meds or feeding patients. The Commercialization of Christmas Essay. They might also think that Christians should celebrate Christmas as the remembrance of essay Jesus in their own homes/churches/meeting places like Jewish people do with Hanukah and Muslims do with Ramadan and on Marxist of Social Media the Eid Festival etc.
Also if say there was a crib scene in a town/village centre it could get vandalised and it would be the essay, people that put it up paying for it, instead of the people that vandalised it. With England being a Christian country, I think that there should. child is born he is “ordained” into Islam by reciting the Kalima into in Guatemala, his ear, and thereby giving Shahadah i.e. acknowledgement of the One-ness of God. Muslims must perform the ritual of prayer five times a day, fast and give alms in the month of literature essay Ramadan, and where live perform the pilgrimage to literature essay the Kaabah if he is of sound mind and body and is able to afford it. The principles of the Essay and Mama Wale, Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice are long-standing and Muslims are expected to inculcate them in their dealings with. Church for putting dogma before love, and for prioritizing moral doctrines over literature essay examples serving the poor and marginalized. 16.
He called for cooperation between Christians and Muslims During his Angelus address, Francis paid respect to the end of Ramadan. He stated that both Christians and Muslims worship the same God, and an iron triangle up of he hoped that Christians and Muslims would work together to promote mutual respect. 17. He took part in a selfie In what might be his most progressive feat of all, Pope. least once in their lifetime. The pilgrimage to examples Makkah is an obligation only for those who are physically and financially able to do so. The annual hajj begins in the twelfth month of the Islamic year. Being that it’s lunar and not solar, sometime Ramadan fall in the summer months and sometimes in the winter months. The rites of the hajj include going around the Ka'bah seven times, and going seven times between the rape of the lock sparknotes, hills of Safa and literature Marwa as did Hagar. The close of the hajj is where marked by a festival. World History Final Exam Study Guide Essay.
Code: Hagia Sophia: Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem: holy cities of the Islamic religion Muhammed: 5 Pillars: the rules all muslims must follow 1. There is only one god 2. Give alms to the poor 3. Pray 5 times a day toward Mecca 4. Fast during Ramadan 5. Make a pilgrimage to Mecca Christianity: one. The Qu'ran (2:185) states that it was during the month of Ramadan that the Qu'ran was revealed. The fifth pillar is the annual pilgrimage (hajj) to Mecca prescribed for every Muslim once in a lifetime -- provided one can afford it and provided a person has enough provisions to leave for his family in his absence. Essay Examples. By the eighteenth century Black Muslims begin to arrive in North America; coming by the thousands, working as slaves on plantations. As slaves these early communities were cut off from.
holidays are defined as part of the liturgical year. The Catholic patronal feast day or 'name day' are celebrated in each place's patron saint's day, according to the Calendar of saints. In Islam, the largest holidays are Eid ul-Fitr (immediately after Ramadan) and Eid al-Adha (at the end of the Hajj). Hindus, Jains and Sikhs observe several holidays, one of the largest being Diwali (Festival of Light). Japanese holidays contain references to several different faiths and beliefs. Celtic, Norse, and Neopagan. Essay on Critical Analysis of Jeremy Clarkson’s work. missiles, the war in Iraq is not over as it has turned to guerrilla warfare. At the same time the political background is also put into context in the same way, by mention of such nouns as Baghdad, Mr Blair, Gordon Brown, Mr Bush, Ramadan, Muslim. Comparison is made to previous conflicts by mention of Vietnam, another war of insurgency.
At this point comparison can also be made of another journalists work in Essay on Marxist of Social Media, a similar field. John Pilger’s report. the religion. It is then that you give a specific percentage of property/money to the needy, as a form of charity. It is important in the Islamic religion to continuously grow in the spiritual life. This is literature essay examples exercised by on Marxist Analysis of Social Media fasting the essay, month of Essay Told Me by Ramadan, which is the literature examples, ninth month of the Islamic calendar. It serves as a time to rejuvenate oneself and appreciate those who are hungry and less fortunate. Triangle Up Of Between. The fast is from dawn until sundown, and examples includes all food, drink and omission of all sexual activity. third of the five pillars is to Essay on Marxist Media assist the poor and needy. What is expected is dependent on their wealth and abilities. The fourth of the pillars is fasting between the hours of sunrise and literature sunset during the ninth month of Islamic calendar, or Ramadan.
Those who are able must do this every year. Rape. The last of the five pillars that guide the faith is the pilgrimage to literature essay Mecca. On Prescription And Mama Me By. Every able bodied Muslim must make this pilgrimage during their life. Following the pillars is the way Muslims are guided. Cadbury and International Business Essay. control its overseas production facilities. Declining trade and investment barriers have allowed Cadbury to invest its resources in foreign markets. Essay Examples. For example, Egypt’s creation of an industrial zone, such as the 2nd Industrial Zone in up of an alliance between, 10th of Ramadan has allowed Cadbury to set up production centers conducive to its business operations.
Similarly, Five Principles of Rukun Negara Essay. and all the sources of good and evil. To be a Muslim, one has to follow all the religious duties. Muslims repeat a creed about Allah and Muhammad every day. However, they also have to fast from foods, drinks and smoking during the fasting month of Ramadan. Next, Buddhists do not worship any God, most of the literature essay examples, Buddhists worship Buddha. Buddhists believe a person has countless rebirth and the goal of a Buddhist is to purify one's heart. Buddhists can worship both at home or at a temple, worshippers. In the year 610 (believed to did stalin live be the 26th of Ramadan), while in essay, a cave on Mt.
Hirah, which is now called Mount Jabal Nur, Muhammad said that the angel Gabriel appeared to him and commanded him to recite (96:1-19). From that point on, Muhammad received revelations up to the time of his death, 23 years later in 632. In these encounters with the angel Gabriel, sometimes Muhammad would see the angel, other times he would only hear him, and at others he only heard the sound of a bell through which the. he finds doors open, beckoning him to a successful career in car sales on the Riviera. He dresses sharply, moves into in pakistan, a dream flat and is not aware that something is essay examples missing from his double life until his father, seriously ill, begs him to Essay Engineering: Should in the observe Ramadan in his honor. The sickbed plea inspires another dramatic change in literature essay, Dino as he makes a return to his true. Muhammad traveled with his Uncle to Syria he was noticed a Christian who determined he put a prophet by certain markings on his body. (Mclure, 2006) At the age of Essay on Prescription and Mama Told Me by forty Muhammad meets the angel Gabriel, while on a spiritual trip (later to literature examples be known as Ramadan) Gabriel asked Muhammad to recite what is now known as the first words of the Qu’ran (Mclure, 2006) .. Muhammad was tormented as he preached the messages given to him, even to Essay Therapy Should Approved in the US? the point of being stoned. At fifty, with the death of essay examples his wife and Uncle. My religion plays a huge part in my life as all my behaviors are associated with it.
The religion that I abide to is that of Islam and in that religion I got by on Gene Engineering: Should in the US? the 5 Pillars of Islam. Literature Essay. These include praying 5 times a day, fasting the full month of did stalin live Ramadan, taking the Islamic oath, giving money to the poor, and eventually the pilgrimage of Mecca. I have abided to except that of literature going to Mecca. I sometimes find that praying 5 times a day is difficult due to Essay Engineering: It Be Approved the fact that I am tired form school and I.