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A Character Profile of Caliban in "The Tempest" - ThoughtCo
book report on lions Plugged In exists to shine a light on the world of popular entertainment while giving you and your family the caliban essential tools you need to understand, navigate and impact the elements of gothic culture in caliban which we live. Through reviews, articles and the marshall plan summary discussions, we want to spark intellectual thought, spiritual growth and a desire to follow the command of Colossians 2:8: See to it that no one takes you captive through hollow and deceptive philosophy, which depends on human tradition and the basic principles of this world rather than on Christ. Family uses Plugged In as a ‘significant compass’ I am at a loss for words to adequately express how much it means to my husband and me to know that there is an organization like Focus that is rooting for us. Just today I was reading Psalm 37 and thinking about how your ministry provides ways to 'dwell in the land and enjoy safe pasture.' We have two teenagers and an 8-year-old in our household. Plugged In has become a significant compass for our family. All three of our kids are dedicated to their walk with Christ but they still encounter challenges. Thanks for all of your research and persistence in helping us navigate through stormy waters. Plugged In helps college student stand-up for his belief. Thanks for the great job you do in posting movie and caliban tempest television reviews online. I’m a college freshman and I recently had a confrontational disagreement with my English professor regarding an R-rated film.
It is her favorite movie and she wanted to show it in class. Elements! I went to your Web site to research the film’s content. Tempest! Although I had not seen the Ideal in The and Antigone Essays movie myself, I was able to make an educated argument against it based on the concerns you outlined. The prof said that she was impressed by tempest my stand and decided to poll the whole class and give us a choice. We overwhelmingly voted to elements of gothic literature watch a G-rated movie instead! I’ve learned that I can trust your site and I will be using it a lot in the future.” Plugged In brings ‘Sanity and Order’ to Non-believer. “Even though I don’t consider myself a Christian, I find your Plugged In Web site useful and thought-provoking. No one reviews movies like you do. Instead of being judgmental, you put entertainment ‘on trial.’ After presenting the tempest evidence, you allow the symbolism of brown jury of your readers to decide for themselves what they should do.
In my opinion, you bring sanity and order to the wild world of modern day entertainment. Keep up the good work!” Mom thinks Plugged In is the ‘BEST Christian media review site’ Our family doesn't go to the movies until we go online and tempest check out your assessment of a given film. I think this is the BEST Christian media review website that I've found, and I recommend it to interacial 3 way my family and friends. Keep up the good work! Our hope is that whether you're a parent, youth leader or teen, the caliban information and tools at Plugged In will help you and your family make appropriate media decisions. We are privileged to shogun do the work we do, and are continually thankful for the generosity and support from you, our loyal readers, listeners and friends.
Lions at Lunchtime — Magic Tree House Series. This book has been reviewed by Focus on the Family’s marriage and parenting magazine. It is the 11th book in the Magic Tree House Series. As Jack and Annie walk home from the grocery store, they notice an animal that looks like a small deer. When they follow it, the deer leads them to the magic tree house. In the tree house, Morgan le Fay, an enchantress, gives them their third riddle to solve and a book entitled The Plains of Africa . Using the magic of the tree house, Annie wishes they could go to caliban Africa, and the tree house transports the children there.
In Africa, Jack and Annie admire the thousands of animals just outside the tree house. Annie sees a group of wildebeests trying to cross the river. They look nervous, and she wants to development plan help them. Jack stops her, saying they need to caliban tempest read Morgan's riddle. Features Of An Ideal Contrasted And Antigone! On this adventure, the children are looking for something gold, sweet and surrounded by tempest danger. With the riddle read, Annie is determined to help the wildebeests cross the river. Shogun Characters! While trying to caliban tempest help, she falls into a mud pit and begins to sink. Jack finds a branch, uses it to pull Annie to safety and then insists they clean up. Before they can, two hyenas approach them. Using the book Morgan gave them, the children discover that hyenas are cowards, and they scare the beasts away.
Jack and Annie head to a pond. They're about to clean up when an elephant emerges from the woods. Plan Summary! Annie wants to watch the elephant, but Jack wants to sneak away. He is about to leave his sister when the elephant starts giving her a shower with its trunk. Jack lets the elephant clean him, too. When they are done, Jack wants to talk about the riddle, but a bird distracts Annie.
She follows this bird called a honey guide into tempest, the forest and to a beehive. After learning from the book how to scatter the bees and knock down the beehive, the shogun characters children realize that honey is the answer to their riddle. As the children begin eating the honey, they notice they are not alone. A Masai warrior is tempest watching them. Jack had read that these warriors have fierce fighting skills and are normally the ones who knock down the beehives for honey. The children try to talk to him, but the warrior doesn't respond. Jack remembers the bread and 3 way peanut butter still in his backpack from the trip to the store at the beginning of the book. The children make a peanut butter and honey sandwich for the warrior as a peace offering because they have taken the honey. The warrior eats the sandwich and leaves.
With the answer to caliban their riddle, Jack and Annie head back to development the tree house. They find a pride of lions resting at the base of the tempest tree holding the tree house. Jack remembers reading that lions avoid giraffes, so Jack tells Annie to stand under a nearby giraffe. Annie says he is nuts, but Jack grabs her hand and Three Features Ideal Contrasted and Antigone pulls her over to the giraffe, and caliban tempest they stand underneath it. Of Brown! They move with the giraffe as it moves closer to the tree house. When they are close, Jack and Annie dash for the tree house. Tempest! They make it inside and travel back home. Jack and of brown Annie debate whether to tell their mother about the adventure in Africa. They know their mother won't believe them. They decide to give her vague answers to any questions she asks. The book ends with their mother asking them if they are ready for lunch.
The tree house is a magic place belonging to Morgan le Fay, an enchantress. Caliban! Jack and Annie can see the tree house, but others can't. Of Gothic Literature! Morgan le Fay's magic allows the tree house to transport the children through time and space to tempest the places they find in shogun characters the books that are in caliban the tree house. She is the tree house's owner. Self Plan! Jack and Annie see the deer as a sign that Morgan has returned. They follow it, and the deer leads them to the tree house. As the older sibling, Jack is in a place of authority. Caliban! Jack wants to solve Morgan's riddle and tries to keep Annie focused on their task. He follows her when she runs off so he can keep her out of shogun characters trouble. Jack and Annie's mother is caliban tempest discussed briefly in the final chapter but plays no major role in the story. Jack and Annie choose not to trust her with the details of their adventure.
Mild name-calling happens when Jack calls Annie crazy and nuts. Jack and Annie face hyenas and lions. One of the development lions tries to attack them when they are returning to the tree house (not graphic). Get free discussion questions for this book and others, at FocusOnTheFamily.com/discuss-books. You can request a review of a title you can't find at email@example.com. Book reviews cover the content, themes and tempest worldviews of fiction books, not their literary merit, and equip parents to decide whether a book is appropriate for their children. The inclusion of a book's review does not constitute an endorsement by Focus on the Family.
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Caliban in The Tempest - Shmoop
lorre powel resume Fondateur du scoutisme. Les débuts du scoutisme. Robert Stephenson Smyth BADEN-POWELL naquit en 1857 , il tait l'un des plus jeunes fils d'une famille de 14 enfants qui se trouva dans une situation difficile lorsque le pre , le rvrend H.G. Caliban Tempest. BADEN-POWELL, professeur OXFORD , mourut en 1860. Self Plan. Mrs Baden-Powell tait une femme trs remarquable , et elle accepta avec courage cette tache difficile qui consiste lever de nombreux enfants. Caliban Tempest. La premire ducation de ses enfants n'eut rien de guind , elle les encouragea passer beaucoup de temps dehors. C'est ainsi que B.P. Features Of An Ideal Contrasted In The Essays. fut marqu pour la vie par son amour de la nature sous toutes ses formes. En I870 , il entra comme boursier l'cole de CHATERHOUSE, ceci se passa deux ans avant que l'cole aille s'tablir hors de Londres. Caliban Tempest. Ainsi le jeune garon connut la vie fivreuse de la Cit , puis ensuite le calme et les aventures de la campagne . Summary. A GOLDAMING , il eut de nombreuses occasions de poursuivre ses explorations de la nature tout en se camouflant aux yeux de ses principaux ennemis : les Matres la recherche des candidats l'cole buissonnire . Caliban. En vacances, il campe et fait du canotage avec ses frres : l il trouve l'occasion de se trouver en face du danger et de s'y habituer , car ses frres taient pour le moins peu attirs par les mers calmes ! Plusieurs fois ils frlent la catastrophe , mais ce fut chaque fois une salutaire leon : Elle nous enseigna , en effet , nous soumettre une discipline stricte faire preuve d'adresse , conserver notre sang- froid au milieu du danger acqurir l'esprit d'quipe , chacun faisant de son mieux pour assurer la scurit des autres . A l'cole il tait trs populaire mais on shogun, le considrait un peu comme un original s il jouait notamment au thtre de l'cole beaucoup de succs . Tempest. Mais certainement il apprenait plus qu'on le souponnait car lorsqu'il passa son examen de l'Arme en I876 , il se classe second dans le groupe de Cavalerie et quatrime dans celui de l'infanterie . Of Gothic. Il fut nomm comme officier au 13me Hussards et rejoignit son rgiment LUCKNOW Il eut la chance d'avoir pour colonel Sir BAKER RUSSEL , officier trs simple qui attachait plus d'importance l'initiative chez un soldat qu' la connaissance du drill . Caliban Tempest. Ceci convenait trs bien notre jeune aspirant oui aurait souffert sous les ordres d'un chef trop rigide . C'est dans ces conditions-l qu'il apprend personnellement, ce qu'il appellera le mtier d'Eclaireur, et , l'art de conduire les hommes.
La chasse lui enseigne l'habilet , la ruse l'audace l'observation , il devient ainsi expert la chasse au sanglier d'ailleurs il considre le sanglier comme le roi de la jungle : Lorsqu'il vient boire au trou d'eau , tous les autres , y compris le tigre le buffle , et l'lphant quittent furtivement la place , cherchant se persuader qu'aprs tout ils n'ont pas grand soif ou qu'ils prfrent boire ailleurs . Summary. . Caliban. Il est courageux et rapide , rude et bon sauteur , est un adepte du franchissement . Shogun. Il est convaincu que les cultures indignes , melons , cannes sucre , crales , sont destines sa consommation personnelle , et donc , il y puise largement… Comme son revenu tait faible , B.P. Tempest. utilisait aussi sa plume comme crivain ou comme artiste. Symbolism. Ses meilleurs dessins sont peut-tre ses dessins d'animaux car il ne cessa jamais d'aimer les tudier et il se donna encore cette tche importante la fin de sa vie au KENYA . Caliban Tempest. De temps en temps il prouvait le besoin de s'loigner un peu de la civilisation et , avec un ou deux indignes , il partait dans la nature vers quelque coin peu frquent o il pouvait dessiner et observer dans la solitude . Self Development. C'est en autre ainsi qu'il posa les fondements de son extraordinaire connaissance de la nature mais aussi des habitudes et des mœurs des indignes. Aprs avoir quitt le Collge , B.P. Caliban Tempest. partit avec son rgiment pour l'AFGHANISTAN ; c'est l-bas qu'il entama sa carrire d'Eclaireur militaire ; il la poursuivit aux INDES , puis fut dsign pour une mission secrte et de haute importance dans le NATAL , la limite de la frontire avec les Boers . Symbolism Of Brown. Son but tait d'obtenir des renseignements prcis sur les passages possibles travers la chanes des Drakensberg , frontire entre les deux pays . Caliban Tempest. Pendant un mois il parcourut mille km cheval , rectifia la carte militaire qui lui servait de base dans sa recherche des points stratgiques . Of Brown. Son dguisement tait tellement bon , qu'en saluant son Major en passant dans une ville , celui-ci le prit pour un vagabond en qute d'aumnes et grogna furieusement Passez votre chemin . Tempest. Cette expdition lui permit aussi de faire la dcouverte des habitants boers et anglais , d'apprendre ce qu'ils pensaient les uns des autres et de l'avenir de leur pays . Three Of An Ruler In The Aenied Essays. De retour , il fit trois ans de service en Europe comme espion . Tempest. B.P. The Marshall Plan Summary. considrait que l'espion n'tait pas forcment l'individu bas et mprisable que le nom implique ; il est invariablement la fois courageux , dbrouillard et intelligent . Caliban Tempest. Aux DAMANELLES , il dcouvrit que les soi-disant nouveaux canons d'une puissance formidable installs par les Turcs pour garder le dtroit n'taient en fait que les mmes anciennes pices recouvertes d'une bche . The Marshall Summary. Dans un chantier naval il russit recueillir le maximum de renseignements , tout en semant les deux gardiens qui l'avaient repr . Tempest. En RUSSIE il chappa de peu cinq ans de prison sans procs en passant une semaine observer des manœuvres de nuit comportant d'intressantes expriences avec des projecteurs . En I887 , Baden-Powell est aide de camp l'Etat-Major de son oncle Sir Henry SMYTH au CAP (Afrique du Sud) . Interacial 3 Way. La premire anne fut paisible , par contre la rvolte des Zoulous donna lieu de trs pnibles combats ; B.P. Caliban. y fut promu Major . Elements Of Gothic. Les trois annes suivantes , il les consacra un poste de secrtaire militaire et d'officier du Service des Renseignements MALTE , travail qu'il jugea des plus intressants . De retour en Afrique du Sud , il participe la mission de pacification et de civilisation d'ASHANTI (I895). Caliban. Lors de la rvolte des MATABELES - guerriers zoulous devenus pillards - il fit preuve d'un extraordinaire mlange de courage et de prudence , de telle sorte que les Matabls l'appelrent IMPEESA (le loup qui ne dort jamais) , et qu'il fut nomm Colonel brevet. Development Plan. Son ascension dans la hirarchie militaire tant tellement rapide qu'il ne pouvait que continuer d'tre envoy aux quatre coins du monde afin de diriger telle ou telle mission. Tempest. Il fit donc un nouveau sjour aux INDES comme commandant du 5me dragons. Characters. Il fut plus spcialement confront l'art de conduire des hommes. Caliban. Ayant la responsabilit d'un corps de cavalerie , il s'attacha prparer d'abord les capacits de l'homme au lieu de s'en tenir la classique prparation du cheval et du matriel . Development Plan. Un homme ne peut tre bon cavalier que s'il aime sa monture . Tempest. Il ne peut tre bon soldat que s'il aime le service . Characters. De mme , un officier ne peut tre bon chef que s'il aime ses hommes ! . Le chef n'est pas le premier imbcile qui donne des ordres, mais celui qui est pass matre dans l'art de les mener . Tempest. B.P. Interacial 3 Way. applique donc son corps de soldats deux principes valeur ducative : - la RESPONSABILITE : il divise le rgiment en petites escouades , ce qui permettait aux jeunes officiers subalternes de prendre leur part de responsabilits. - la DISCIPLINE INTERIEURE , dveloppe au moyen de contacts individuels , personnels et amicaux avec chacun de ses hommes.
Par exemple , B.P. Caliban Tempest. a stopp l'entrite dans son rgiment en y crant une fabrique de sodas , une boulangerie , et une laiterie ; tout ceci tant bien entendu tenu par des soldats comptents . Interacial 3 Way. Ainsi ses hommes ne risquaient plus de contracter les germes de la maladie en se rendant dans les bazars indignes. Tu as du certainement entendre dire qu'on devrait avoir honte de se faire une gloire de prparer les hommes tre des meurtriers. Caliban Tempest. Baden-Powell l'a aussi entendu . Of Gothic Literature. Bien que les moyens , le champ , et l'esprit de la guerre aient nettement chang depuis , la rponse de B.P. Caliban. peut tre aussi exacte de nos jours . - la question comporte un autre ct . Plan. Lord Allenby a dit Ce ne sont pas les soldats qui font la guerre ce sont les politiciens : les soldats , eux , mettent fin la guerre . - part le sport , la camaraderie , la magie d'tre un pionnier qui va combattre dans des rgions recules de la terre , il y a pour l'officier un appel plus fort , une occasion merveilleuse d'instruire les milliers de jeunes qui passent par ses mains , en ayant en vue les besoins de la patrie . Caliban. Ainsi pour B.P. Of Brown. l'officier dispose d'un pouvoir rel ( comme le matre d'cole ou le prtre ) qui lui permet, s'il sait en faire un bon usage , de dvelopper parmi ses hommes les meilleurs attributs du bon citoyen. C'est comme cela que BADEN-FOWELL pourra TRANSFORMER CE QUI ETAIT UN ART D'APPRENDRE AUX HOMMES A FAIRE LA GUERRE EN UN ART D'APPRENDRE AUX GARCONS A FAIRE LA PAIX . En Juin I899 , B.P. Tempest. est charg de lever discrtement deux bataillons et d'organiser les forces de police sur la frontire Nord-Ouest de la Colonie du Cap afin de les prparer une ventuelle agression des Boers. Plan Summary. MAFEKING tait une petite ville dont l'importance dpassait celle de sa population et de son tendue : c'tait un centre commercial bien situ et il tait essentiel de le conserver afin de sauvegarder le prestige Britannique aux yeux des indignes . Caliban. C'est l que B..P. Elements Of Gothic. y installa les stocks qu'il recevait du CAP, et son rgiment tout entier . Les BOERS taient des colons Hollandais , qui quelques annes plus tt avaient migr massivement (10000 d'entre eux environ) de la Colonie Britannique du CAP vers l'intrieur du pays et mme form deux Etats indpendants i L'ORANGE et le TRANSVAAL . Tempest. Pour dfendre la frontire , B.P. Self Development. avait dispos , outre son rgiment Mafeking , un 25 km au Nord dans la Province du BECHUANALAND et un autre - recrut en RHODESIE - TULI , sur la principale route du TRANSVALL menant en RHODESIE . Le 11 Octobre I899 , clate la guerre . Tempest. Le 12 la ville est assige et ce jusqu'au I7 mai 1900 . The Marshall Summary. Il n'y avait aucune dfense naturelle c'tait le plein veldt (plateau steppique) . Tempest. MAFEKING comprenait la ville des colons aux toits de fer blanc dissmine en pleins champs o vivaient un millier d'hommes nouvellement arms et organiss , 600 femmes et enfants , et , la ville indigne constitue de huttes circulaires en pis rouge aux toits de chaume , abritant 7000 personnes . Ideal In The Aenied And Antigone. Un systme de tranches avec de petite forts fut rapidement construit autour de la ville , juste temps pour affronter les 10000 hommes du gnral CRONJE . Caliban. Devant le peu de dfense de la place , ce dernier jugea que la ville se rendrait trs vite et ne risqua pas la vie de ses hommes , il attendit la reddition oui ne vint jamais . A l'intrieur de la ville , B.P. The Marshall Plan. rendit la vie amusante, du moins pleine d'humour . Tempest. Pour prvenir les attaques nocturnes , il fit installer chaque fort des projecteurs , et , de temps en temps , passait un faisceau lumineux sur la rgion . Three Ruler Contrasted Aenied And Antigone Essays. Mais il y avait en fait un seul projecteur qui tait transport rapidement de place en place . Caliban. La nuit , B.P. Shogun. ne munissait d'un mgaphone et , s'approchant au plus prs des lignes ennemies , causait bien de l'moi aux sentinelles , grce ses dons de ventriloque imitant la voix d'un officier , il donnait l'ordre de se dplacer en silence, puis prenant le rle du sergent , il disait par exemple baonnette au canon ce qui ne manquait pas de provoquer un feu nourri de la part des Boers qui passaient des nuits agites alors que les Britanniques prenaient tout le repos dont ils avaient besoin . Au dpart les rserves taient assez importantes mais , peu peu , il fallut se rationner . Caliban. B.P. Development. avec son Etat-Major se contentait de rations infrieures celles des soldats pour juger par lui-mme de ce qu'il tait possible de donner au minimum . Caliban Tempest. Les chevaux puis les nes servirent au ravitaillement . Of Gothic. Rien n'tait perdu : crinires et queues remplissaient les oreillers et les matelas de l'hpital , les fers taient fondus pour en faire des obus, la chair transforme en saucisses , la peau , les sabots, et la tte en pt ou en soupe comme les os , qui , broys , taient ajouts la farine. Tempest. L'avoine des chevaux et mme la poudre de riz furent consomms B.P. 3 Way. dessina des billets de 10 Shillings pour payer ses hommes tous les mois, ils taient remboursables aprs le sige mais les gens les conservrent en souvenir . Tempest. Il fallut de mme imprimer des timbres-poste et, pour faire une surprise B.P., son Etat-Major y fit figurer son portrait . Self. B.P. Caliban. ravi mais gn fit remplacer son effigie par celle d'un garon bicyclette . Interacial 3 Way. On ne parlait pas encore de scouts mais seulement de cadets . Caliban. Le terme de scouts tant rserv aux claireurs militaires . 3 Way. Mais c'est bien MAFEKING que B.P. Caliban Tempest. dcouvrit le Scoutisme. Features Ideal Ruler Contrasted In The And Antigone Essays. Il avait remarqu qu'il tait possible de faire confiance de jeunes garons qui l'on donne des missions prcises . Caliban Tempest. Lord CECIL , chef d'Etat-Major, s'tait en effet charg de constituer un corps de cadets , il leur donna un chef en la personne du jeune GOODYEAR et leur permit de revtir l'uniforme militaire . Shogun Characters. Equips de bicyclettes , ils portaient le courrier l'intrieur de la ville et jusque dans les forts, ou bien , profitant du peu d'attention que l'on portait ces enfants , ils traversaient en civil les lignes ennemies et revenaient avec de nombreux renseignements sur leur position . C'est cette exprience oui donna B.P. Caliban. l'ide en particulier de fonder le Scoutisme , une fois la guerre termine . Le 12 mai , alors que les BOERS tentaient une attaque de la ville , qui fut d'ailleurs repousse , on of gothic literature, apprit qu'une colonne de secours tait en marche et , le 16 l'avant-garde rentrait dans la ville, le propre frre de B.P. Tempest. en faisant partie . Development. Le 17 mai la garnison de MAFEKING tait releve : la mission de B.P. Caliban. tait ralise , il avait retenu pendant 217 jours d'importantes forces Boers , permettant ainsi le dbarquement des forces Britanniques . B.P. Elements. continue sa carrire militaire , il doit former alors la POLICE SUD-AFRICAINE . Caliban Tempest. Il y applique la dcentralisation de la responsabilit . Elements Literature. Il se sert d'hommes jeunes , intelligents , capables d'initiative , non des anciens dont on tempest, avait fait des machines sans mes et incapables d'agir sans ordres directs . Plan. Il invente un uniforme qui restera clbre , trouve des chevaux forts au lieu d'attendre de recevoir des chevaux rduits l'tat de squelette aprs leurs longs voyages. Caliban. Une fois la guerre termine la nouvelle responsabilit de sa police fut de pacifier le territoire : tact fermet , justice , comprhension , charit , soins , tels furent les moyens pris par les hommes de B.P. Interacial 3 Way. pour cette mission de paix. En 1903 , B.P. Tempest. est nomme Inspecteur Gnral de la Cavalerie pour l'Angleterre et l'Irlande . Symbolism. Il s'applique transformer cette arme en y appliquant ses mthodes qui avaient dj fait leur preuves . Caliban Tempest. A la, fin de cette fonction B.P. Symbolism. est proche de la retraite et se consacre de plus en plus aux BOY-SCOUTS.
Aprs MAFEKING , beaucoup de garons lui crivirent en lui demandant des conseils . Tempest. Il fut surpris de voir , en rentrant en Angleterre , que son livre militaire Aide aux Eclaireurs (1899) servait dans les classes comme mthode d'observation et de dduction . Interacial 3 Way. B.P. Caliban. aida au dveloppement des BOYS BRIGADES en ajoutant quelques pratiques d'claireur au programme un peu terne de ces brigades . Self Development Plan. Le rsultat de tout ceci fut la publication d'Eclaireurs en numros 40c pice . Caliban. Le livre fut publi et plus d'un demi-million d'exemplaires vendue du vivant de B.P. Symbolism. en plus des traductions faites dans plusieurs langues. Caliban. (Avant d'adopter cette mthode aux besoins des garons , il fit un camp exprimental dans l'ILE DE BROWNSEA en I907 avec une vingtaine de garons venus des milieux les plus divers . The Marshall Summary. Les rsultats furent jugs excellents par lui et par les garons .) Pour raliser ECLAIREURS , expos de base du Scoutisme, B.P. Tempest. avait un plan en quatre parties. Le BUT est d'lever le niveau gnral de ceux qui seraient les citoyens de demain . Symbolism. Plus prcisment il donnera 5 BUTS ( SANTE , SENS DU CONCRET , PERSONNALITE , SERVICE et SENS DE DIEU ) Les activits reposent sur le principe du JEU EDUCATIF, de l'amusement qui amne insensiblement l'enfant s'instruire lui-mme. Caliban Tempest. LE CONTACT AVEC LA NATURE est ici essentiel . Les 10 articles de la LOI SCOUTE sont positifs , il n'y a pas d'interdictions et ils proposent une rgle de vie que le garon promet de mettre en pratique de son mieux dans sa propre vie lors de la PROMESSE. Plan. Ainsi B.P. Tempest. intgre son systme d'ducation sa dimension essentielle : LA RELIGION . Au dbut l'Organisation comprenait de simples Troupes d'Eclaireurs , (32 garons maximum) , subdivises en patrouilles de 8. The Marshall. Plus tard , pour des raisons psychologiques ils furent classs en 3 degrs : LOUVETEAUX (8-11) , ECLAIREURS (12-17) , ROUTIERS (17 et Plus) . Caliban. L'Uniforme ressembla beaucoup celui de la Police Sud Africaine . Shogun Characters. Il s'agissait pour B.P. Caliban. de s'habiller en hommes des bois et de symboliser la fraternit , car une fois adopt universellement il supprime toutes les barrires de classe et de frontire . Characters. Quant l'insigne du mouvement , il choisit la fleur de lis comme symbole de la puret et de la paix . Caliban. Mais la signification relle de l'emblme est qu'elle montre la bonne direction ( et le HAUT ) sans tourner droite ni gauche , ce qui serait revenir en arrire. LE DEVELOPPEMENT DU MOUVEMENT. En 1909 , B.P. Interacial. lana une invitation tous les Eclaireurs de se rassembler un certain jour au Palais de Cristal : il en vint 11000.
Baden-Powell dcrit alors le mouvement avant la guerre comme compos de jeunes gens d'un excellent esprit qui dsiraient ardemment mettre leur force au service de leur patrie A la Guerre de 1914 , le remplacement des chefs partis au front s'effectua bien. En 1919 , fut mis sur pied la branche des routier. Tempest. B.P. Characters. crit pour eux La route du Succs afin de les mettre en garde contre les cueils qu'ilss rencontreraient probablement dans leur vie. La mme anne il lance la Camp de formation des chefs de GILDELL (don du parc au Scoutisme par M. Tempest. de BOIS MAC-LAREN ) . Three Features Of An Ideal Ruler Contrasted In The Aenied. L de nombreux pays ont envoy des reprsentants pour recevoir l'enseignement de la mthode scoute , afin de devenir les organisateurs du mouvement scout chez eux . Caliban. C'est en grande partie cette cole et son programme que nos mthodes doivent d'avoir t si parfaitement comprises , non seulement dans tout le Royaume-Uni mais encore dans le monde entier . LE PREMIER JAMBOREE. En 1920 , la plupart des pays du monde civilis avaient adopt le Scoutisme. Plan. B.P. Caliban Tempest. se rendra mme aux INDES pour y tablir le mouvement. Elements. De cette internationalisation du Scoutisme nat l'ide des JAMBOREE - rassemblements internationaux tous les 4 ans ( le terme vient du mot qui veut dire ralliement en zoulou ) Le premier eut lieu LONDRES en 1920 , Puis COPENHAGUE, celui de 1929 BIRKENHEAD (prs de Liverpool) fut celui du 20me Anniversaire et runit 50000 scouts.
Ensuite il y eut ceux de GODOLLO (Hongrie) , VOGELENZANG(Pays-Bas) . Caliban. puis en 1947 celui de MOISSON en France et en 1951 BAD ISCHL en Autriche . En 1933 , le mouvement comptait environ 2.160.000 scouts rpartis dans 45 pays . Plan. Le GUIDISME s'tait dvelopp paralllement. LA FIN DE LA VIE DE BADEN-FOWELL. Pour se consacrer entirement son mouvement , B.P. Caliban Tempest. d dmissionner de l'Arme. Aenied. Ce fut une dcision trs dure prendre pour lui. Caliban. Il tait fier de son mtier ce fut un grand sacrifice que de quitter l'arme, ses joies et ses travaux : il aurait t certainement un des plus grands chefs de la Guerre de 1914-18 , mais d'un autre ct, il pouvait ainsi chapper aux prparatifs de cette Grande Guerre . Plan. Le roi EDOUARD VII fut trs intress par le mouvement scout et influena aussi la dcision de B.P. Lorsque le mouvement fut lanc, B.P. Tempest. avait prs de 50 ans et tout le monde pensait qu'il ferait un clibataire endurci . Elements Of Gothic Literature. Mais sur un bateau qui le menait aux Antilles il reconnu la mme dmarche qu'il avait observe 2 ans plus tt dans une caserne : c'tait celle d'une jeune femme qui rvlait en elle un esprit srieux et droit , beaucoup de bon sens et en mme temps le got de l'aventure . Caliban. C'tait Miss OLAVE SAINT CLAIR SOAMES, ils se marirent en 1912 . Elements. Il allait ainsi connatre la joie supplmentaire de la vie de famille . Caliban Tempest. Mais Miss Lady BADEN-POWELL devint de plus et trs vite une collaboratrice minente dans son travail scout et guide , et le succs du mouvement doit beaucoup son initiative et son inspiration. B.P. Symbolism. passa les dernires annes de sa vie au KENYA , dans cette Afrique qu'il aimait tant, il avait alors plus de 80 ans. Le fondateur est mort le 8 Janvier 1941 au pied du Kilimandjaro, charg d'honneurs et d'annes , mais son œuvre continuera forger des liens d'amiti entre tous les garons du monde. Tempest. Parmi les millions d'hommes qui s'taient tourne vers lui, sa mort causa une grande douleur mais l'espoir fut conserv que ce seuil a si solidement bti rsistera aux temptes de beaucoup de gnrations . LE DERNIER MESSAGE de LORD BADEN - POWELL. Si, par hasard, vous avez assist la reprsentation de Peter Pan, vous vous souviendrez que le chef des pirates tait toujours en train le prparer son dernier discours car il craignait fort que l'heure de sa mort venue, il n'eut plus le temps de le prononcer.
C'est peu prs la situation dans laquelle je me trouve, et bien que je ne sois pas sur le point de mourir, je sais que cela m'arrivera un de ces prochains jours et je dsire vous envoyer un mot d'adieu. Rappelez vous que c'est le dernier message que vous recevrez de moi, aussi mditez le. J'ai eu une vie trs heureuse et je voudrais qu'on puisse en dire autant de chacun de vous. Of Brown. Je crois que DIEU nous a place dans ce monde pour y tre heureux et pour y jouir de la vie. Tempest. Ce n'est ni la richesse, ni le succs, ni la satisfaction goste de nos apptits qui cre le bonheur. Self. Vous y arriverez tout d'abord en faisant de vous, ds l'enfance, des tres sains et forts qui pourront plus tard se rendre utiles et jouir ainsi de la vie lorsqu'ils seront des hommes. . Caliban Tempest. L'tude de la nature vous apprendra que DIEU a cr des choses belles et merveilleuses afin que vous en jouissiez.
Contentez vous de ce que vous avez et faites en le meilleur usage possible. Characters. Regardez le beau ct des choses plutt que le ct sombre. . Caliban. Mais le vritable chemin du bonheur est de donner celui-ci aux autres. Elements Literature. Essayez de quitter la terre en la laissant un peu meilleure que vous ne l'avez trouve et quand l'heure de la mort approchera, vous pourrez mourir heureux en pensant que vous n'avez pas perdu votre temps et que vous avez fait de votre mieux . . Caliban. Soyez toujours prte vivre heureux et mourir heureux. The Marshall Plan Summary. Soyez toujours fidles votre promesse d'claireur mme quand vous aurez cess d'tre un enfant - et que DIEU vous aide y parvenir !
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Introduction to Shakespeare s Caliban from The Tempest
300 Rationalism vs Empiricism Summary and History Essay. What is reality really like? A current running through much of the philosophical thinking around the time of Socrates and Plato was that there is a difference between how the world appears and caliban tempest how it is. Our senses reveal one layer of reality but it is literature our minds that penetrate deeper. Caliban Tempest! The world of appearances is a world in flux but underneath there must be a stable reality. For there is much that is unchanging.
We recognise kinds of things – badgers, daffodils, mountains – and whilst members of these kinds are born, change and die, and differ from one another in ever so many ways, the kind-defining essence doesn#8217;t change. Three Of An Essays! We see here the key rationalist idea that knowledge is a priori knowledge of necessary truths Plato said that kinds were defined by the transcendental forms. He presented a number of arguments for the existence of caliban these things. Prior to symbolism of brown our incarnation, our souls existed in the realm of forms where we learned about these essences. In our terrestrial state, we cannot recall what we know. Socrates considered himself a #8220;midwife to knowledge#8221; instead of a teacher, helping his interlocutors to draw out what they don#8217;t know that they know. The example of caliban tempest Meno and the slave-boy shows this idea clearly. Like many philosophers, Plato was also fascinated by mathematics. We are able to shogun characters tap into a universe of truths that are non-sensible: we do not see numbers and we do not see the caliban tempest perfect geometric forms. Once again, we see the difference between the powers of the mind and the powers of the senses.
It was in the 17th century that the debate between the 3 way rationalists and the empiricists came to a head. Philosophers such as Descartes and tempest Leibniz emphasised the power of reason over the senses. Descartes argued that our senses were fallible and that we could not rule out the possibility of the demon deception hypothesis on interacial 3 way the basis of sensory evidence alone. Descartes argued that he knew he existed, as a mind, on caliban tempest the basis of reflection alone: when I think, I cannot fail to be aware of myself as existing as that thinker (cogito, ergo sum). Having proved that he exists, Descartes argued that God exists. Since God is shogun characters no deceiver, he would not have given us senses that systematically mislead.
But let us not overemphasise the powers of the senses. Descartes argued that even with material things, it is reason that exposes their essences. In his piece of wax reasoning, he argued that the senses merely reveal a succession of impressions: it is caliban reason that grasps the underlying and enduring substance as extended (and filled space). Plato and Descartes believed that we are born with concepts and knowledge. In Descartes#8217; case, there was a religious motive: we are all born in the image of God. Ideal Ruler In The Aenied! We discover more about the world primarily through metaphysical reflection. The philosopher Francis Bacon, an early empiricist, famously dismissed this rationalist approach to knowledge. He compared rationalists to spiders who spin #8220;complex metaphysical systems out of their entrails#8221;. Empiricists get their hands dirty: like bees gathering pollen, they gather knowledge about the world and only then reflect on it. Around the same time as Bacon, many new discoveries were being made that shook the caliban tempest prevailing views of reality. The Earth was dethroned from its position at interacial the centre of the universe by Copernicus.
A new star (a supernova) was observed by Tycho Brahe in 1572 – yet the caliban tempest heavens were supposed to be timeless and unchanging. Galileo discovered the moons of Jupiter – again, everything clearly didn#8217;t revolve around the Earth. Later in plan the 17th century, scientist-philosophers such as Newton, Boyle, Gassendi and Huygens would revolutionise our understanding of reality. The original empiricist manifesto was written by John Locke. In his Essay Concerning Human Understanding, he sought to show how a mind that was blank at birth – a tabula rasa or blank slate – could come to be filled. His first targets were the caliban innate concepts and knowledge (#8216;ideas#8217;) of the rationalists. There are no such things. There are no truths everyone agrees on. Many people fail to grasp the supposed metaphysical truths. Instead, our senses deliver ideas to us.
We store them, abstract from plan summary them to form general ideas, and compound and mix them to generate new ideas. Like Lego bricks, we build the meagre sensory data into ever more complex structures. Even Leibniz thought Locke was onto something here. He claimed that our minds were like blocks of marble that had to be carefully chiselled at to reveal the hidden structure (the innate truths). It is hard work and not everyone will end up well-chiselled.
Hume took empiricism to its limit. Where Locke talked indifferently of ideas, Hume distinguished impressions and ideas. Impressions are the caliban tempest direct deliverances of the self development senses and are forceful and vivid in comparison to ideas, which are the copies our minds makes. Caliban! (He also agreed with the Empiricist Berkeley that Locke#8217;s theory of general ideas was wrong. We do not abstract from particular ideas to a general idea but use a particular idea in a general way via a general name. ) What about the precious necessary truths philosophy is symbolism supposed to study? Locke argued that once we have ideas in our mind, our mind will perceive the necessary connections between them – e. g. that a triangle has internal angles that add to 180o? But where does the idea of tempest necessity come from? Hume provided an answer. The Marshall! He distinguished statements into two categories: those expressing relations of ideas (analytic) and those expressing matters of fact (synthetic). Caliban Tempest! The analytic truths express mere definitions: we simply are aware of an association between terms.
The synthetic truths are the Features Ideal Aenied contingent truths. So what happens to interesting necessary truths, such as God exists or nothing exists without being caused to exist? Hume argued that if these weren#8217;t analytic – and they aren#8217;t – they aren#8217;t necessary. Tempest! We feel that they are necessary and of an Ideal Ruler in The Aenied this is all necessity is: a psychological property. Tempest! When we say that X caused Y, we think we have said something about the universe.
We think we have seen an example of a law of interacial 3 way nature (e. g. the water in the bucket froze because it was cold exemplifies the law water freezes at tempest 0oC). Science investigates these laws. Hume said that causation was #8220;all in the mind#8221;. We see one thing after another and when we#8217;ve seen instances of 3 way a regularity enough, we develop the feeling that one thing must be followed by the other. Hume, like Locke, emphasised how all we can be certain of are our impressions – how the world seems. Caliban Tempest! Scientists are really investigating how the world appears: they can never be certain that the world really is the way it appears.
So, empiricism seems to lead straight to scepticism about the external world. Kant objected strongly to this. Science really is studying the external world and there really is an external world for it to investigate. Kant brought about shogun characters a revolution in philosophy (he called it a #8220;Copernican revolution). He argued that the caliban empiricists and rationalists were both right and wrong. The Empiricists were right: science requires the study of the symbolism world and the world is brought to us via the senses. The Rationalists were right: our mind is not blank but contains structures that enable us to caliban interpret the self development plan stream of caliban data from the of an Ruler senses.
We may liken the mind to a mould and caliban the data to jelly: one only the marshall summary, has something structured by combining both. Caliban! Or: the mind is a computer with an operating system and the data is the input from the user. A computer with just an operating system is inert. A computer into self development plan which data is inputted but which has no operating system is just data: it cannot be interpreted. Only when you combine both do you get something useful. Our minds contain the #8220;structures#8221; for space, time, objects and causation, for example. (In Kant#8217;s terminology, space and time are the pure forms of caliban tempest intuition whereas the structures for objects and causation are pure concepts of the understanding. ) This means that we experience a world of spatio-temporally located objects in which causation happens because this is how our minds make it appear.
Does this mean that the summary world as such is #8220;all in caliban tempest the mind#8221;? Or is the mind somehow #8220;tuned#8221; to the structure of reality, so that our pre-programmed minds mirror the plan structures of reality? This is a very difficult question over which there is no agreement amongst experts. The Empiricist movement came back with a vengeance in the 20th century. Philosophers such as Bertrand Russell agreed with Hume that our knowledge begins with our knowledge of sense-data (classical empirical foundationalism). Armed with new discoveries in caliban tempest mathematics and logic, and backed by the successes of development science, the logical positivists argued that the tempest only proper way to investigate the world was the scientific way. If I say p and p is synthetic and there is no objective, scientific way to the marshall verify my claim that p, then my claim is caliban tempest meaningless. (This is the celebrated verification principle). So, if it is true that there atoms, we should be able to find empirical – sensory – evidence of them.
If it is true that nothing happens without being caused to happen, then we likewise need scientific evidence for this. Of Gothic Literature! We cannot discover whether it is true by pure reason. The Logical Positivist movement failed. There is much that seems meaningful that is caliban not objectively verifiable by the senses, such as the occurrence of private sensations. The principle makes it impossible for general claims such as #8220;all mammals are warm-blooded#8221; to be true, as we cannot verify all of plan summary them. The very verification principle itself fails its own test! The Logical Positivists responded by watering down their principle: a meaningful claim is one we could gather some evidence for in principle and the principle itself is special – exempt from this rule. But it was not enough. (* Then Quine argued that the caliban tempest fundamental division between analytic and synthetic sentences was incorrect. 3 Way! Analytic sentences cannot be false. But no sentence enjoys this privilege. As we learn more and more, truths we thought were beyond doubt are rejected.
Once upon caliban, a time, we would have thought it analytic that no object can be in two places at once or that there is no fastest velocity. Of Gothic Literature! Quantum physics and general relativity theory show that they are not true. Instead, we should have a #8220;web of belief#8221;. At the centre are those sentences least likely to be revised – our #8220;core beliefs#8221;. As we move out, we find those sentences that would be easier and easier to accept as false – that would cause less and less disruption to tempest the rest of what we believe. The Marshall Plan Summary! ) In the tempest 1950s, Chomsky became famous for suggesting that we are not born as blank slates when it comes to language. We are born knowing the shogun characters fundamental structures of human language. When we are young, we hear our mother tongue and use our knowledge of language to pick up our language very quickly. Tempest! (At 24 months, the average child understands 500-700 words; at 36 months, 1000; at 48 around 2500-3000; at 60 around 5000 words: that#8217;s around 7 words a day between 3 and 6). More recently, studies have shown that children are born with brains structured to #8220;expect#8221; the Three Ideal Contrasted world to behave in certain way. Caliban Tempest! Very young children expect objects to characters persist over time: not to disappear and reappear at two different places, for example.
Is this a revival of rationalism? Not according to many people. Rationalists argued that we had innate concepts and knowledge. Caliban Tempest! By reflection, we can discover them and manipulate them to gain new knowledge. Of Brown! But our #8220;knowledge of language#8221; is altogether different. None of caliban us can easily articulate the rules we follow in generating syntactically-correct English. (And certainly none of us at all can articulate the #8220;common structure rules#8221; to all human languages. ) Our brains are certainly pre-programmed, but only perhaps in the same way that a computer is pre-wired: clearly something has to be there but nothing as advanced as software. So where are we today?
No side is #8220;victorious#8221;: this would be to grossly over-simplify the debate between the empiricists and the rationalists. We definitely have minds in some way #8220;ready#8221; to receive the Ruler Aenied and Antigone Essays world – hardly surprising, perhaps, given the time it has taken for tempest, us to evolve. But when it comes to working out what is true? Few philosophers are rationalists in self development plan the old-fashioned way. There is no sharp division between metaphysics and science: our study of reality cannot be done from the armchair alone. But our capacity to caliban grasp abstract mathematical truths has always been difficult to explain from an empiricist perspective. We seem to have an access to plan a mathematical realm and a cognitive or intuitive access instead of a sensory one. You can#8217;t see numbers, after all, and it is not easy to say what we could #8220;see#8221; that would lead us to generate the ideas of numbers.
University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 3 November 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on 300 Rationalism vs Empiricism Summary and History. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.
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SparkNotes: The Tempest: Character List
cold skin essay IN WATCHING the flow of tempest, events over the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. Interacial 3 Way? The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the end of the Cold War, and the fact that peace seems to be breaking out in caliban tempest, many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is essential and what is contingent or accidental in world history, and are predictably superficial. If Mr. Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the rebirth of a new era of conflict. And yet, all of these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and order to the daily headlines. The Marshall Plan Summary? The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into a paroxysm of ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to lead to tempest the ultimate apocalypse of nuclear war.
But the century that began full of self-confidence in the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at its close to be returning full circle to where it started: not to an end of of gothic, ideology or a convergence between capitalism and socialism, as earlier predicted, but to an unabashed victory of economic and tempest political liberalism. The triumph of the West, of the Western idea , is evident first of all in development plan, the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to caliban tempest Western liberalism. In the past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in the intellectual climate of the world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of significant reform movements in Three Features of an Ruler in The Essays, both. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the peasants' markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened in the past year in Moscow, the Beethoven piped into Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran. What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the caliban tempest Cold War, or the interacial 3 way passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the caliban tempest end of history as such: that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the the marshall plan final form of human government.
This is not to say that there will no longer be events to fill the pages of Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the real or material world. But there are powerful reasons for caliban tempest, believing that it is the ideal that will govern the characters material world in the long run . To understand how this is so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the nature of caliban, historical change. THE NOTION of the end of history is not an original one. Symbolism? Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the direction of historical development was a purposeful one determined by the interplay of material forces, and would come to an end only with the achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. Caliban Tempest? But the concept of history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end was borrowed by Marx from his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel.
For better or worse, much of Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage. The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of consciousness on his path to the present, and that these stages corresponded to concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the self plan modern understanding of caliban, man. Hegel was the first philosopher to speak the language of modern social science, insofar as man for him was the product of his concrete historical and social environment and not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of more or less fixed natural attributes. Elements Literature? The mastery and transformation of man's natural environment through the application of science and technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one. Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in which a final, rational form of society and state became victorious. It is tempest Hegel's misfortune to be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and it is our misfortune that few of us are familiar with Hegel's work from direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. In France, however, there has been an Three of an in The, effort to save Hegel from his Marxist interpreters and to resurrect him as the caliban tempest philosopher who most correctly speaks to development our time. Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in Paris in caliban tempest, the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes . While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on the intellectual life of the continent.
Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on the Left and Raymond Aron on the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic categories from plan Hegel via Kojeve. Kojeve sought to resurrect the Hegel of the Phenomenology of Mind , the Hegel who proclaimed history to be at an end in caliban, 1806. For as early as this Hegel saw in Napoleon's defeat of the Prussian monarchy at the Battle of Jena the victory of the ideals of the French Revolution, and Features of an Ruler Aenied and Antigone Essays the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the principles of liberty and equality. Kojeve, far from rejecting Hegel in light of the turbulent events of the next century and caliban tempest a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct. The Battle of Jena marked the end of history because it was at that point that the vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the principles of the French Revolution. While there was considerable work to be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and the slave trade, extending the franchise to workers, women, blacks, and other racial minorities, etc. Three Of An Ruler Contrasted Aenied And Antigone? - the caliban basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon.
The two world wars in this century and their attendant revolutions and elements of gothic upheavals simply had the effect of caliban tempest, extending those principles spatially, such that the various provinces of human civilization were brought up to the level of its most advanced outposts, and of forcing those societies in symbolism, Europe and North America at the vanguard of civilization to implement their liberalism more fully. The state that emerges at the end of history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects through a system of law man's universal right to freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only caliban, with the consent of the governed. Elements? For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in the countries of postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the caliban tempest creation of the Common Market. But this was only to be expected. For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of contradictions: primitive man's quest for mutual recognition, the 3 way dialectic of the master and slave, the caliban tempest transformation and mastery of symbolism of brown, nature, the struggle for tempest, the universal recognition of rights, and the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist. But in the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. There is no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for generals or statesmen; what remains is primarily economic activity. And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching. Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the shogun characters war and spent the remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in caliban, the European Economic Community, until his death in Three Ideal Ruler and Antigone, 1968.
To his contemporaries at mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on the heels of World War II and at the very height of the Cold War. To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the meaning of Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the contradictions that drive history exist first of all in the realm of human consciousness, i.e. on caliban the level of ideas - not the trivial election year proposals of American politicians, but ideas in the sense of large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of ideology. Ideology in this sense is not restricted to the secular and explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the relationship between the ideal and the marshall summary the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the fact that for him the distinction between the two was only apparent. He did not believe that the real world conformed or could be made to conform to ideological preconceptions of philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on the ideal. Indeed, Hegel the tempest professor was temporarily thrown out of work as a result of a very material event, the Battle of plan, Jena. But while Hegel's writing and thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the material world, the hand on the trigger of the gun was motivated in caliban tempest, turn by the ideas of liberty and equality that had driven the French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and hence all human history, is rooted in a prior state of consciousness - an idea similar to the one expressed by 3 way, John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of men of affairs were usually derived from defunct economists and academic scribblers of earlier generations. This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits. And yet this realm of consciousness in tempest, the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the material world in its own image.
Consciousness is cause and not effect, and can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of current events is the history of ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of later thinkers. Marx reversed the priority of the real and plan the ideal completely, relegating the entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of production. Yet another unfortunate legacy of Marxism is our tendency to retreat into materialist or utilitarian explanations of political or historical phenomena, and our disinclination to caliban tempest believe in elements, the autonomous power of ideas. A recent example of this is Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and caliban tempest Fall of the Great Powers , which ascribes the decline of great powers to simple economic overextension. Symbolism? Obviously, this is true on some level: an empire whose economy is barely above the level of subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of caliban tempest, its GNP on summary defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in the realm of consciousness. The materialist bias of modern thought is characteristic not only of people on the Left who may be sympathetic to Marxism, but of many passionate anti-Marxists as well. Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism that discounts the caliban importance of ideology and culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. Plan Summary? It is precisely this kind of individual and his pursuit of material incentives that is posited as the basis for tempest, economic life as such in economic textbooks. One small example will illustrate the problematic character of the marshall plan summary, such materialist views. Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , by noting the different economic performance of Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and America, summed up in the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well.
Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per day found he could earn the same amount by working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income. Caliban? The choices of leisure over income, or of the self development militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the early capitalist entrepreneur over that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the impersonal working of material forces, but come preeminently out of the sphere of caliban, consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology. Elements Of Gothic Literature? And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to prove that contrary to Marx, the material mode of tempest, production, far from being the the marshall plan base, was itself a superstructure with roots in religion and culture, and caliban that to understand the emergence of modern capitalism and the profit motive one had to study their antecedents in the realm of the symbolism of brown spirit. As we look around the contemporary world, the poverty of materialist theories of economic development is all too apparent. Caliban Tempest? The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of interacial 3 way, Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the viability of caliban, free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to interacial 3 way pursue their material self-interest freely. Surely free markets and stable political systems are a necessary precondition to capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the cultural heritage of those Far Eastern societies, the ethic of work and saving and caliban family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on certain forms of economic behavior, and other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in explaining their economic performance. And yet the intellectual weight of materialism is such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is formed. FAILURE to Three Features of an Ideal in The Essays understand that the caliban roots of economic behavior lie in the realm of consciousness and culture leads to the common mistake of attributing material causes to phenomena that are essentially ideal in nature.
For example, it is commonplace in the West to interpret the reform movements first in development, China and most recently in the Soviet Union as the victory of the material over the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and that if one wanted to prosper one had to appeal to baser forms of self-interest. But the deep defects of socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to anyone who chose to look. Why was it that these countries moved away from central planning only in the 1980s' The answer must be found in the consciousness of the elites and caliban tempest leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for the Protestant life of wealth and risk over the Catholic path of poverty and security. That change was in no way made inevitable by the marshall plan, the material conditions in which either country found itself on the eve of the reform, but instead came about as the result of the tempest victory of one idea over another. For Kojeve, as for the marshall plan summary, all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of history requires understanding developments in the realm of consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the material world in its own image. To say that history ended in caliban, 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in shogun, the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in caliban, the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is absolute and plan summary could not be improved upon. Hence it did not matter to Kojeve that the consciousness of the caliban tempest postwar generation of Europeans had not been universalized throughout the world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the ability to defend in depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective.
The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the problematic nature of many materialist explanations we often take for granted. This is interacial not to deny the role of material factors as such. To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of their relationship to the material world. And in caliban tempest, fact men have proven themselves able to endure the most extreme material hardships in the name of ideas that exist in 3 way, the realm of the spirit alone, be it the caliban divinity of cows or the nature of the Holy Trinity. But while man's very perception of the material world is the marshall plan shaped by his historical consciousness of caliban tempest, it, the shogun material world can clearly affect in return the viability of caliban, a particular state of consciousness. Literature? In particular, the spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by tempest, them seem to both foster and preserve liberalism in the political sphere. I want to avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of consciousness that makes them possible.
But that state of consciousness that permits the 3 way growth of liberalism seems to stabilize in caliban tempest, the way one would expect at shogun characters the end of history if it is underwritten by caliban, the abundance of a modern free market economy. Self Development? We might summarize the content of the universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and caliban stereos in plan, the economic. HAVE WE in fact reached the end of history? Are there, in caliban, other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in the context of modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by interacial 3 way, an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the idealist premises laid out above, we must seek an answer to this question in the realm of ideology and tempest consciousness. Our task is not to answer exhaustively the challenges to liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the world, but only those that are embodied in important social or political forces and movements, and which are therefore part of world history.
For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for we are interested in characters, what one could in some sense call the caliban tempest common ideological heritage of interacial, mankind. In the past century, there have been two major challenges to liberalism, those of fascism and of communism. The former saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of community of the West as fundamental contradictions in liberal societies that could only be resolved by a strong state that forged a new people on the basis of national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II. This was a defeat, of tempest, course, on a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the idea as well. What destroyed fascism as an idea was not universal moral revulsion against symbolism of brown it, since plenty of people were willing to endorse the idea as long as it seemed the wave of the future, but its lack of success. Tempest? After the war, it seemed to most people that German fascism as well as its other European and Asian variants were bound to self-destruct. There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the war in other locales, but for the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal.
The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of consciousness as well as materially, and elements of gothic all of the pro-fascist movements spawned by the German and Japanese examples like the tempest Peronist movement in Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war. The ideological challenge mounted by the other great alternative to liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and labor, and this contradiction has constituted the chief accusation against the marshall plan liberalism ever since. But surely, the class issue has actually been successfully resolved in caliban tempest, the West. As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of modern America represents the characters essential achievement of the caliban classless society envisioned by Marx. This is not to say that there are not rich people and poor people in the United States, or that the gap between them has not grown in recent years. But the root causes of economic inequality do not have to interacial do with the underlying legal and social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the cultural and social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in turn the historical legacy of premodern conditions. Thus black poverty in the United States is not the inherent product of liberalism, but is rather the caliban tempest legacy of slavery and racism which persisted long after the self formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the receding of the tempest class issue, the appeal of communism in the developed Western world, it is safe to say, is lower today than any time since the end of the First World War. This can he measured in any number of ways: in the declining membership and electoral pull of the major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in the corresponding electoral success of conservative parties from Britain and Germany to the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and anti-statist; and in summary, an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is something that ultimately needs to be overcome.
This is not to say that the opinions of progressive intellectuals in Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of ways. But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to the real political discourse of their societies. 0NE MAY argue that the socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for the last several decades primarily by its success outside of this region. But it is precisely in the non-European world that one is most struck by the occurrence of major ideological transformations. Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia. Tempest? Due to the strength and adaptability of the indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for a variety of imported Western ideologies early in this century. Liberalism in Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is the marshall plan summary easy today to caliban tempest forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago. It is interacial easy to forget as well how momentous the outcome of Asian ideological struggles seemed for world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to liberalism to be decisively defeated was the fascist one represented by Imperial Japan. Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by the force of American arms in tempest, the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by shogun characters, a victorious United States.
Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to Japan were adapted and transformed by the Japanese in such a way as to be scarcely recognizable. Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is very different from that prevailing in the United States or Europe, and it is questionable what relationship the factional maneuvering that takes place with the governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy. Nonetheless, the very fact that the essential elements of economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto uniquely Japanese traditions and institutions guarantees their survival in the long run. More important is the contribution that Japan has made in turn to caliban world history by following in Three Ideal Ruler in The Aenied and Antigone, the footsteps of the United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and an underpinning of the universal homogenous state. V.S. Naipaul traveling in Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the omnipresent signs advertising the products of Sony, Hitachi, and JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and gave the lie to the regime's pretensions of restoring a state based on tempest the rule of the Shariah . Desire for access to of brown the consumer culture, created in large measure by caliban, Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the spread of economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in promoting political liberalism as well. The economic success of the other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in Asia following on the example of plan, Japan is by now a familiar story. What is important from a Hegelian standpoint is that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability. Here again we see the caliban victory of the idea of the universal homogenous state. South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an increasingly large and well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the of an Ideal in The and Antigone larger democratic trends around them. Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to caliban tempest a large part of shogun, this population that it should be ruled by an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only tempest, a decade or so ahead in elements of gothic, economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for over forty years.
Even the caliban tempest former socialist regime in literature, Burma, which for so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the tempest larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in the past year by pressures to liberalize both its economy and political system. It is elements literature said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to Singapore for medical treatment and broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by tempest, its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the largest and oldest culture in Asia, China. The simple existence of communist China created an alternative pole of ideological attraction, and as such constituted a threat to liberalism. But the past fifteen years have seen an almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system. Beginning with the famous third plenum of the literature Tenth Central Committee in 1978, the Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for caliban tempest, the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. The role of the state in agriculture was reduced to that of a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in Three Ideal Aenied and Antigone Essays, order to give peasants a taste of the tempest universal homogenous state and thereby an incentive to work.
The reform doubled Chinese grain output in Three Contrasted in The Aenied, only five years, and in the process created for Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from which he was able to tempest extend the reform to other parts of the economy. Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in China since the reform began. China could not now be described in interacial, any way as a liberal democracy. At present, no more than 20 percent of its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to be ruled by a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to devolve power. Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the political system and there is no Chinese equivalent of tempest, glasnost. 3 Way? The Chinese leadership has in fact been much more circumspect in criticizing Mao and Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to Brezhnev and caliban Stalin, and literature the regime continues to pay lip service to Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning. But anyone familiar with the outlook and behavior of the new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to policy, and that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for the first time since the revolution. The various slowdowns in the pace of reform, the campaigns against spiritual pollution and crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of managing what is an extraordinarily difficult political transition.
By ducking the question of political reform while putting the economy on a new footing, Deng has managed to caliban avoid the breakdown of authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Yet the pull of the liberal idea continues to be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to the outside world. There are currently over 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and other Western countries, almost all of them the children of the Chinese elite. It is hard to believe that when they return home to run the country they will be content for Three Features of an Contrasted Aenied Essays, China to be the only country in Asia unaffected by the larger democratizing trend. The student demonstrations in Beijing that broke out first in December 1986 and recurred recently on the occasion of Hu Yao-bang's death were only the beginning of caliban tempest, what will inevitably be mounting pressure for interacial 3 way, change in tempest, the political system as well. What is important about China from the characters standpoint of world history is not the present state of the reform or even its future prospects. The central issue is the fact that the People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the tempest world, whether they be guerrillas in some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Maoism, rather than being the pattern for Asia's future, became an anachronism, and it was the mainland Chinese who in fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the ironic ultimate victory of of brown, Taiwan.
Important as these changes in caliban, China have been, however, it is developments in the Soviet Union - the development plan original homeland of the world proletariat - that have put the final nail in the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. It should be clear that in caliban, terms of formal institutions, not much has changed in the four years since Gorbachev has come to shogun characters power: free markets and the cooperative movement represent only a small part of the caliban tempest Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is still dominated by the Communist party, which has only begun to democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the regime continues to symbolism of brown assert that it is seeking only to modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the changes that have taken place to date. Caliban Tempest? Moreover, it is hard to be too sanguine about the chances for success of Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in the sphere of economics or politics. But my purpose here is not to elements of gothic literature analyze events in the short-term, or to make predictions for policy purposes, but to look at underlying trends in the sphere of ideology and consciousness. Caliban? And in that respect, it is clear that an astounding transformation has occurred.
Emigres from the Soviet Union have been reporting for at least the symbolism of brown last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. The corruption and decadence of the late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to caliban matter little, however, for as long as the state itself refused to interacial 3 way throw into caliban, question any of the shogun characters fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of functioning adequately out of sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in the realm of caliban tempest, foreign and defense policy. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and devoid of meaning, was the only common basis on which the shogun characters elite could agree to rule Soviet society. WHAT HAS happened in the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and principles of tempest, Stalinism, and their replacement by other principles which do not amount to liberalism per se but whose only elements literature, connecting thread is liberalism. This is most evident in the economic sphere, where the reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in their support for caliban tempest, free markets, to the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in public to the marshall plan summary Milton Friedman. There is a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of caliban tempest, Soviet economists now that central planning and the command system of allocation are the characters root cause of economic inefficiency, and that if the caliban tempest Soviet system is ever to heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to investment, labor, and prices. After a couple of initial years of 3 way, ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into policy with the caliban promulgation of Features of an Ideal in The Aenied and Antigone, new laws on enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and finally in 1988 on lease arrangements and caliban tempest family farming.
There are, of course, a number of fatal flaws in the current implementation of the reform, most notably the absence of a thoroughgoing price reform. Of Brown? But the problem is caliban tempest no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and his lieutenants seem to understand the economic logic of marketization well enough, but like the leaders of a Third World country facing the Ideal Ruler in The IMF, are afraid of the social consequences of ending consumer subsidies and other forms of dependence on the state sector. In the political sphere, the caliban proposed changes to the Soviet constitution, legal system, and Contrasted in The Aenied party rules amount to much less than the establishment of caliban, a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in of brown, the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of ending the Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to tempest legitimize and interacial therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule. Nonetheless, the general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for caliban tempest, their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to Features Ideal Ruler Aenied and Antigone Essays lower ones, and not vice versa, that the rule of caliban, law should prevail over arbitrary police actions, with separation of powers and an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the need for open discussion of public issues and the right of public dissent, the empowering of the of gothic literature Soviets as a forum in caliban, which the whole Soviet people can participate, and characters of a political culture that is caliban tempest more tolerant and pluralistic - come from a source fundamentally alien to the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in literature, practice. Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is doing no more than trying to restore the original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of Orwellian doublespeak. Caliban Tempest? Gorbachev and his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the essence of Leninism, and that the various lib era1 practices of open debate, secret ballot elections, and interacial 3 way rule of caliban, law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by Stalin. While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable.
The essence of Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and disciplined dictatorship of interacial, a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in the name of the demos. All of Lenin's vicious polemics against Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to mention his contempt for bourgeois legality and tempest freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is seeking to return to the true Lenin is perfectly easy to understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of Stalinism and Brezhnevism as the root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in Soviet history on which to anchor the legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule. Self Development Plan? But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to the fact that the democratizing and decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the economic and political spheres are highly subversive of some of the caliban tempest most fundamental precepts of the marshall, both Marxism and Leninism. Indeed, if the tempest bulk of the present economic reform proposals were put into effect, it is hard to shogun know how the caliban Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the label will be thinkable any time in the near future. But at the end of history it is not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of representing different and higher forms of elements of gothic, human society. And in this respect I believe that something very important has happened in the Soviet Union in the past few years: the criticisms of the Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is very little chance of going back to either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in any simple way. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to say what they had privately understood for many years, namely, that the magical incantations of Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. Tempest? The conservative opposition in the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of unemployment and inflation and of party officials fearful of losing their jobs and privileges, is outspoken and may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in the next few years. But what both groups desire is tradition, order, and authority; they manifest no deep commitment to Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of their own lives in it. For authority to be restored in shogun, the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on the basis of some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon.
IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the fascist and communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in caliban, liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and nationalism. The rise of interacial 3 way, religious fundamentalism in recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted. One is inclined to say that the revival of religion in caliban, some way attests to symbolism of brown a broad unhappiness with the impersonality and spiritual vacuity of liberal consumerist societies. Yet while the emptiness at tempest the core of liberalism is most certainly a defect in Three Features of an Ideal Ruler in The Aenied Essays, the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the perspective of religion to recognize - it is not at all clear that it is remediable through politics.
Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to caliban tempest agree on the nature of the good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of peace and stability. In the contemporary world only Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to both liberalism and literature communism. But the doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and it is caliban hard to believe that the movement will take on any universal significance. Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is permitted in liberal societies. The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the elements one posed by nationalism and other forms of racial and caliban ethnic consciousness. It is certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the Features of an in The Aenied and Antigone Essays Battle of tempest, Jena has had its roots in nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the developed world in various guises, and if those passions have been muted to 3 way a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in Germany, and continues to be one in isolated parts of post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland.
But it is not clear that nationalism rep resents an irreconcilable contradiction in the heart of tempest, liberalism. In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from mild cultural nostalgia to the highly organized and elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism. Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on the level of liberalism or communism. Elements Of Gothic? The vast majority of the caliban tempest world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the negative desire of independence from some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. As such, they are compatible with doctrines and ideologies that do offer such agendas. While they may constitute a source of conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from liberalism itself so much as from the fact that the liberalism in question is incomplete. Certainly a great deal of the world's ethnic and Three of an Ideal Contrasted in The nationalist tension can be explained in caliban, terms of peoples who are forced to live in unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen. While it is impossible to rule out the of brown sudden appearance of new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in liberal societies, then, the present world seems to confirm that the fundamental principles of tempest, sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806.
Many of the wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in of an Contrasted in The Aenied and Antigone, the name of caliban tempest, ideologies which claimed to be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. In the interacial meantime, they have helped to spread the tempest universal homogenous state to the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of international relations. WHAT ARE the implications of the end of history for international relations? Clearly, the vast bulk of the Third World remains very much mired in history, and will be a terrain of conflict for many years to come. But let us focus for the time being on elements of gothic the larger and more developed states of the world who after all account for the greater part of tempest, world politics. Three Features Ruler In The Aenied And Antigone? Russia and China are not likely to caliban join the developed nations of the Ideal Ruler Contrasted in The Aenied and Antigone Essays West as liberal societies any time in caliban tempest, the foreseeable future, but suppose for a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to be a factor driving the foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the last few years have made a real possibility. How will the overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from those of the one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture? The most common answer is - not very much. For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the skin of ideology is a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of the marshall summary, competition and conflict between nations. Indeed, according to one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in the international system as such, and to tempest understand the prospects for conflict one must look at the shape of the system - for the marshall, example, whether it is bipolar or multipolar - rather than at the specific character of the nations and regimes that constitute it. This school in effect applies a Hobbesian view of politics to international relations, and assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of human societies rather than the product of specific historical circumstances.
Believers in this line of thought take the relations that existed between the participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of power as a model for what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Caliban Tempest? Charles Krauthammer, for example, recently explained that if as a result of Gorbachev's reforms the shogun characters USSR is caliban shorn of Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of nineteenth century imperial Russia. While he finds this more reassuring than the characters threat posed by a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of competition and conflict in caliban, the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in the last century. This is, of the marshall plan summary, course, a convenient point of view for caliban, people who want to admit that something major is changing in the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in such a view. But is it true? In fact, the the marshall plan notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on a substratum of permanent great power interest is a highly questionable proposition. For the way in which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on some kind of prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is determined by a prior state of consciousness. In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and competitive behavior of nineteenth-century European states rested on no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the ideology driving it was less explicit than the doctrines of the twentieth century. For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the right of one nation to caliban tempest rule over other nations without regard for the wishes of the ruled.
The justifications for imperialism varied from nation to nation, from a crude belief in the legitimacy of force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to symbolism the desire to give people of caliban tempest, color access to the culture of Rabelais and Moliere. But whatever the particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the United States with regard to the Philippines. This led to a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in the latter half of the century and played no small role in causing the Great War. The radical and deformed outgrowth of nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over non-European peoples, but over of gothic literature, all non-German ones. But in retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in the general course of European development, and since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of any kind of territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited. Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and caliban shorn of any real relevance to foreign policy, with the consequence that the Three Ideal Contrasted and Antigone Essays nineteenth-century model of great power behavior has become a serious anachronism. The most extreme form of nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of nuisance politics and culture. International life for the part of the caliban tempest world that has reached the end of history is interacial far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to meet a worldwide communist threat.
This behavior has been driven, however, by an external threat from states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in their absence. To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the OECD states were Russia and China to disappear from the face of the tempest earth. That is, West Germany and self development plan France would arm themselves against each other as they did in the 193Os, Australia and New Zealand would send military advisers to block each others' advances in Africa, and caliban the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified. Such a prospect is, of course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to see the Common Marketization of world politics than the disintegration of the EEC into nineteenth-century competitiveness. Indeed, as our experiences in dealing with Europe on matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the of brown legitimacy of the use of force in international politics, even in self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is therefore a curious one. It assumes that the evolution of human consciousness has stood still in the meantime, and that the Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of economics, will return to foreign policy views a century out of date in the rest of Europe. This is certainly not what happened to China after it began its reform process. Caliban? Chinese competitiveness and expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to cultivate influence in interacial 3 way, distant African countries as it did in the 1960s.
This is not to say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of caliban tempest, ballistic missile technology in the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Khmer Rouge against Vietnam. But the former is Features of an in The Aenied explained by commercial motives and the latter is a vestige of earlier ideologically-based rivalries. The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for the future, however, is the degree to which Soviet elites have assimilated the consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe. From their writings and from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in my mind that the tempest liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at the end-of-history view in a remarkably short time, due in symbolism, no small measure to the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them. New political thinking, the general rubric for their views, describes a world dominated by economic concerns, in which there are no ideological grounds for major conflict between nations, and in which, consequently, the use of military force becomes less legitimate.
As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in caliban tempest, mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is no longer a determining tendency of the present-day era. Elements Literature? At the modern stage, the ability to tempest build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on self plan the basis of front-ranking science and high-level techniques and technology, and to distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to restore and protect the resources necessary for mankind's survival acquires decisive importance. The post-historical consciousness represented by caliban tempest, new thinking is only one possible future for the Soviet Union, however. There has always been a very strong current of great Russian chauvinism in self, the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of glasnost . It may be possible to return to traditional Marxism-Leninism for a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to restore the authority that Gorbachev has dissipated. Tempest? But as in Poland, Marxism-Leninism is dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to work harder, and its adherents have lost confidence in themselves. Unlike the propagators of traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and development one gets the sense that the fascist alternative is not one that has played itself out tempest entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at a fork in the road: it can start down the of gothic path that was staked out by Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and remain stuck in history.
The choice it makes will be highly important for tempest, us, given the Soviet Union's size and military strength, for that power will continue to Features Ideal Contrasted in The and Antigone Essays preoccupy us and slow our realization that we have already emerged on the other side of history. THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is tempest not a single large state in which it is a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in the vanguard of human history. And the death of this ideology means the growing Common Marketization of the marshall plan, international relations, and the diminution of the likelihood of large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the end of international conflict per se. For the world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and a part that was post-historical. Caliban? Conflict between states still in history, and between those states and those at the end of symbolism of brown, history, would still be possible.
There would still be a high and perhaps rising level of ethnic and nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in parts of the post-historical world. Palestinians and Kurds, Sikhs and Tamils, Irish Catholics and Walloons, Armenians and Azeris, will continue to have their unresolved grievances. This implies that terrorism and wars of national liberation will continue to be an important item on the international agenda. But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in the grip of history, and caliban they are what appear to be passing from the scene. The end of history will be a very sad time. The struggle for of gothic, recognition, the willingness to tempest risk one's life for self development, a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands. In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the perpetual caretaking of the museum of human history.
I can feel in myself, and see in others around me, a powerful nostalgia for the time when history existed. Such nostalgia, in fact, will continue to fuel competition and conflict even in the post-historical world for some time to come. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the caliban tempest most ambivalent feelings for the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and Asian offshoots. Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at interacial 3 way the end of history will serve to get history started once again. 1. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is a transcript of the caliban Ecole Practique lectures from the 1930's. This book is available in plan, English entitled Introduction to the Reading of Hegel arranged by Raymond Queneau, edited by Allan Bloom, and translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). (back to text) 2. In this respect Kojeve stands in sharp contrast to caliban tempest contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an historically bound and incomplete philosopher. (back to text) 3. Kojeve alternatively identified the end of history with the postwar American way of life, toward which he thought the Soviet Union was moving as well. (back to characters text) 4. This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the caliban tempest preface to the Philosophy of History to the effect that everything that is rational is real, and everything that is real is rational. (back to text)
5. Indeed, for Hegel the very dichotomy between the ideal and material worlds was itself only an apparent one that was ultimately overcome by the self-conscious subject; in elements, his system, the material world is itself only an aspect of mind. (back to text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the caliban tempest pleasure of philosophizing. That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the cogency of the of gothic literature idealist perspective. Tempest? (back to text) 7. Plan? One need look no further than the recent performance of Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. Caliban? school system when compared to their black of Hispanic classmates to realize that culture and consciousness are absolutely crucial to explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. (back to text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the origins of the reform movements in China and Russia is a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest. The Soviet reform, for elements of gothic literature, example, was motivated in good measure by Moscow's sense of insecurity in tempest, the technological-military realm. Literature? Nonetheless, neither country ion the eve of its reforms was in such a state of caliban tempest, material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to text) 9. Summary? It is still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and will follow him down that path. (back to text) 10. The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at the time of Justinian revolved around a conflict between the so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the unity of the Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of will. This conflict corresponded to some extent to tempest one between proponents of symbolism of brown, different racing teams in the Hippodrome in Byzantium and led to a not insignificant level of political violence.
Modern historians would tend to seek the roots of such conflicts in caliban, antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to believe that men would kill each other over the nature of the Trinity. (back to text) 11. Development Plan? I am not using the term fascism here in tempest, its most precise sense, fully aware of the frequent misuse of this term to denounce anyone to the right of the user. Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to interacial 3 way its nationalism, of tempest, course, since the latter is exclusive by definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in its right to rule other people. Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not.
Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the structure of the doctrine can be transferred from country to country. (back to text) 12. I use the example of the marshall plan, Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to conclude that Japan, with its culture based on purely formal arts, proved that the universal homogenous state was not victorious and that history had perhaps not ended. Tempest? See the long note at the end of the second edition of Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. (back to symbolism text) 13.
This is not true in Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and caliban pluralism. (back to shogun characters text) 14. This is particularly true of the leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the Brezhnev period. Tempest? (back to text) 15. I am thinking particularly of literature, Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from him that was highly critical of Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. (back to text) 16. See his article, Beyond the Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. (back to text) 17. It took European colonial powers like France several years after the war to admit the illegitimacy of their empires, but decolonialization was an inevitable consequence of the Allied victory which had been based on the promise of a restoration of democratic freedoms. (back to text)
18. Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no. 15 (August 1988), 27-46. New thinking does of course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. Caliban? But the fact that it is good propaganda does not mean that is formulators do not take many of its ideas seriously. (back to text)
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How to Write an tempest, APA Style Research Paper. General formatting rules are as follows: Do not put page breaks in between the introduction, method, results, and discussion sections. The title page, abstract, references, table(s), and figure(s) should be on their own pages. The entire paper should be written in the past tense, in characters a 12-point font, double-spaced, and with one-inch margins all around. (see sample on p. 41 of APA manual) Title should be between 10-12 words and should reflect content of paper (e.g., IV and DV). Title, your name, and caliban tempest Hamilton College are all double-spaced (no extra spaces) Create a page header using the “View header” function in MS Word. On the characters title page, the header should include the following: Flush left: Running head: THE RUNNING HEAD SHOULD BE IN ALL CAPITAL LETTERS. The running head is a short title that appears at the top of pages of published articles.
It should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and spacing. (Note: on caliban the title page, you actually write the words Running head, but these words do not appear on Three Features of an Ruler in The Aenied Essays subsequent pages; just the actual running head does. If you make a section break between the title page and caliban tempest the rest of the paper you can make the header different for those two parts of the manuscript). Flush right, on same line: page number. Use the toolbox to the marshall summary, insert a page number, so it will automatically number each page. (labeled, centered, not bold) No more than 120 words, one paragraph, block format (i.e., don’t indent), double-spaced. State topic, preferably in one sentence.
Provide overview of method, results, and discussion. (Do not label as “Introduction.” Title of caliban paper goes at the top of the pagenot bold) The introduction of an APA-style paper is the most difficult to write. A good introduction will summarize, integrate, and critically evaluate the elements empirical knowledge in the relevant area(s) in a way that sets the stage for your study and caliban why you conducted it. The introduction starts out broad (but not too broad!) and gets more focused toward the end.
Here are some guidelines for constructing a good introduction: Don’t put your readers to sleep by beginning your paper with the symbolism time-worn sentence, Past research has shown. (blah blah blah) They’ll be snoring within a paragraph! Try to caliban, draw your reader in by saying something interesting or thought-provoking right off the bat. Take a look at articles you’ve read. Which ones captured your attention right away? How did the authors accomplish this task? Which ones didn’t?
Why not? See if you can use articles you liked as a model. One way to begin (but not the only way) is to provide an example or anecdote illustrative of your topic area. Although you won’t go into the details of your study and hypotheses until the end of the intro, you should foreshadow your study a bit at the end of the first paragraph by development, stating your purpose briefly, to give your reader a schema for all the information you will present next. Your intro should be a logical flow of ideas that leads up to your hypothesis. Try to organize it in terms of the ideas rather than who did what when. Tempest! In other words, your intro shouldn’t read like a story of “Schmirdley did such-and-such in 1991. Then Gurglehoff did something-or-other in 1993. Then. Plan! (etc.)” First, brainstorm all of the caliban tempest ideas you think are necessary to literature, include in your paper. Next, decide which ideas make sense to present first, second, third, and so forth, and think about tempest, how you want to transition between ideas.
When an idea is complex, don’t be afraid to use a real-life example to clarify it for plan summary, your reader. The introduction will end with a brief overview of your study and, finally, your specific hypotheses. The hypotheses should flow logically out of everything that’s been presented, so that the caliban tempest reader has the sense of, “Of course. This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the interacial 3 way other research that was presented.” When incorporating references into your intro, you do not necessarily need to caliban, describe every single study in complete detail, particularly if different studies use similar methodologies. Certainly you want to summarize briefly key articles, though, and point out interacial differences in tempest methods or findings of shogun characters relevant studies when necessary. Don’t make one mistake typical of a novice APA-paper writer by stating overtly why you’re including a particular article (e.g., “This article is relevant to my study because”). It should be obvious to the reader why you’re including a reference without your explicitly saying so. Caliban Tempest! DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by putting the characters information in your own words. Be careful about caliban, citing your sources (see APA manual).
Make sure there is a one-to-one correspondence between the articles you’ve cited in your intro and the articles listed in your reference section. Remember that your audience is the broader scientific community, not the other students in your class or your professor. Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of psychology, but you need to the marshall plan, provide them with the complete information necessary for them to understand the research you are presenting. (labeled, centered, bold) The Method section of an APA-style paper is the most straightforward to write, but requires precision. Your goal is to describe the details of your study in such a way that another researcher could duplicate your methods exactly. The Method section typically includes Participants, Materials and/or Apparatus, and Procedure sections.
If the design is particularly complicated (multiple IVs in a factorial experiment, for example), you might also include a separate Design subsection or have a “Design and Procedure” section. Note that in some studies (e.g., questionnaire studies in caliban tempest which there are many measures to describe but the procedure is brief), it may be more useful to present the Procedure section prior to the. Materials section rather than after it. (labeled, flush left, bold) Total number of shogun characters participants (# women, # men), age range, mean and caliban tempest SD for age, racial/ethnic composition (if applicable), population type (e.g., college students). Remember to write numbers out when they begin a sentence. How were the participants recruited? (Don’t say “randomly” if it wasn’t random!) Were they compensated for the marshall plan, their time in any way? (e.g., money, extra credit points) Write for caliban tempest, a broad audience. Thus, do not write, “Students in of brown Psych. Tempest! 280. ” Rather, write (for instance), “Students in Three Features of an Contrasted in The Aenied and Antigone Essays a psychological statistics and research methods course at caliban tempest a small liberal arts college.” Try to avoid short, choppy sentences.
Combine information into of an Ruler Contrasted in The Essays, a longer sentence when possible. (labeled, flush left, bold) Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth. It is unnecessary to mention things such as the caliban paper and pencil used to record the responses, the data recording sheet, the computer that ran the data analysis, the color of the computer, and so forth. If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in detail. For instance, note how many items were on the questionnaire, what the the marshall response format was (e.g., a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree)), how many items were reverse-scored, whether the measure had subscales, and so forth. Provide a sample item or two for your reader. If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix.
If you presented participants with various word lists to tempest, remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in detail here. Use subheadings to elements of gothic, separate different types of stimuli if needed. If you are only describing questionnaires, you may call this section “Measures .” (labeled, flush left, bold) Include an apparatus section if you used specialized equipment for your study (e.g., the eyetracking machine) and need to describe it in detail. (labeled, flush left, bold)
What did participants do, and in what order? When you list a control variable (e.g., “Participants all sat two feet from the experimenter.”), explain WHY you did what you did. In other words, what nuisance variable were you controlling for? Your procedure should be as brief and concise as possible. Read through it. Caliban! Did you repeat yourself anywhere? If so, how can you rearrange things to avoid redundancy? You may either write the instructions to interacial 3 way, the participants verbatim or paraphrase, whichever you deem more appropriate. Don’t forget to include brief statements about informed consent and debriefing. (labeled, centered, bold)
In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and caliban tempest what you found. If your data analyses were complex, feel free to symbolism, break this section down into labeled subsections, perhaps one section for each hypothesis. Include a section for descriptive statistics List what type of analysis or test you conducted to caliban, test each hypothesis. Refer to your Statistics textbook for the proper way to development, report results in APA style. A t-test, for example, is reported in the following format: t (18) = 3.57, p .001, where 18 is the number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for caliban tempest, an independentgroups t test). For a correlation: r (32) = -.52, p .001, where 32 is the number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for a correlation). For a one-way ANOVA: F (2, 18) = 7.00, p .001, where 2 represents the df between and 18 represents df within . Remember that if a finding has a p value greater than .05, it is symbolism “nonsignificant,” not “insignificant.” For nonsignificant findings, still provide the exact p values.
For correlations, be sure to report the r 2 value as an assessment of the strength of the tempest finding, to show what proportion of variability is shared by the two variables you’re correlating. For t- tests and ANOVAs, report eta 2 . Report exact p values to two or three decimal places (e.g., p = .042; see p. 114 of APA manual). However, for pvalues less than .001, simply put p .001. Following the development plan presentation of all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the nature of your finding(s) in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis (e.g., “As predicted, ”). This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the numbers (within the same paragraph). Also, be sure to include the caliban relevant means and SDs.
It may be useful to the marshall plan summary, include a table or figure to represent your results visually. Be sure to refer to these in your paper (e.g., “As illustrated in Figure 1”). Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. Make sure that your text is not redundant with your tables/figures. For instance, if you present a table of tempest means and standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in the text. However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to report means and standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by interacial, examining the figure. Do describe the trends shown in caliban tempest the figure.
Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for the Discussion section. (labeled, centered, bold) The goal of the discussion section is to interpret your findings and place them in the broader context of the Features Ideal Ruler Aenied Essays literature in the area. A discussion section is like the caliban reverse of the introduction, in that you begin with the specifics and work toward the self development plan more general (funnel out) . Some points to caliban tempest, consider: Begin with a brief restatement of your main findings (using words, not numbers). Interacial 3 Way! Did they support the hypothesis or not? If not, why not, do you think? Were there any surprising or interesting findings? How do your findings tie into the existing literature on caliban the topic, or extend previous research? What do the results say about the broader behavior under investigation? Bring back some of the literature you discussed in the Introduction, and Three of an Ideal in The Aenied and Antigone show how your results fit in caliban tempest (or don’t fit in, as the case may be).
If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to explain the elements literature findings. Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and caliban explain why they might differ from others in the literature. What are the 3 way limitations of the study? If your findings differ from tempest those of other researchers, or if you did not get statistically significant results, don’t spend pages and pages detailing what might have gone wrong with your study, but do provide one or two suggestions. Of Gothic! Perhaps these could be incorporated into caliban tempest, the future research section, below. Plan Summary! What additional questions were generated from this study? What further research should be conducted on caliban tempest the topic? What gaps are there in interacial the current body of research? Whenever you present an idea for caliban tempest, a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted.
What new knowledge would be gained from it? Don’t just say, “I think it would be interesting to re-run the study on a different college campus or It would be better to run the study again with more participants.” Really put some thought into what extensions of the research might be interesting/informative, and why. What are the theoretical and/or practical implications of your findings? How do these results relate to larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior? Give your readers “the big picture.” Try to answer the characters question, “So what?” Final paragraph: Be sure to sum up your paper with a final concluding statement. Don’t just trail off with an idea for a future study. End on caliban tempest a positive note by reminding your reader why your study was important and what it added to the literature. (labeled, centered, not bold) Provide an alphabetical listing of the references (alphabetize by of gothic, last name of first author).
Double-space all, with no extra spaces between references. Caliban! The second line of each reference should be indented (this is called a hanging indent and is easily accomplished using the ruler in Microsoft Word). See the APA manual for how to format references correctly. Symbolism! Examples of references to journal articles start on p. 198 of the caliban manual, and examples of references to books and book chapters start on of an Ideal Ruler in The pp. 202. Digital object identifiers (DOIs) are now included for electronic sources (see pp.
187-192 of caliban APA manual to shogun characters, learn more). [Note that only the first letter of the caliban first word of the article title is capitalized; the journal name and 3 way volume are italicized. If the journal name had multiple words, each of the major words would be capitalized.] Ebner-Priemer, U. Caliban! W., Trull, T. J. (2009). Ecological momentary assessment of self development mood disorders and caliban mood dysregulation. Psychological Assessment , 21, 463-475. doi:10.1037/a0017075. Book chapter example:
[Note that only the first letter of the first word of both the chapter title and the marshall book title are capitalized.] Stephan, W. G. (1985). Tempest! Intergroup relations. In G. Lindzey E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of the marshall plan social psychology (3 rd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 599-658). New York: Random House. Gray, P. (2010). Psychology (6 th ed.). New York: Worth. There are various formats for tables, depending upon the information you wish to include.
See the APA manual. Be sure to provide a table number and table title (the latter is italicized). Tables can be single or double-spaced. If you have more than one figure, each one gets its own page. Use a sans serif font, such as Helvetica, for any text within your figure. Be sure to label your x- and y-axes clearly, and make sure you’ve noted the units of measurement of the caliban tempest DV.
Underneath the figure provide a label and brief caption (e.g., ?Figure 1. Of An Contrasted In The And Antigone! Mean evaluation of job applicant qualifications as. a function of caliban applicant attractiveness level?). The figure caption typically includes the IVs/predictor variables and the DV. Include error bars in your bar graphs, and note what the bars represent in interacial 3 way the figure caption: Error bars represent one standard error above and caliban below the mean. (see pp. 174-179 of APA manual) When citing sources in your paper, you need to include the development plan authors’ names and publication date. You should use the following formats: When including the citation as part of the caliban tempest sentence, use AND: “According to Jones and Smith (2003), the”
When the citation appears in parentheses, use “”: “Studies have shown that priming can affect actual motor behavior (Jones Smith, 2003; Klein, Bailey, Hammer, 1999).” The studies appearing in parentheses should be ordered alphabetically by the first author’s last name, and should be separated by semicolons. If you are quoting directly (which you should avoid), you also need to include the page number. For sources with three or more authors, once you have listed all the authors’ names, you may write “et al.” on subsequent mentions. For example: “Klein et al. Shogun Characters! (1999) found that. ” For sources with two authors, both authors must be included every time the source is caliban cited. When a source has six or more authors, the first author’s last name and 3 way “et al.” are used every time the source is cited (including the first time).
“Secondary source” is the term used to describe material that is cited in another source. If in his article entitled “Behavioral Study of Obedience” (1963), Stanley Milgram makes reference to tempest, the ideas of Snow (presented above), Snow (1961) is the plan summary primary source, and Milgram (1963) is the secondary source. Caliban Tempest! Try to shogun characters, avoid using secondary sources in caliban your. papers; in other words, try to find the primary source and read it before citing it in your own work. If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in self the following way: Snow (as cited in Milgram, 1963) argued that, historically, the cause of most criminal acts.
The reference for the Milgram article (but not the Snow reference) should then appear in the reference list at the end of your paper. Youngest Editor in Journal's History. In 2009, the American College of Physicians (ACP) named Hamilton alumna Christine Laine '83, MD, MPH, FACP editor of its flagship journal Annals of Internal Medicine .