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Changing Times Essay

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Good Example Papers: Free Essay Examples, Research Papers, Dissertations, Thesis Papers. Andragogy Essay about The Growing Panic over Essay, North American Union The progressing international cooperation between countries of the North American continent, such as the USA, Canada and Mexico, provokes numerous speculations and what happened age?, arguments concerning the nature and future of the Changing Times, growing integration of these countries. In actuality, the development of the international partnership between the USA, Canada and Mexico has reached an unprecedented scale. The USA, Canada and Mexico have never been as close to each other as they are at shakespeare the present epoch. PapersMart.net can write a Custom Essay on Andragogy for You! Basically, these countries develop economic, political and defense cooperation developing similar standards, rules and Changing Times, regulations, minimizing fiscal barriers between countries and creating the basis for the more effective economic cooperation as well as political and military partnership.

In this respect, it should be said that the television, USA, Canada and Mexico are members of the NAFTA, which major goal is the increase of economic cooperation between the countries. At the same time, the current integrative trends that may be observed in Times Essay, economic and political development of the three North American countries may be compared to the trends that could be observed in Europe in the process of the formation of the European Union. However, such trends, which are apparently beneficial for all participants since they are economically profitable for all countries and bring significant benefits to economies of the USA, Canada and Essay on Nuclear, Coal, and Alternative Energy, Mexico, evoke a considerable anxiety of many American people who sincerely believe that the Changing Times, existing agreements and those that the adverts, countries are planning to sign prepare the countries for the creation of the North American Union, a new state formation. The fear of many Americans concerning the creation of the North American Union is Changing so significant that the conspiracy theory has been developed in this regard. In such a situation, it is extremely important to clarify the situation and blood act 1, analyze the current cooperation between the USA, Canada and Mexico in order to assess whether the conspiracy theory is relevant or probably it is just another myth provoked by Times the lack of information or misunderstanding of the agreements that have been already signed between the USA, Canada and the treaty of versailles so unpopular in germany, Mexico. The emergence of the conspiracy theory may be easily traced since the beginning of the Changing Times, integrative processes that took place in the North America Continent.

It should be pointed out that any agreement signed by the USA and its neighbors could be potentially viewed as the what happened the victorian age?, step on the way to the creation of the new super-state, the North American Union. In this respect, the agreement known as the Security and Prosperity Partnership signed in Waco, Texas, on March 23, 2005 is viewed by the supporters of the conspiracy theory as the major agreement that will lead to the creation of the new state. Before discussing the arguments of Times Essay, supporters of the conspiracy theory which prove the righteousness of their position, it is primarily necessary to blood act 1 briefly dwell upon the major assumptions of this theory which could reveal its essence and explain the fear of those Americans that believe in this theory. First of all, it should be said that according to this theory the leaders of the USA, Canada and Mexico are plotting in order to create the North American Union. The North American Union, according to supporters of the conspiracy theory, is the new state formation that will lead to the destruction of the existing states in the North American continent, i.e. the USA, Canada and Mexico. Instead, the three states will be united into one country that will have the common government, army, economy, etc. In other words, the creation of the North American Union will be what supporters of conspiracy theory define as the loss of independence by the USA. Naturally, it would be logical to presuppose that the creation of the Changing Times, new state would equally mean the loss of independence by Canada and television, Mexico too. In actuality, such a view on the integrative processes that take place in relations of the USA, Canada and Mexico suggests that the union of Essay, these countries will affect all spheres of life of ordinary people, including politics, economy and social sphere. Naturally, such a perspective provokes significant anxiety of Americans because this means that they will not be able to fully define their own future because they will share political power with Canadian and Mexicans, whose political and socio-economic interests may be quite different from those of Americans.

Furthermore, they may suffer from economic losses because the creation of the North American Union implies the elimination of frontiers between countries, both economic and administrative. In addition, the defense of the new country will be shared between the three states, while supporters of the conspiracy theory have an blood brothers act 1 extremely skeptical view on Times, the military potential of Canada and, especially, Mexico that means that the defense of the, burden of military expenses will be covered by American tax payers since the enlargement of the Times, territory will inevitably lead to the increase of ophelia, military forces and expenses. Obviously, potential outcomes of the creation of the Times, North American Union instead of three independent countries, the USA, Canada and Mexico, evoke serious anxiety among those who support the conspiracy theory because it may threaten to the well-being of many Americans. At first glance, fears of supporters of the happened during age?, conspiracy theory are not really motivated because at the present moment the USA, Canada, and Mexico are independent states that have never made any efforts to the unification into one country. However, supporters of the Times Essay, conspiracy theory have their own arguments, which indicate to the possibility of the creation of the North American Union. The major arguments of supporters of the adverts, conspiracy theory basically refer to the economic sphere.

To put it more precisely, one of the strongest argument in favor of the conspiracy theory is the perspective of the Changing Times Essay, introduction of the common currency in what during, the USA, Mexico and Canada. The conspiracy theorists have even found the picture of a 20-amero copper coin, which was presumably smuggled out of the US Mint in Denver. In fact, the perspective of the introduction of the common currency can justify the conspiracy theory and Changing, may be viewed as evidence of plans of the US, Canadian and Mexican leaders to unite their countries. In such context, encounters of American, Canadian and Mexican leaders during such events as the North American Leaders Summit, which took place in Montebello, Quebec may be interpreted as evidences of the negotiations targeting at the creation of the North American Union. On analyzing the perspective of the introduction of the happened during the victorian age?, common currency, amero, or whatever it could be, it is necessary to Changing Times underline the fact that this step will definitely mean the loss of economic independence of all countries.

It proves beyond a doubt that the introduction of common currency will make economies of the USA, Canada and Mexico extremely sensitive to the changes of the blood brothers, rate of the common currency. At the same time, the common currency will naturally react on Changing Times Essay, changes that take place in economies of all three countries. Consequently, if a crisis strikes in Canada, for why was the treaty instance, the US as well as Mexico will be directly affected by this crisis because they have the common currency that naturally reacts to serious problems or changes in Essay, the national economy. The dependence of economies of the US, Canada and Mexico on the common currency will naturally accelerate the integration of national economies that can potentially deteriorate the television adverts, situation in the US because, at the present moment, its economy is consistently stronger than that of Mexico, for Changing Times Essay instance. In addition, Mexican labor force can undermine the Essay on Nuclear, and Alternative, competitive power of American labor force, especially in Southern state.

Potentially, such development may lead to the ongoing economic stagnation or even crisis resulting in the deterioration of socio-economic situation and Changing, social instability. Another argument supporting the conspiracy theory is the assumption that the USA, Canada and Mexico plans to build a giant NAFTA super-highway that would stretch from blood brothers, Canada to Mexico. In all probability, the conspiracy theories the Trans-Texas Corridor will be this giant NAFTA super-highway since it will link practically the Essay, entire continent. Obviously, this argument may be also quite convincing since the creation of such super-highway may be interpreted as the development of the common infrastructure between Canada, the USA and Mexico. The potential of the corridor is ophelia very significant because it will also stimulate the Changing Times, growing economic integration of the USA, Canada and Mexico since it facilitates substantially the transportation of goods throughout the continent. It is not a secret that the well-developed infrastructure and communications are the major conditions of the fast development of trade and economic integration of countries and regions.

Moreover, supporters of the conspiracy theory indicate to the numerous agreements that have already been signed by the US, Canadian and Mexican authorities, which target at the faster economic integration and cooperation in the military sphere. In this regard, it is possible to refer to the creation of the NAFTA, the Security and Prosperity Partnership, and others agreement. All these agreements and their interpretation by conspiracy theorists make their arguments quite convincing. The counter arguments against the conspiracy theory. However, it is necessary to critically evaluate the arguments of what, supporters of the conspiracy theory in order to assess objectively the extent to which these arguments are justified, logical and Times Essay, rational. In fact, their opponents have very strong counter arguments, which they basically retrieve from the official resources and Energy, international documents, in contrast to the conspiracy theorists who either smuggled their evidences, like the 20-amero coin, or interpreted the existing agreements in their own way, which, in actuality, may be quite different from the factual contents of these agreements. First of all, it should be said that there is not a single international agreement between the USA, Canada or Mexico that indicates to the possibility of the Times Essay, creation of the new state which the conspiracy theorists call the North American Union. In actuality, there are no official documents which could be viewed as plans for the creation of such a state. Naturally, it is Essay possible to interpret economic agreements as plans or attempts of the three countries to unite into a single state, but in such a context the creation of the NAFTA should be viewed as the first step on Times Essay, the way to defense of the the creation of the North American Union. In this respect, it is necessary to underline the fact that the creation of the Times Essay, NAFTA as well as other agreements related to the economic cooperation between countries, including the creation of the Trans-Texas Corridor, does not target at the political or economic unification of countries. In actuality, the major goal of such agreements is the improvement of the economic cooperation between countries.

To put it more precisely, the NAFTA originally targeted at blood act 1 the elimination of obstacles on the way of the free trade between the USA, Canada and Mexico. It is worth mention the fact that the creation of the Changing, NAFTA as well as other agreements stimulating trade and during age?, the creation of the basis for the free trade are not harmful for the USA. In stark contrast, such agreements as well as the free trade at large are rather beneficial for the USA than harmful. Times Essay! At any rate, it is obvious that it is television primarily American companies that will benefit from the Changing Times Essay, free trade between the Essay, USA, Canada and Mexico. At the present moment the US economy is apparently stronger than Canadian and it consistently overtakes the development of Mexican economy. In actuality, this means that in the result of the international agreements facilitating free trade and eliminated fiscal barriers between the USA, Canada and Mexico open markets of Canada and Mexico for American companies.

The expansion of American companies in Canada and Mexico may and actually takes place in different ways. Firstly, American companies can export its products and services to Canada and Mexico and the absence of fiscal barriers makes their products more competitive in the local markets. The reason is obvious the quality of American goods and Changing Times, services is traditionally high, while their price in the result of the agreements concerning the blood brothers, development of free trade between the countries has decreased substantially. At any rate, neither Canada nor Mexico can create substantial fiscal obstacles on the way of American goods that makes their price closer to Changing Essay that within the USA. Also, the technological development of the during age?, USA is incomparable to that of Mexico that means that the latter cannot compete with American companies in the field of high technologies, while the absence of Times, fiscal barriers makes American goods more competitive compared to similar highly technological products or services imported to Mexico from other developed countries, such as Japan, for instance.

Furthermore, free trade agreements allow American companies easily export capital and develop their business in Mexico as well as Canada facilitating their penetration in the national markets. At the same time, free trade does not mean the economic or political integration of countries. Obviously, the existence of ophelia, such agreements stimulates closer cooperation between countries, but it does not lead to their total economic integration. The latter is possible only on the condition of the introduction of the common currency, which, according to the US officials, is not the subject of negotiations between the USA, Canada and Mexico. In fact, the Changing Times, development of free trade should not be viewed in ophelia shakespeare, terms of the conspiracy theory. Instead, it would more logical to view free trade as the economic partnership and cooperation which brings mutual benefits to all parties involved, i.e. the US, Canada, and Mexico.

As for Changing the construction of the Trans-Texas Corridor, which is viewed by the conspiracy theorists as one of the indicators to the creation of the North American Union, it should be said that the development of infrastructure and construction of new transportation corridors is a natural outcome of the television adverts, growing economic cooperation and free trade agreements. In other words, the development of free trade naturally increased the flow of goods between the three countries. Obviously, the existing infrastructure could not afford the increased transportation needs and, at the present moment it proves beyond a doubt that it needs to be modified in order to Changing Times Essay meet new demands of the USA, Canada and Mexico. For instance, according to ophelia shakespeare Los Angeles Times (Dalmia and Gilroy), the Trans Texas Corridor is being planned as a way to allow Texas to Changing Times Essay handle the commerce that passes through the state from Mexico. It is worth mentioning the fact that, since creation of the NAFTA, the trade between the during, US and Mexico doubled, and Changing Times, 75% of goods pass through Texas. In such a situation, the construction of the giant NAFTA super-highway is the objective necessity rather than a plot against American sovereignty. As for the Security and Prosperity Partnership, it should be said that this agreement really exists but again the interpretation of the conspiracy theorists of Essay on Nuclear, Coal, and Alternative, this document is rather exaggerated than objective or critically evaluated. In fact, this agreement, along with ongoing efforts to develop economic partnership between the USA, Canada and Mexico, involves the defense issues. However, it does not necessarily mean the Changing, unification of military forces of the three countries, but, instead, it just implies the unification of television, efforts to stop international terrorism and criminals movement between the USA, Canada and Mexico. Times! Obviously, such agreement was essential because the elimination of fiscal barriers, facilitation of movement of people through national borders decreased the effectiveness of the existing borders between the USA and its neighbors.

As a result, the country became more exposed to the victorian age? the penetration of terrorist that arrived from Changing Essay, third countries to shakespeare Canada or Mexico and then move to the US. Consequently, to protect its national interests and secure its borders the US naturally needed to guarantee the security of borders within the three countries: the USA, Canada and Mexico. Perspectives of the development of North America. Thus, the arguments of Essay, supporters of the conspiracy theory and counter arguments may be quite convincing. However, it is necessary to ophelia shakespeare understand that the emergence of the conspiracy theory was basically provoked by the lack of information or understanding of the Times, international agreements signed by the USA, Canada and Mexico.

People do not have all the information about the agreements and naturally they can misinterpret the fact they retrieve from various sources which are not always reliable. On Nuclear, Coal, Energy! On the other hand, it would be a mistake to fully rely on Times Essay, official reports and accept the position of the opponents of the conspiracy theory pointblank. In fact, it is very important to evaluate objectively and critically analyze the processes that currently take place in relations between the US, Canada and Mexico. In this respect, it would be a mistake to deny the fact that the development of adverts, free trade and the growing economic cooperation between the three countries stimulate their economic integration. It would be logical to Times presuppose that the economic integration would inevitably stimulate the of versailles so unpopular in germany, growing political cooperation and integration of the countries, to the extent that it would be necessary to create international organizations that could facilitate the trade between the USA, Canada and Mexico, and, what is more, it is highly probable that the countries would need to develop similar legislative norms and standards.

What is meant here is the fact that the further development of economic cooperation between the USA, Canada and Essay, Mexico would need the existence of the similar rules and standards since American, Canadian and Mexican companies would need play in defense of the, accordance with the same rules to develop their business partnership effectively and facilitate penetration of markets of the US, Canada, and Mexico. At the same time, the process of globalization and the growing competition, especially from the Changing, part of the EU, would, in blood brothers, all probability, accelerate the efforts of the US to develop economic partnership with its neighbors, especially Canada to the extent that in Changing Times Essay, a long-run it is even possible to speak about the introduction of the common currency. However, in ophelia, a short term, such a perspective is improbable, as well as the perspective of the creation of the North American Union, because the USA is the regional and Changing, world leader and it is more convenient for the USA to establish its own rules to maximize its profits from economic cooperation with its neighbors, while the union would inevitably weaken the US if it is not carefully prepared and the economic gap between the US and its neighbors remains as significant as it is at the moment. Attention! Free essay papers, example essays and essay samples on ophelia shakespeare, Andragogy are easily traced by plagiarism checkers like Turnitin. All online essay examples are plagiarized. Dont submit free essays as your own academic paper. You can order a custom essay on Andragogy topic at our professional essay writing agency. Our PhD and Changing Essay, Masters degree holding academic experts will write a high-quality custom essay, term paper or research paper on of the, any topic and subject. Our essay writing service provides high school, college and university students with 100% original custom essays written from scratch.

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Consulted by Voice of Russia on the subject of firearms ownership and the attack on the Canadian Parliament building. Michigan v. Schooler Case No. 03-80921-1. Ophelia Shakespeare! Michigan v. Farquharson Case No. 05-16672-FC. Michigan v. Boise Walker Case No. 05-12389. Michigan v. Woodward Case No.

05-0161172-FH. Michigan v. Gustavo De-Jesus Vanegas Case No. 06-38885. Michigan v. David Edmunds Case No. 052022-FC. Michigan v. Times Essay! James Coddington Case No. 8781903FC. Michigan v. Clarence Neason Case No. Adverts! 06-0137. Michigan v. Jesus Gonzalez Case No.

87-41384-FC. In Rey Boysie Walker Case No. Changing Essay! 05-12389. Michigan v. Farley Case No. 05-1533-FH. U.S, v. Chancey U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana, New Orleans.

Michigan v. Lockett Case No. 06-001022-01. Michigan v. Jeff Davis No. 95-052703-FC-R. Essay On Nuclear, And Alternative Energy! City of Times Essay, Woodhaven v. Shaun Grossman No. 06-W-3766A. Michigan v. Wade Gilchrist No. 06-0004648. Michigan v. Gustavo Vanegas No. 06-3885. U.S. Why Was The Treaty Of Versailles In Germany! v. Douglas Kornacki No.

04-80843. Michigan v. Coredon Clark No. 06-018523-FC. Michigan v. Antjuan L. Changing Essay! Riley No. 2006-003915-FH. Michigan v. Corielle Demont Johnson COA No. 267822. Michigan v. Travis Van Norman No. 07-023-FY.

Michigan v. Floyd Smith No. 06-4092-FC. Michigan v. Barnett No. CR2005-202692-FC. Michigan v. Christian Hanson No. 06-11174-FH. Michigan v. Lance Jones No. J067848 SM. Oregon v. James Mansur No. 2006-00017777. Michigan v. Lernmaine Palmer No.

06-450-632-DL. Shakespeare! Michigan v. Kerrick Farquharson No. Changing Essay! 05-16672-FC. City of Detroit v. Morad Abdulla Ahmed No. 07-08625. Missouri v. Lance Shockley Case No. Shakespeare! 05C2-CR00080. Michigan v. Aaron Dixon No.06-HP-0089 FY. Florida v. Dustin Williams No.5620006-150005825.

United States v. Quentin Burt. United States v. Sims No.90-80492-AC-5. Reeves v. Baracco Report No.06-0016355 Livingston County. Liberty Mutal Insurance v. Times! Patrick Stoutenburg Case Pending. United States v. Michel No.06-CR 516. California v. Jose Moreno No.07-NF0570. Michigan v. Kareem P. Manuel No.

06-018155-FC. Michigan v. Kurry A Brickey No.07-2422FY. Defense! Michigan v. Andre Frazier No.9707796FC. United States v. James Kelly No.07-CR123. Michigan v. Nicholas Beyer No. 08-010635 FH.

Commonwealth of Mass. v. Manny Andrade. Michigan v. Times Essay! Benjamin Bayles No. 08-SL0080-FY. Wisconsin v. Adam Yeoman No. 08-CF06 Circuit Ct. La Crosse, Judge Todd Bjerke. Michigan v. Defense Of The! Darold Hodgoen No. 08-08833. Michigan v. Charles Hutson, 08-697FH, Florida v. Tommy Randolph Case No. 561978CF000305, 9th Circuit Ct. St.

Lucie County. Florida v. Tahjeem Dorissca Case No. ESCR 2004-00976, MA Superior Ct. Of Lawrence MA, county of Essex, Michigan v. Tanika Love Case No. 08-023774-FC, Genesee County, Judge Hayman. State v. Jeffrey Louis Thauwald, Pine County Dist. File CR-08-1248. Essay! The Honorable Krista Martin, State of Michigan v. Ophelia! QUIN-DALE ALAIN GORDON-WOOD Lower Court Case No.

08- 3760-FC; COA Case No. 287515. Arkansis v. Changing Times! Robert Davis, Case No.2007-004640 Fourth Circuit Ct. Maryland v. Why Was So Unpopular! Trevlyn Hinton, Case No. 113889. Michigan v. Aristide L. Boaz, Case No.

2010-026340-FC. United States v. Walter L. Times Essay! Priest, Detroit Federal Court. Mantooth v. Glock, Troy MI Case No. M23390667. Michigan v. Deonte Howard, Case No. Ancients! 10-5562 Judge Bruce U. Morrow, 3rd circuit, Detroit MI. Michigan v. Dustin Arthur Marshal, Case No.

09-005490 4th Circuit Court. US v. Brand Lambert, Case No. 4:10CR00124-JMM, Arkansas. Florida v. Changing Times! Adrian Brown, Case No. 2008-CF-4862, Marion County, Florida. South Carolina v. Christian Helms, Case No. Why Was The Treaty Of Versailles In Germany! 10-099686, Horry County South Carolina. Elaine Elder v. American Iron Metal Co Inc. David Lee Noriega, Case 10-cv-1433 Pueblo County, Colorado. Wyoming v. Eddie T. Delk, Case No. CR #2011-54, Sheridan County, Wyoming.

Illinois v. Robert Dorado, Case No. 10CR7717, Cook County, Illinois. Michigan v. Timothy Earl Fields, COA, Genesee County #06-18312-FC. Essay! Minnesota v. Television! Jason Musburger, Case No. Times Essay! 69HI-CR-10-170, City of on Nuclear, Coal, Energy, Chisholm. Michigan v Malcolm Payne, 7th Circuit Court (Genesee County), Judge Archie Hayman presiding, case # 11-028734-FH. Michigan v. Hakeem R. Blackwell, No. 12-000527-FH-C30 in Times, Ingham County Circuit Ct. Of Versailles! U.S. Changing Essay! v. Kenneth Hatala, Case No.

1:12CR28, U.S. District Court, Northern District of West Virginia, Judge Keeley. Ohio v. Dale Edwards, Case No. CR 12-567856 Cuyahoga County Court. Florida v. Thomas Allen Bauer Jr. Case No. 41-2012-CF-3120-A, Manatee County.

MS v. Jerrod Emerson, Case No. 12-643 CRWG, Hinds County. FL v. Eric Howell, Case No. 2012-CF-12349-O, Orange County. MI v. Ryan Mark Wyngarden, Case No. HL13-20283-FY, Ottawa County. MI v. Donald Staats Jr. Case No. 12-2547-FC, Missaukee County.

WV v. Jamie R. Jones, Case No. 12-F-199, Monongalia Couty. OH v. Gary W. Green, Case No. CR-12-567867A, Cuyahoga County. MI v. Salam Shaker Zora, Appeals Case No.: 296508, Macomb County. West Virginia v. Jamie R. Jones, Case 12-F-199, Monongalia County. Missouri v. David Hosier, Case No. 09AC-CR02972-01F, Cole County. U.S. v. Van Der Merwe, Case No. 4:13mj43-CAS, Northern District of FL.

AZ v. Dimitri Romero, Case No. CR20131779, Tucson AZ. Illinois v. Michael Williams, Case No. 13CR909, Chicago, IL. Maryland v. Defense! Tavon Miles, Case #124790-C. Changing Times! Roger Dale Shinall v. Remington Arms, Case No. CV-2012-693, Arkansas.

Montana v. Paul West, Case No. DC-13-361-(B) Kalispell MT. Florida v. Isreal Williams, Case No. 162013CF001479AXXXMA, Duval Co. FL. Michael Williams v. Illinois, Case No. 13 CF 909, Peoria IL. Wisconsin v. Jason Anderson, Case No. 13S-20-A-R00727, Madison, Wisconsin.

North Dakota v. Joe Prince Case No. #512013-ER-02056 01849. Michigan v. Essay Coal,! Roger Bowling, Case No.12-008235-01-FC. Michigan v. Changing Times! Kevin L. Wilson, Case No. 13-033706-FC. U.S. Happened During Age?! v. Jason Wade, Case No. Changing Times! 1:14-CR-85. Michigan v. Jess W. Bowman, Case No. 2014-002193.

U.S. v. Galen Rose, Case No. 09-CR-329. Michigan v. Act 1! Lavadis Maurice Blackman, Case No. 14-08754-FC. Missouri v. D'Marius Ingram, Case No. 14NM-CR00669. Michigan v. Robert Earl Gee, 14th Circuit, Mich Court of Appeals Case No. 326634. Wisconson v. Natalie Murphy, Case No. 15 CF 24, Juno County.

Hakim v. Safariland Case No. 1:15-cv-06487 US. Dist. CT N. DIV. of IL.,EasternDist. Missouri v. Kevin King, Case No. 12CG-CR02020. Aaron Hicks v. Winchster/Olin Corp. Case No. Times Essay! 215cv13255.

Heisler v. Helminak, Case No. CI 2014 2523. Michigan v. Ophelia Shakespeare! Randal Griffin Case No. 90-08584 (Appeal) North Dakota v. Joe Prince. Case No. 512013ER0205601849. Essay! Brian Baisden v. Keystone Sports Arms, LLC. Case Number 2:14-CV-00912.

Michigan v. Jerry Swantek Case No. 15-002782. Michigan v. Mary Lou Bigford Case No. 201501281. Michigan v. Anthony Barry Case No. 2014002253. United States v. Woodley, et al., 15-20007.

North Dakota v.Brandon Lyon, Case No. 8-2015-CR-2791. Malone v. Precision Shooting, US District Maryland Case No. JFM 15-3714. Iowa v. Renard Andrews, Case No. PCCE075141.

Michigan v. Westly George, Case No. 15-20092-FC. Pennsylvania v. Jonta St. Claire Bishop, Case No. Blood Brothers! 453 for 2014. Ohio v. Barefield, Case No. 2016 CR 0421. Iowa v. Renard Andrews, Polk County, Case No. PCCE075141.

Michigan v. Shellenbarger Case No. 0410801790, Berry Co. Circuit Ct. Shotguns, Shotgun ammunition components, trajectory and ballistics, threat of harm at distance. Michigan v. Herndon Case No. Essay! 03-6996-FC, Shooting reconstruction, Ballistics, Shotgun Patterns and shooter to target analysis.

Michigan v. Gajah 00-006951-FC. Michigan v. Singh Case No. 2005002609, Shooting reconstruction, shotgun patterning, shot to impact distance analysis. Michigan v. Joshua Tackett No. Coal, And Alternative! CRW-06-0001194-FC, Ann Arbor Circuit Ct. Firearms and ammunition identification, Bullet and Times Essay Cartridge Aging analysis. Michigan v. Berry Blassingame No.

06-017755-FC, Genesee Co, Judge Hayman. GSR testing standards police procedures in regard to GSR testing cross contamination. Missouri v. Krystal Stites No. 39R040400940, Mt Vernon Circuit Ct., GSR, GSR cross contamination related subjects. Michigan v. Contrelle Harpin No. 2006628842. Minnesota v. Jeffrey Allen Kopri No. 38-CR06-114, Firearm defacing and serial number raising and identification. Florida v. James Allan Jacobs, No. 03223-CF, Firearms, shooting reconstruction using a firearms expert in a murder trial.

Kentucky v. Jameyel Hodge No. Blood Brothers Act 1! 03-CR-562, Shooting reconstruction, Firearm, Bullet, and cartridge casing identification, Ballistic analysis, bullet and casing construction, ammunition manufacture. Times Essay! Minnesota v. Kenneth Andersen, No. CR-07-171, Shooting reconstruction, firearms, Firearms ammunition, components, cartridge-bullet combinations, internal/external/terminal ballistics analysis. Virginia v. James R Jones II, No. CR06008251-8256, Circuit Court, Radford County, GSR cross-contamination. Michigan v. Kurry Brickey, Case No. 07-021768-FC, 7th Cir. Ct, Genesee Co, Judge Farah. Coal, And Alternative Energy! GRS: BlueView and SEM, Nitrate and Primer Residue testing, fails positives and negatives.

Richard Pumerantz v. EMF Company Case #GC 040612, Superior Court of California, Los Angeles County, Northeastern Division Ammunition, Blackpowder, Blackpowder substitutes, Ammunition components, Sharps 1874 rifles and Changing Essay rifle explosions. Massachusetts v.Rashidi Smith, Case No. PLCR2007-00443, Brockton Superior Court, Plymouth County, GRS, GSR Evidence collection Cross-Contamination, Hi-Point Brand firearms, straight blow-back firearms systems. Junks v. Modern Muzzleloading Inc. DBA Knight Firearms, Case Number 92131, Washington Parish, State of Louisiana Muzzleloading Firearms, Firearms Expert, Loading Components, Latent Spark Latent Spark Discharge, Shooting Reconstruction, Black Powder Black Powder Substitutes. Michigan v. Shavontae Williams, Case Number 09-30893-01, 3RD Circuit Court of why was so unpopular in germany, Michigan, Shooting Reconstruction, Shotgun Pellets, Shotgun Pellet Impacts, Bullets Fragments and Fragmentation. Michigan v. Sandez, Case No. Eaton County, Judge Osterhaven, Weapons and Ballistics Expert. Georgia v. McCorkle, Case No. 11-B-1623-4, Judge Michael Clarke, Gwinnette County GA, Firearms expert, Accident Reconstruction. Changing Times! Colorado v. Luis Guzman, Case No.

10CR2839, Judge John Wheeler, Centennial CO, GSR, Cross-Contamination. Maryland v. Charles Moore, Case No. Defense Of The! 10K05037507, Fredrick County, Weapons, GSR, GSR Cross-Contamination. South Carolina v. Christopher Woody, Case No., Weapons, GSR, GSR Dispersion. Changing Times! Michigan v. Donald Staats, Case No. 12-2547-FC, Missaukee County, Shooting Reconstruction, Trajectory, Weapons, 44 Magnum. State of Florida v. Eric Leon Howell, Case No: 48-2012-CF-012349-O in on Nuclear, and Alternative Energy, the Circuit Court of the Ninth Judicial Circuit, Orange County, Florida, Division 11, Shooting Reconstruction Investigation, Shooting of a Car, Trajectory, External Terminal Ballistics.

U.S. v. Jason Palomino, Case No. 11 CR 718, North District of Illinois, Gunshot Residue Collection Procedures. Wisconsin v. Corey Long, Case No. Essay! 12-CF-6006, Milwaukee County Circuit Court, Judge Rothstein, Shooting Reconstruction, Shooting inside a car, External Ballistics. FL v. Why Was The Treaty So Unpopular In Germany! Wayne R. Changing Times Essay! Greenlaw, Case No.2011-36246-CFAES, Volusia County, Firearms, Rates of Fire, Cycle rates of firearms. Ophelia Shakespeare! MI v. Kevin Dion Wilson, Case No. Essay! 13-033706, Genesee County, Judge Farrah, Shooting Reconstruction. Washington v. City of Coal,, Chicago, Case No. 1:10-cv-01952 Chicago, IL, U.S.

District Court, Gunshot Residue, Firearms, Firearms Working Pressures, Cartridge Case Dispersion Characteristics, Firearms Sound Levels, Firearm Feeding Characteristics, Tool Mark Examination, Firearm Jamming Characteristics, Firearm Functionally Testing. MI v. Changing Times! Westly George Case No. 15-2009-FC, St. Joseph County, MI, Judge Paul E. Stutesman, .41-.44 Caliber handguns, general workings of bullets and adverts firearms, Identification of Changing, bullets and defense ancients firearms, gunshot residue and cross-contamination, gunshot residue samples and collection procedures, storage of evidence procedures, working pressure levels of firearms, and GSR dissemination. Changing Times Essay! Missouri v. Lance Shockley Case No. 14-AK-CC0001, Carter County MS, General Rifle Characteristics, Rifle Making, Rifle Barrels, Ballistics, Toolmark Examination, Firearms in General, Working Pressure of Firearms, Bullet Expansion, Internal Barrel Measuring. Defense Of The Ancients! U.S.A. Changing! v. Brent See, Case No. 4:16-cr-00310-DCN, Cleveland OH, Silencers, Muzzle Breaks, Metal Alloys used in manufacturer of during, Silencers and Muzzle Breaks, Muzzle Break and Silencer design and manufacture. Changing Essay! s. • Taught #8220;Firearms and the Law#8221; to police and attorneys through Lorman#8217;s Education Services of Eau Claire, Wisconsin, and to Criminal Defense Attorney of television, Michigan (CDAM) Lansing Michigan. Students included Police Officer, Police Chiefs, Prosecutors, Defense Attorneys, Civil Attorneys, City Attorneys, Detectives, Others. Changing Times! • Taught #8220;Firearms Safety in the Home CPL Class to include The Legal Use of Deadly Force in the home and outside the of the ancients, home., NRA Certified.

Reloading Metallic Ammunition. NRA Certified. Changing Times! • Instructed Multi-Agency/Law Enforcement Class on GSR, GSR Cross Contamination, Firearm Accidental/Unintentional/Negligent Discharge. Southgate Police Department, Southgate, MI. 1. Using Firearms Experts - The right to - The Right to television, Counsel and Ingham County Bar Jounal 2005. 2. Gunshot Residue : What it is and what it can tell us., The Right to Counsel, Spring 2006. 3. Machineguns 101 , The Right to Counsel, 2005. 4. Illegal Weapons for Dummies , The Right to Counsel, 2005. 5. Ballistics 101 (to include Internal, External and Terminal Ballistics), The Right to Counsel, 2005.

6. Shotgun Patterning , Pending Publication. 7. Bullet Bounce and Ammunition , The Right To Counsel, October 2006. 8. “Like and Times Type” Tool Marks , The Right to Counsel, 2005. 9. Defacing firearms: What Defacing firearms: What is it? How is it done? And what does it mean to your case? , The Right To Counsel, January 2007. 10.

Gunshot Residue Cross Contamination , NACDL Journal, October 2007. This article was reprinted in MO, ID, and CA. 11. Aging Bullets and Casings , The Right to Counsel, Volume 14, Number 2, Summer 2007. 12. Cannot Be Matched or Eliminated , The Right to what during the victorian, Counsel, Volume 36 Issues 11 12, Fall, 2013. Essay! The Law Firm of Potuzik, Carrozza, Wilson, Fisher Pannucci Muskegon, Michigan. What Happened Age?! 1/01-1/03. Extern/Paralegal-- Performed legal research. Drafted legal documents, orders, motions and letters to clients.

Interviewed clients and witnesses. Times Essay! Assisted attorneys at trials, pleadings and act 1 hearings. I worked in the areas of Criminal Law, Criminal Evidence and Procedure to include open murder cases, real estate, taxes, consumer protection, tort, immigration, and American Indian law. Researched and wrote appeals for cases involving felony criminal law, family law, civil law, and DNA evidence. Observed attorneys in courtroom procedure, presentation and introduction of physical evidence and the introduction or the discrediting of Changing Times Essay, a witness and blood brothers act 1 their testimony, by direct and cross-examination. Student Instructor-- Taught a formal supplemental law class in Wills, Trusts, and Times Estates Class to students, through the student bar association. Essay On Nuclear, And Alternative Energy! This included: the elements of either a formal will or a holographic will.

What evidence can show fraud, undue influence, or lack of capacity to make a will, and all the elements of intestacy in the event that the will fails or there is no will at Changing the time of the person’s death. Counselor-- I explained landlord-tenant law to all interested parties. Essay On Nuclear, Coal, And Alternative! Explained documentation and evidence procedures to Changing, clients to enable them to pursue their own small claims cases. Gunsmith/Riflemaker I performed a wide variety for machining jobs in the manufacturing process of building several models of 1870s area Buffalo Rifles in calibers ranging from .22 long rifle to 50-140 Sharps. I performed all the repairs and customizing of customers rifles, and did all blueing, headspacing, final assembly, first stage test firing, and set all trigger pulls. The Treaty Of Versailles! Parkside Center, Arvada, Colorado. 3/94-9/94.

Temporary-Replacement Office Manager --Supervised and scheduled two employees, human resources, appointments, inventory management, budgeting, payrolls, record and bookkeeping and security supervisor. Translated English/Spanish for staff and clients. Instructor in Continuing Education-- Instructed adult students in firearms use and trouble shooting, ammunition reloading, manufacture and re-manufacture, ballistics, firearms repair, and related subjects. Prepared course outline, tests, examinations, and charts for the class. Lectured and conducted class discussions.

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Corporate Social Responsibility: Strategic Implications. School of Industrial and Times Essay Labor Relations, Cornell University Search for of the, more papers by this author. Donald S. Siegel, Department of Economics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 3506 Russell Sage Laboratory, 110, 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180-3590, USA (sieged@rpi.edu). abstract We describe a variety of perspectives on corporate social responsibility (CSR), which we use to Changing Essay develop a framework for consideration of the on Nuclear, Coal, strategic implications of CSR. Based on this framework, we propose an agenda for additional theoretical and empirical research on CSR. We then review the papers in this special issue and relate them to the proposed agenda. In recent years, scholars and managers have devoted greater attention to the strategic implications of corporate social responsibility (CSR).

Consistent with McWilliams and Siegel (2001), we define CSR as situations where the firm goes beyond compliance and engages in actions that appear to further some social good, beyond the interests of the firm and Times that which is required by law’. However, this is the victorian age? just one interpretation of CSR. Numerous definitions of CSR have been proposed and often no clear definition is given, making theoretical development and measurement difficult. CSR activities have been posited to include incorporating social characteristics or features into products and manufacturing processes (e.g. aerosol products with no fluorocarbons or using environmentally-friendly technologies), adopting progressive human resource management practices (e.g. promoting employee empowerment), achieving higher levels of environmental performance through recycling and pollution abatement (e.g. adopting an aggressive stance towards reducing emissions), and advancing the goals of community organizations (e.g. working closely with groups such as United Way). [1] Researchers are moving beyond just defining and identifying CSR activities, to examine the strategic role of CSR in Times organizations. Similarly, there is growing interest among managers in the treaty of versailles the antecedents and consequences of CSR, especially for Essay, executives at multi-national, multi-divisional companies. These corporate leaders are mindful of the fact that business norms and standards, regulatory frameworks, and Essay Coal, and Alternative stakeholder demand for CSR can vary substantially across nations, regions, and Changing Times Essay lines of business. They are also aware that their divisional managers are under constant pressure from employees, suppliers, community groups, NGOs, and ophelia shakespeare government to increase their involvement in CSR. Unfortunately for both academicians and practitioners, the analysis of CSR is Essay still embryonic, and thus theoretical frameworks, measurement, and empirical methods have not yet been resolved.

Furthermore, this topic cannot be analysed through the lens of a single disciplinary perspective. Thus, it appears that CSR is fertile ground for theory development and empirical analysis such as takes place in the Journal of Management Studies . The purpose of this special issue is to further the CSR research agenda by bringing together multiple perspectives. After issuing an open call for papers on the Academy of Management website and other venues, we received 32 manuscripts. We reviewed these papers and on Nuclear, Coal, selected several for Changing Essay, presentation at a Special Issue Workshop at the University of Illinois at Chicago. [2] Among the authors and discussants at the workshop were scholars from several academic disciplines (management, political science, accounting, marketing, and economics), many international contributors, and a high proportion of on Nuclear, and Alternative Energy junior scholars. The papers presented at the workshop were critiqued by reviewers and participants and then reviewed again after the workshop. From these revised manuscripts, we selected the five best for publication in the special issue. Essay? Several themes emerged from these studies: the relation between CSR and competitive advantage, the role of differences in institutional environments in framing stakeholder expectations regarding the propensity of firms to engage in CSR, a comparison of the social desirability of the strategic use of CSR versus coerced’ CSR, the role of economic, philosophical, and global corporate citizenship perspectives on blood brothers act 1 CSR, and the evolution and influence of the academic literature on CSR. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In the next section, we discuss a variety of theories that shed light on the strategic implications of CSR.

Following that, we outline an agenda for theoretical and empirical research on the strategic implications of Changing Times CSR. We conclude with a brief review of why was the treaty so unpopular in germany each study in the special issue and Changing Times its importance to our proposed research agenda. Numerous theories have been brought to bear on the subject of CSR. We summarize selected articles on theoretical perspectives in Table I. Theodore Levitt could be credited with setting the agenda for of versailles so unpopular in germany, the debate about the social responsibility of business in his Harvard Business Review article The Dangers of Social Responsibility’, in which he cautions that government's job is not business, and business's job is not government’ (1958, p. 47). Milton Friedman (1970) expressed the same sentiment and added that the Times Essay mere existence of what during the victorian CSR was a signal of an agency problem within the firm. An agency theory perspective implies that CSR is a misuse of corporate resources that would be better spent on valued-added internal projects or returned to shareholders. It also suggests that CSR is an executive perk, in the sense that managers use CSR to advance their careers or other personal agendas. R. Edward Freeman (1984), building on Chester Barnard's (1938) inducement-contribution’ framework, presented a more positive view of managers’ support of CSR. Freeman's stakeholder theory asserts that managers must satisfy a variety of Essay constituents (e.g. workers, customers, suppliers, local community organizations) who can influence firm outcomes. According to this view, it is not sufficient for managers to focus exclusively on the needs of stockholders, or the owners of the corporation. Stakeholder theory implies that it can be beneficial for the firm to engage in certain CSR activities that non-financial stakeholders perceive to be important, because, absent this, these groups might withdraw their support for the firm.

Stakeholder theory was expanded by Donaldson and ophelia shakespeare Preston (1995) who stressed the moral and ethical dimensions of CSR, as well as the business case for engaging in such activity. Another perspective, stewardship theory (Donaldson and Changing Davis, 1991) is based on the idea that there is a moral imperative for managers to do the right thing’, without regard to how such decisions affect firm financial performance. Institutional theory and classical economic theory have also been applied to CSR in a paper by act 1 Jones (1995). The author concludes that companies involved in repeated transactions with stakeholders on the basis of Times Essay trust and cooperation are motivated to be honest, trustworthy, and the treaty ethical because the returns to such behaviour are high. Institutional approaches have also been used to analyse environmental social responsibility. More specifically, Jennings and Zandbergen (1995) analyse the Times Essay role of institutions in shaping the consensus within a firm regarding the establishment of an ecologically sustainable’ organization. Finally, a recent paper by Waldman et al. (2004) applies strategic leadership theory to CSR. These authors conjecture that certain aspects of transformational leadership will be positively correlated with the propensity of firms to blood brothers act 1 engage in CSR and that these leaders will employ CSR activities strategically.

To the extent that firms engage in CSR strategically, this behaviour can be examined through the lens of the resource-based-view-of-the-firm (RBV). RBV, as introduced by Wernerfelt (1984) and refined by Barney (1991), borrows heavily from Essay, earlier research by Penrose (1959). [3] This theory presumes that firms are bundles of heterogeneous resources and Essay Coal, and Alternative Energy capabilities that are imperfectly mobile across firms. Barney (1991) maintains that if these resources and capabilities are valuable, rare, inimitable and non-substitutable, they can constitute a source of sustainable competitive advantage. The first theoretical paper to apply the RBV framework to corporate social responsibility was Hart (1995), who focused exclusively on environmental social responsibility. Hart asserted that, for certain types of firms, environmental social responsibility can constitute a resource or capability that leads to a sustained competitive advantage.

Russo and Fouts (1997) tested this theory empirically using firm-level data on Changing environmental and what happened during age? accounting profitability and found that firms with higher levels of Changing Essay environmental performance had superior financial performance, which they interpreted to be consistent with the RBV theory. Using the RBV framework, a more formal theory-of-the-firm model of profit-maximizing’ CSR was posited in McWilliams and what Siegel (2001). Times? These authors outlined a simple model in which two companies produce identical products, except that one firm adds an additional social’ attribute or feature to what the victorian the product, which is valued by Changing Essay some consumers or, potentially, by other stakeholders. In this model, managers conduct a cost/benefit analysis to determine the level of resources to devote to CSR activities/attributes. That is, they assess the demand for CSR and also evaluate the cost of satisfying this demand. The theory of the firm perspective on CSR has several strategic implications. The first is that CSR can be an integral element of a firm's business and corporate-level differentiation strategies. Therefore, it should be considered as a form of strategic investment. Even when it is not directly tied to a product feature or production process, CSR can be viewed as a form of reputation building or maintenance. Act 1? A second strategic implication of a theory of the firm perspective is that one can apply the RBV logic to CSR, in the sense that it is possible to generate a set of Changing Times predictions regarding patterns of investment in CSR across firms and industries.

For example, we expect to observe a positive correlation between CSR and both RD and advertising (McWilliams and Siegel, 2000), an assertion that we will explain below. Shakespeare? Expanding on Times Essay this theory of the firm perspective, we can shed further light on the strategic implications of defense CSR. In particular, we wish to focus on issues relating to industry evolution, market structure, firm dynamics, and the role of asymmetric information in the context of CSR. We first note that in the context of using CSR to differentiate products, it is important to distinguish between two types of product differentiation. The first is vertical differentiation which occurs when most consumers prefer one product to another. Other things being equal, most consumers prefer a more fuel-efficient vehicle. In the context of CSR, such a situation could occur when it is clear in the mind of consumers that the product with a CSR characteristic is better than the product without such a characteristic.

For example, a hybrid’ version of a Honda Accord generates less pollution than a standard Honda Accord. Thus, it is clear to Changing Essay most consumers that the hybrid car is Essay and Alternative Energy better than the standard model. Some consumers are willing to pay a price premium for the hybrid car, given that the social characteristic of less pollution is valuable’ to them. This type of differentiation can strengthen or maintain the reputation of the firm which adds value in Changing Times Essay addition to shakespeare allowing the firm to meet a particular market demand (Fombrun and Shanley, 1990). In contrast, horizontal differentiation occurs when only some consumers prefer a particular product, but the preference is Changing Times based on taste, rather than quality. For example, some consumers choose a particular vehicle because of the colour. This type of differentiation does not contribute to the reputation of the firm and does not allow the firm to charge a premium price. Horizontal differentiation also operates for different brands. For example, some consumers prefer Coke to Pepsi, while others have the opposite view. In contrast to the ease of defense of the valuing CSR attributes, consumers often find it difficult to Changing Times Essay determine if a firm's internal operations meet their moral and political standards for social responsibility.

The level of asymmetric information regarding internal operations can be mediated by the firm itself or by activists. Of The Ancients? For instance, companies such as McDonalds, Motorola, and Nike publish annual reports on social responsibility. One can view this activity as a form of advertising, especially for more general types of Times Essay CSR. While such reports may be useful, some consumers perceive this information as biased, since it is filtered through senior management. Fedderson and Gilligan (2001) assert that activists can play an important role in addressing this concern, by supplying consumers with information they can rely on to choose socially responsible firms. The relationship between CSR and advertising is an interesting one, which bears further reflection. Several stylized facts relating to industry evolution and the nature of advertising are useful to brothers act 1 consider. The first is that we expect levels of investment in CSR to be higher for established firms in more mature industries, since the extent of production differentiation will be greater in such sectors and consumers will, in general, have more sophisticated tastes and knowledge regarding products and firms. It is clear that such companies are likely to derive greater benefits from the use of CSR for reputation enhancement/protection. A second point is that if some forms of CSR do indeed constitute advertising, then it is important to distinguish between persuasive CSR advertising and informative CSR advertising. Persuasive CSR advertising attempts to positively influence consumer tastes for products with CSR attributes.

It follows that this type of advertising need not be firm-specific. Informative CSR advertising merely provides information about the CSR characteristics or CSR managerial practices of the firm. Following Milgrom and Roberts (1986), one could also view a high level of CSR advertising (either persuasive on informative CSR advertising) as a signal of product or firm quality. Another critical issue concerns the nature of the Times market structure of the firm's industry. A key conclusion of the McWilliams and Siegel (2001) paper was that, in equilibrium, firms that engage in CSR will earn the the treaty same rate of profit as firms that do not engage in CSR.

We refer to this finding as the neutrality result. This finding was misinterpreted by Essay Piga (2002) as implying that CSR can only occur in monopolistically competitive industries, since some oligopoly models of vertically differentiated markets predict that (in equilibrium) firms selling the higher quality product (in our case, the on Nuclear, Energy firm that sells a good with a CSR characteristic) reap abnormal’ profits. A monopolistically competitive industry consists of numerous firms, some product differentiation, and relative free entry. Changing Times? Some examples of such sectors are restaurants and retail establishments. On the other hand, oligopolies are characterized by a consolidated industry structure, considerable entry barriers, and substantial product differentiation (e.g. autos, computers). We believe that the defense neutrality result holds under both oligopoly and monopolistic competition. This is Times Essay implied for monopolistic competition because sectors with such a structure are characterized by both horizontal and ophelia vertical differentiation, a fragmented industry structure, and very low entry barriers. Under this scenario, it is impossible for firms to use CSR to outperform rivals. Examples of firms in monopolistically competitive industries that engage in Changing Times Essay CSR include restaurants, hotels, companies selling organic produce, and different types of retail establishments. The neutrality result likely holds for television, monopolistic markets as well.

That is because, while some oligopoly models predict that firms producing a higher quality product earn abnormal’ returns, these findings hinge on the assumption that costs are constant and independent of quality. These assumptions were not invoked in the McWilliams and Siegel (2001) model. Furthermore, recent economic models of CSR (Baron, 2001; Fedderson and Gilligan, 2001) identify an important countervailing force on the ability of Changing Times companies to engage in strategic CSR in oligopolistic industries: activists who target leading firms (e.g. the attack on why was of versailles so unpopular in germany Nike's Asian production). This countervailing force makes it difficult for oligopolistic firms to achieve a competitive advantage through the strategic use of Essay CSR. The question of whether firms can use CSR to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage is another important question. A paper by Reinhardt (1998) finds that a firm engaging in a CSR-based strategy can only generate an abnormal return if it can prevent competitors from imitating its strategy. In competitive markets this is unlikely, since CSR is highly transparent, with little causal ambiguity. Other theoretical studies (Dutta et al., 1995; Hoppe and Lehmann-Grube, 2001) show that any early mover advantages that might be gained by offering higher quality products (recall that CSR is modelled as a quality improvement’ in blood brothers McWilliams and Siegel, 2001) are eroded when competitive strategies are observable.

However, CSR may be used in the context of political strategies that result in regulatory barriers to imitation. One such strategy would be for Changing, firms to use government regulation to impose CSR on rivals who do not employ an appropriate technology, thus raising the costs of those rivals relative to the initiating firm. Marvel (1977) provided an example of this in the British textile industry in the early 1800s. The first child labour law was passed in Great Britain after the mill owners who employed modern technology banded together and why was the treaty of versailles in germany lobbied for restrictions on child labour, which was used more by Changing Times the older, smaller mills. McWilliams et al. (2002) applied the RBV framework to demonstrate how US firms can use political strategies based on CSR to Coal, and Alternative Energy raise regulatory barriers that prevent foreign competitors from Changing Essay, using substitute (e.g. low labour cost) technology. This discussion focused primarily on defense ancients understanding CSR from an applied perspective. However, it begins to Changing Times Essay point to what happened the victorian a broader and deeper set of research issues that have yet to be resolved. RESEARCH AGENDA ON THE STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS OF CSR. There are numerous unresolved theoretical and empirical issues relating to the strategic implications of CSR.

These include defining CSR, identifying institutional differences in CSR across countries, determining the Changing Essay motivations for CSR, describing CSR strategies, modelling the effects of CSR on the firm and stakeholder groups, determining the defense of the ancients effects of leadership and Changing Essay corporate culture on CSR activity, assessing the effect of ophelia shakespeare CSR on the firm and Essay stakeholder groups, measuring the demand for CSR, measuring the costs of CSR and assessing the current knowledge base. Theoretical Issues To Be Resolved. As noted in our introduction, there is a no strong consensus on a definition for CSR. CSR has been used as a synonym for business ethics, defined as tantamount to corporate philanthropy, and defense of the ancients considered strictly as relating to Changing Times environmental policy. CSR has also been confused with corporate social performance and corporate citizenship. The lack of consistency in the use of the defense of the term CSR makes it difficult to compare results across studies, hampering our ability to understand the implications of CSR activity. As other issues are resolved, we hope that they lead to the emergence of an agreed-upon definition of CSR.

Having a good definition of CSR, with a common terminology, would aid us in modelling the Changing Essay role of organizational culture and leadership in television adverts determining the importance of CSR within an organization. Researchers could analyse how changes in corporate control, particularly through merger or acquisition, affect the type and level of CSR activity within firms. Alternatively, changes in top management (CEO or team) might be examined to determine whether leadership style and Times characteristics are more important than corporate control/culture for predicting CSR activity. Understanding the role of leadership could be extended to understanding the ophelia decision making process and how decisions about Essay, CSR activity are affected by demands from ophelia, multiple stakeholders. Asymmetric information makes it difficult to study the antecedents and consequences of CSR.

Managers may perceive that many external stakeholders view CSR activity more favourably if it is divorced from any discussion of the bottom line. With this in Essay mind, managers may not reveal the more practical motivations (such as product promotion, labour cost control and reputation building) behind their CSR activities, especially in corporate publications such as annual reports. This lack of candid information has made it difficult to happened during the victorian age? distinguish and discuss the different motivations for Times Essay, CSR, which may be private or social. The use of CSR to capture value is referred to of the as strategic CSR by Baron (2001) who points out that it is the motivation for the action that identifies socially, as opposed to privately, responsible action’. That is, if the motivation is to serve society, at the cost of profits, the action is socially responsible, but if the Changing Times Essay motivation is to serve the bottom line, then the action is what the victorian privately responsible. For privately responsible actions, there may well be social benefits that exceed the cost of the action to the firm. However, this does not change the Changing Times motivation, unless these social benefits are of value to ophelia shakespeare managers. For example, providing day care may lower the number of juvenile crimes in a community, but the Essay firm might provide the day care only the treaty so unpopular in germany, because it increases the availability of Changing workers and lowers the cost of Essay Coal, Energy absenteeism. This is reminiscent of the consideration of positive externalities associated with innovative activity. An externality is Changing Times Essay defined as the impact of an economic agent's actions on why was the treaty the well-being of a bystander. Pollution is a classic example of Essay a negative externality, while innovation (whose benefits cannot be entirely appropriated by its creator) is a classic example of ophelia shakespeare a positive externality.

While the private returns to innovation (or those that accrue to the company) may be high, the social returns to innovation (through the Times creation of shakespeare new or improved products and processes) may be even greater. Researchers need to use more direct methods, such as interviews and surveys, to tease out’ less self-serving information about the motivations for CSR activity and improve the precision of measurement of the private and Changing Times social returns to CSR. In addition to Essay and Alternative Energy understanding the motivation for the provision of Times Essay social benefits, we need to understand how the provision of these goods, through strategic CSR, affects society. An example of strategic CSR is when a firm links the provision of why was the treaty in germany a public good to the sale of their (private) products (e.g. Changing Times? eco-labelling). Bagnoli and Watts (2003) model this behaviour and find that the propensity of firms to engage in television adverts strategic CSR depends on two factors: the intensity of competition in the market and the extent to which consumers are willing to Changing pay a premium for social responsibility. The authors conclude that there is an inverse relation between intensity of competition and provision of CSR. That is, in more competitive markets, less of the public good will be provided through strategic CSR. Conversely, in television less competitive markets, more of the public good will be provided. This is Essay easy to understand, since more competition results in lower margins and, therefore, less ability to provide additional (social) attributes or activity. Conversely, less competition leads to blood brothers act 1 the potential for higher margins and more ability to provide additional attributes or activity.

An analysis of the provision of public goods by private firms is Essay a welcome addition to the management literature on CSR, which has been primarily concerned with answering the following question: do firms do well by doing good’? Showing that a firm does well by doing good is often referred to as making the business case for the treaty of versailles in germany, CSR. While understanding the relation between firm performance and social performance is of primary importance in the management literature, a more thorough understanding of the CSR phenomenon requires that we take account of other stakeholders as well. These stakeholders include: customers, employees, governments, suppliers, taxpayers, community groups, and underrepresented groups. Our understanding of CSR should be extended to an examination of the strategic use of CSR activities. Fombrun and Essay Shanley (1990) established that investing in CSR attributes and act 1 activities may be important elements of product differentiation and reputation building. McWilliams and Siegel (2001) suggest that CSR activities be included in strategy formulation and that the Changing Times level of resources devoted to during CSR be determined through cost/benefit analysis. Analysis of the strategic implications of CSR is hampered by cross-country/cultural differences in the institutions that regulate market activity, including business, labour and social agencies. Institutional differences lead to different expectations and different returns to Changing Times activity.

For firms operating in multiple countries/cultures this complicates the process of during determining which activities to engage in and how much to invest. As the knowledge base of CSR develops world-wide, we will be better able to analyse and advise on CSR. In summary, the CSR literature suffers from definitional questions that limit the future research. Distinguishing among strategic CSR, altruistic CSR, and even coerced CSR (e.g. Husted and De Jesus Salazar, 2006) constitutes a significant theoretical breakthrough. However, until theory and Changing research can adequately agree upon what, specifically, constitutes CSR, research will continue to provide a lack of consistent results.

It is to this empirical research that we next turn our attention. Problems with measurement of the costs and why was of versailles so unpopular benefits of CSR activities continue to cloud our understanding of the Essay strategic implications of CSR. A major impediment to empirical research is the continuing confusion over definition that we mentioned above. It is impossible to measure what we cannot define and, as long as we use different definitions, we will get empirical results that cannot reliably be compared. Table II presents selected empirical studies of CSR. Most of these papers focus on the relation between CSR and defense of the ancients firm performance. Early studies used either the event study methodology (which is Changing Times Essay based on analysis of Essay short-run changes in stock prices as a proxy for firm performance in the aftermath of a CSR-related event) or regression analysis (which uses an accounting measure of profitability, such as return on assets, as the dependent variable in a regression model that explains’ firm performance). These studies usually attempted to answer the question: do firms do well by doing good? The reported results have ranged from showing a negative relation between CSR and firm performance, to showing no relation, to showing a positive relation (e.g. the results of divesting from Changing, South Africa shown in Table II). There is little consistency in these findings.

This may be a result of inconsistency in defining CSR, inconsistency in defining firm performance, inconsistency in samples, imprecision and on Nuclear, and Alternative Energy inconsistency in research design, misspecification of models, changes over time, or some more fundamental variance in the samples that are being analysed. McWilliams and Siegel (1997) critiqued the Changing Times Essay use of the event study methodology to measure the television adverts consequences of CSR. The authors reported that the findings of event studies of CSR appearing in top management journals were unreliable, due to serious flaws in Times Essay the research design and implementation of the event study methodology (see also McWilliams et al., 1999). They also cautioned that the use of stock price as a metric for performance is not appropriate for television, studying CSR. Times? That is because CSR is a firm level measure and many socially responsibility activities occur at the plant level or the product level. Another concern is happened during that an analysis of stock price effects only relates to financial stakeholders and it is clear that non-financial stakeholders are also affected by Changing Essay CSR activities. McWilliams and Siegel (2000) challenged the conventional regression model used to assess the relationship between corporate social performance (CSP), which is often used as a synonym for CSR, and firm performance. They noted that the typical regression equation estimated was misspecified because it did not include two key variables: the level of RD spending and advertising expenditure. Both of these variables have been shown to be determinants of firm performance and, because all three (RD, advertising, and CSP) are elements of a differentiation strategy, they hypothesized that RD and advertising would be correlated with a measure of CSP. The Victorian? The results of McWilliams and Siegel's estimation of the correctly-specified, expanded equation demonstrated that the Changing Times Essay three explanatory variables were correlated. Thus, the model that excluded RD and the treaty advertising variables was misspecified.

Most notably, they showed that when RD and advertising were included in the model, CSP was not a significant determinant of firm performance, as had been reported in Times Essay several widely-cited studies. Consistent with Baron's (2001) distinction between altruistic CSR and strategic CSR, Hillman and Keim (2001) conjecture that empirical tests of the relation between CSR and firm performance should disaggregate CSR activities into those that are strategic (stakeholder management) and those that are altruistic (social issue participation). Television Adverts? Based on estimation of a disaggregated model, they report that there is Changing Times a positive relation between firm performance (measured using market value added) and strategic CSR and a negative relation between altruistic CSR and firm performance. McWilliams and Siegel (2001) provide a framework for analysing CSR within the adverts context of the Essay theory of the firm. Based on this framework, they develop hypotheses regarding the provision of adverts CSR attributes across industries and market structures. They hypothesize that the provision of Changing Times CSR will depend on shakespeare RD spending, advertising intensity, the Changing Essay extent of product differentiation, the percentage of government sales, consumer income, the of the tightness of the labour market, and the stage of the industry life cycle’ (2001, p. 125). All of these should be tested empirically to see if the results support the hypotheses. McWilliams and Essay Siegel conclude that there is some level of CSR that will maximize profits while satisfying the demand for CSR from during the victorian age?, multiple stakeholders. Times? The ideal level of ophelia shakespeare CSR can be determined by cost-benefit analysis’ (2001, p. 125). While costs of providing CSR attributes may be easy for managers to determine, consumer demand (benefit) may not be. Consumer demand for CSR could be difficult to Times measure because CSR attributes are among many attributes of a product.

For example, a particular shampoo may have the CSR attribute that it is Essay Coal, and Alternative not tested on animals’. But, it also has a particular scent, colour, consistency, and package. This makes it difficult to separate out the Changing demand for the CSR attribute. A method for assessing how much consumers are willing to pay for a given product characteristic or feature is defense hedonic pricing. Hedonic pricing involves using data on actual purchases, in order to determine the implicit price’ of a particular attribute. For example, new homes have many attributes, one of which might be central air conditioning. Examining a large number of new home sales, with and without central air conditioning, but holding other attributes constant, it would be possible to determine how much consumers are willing to pay for the central air conditioning. Similarly, to determine the demand’ for not tested on Times animals’, researchers can compare sale data on so unpopular many shampoos, with and without the CSR attribute and can determine how much consumers will pay for that attribute.

This information could then be used in a cost/benefit analysis of the CSR attribute. To illustrate, we return to Essay the example of Coal, hybrid cars, which are highly fuel efficient. Given the high price of gasoline, it is clear that some consumers will be attracted to these automobiles because they want to save money on fuel. Others may choose to Changing Times purchase a Honda hybrid, as opposed to GM hybrid, because Honda has a superior reputation for quality. Still others are willing to pay a price premium for the hybrid car, strictly because the ancients social characteristic of less pollution is Changing valuable’ to them. The beauty of the hedonic method is during age? that it allows us tease out the value to Changing Times the consumer of the treaty of versailles so unpopular each of these three factors (fuel efficiency, quality differential, and the social characteristic of less pollution). The hedonic method is Changing based on the notion that the (logarithm of the) price of a good or service is ophelia related to its characteristics or features as follows: where #x25b; is a random error term and Changing Times Essay Z is a vector of k characteristics or attributes. Television Adverts? These attributes are typically sources of private satisfaction, such as the speed of a computer or the Changing Essay horsepower of an auto engine. The researcher typically estimates a regression, in Essay and Alternative order to determine the values of the β coefficients.

The β coefficients provide estimates of how much customers are willing to Times pay for a given attribute. Some characteristics may also have social dimensions, such as aerosol products with no fluorocarbons or environmentally-friendly lighting. A major advantage of hedonics, relative to other methods (e.g. focus groups), is that it is based on blood observed, not hypothetical data. Hedonics have been used by government agencies and Changing Times other researchers to price’ individual attributes of computers, autos, housing, land, and dowries. They are also increasingly being used for more abstract non-market environmental goods’, such as views, clean air, and ophelia open space. These estimates can have important managerial and policy implications, since they help managers estimate demand for social characteristics and Changing Times can also be used in national price/cost of living statistics.

The theoretical and empirical issues discussed above provide an important foundation for ophelia shakespeare, understanding the Changing contributions of the articles in this special issue. These papers shed light on the definitional issues that plague this research, and demonstrate, both theoretically and empirically, how making clear, specific definitions can result in deeper understanding and guide more rigorous research in CSR. The article by Alfie Marcus and Marc Anderson (2006) poses an interesting research question, especially in on Nuclear, and Alternative Energy light of our previous discussion of the strategic implications of CSR. The authors ask whether a firm's dynamic capability’ influences its competence in CSR. Times? To address this question, they provide a novel and interesting application of the RBV framework to the case of CSR.

In the theoretical section of the paper, the authors make two important points. Coal, Energy? The first is that they distinguish between business and social competencies. Times? They also consider a general dynamic capability’, a term coined by Ghemawat (2001), which describes such activities as enhancing the absorptive capacity of the firm, benchmarking, and experimentation. The authors examine their research question using a detailed firm-level survey in the US retail food industry. Specifically, they surveyed 806 grocery stores/chains with operations in Essay on Nuclear, Coal, Energy North America as of 1997. Changing Times? The results indicate that a general dynamic capability has a positive influence on a firm's competence in supply chain management, which is a key business competence in this industry. However, a general dynamic capability does not appear to have any influence on a firm's competence in environmental management, which is a key social’ competence in this industry. The authors conclude that their findings suggest that the ophelia factors driving competitive advantage are different than those that influence CSR. Jonathan Doh and Changing Times Terrence Guay (2006) assess the television role of differences in the institutional environments of Europe and the USA in explaining expectations regarding the Essay propensity of television adverts firms to be socially responsible. Changing Times? As such, the paper is an interesting synthesis of neo-institutional and stakeholder theory. Blood Brothers Act 1? It is a qualitative analysis, consisting of three case studies.

Specifically, the authors assess the roles that US and European non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have played in influencing CSR policies in three areas: the trade and Changing Essay regulation of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs), pharmaceutical pricing and defense of the distribution policies, and international environmental agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol Treaty. The case studies reveal the Times role of institutional differences in these two regions in influencing government policy, corporate strategy and NGO activism related to CSR. Television Adverts? Specifically, the authors find that these factors play an Times, important role in determining how CSR is brothers act 1 perceived and implemented in the USA and Europe. A key implication of the Doh and Guay study is that any cross-country comparison of the propensity of firms to engage in CSR should take into account these institutional differences. In the next article, Bryan Husted and Jos de Jesus Salazar pose another interesting research question: is it better for firms to Essay act strategically with respect to CSR than to why was of versailles so unpopular in germany be coerced into Changing Times, making such investments? More generally, the on Nuclear, Coal, and Alternative Energy authors analyse the conditions under which firms can maximize profit and enhance social performance. As such, they take the theory of the firm perspective on Changing Times CSR seriously, since they conduct a cost/benefit analysis of social responsibility. This technique was proposed by McWilliams and ancients Siegel (2001). Husted and De Jesus Salazar model this cost/benefit analysis under three scenarios concerning the firm's desire to engage in CSR: altruism, coerced egoism’, and the strategic use of CSR. Changing? Altruism describes the case when firms sincerely want to be socially responsible, without regard to how such activities affect the bottom line. Television? Coerced egoism occurs when firms act in Essay a socially responsible manner only when they are compelled by regulation (and other factors) to why was the treaty of versailles in germany do so.

The strategic use of CSR is defined as instances where there are clear benefits to the firm for engaging in CSR. The authors employ standard microeconomic analysis to determine the optimal level of Times Essay social output that results under each of these cases. They demonstrate that both society and firms are better off when firms use CSR strategically than when they are coerced into making such investments. This is ophelia a conclusion that would make Adam Smith smile. In the next paper, Duane Windsor (2006) examines different perspectives on Essay CSR. As noted earlier, CSR is still an embryonic concept in the academic literature. Windsor's essay is a tour-de-force on defense the evolution on three opposing perspectives on CSR: economic, philosophical, and global corporate citizenship. As he defines it, the economic viewpoint focuses on the firm's ability to use CSR as a tool to create wealth, implies minimal government intervention to promote CSR, and Changing Times advocates that the firm adopt prevailing business ethics. Defense Of The? On the other hand, the philosophical perspective results in moral reflection on CSR and should lead to higher levels of CSR and other forms of altruism. He also notes that this view supports active government intervention to promote CSR, as well as policy initiatives that strengthen stakeholder rights.

The global corporate citizenship perspective seems to fall somewhere in between the economic and Changing Times philosophical views, although this perspective can be used instrumentally to enhance market opportunities and the firm's moral reputation. The author concludes by discussing the what during the victorian age? implications of each of Changing Times these perspectives for CSR scholarship. This special issue concludes with an on Nuclear, Energy, article by Andy Lockett, Jeremy Moon, and Wayne Visser (2006), which assesses the status of CSR research in the management literature. Specifically, they assess the focus and nature of CSR research and the use of the accumulated knowledge in management and related fields. The authors also attempt to determine the key intellectual influences on the field of CSR and whether CSR research has a dominant paradigm. Their empirical analysis is based on Changing Times data on CSR-related publications and citation analysis over what happened during, the period 19922002.

The authors identified CSR-related articles in the following journals: Academy of Management Journal , Academy of Management Review , Administrative Science Quarterly , Journal of Management , Organization Science , Strategic Management Journal , Journal of Management Studies , Harvard Business Review , Sloan Management Review , and California Management Review . They analysed both the articles cited in these CSR-related papers and Times the citations that CSR-related articles generated in other journals. They found that the field’ is in blood brothers act 1 a continuing state of Changing emergence’, a term coined by Thomas Kuhn (1962). That is, based on its overall profile in these leading management journals and act 1 the citations these articles generate, CSR lacks a dominant paradigm. This is an obvious call to action for concerned researchers. It is this state of emergence that we hope to advance with this special issue.

The papers here exemplify the Times Essay variety of perspectives that have been brought to bear on CSR. They also demonstrate an what the victorian, increasing ability to clearly define the construct of CSR (albeit not necessarily all agreeing on the definition) and build strong theoretical arguments and high-quality empirical studies that will provide an effective springboard for future research in CSR. We thank participants at the April 2004 University of Illinois at Changing Essay, Chicago/International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility Workshop on Corporate Social Responsibility, Ann Buchholtz, Steve Floyd, Mark Shanley, and blood act 1 Mike Wright for their insightful comments on a previous version of this paper. The second author also gratefully acknowledges financial support from the School of Humanities and Social Sciences and Changing Essay the Lally School of television Management and Technology at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. For the benefit of non-US readers, the United Way is a global network of non-profit, philanthropic organizations. Essay? In the USA, many employees (especially those working for large organizations) donate a small fraction of their salaries to United Way, which is then distributed to a specific charity (or charities) that is part of the network. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the College of Business Administration at the University of Illinois at Chicago and the International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility (ICCSR) at the University of Nottingham in the United Kingdom. See Kor and Mahoney (2004), Lockett and Thompson (2004), and Rugman and Verbeke (2004) for an excellent series of articles on shakespeare Edith Penrose and the resource-based view of Changing Times strategic management. Issue online: 10 January 2006 Version of record online: 10 January 2006.

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