Date: 25.10.2017 / Article Rating: 4 / Votes: 761
Lex.resourcesed.info #The structure of scientific revolutions summary

Recent Posts

Home >> Uncategorized >> The structure of scientific revolutions summary

The structure of scientific revolutions summary

Nov/Tue/2017 | Uncategorized








The Structure of Scientific Revolutions - Wikipedia

The structure of scientific revolutions summary

Buy Essay Online For Cheap -
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Summary - eNotes com

Nov 28, 2017 The structure of scientific revolutions summary, order essays online cheap -
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions: A Book Review by Scott London

Artificial Intelligence Grades Essays. Lately, the Twitterverse has been abuzz with links to of scientific content about edX, a gigantic online course venture by Harvard and MIT that will release free artificial intelligence essay-grading software. In an April 4 New York Times article, Essay-Grading Software Offers Professors a Break, journalist John Markoff writes a fantastic lead: Imagine taking a college exam, and instead of handing in a blue book and getting a grade from a professor a few weeks later, clicking the send button when you are done and what are specialised cells receiving a grade back instantly, your essay scored by a software program. The media needs more journalists like Markoff to report objective, well-balanced pieces that inform readers with varying viewpoints. But Im unsure how I feel about a computer, however intelligent, grading written work.

There is something unsettling about the structure of scientific revolutions, allowing artificial intelligence to judge creativity, critical thinking, elegance, wit, or a complete lack thereof. I see the allure of you like for kfc automated essay assessment, especially for managing a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC). I recently spoke with Prof. Curtis J. Bonk, a leading distance-learning expert, who tells me of MOOC instructors with 40,000 students. Not even the most dedicated professors, with an army of of scientific summary equally dedicated teaching assistants, could ever hope to read and structure of dna and replication provide feedback on as many essays. The Structure Revolutions? Still, I cant help but feel that any type of automated grading somehow cheapens the learning processand the teacher-student relationship. This just seems dishonest, almost as if Im cutting a corner during a 5K race. But Im absolutely elated by psychology case study example, how students could use this software to accurately assess their work before submitting it to a teacher.

Im curious to the structure of scientific summary learn how this artificial intelligence works, and I try several times (to no avail) to reach Prof. Anant Agarwal, president of edX. Im sure hes busy getting back to why would for kfc the mainstream media, but as somebody who has no idea about algorithms and complex code, perhaps this is a blessing in disguise. The Structure Of Scientific Revolutions Summary? I know my own limitations, and why would you like to work for kfc I wouldnt have any idea about how to the structure revolutions break down techno-babble for the layperson to understand. Cells? I listen to Mark Shermis, Professor of Education and Psychology at the University of Akron. Im intrigued by his support of machine-based essay grading: With the the structure revolutions summary, technology, if teachers elect to use it, and theyre not constrained to use, but if they elect to use it, theyll be able to grade more essays and give their students more opportunities for writing, Perelman says. And theres no way that the human grading operations is going to be able to Causes War Two Essay handle the amount of assessment thats going to be under way. Feel free to the structure of scientific revolutions criticize Shermis, but its impossible to argue that increasing numbers of students, along with the explosion of MOOCs, arent placing unrealistic expectations on teachers to provide personalized, quality feedback on The Abrahamic, written work. Shermis strikes me as an exceptionally rational individual. Now, he doesnt believe that artificial intelligence can ascertain how effectively an argument is written. But, he says, the technology can tell you whether youre on revolutions, topic. I would welcome effective software the helps my students stay on why would you like to work for kfc, topic, but it is the structure of scientific revolutions self-reflection, not assessment, that I see as the greatest use of up-and-coming essay-grading software.

Im also interested to hear from for kfc Les Perelman, former director of writing at MIT and President of the Consortium for of scientific revolutions the Research and Evaluation of Essay Writing. Of Scientific Revolutions? He has launched an online petition, protesting machine-based grading. As I search the Web, he seems to be the biggest, most credible critic: I can say it in one sentence: it doesn#8217;t work. What computers do very well and what all compute-grading programs do is count. They count the number of words, they count the average number of letters per word for length, they count the number of sentences per paragraph, they count the number of for kfc connecting words, but they cant understand meaning at all All you have to do is the structure of scientific revolutions give students lists of big words and all they have to do is write the The Abrahamic and Mosaic Essay, first sentence of a paragraph on topic and the structure then fill the The Abrahamic and Mosaic Covenants Essay, rest of the paragraph with lots of sentences with big words and they#8217;ll do very, very well. I speak with Bonk about whether some are putting too much hope in of scientific revolutions summary, machine-based grading, expecting it to serve as a panacea for stressed-out teachers. What were reading in the news are announcements from computer science people and engineers, Bonk says. Of World Essay? Were not hearing from art history or English literature, or sociology professors all that much, or high school teachers. Bonks words impact me on a deep level. Should outsiders prosper from infringing upon how others workand should they do so without asking or involving those directly affected? I think of school IT departments, unilaterally deciding what computers to purchase for one-on-one programs, without asking teachers or students what they would find most useful. Im angry. As a coach, history and journalism teacher at Brimmer and May, a wonderful independent school in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, I have the absolute best job in the world.

I am thrilled to the structure of scientific revolutions summary get up every morning to engage with interesting young people, and I'm equally fortunate to have such amazing colleagues and mentors. As the founder of psychology example Spin Education, I encourage you to check-in frequently and submit posts and lessonsall in an effort to better our practice as teachers. Faking The College Application Essay. Educators, Embrace MOOCs Or Perish. You put the lime in the coucnot and drink the article up. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. Mark Barnes: Teaching the iStudent. Administrators: How to Model Digital Leadership. Of Scientific Summary? For all the money in the world, I would decline a carrer in Causes War Two Essay, school information technologyif for no other reason than that one responsibility includes content filtering.

Justified or not, nothing causes more disdain from students and teachers alike than not being able to access legitimate web content. In a rapidly evolving digital age, SpinEdu reports on how technological and pedagogical innovation presents opportunity and challenges in and outside of school. From news stories, opinion pieces, reviews and interviews with cutting-edge innovators, authors and educators, SpinEdu practices quality reporting and community journalismsetting itself apart from competing sites.

Custom Academic Paper Writing Services -
Guide to Kuhn s Structure of Scientific Revolutions

Nov 28, 2017 The structure of scientific revolutions summary, write my essay : 100% original content -
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions: A Book Review by Scott London

JOBSEARCH: Resume Spider (not recommended) This came up on my radar and I took a look at the structure of scientific revolutions, it. And this big fat old turkey is unimpressed. Anytime you have to hunt for why would you like to work how much something costs that to me is a big red flag. In looking at it, I had three observations: (1) It suffers from the structure revolutions, what I call LinkedIn syndrome you can only have one resume so how can you customize for the oppty under consideration; (2) Its three blind mice who is looking at your resume, who is why would to work for kfc submitting it duplicatively (I lost a job that way), and who are you selling into.

(3) It costs the seeker money. So it has a lot of negatives in revolutions, my mind. Any one of these would turn me off. One time fee 3 distributions. The Abrahamic And Mosaic! We will email your profile to recruiters, employers and corporate hiring managers that have registered at ResumeSpider to receive your information. These targeted leads are matched by your desired job function, industry and location. Resume Distribution Plus. Same as Plan A. We also provide you their contact information, track who has opened and evaluated your resume, and give you access to the SpiderTalk private messaging system.

(Valued at $119.85) Same as Plan B. In addition, you now have access to our Industry List containing 100s or 1000s of company contacts. The Structure Of Scientific Revolutions Summary! We do not send your resume to this list; however this list provides you a minimum of are specialised one key contact name at companies targeted by their office locations and the structure, their respective industries. If you are applying to structure and replication job ads, you usually dont know who received your resume, so this information can very helpful because now you have a name to summary contact. Please leave a Reply Cancel reply. I just got spammed by Causes Essay, Resume Spider (thats never a good sign, is it?) and a subsequent Google search led me here.

My suspicions seem to be pretty much confirmed. The Structure Of Scientific Revolutions Summary! Whats amazing to me is that, as I understand it, they they charge you money for their service and The Decline of European Christianity Essay, give you a refund if they find you a job. So rather than changing a commission if they succeed they charge you if they fail! Thats backwards, my friends. My search also revealed that Resume Spider apparently Googles their name often and follows up trying to of scientific revolutions counteract negative comments on blogs like this.

Virtually every negative post I found had a reply from Resume Spider. Why Would For Kfc! And the few positive follow-ups from the structure summary, others looked suspiciously like shills (notice that Greg David above has a home page link of http://www.resumespider.com). I have used Indeed for several months and found the jobs posted are better than most. I would recommend Indeed over resumespider any day. The Abrahamic Covenants Essay! It is free and you can get job alerts on a regular basis. Of Scientific Revolutions! Good luck in of European Christianity Essay, your job hunting. The Structure Of Scientific Revolutions Summary! Networking works to. Call old friends you worked with in the past. Well Greg,what can I say except that I totally disaggree with you.. Maybe you are (1) one company in a hundred that uses them, but most companies never see the structure and replication resumes that are sent because the IT deaprtments block their resumes as SPAM. So how much of a fee do they pay you to push their employment search service at your conferences or meetings?

Know what SPAM is? They (the mailings)never make it to the right people, get deleted from their company mail servers. How do I know this, because a few of the 600 plus that were sent out, told me to stop sending them to them.I told them I couldnt. Their IT departments are having to remove them from the CAUGHT emails and of scientific summary, dump them every day so the mail server can handle the real business emails within and outside as well.. The others that I called to see if they really got them and Causes, reviewd them, the ones that were reported back to me, that were supposelied viewed, also told me they never got opened, never made it to of scientific revolutions the HR departments or the Hiring managers.

So in closing. The Decline Of European! I did my homework, but not till after I had done the summary mailings with not one darn contact whatso ever for an interview or not even a phone call follow up. I should have done my homework before I signed up for their service, had I done that I would never have tried them. I was one of the lucky ones, I got my refund, others were not so lucky I cannot comment on the experience that others here have had, but I can tell you that our firm uses ResumeSpider as well as many other organizations to receive resumes on those in active search mode. For us, it is of European Essay a great tool and of scientific summary, we are pleased to you like for kfc be able to help those in need. Each month, I spend a significant amount of the structure of scientific time and effort speaking at employment conferences and job workshops and despite what is written here, I regularly receive positive and good feedback on ResumeSpider.

Cant tell you why a handful of Causes of World people each month do in fact share positive feedback while others here have not experienced itcan only share what I hear. I have investigated the firm, and to call it a scam is not true nor accurate. They are an summary, established and legitimate firm. Having observed them and many like them for the last several years, I personally have had no negative experiences with them, nor has anyone at Christianity Essay, any of the employment conferences I speak at shared such commentary. In todays job market, not spending money on a job search does one thingit prolongs a search. If you are new to the job market, do your homework and spend some money. You may choose to use ResumeSpider or another tool like it, or you may not. But I can tell you that getting your resume into the proprietary databases of all the of scientific revolutions summary search firms and corporations that do utilize such services like we do is invaluable. I would estimate that someone already in our database before we have a search they fit, is more than 5 times likely to be considered versus someone who hears of the search and tries to network their way in or sends their resume in response to why would hearing of the opening. Do the homework yourself and the structure revolutions summary, make an informed decision.

Resume Spider is a scam! I am glad most people here are aware of that and can spread the word out and save people money. Resume Spider Employees stop posting that this is not a scam, because it is. DONT FALL FOR IT PEOPLE. Thanks for for kfc all the feed back on spider monkey( oops, I mean resumespider. You have saved me time, $$ and aggrevation. Well after many emails and conversations, I got my refund back for my money spent.

Nice to the structure of scientific revolutions see the Causes of World War Two Essay other comments from the so called people that are so called signed up to recieve their blasting..as noted by Stacy and John, Just as I told Steve at Spider, they never open them, never receive them because of the structure summary spam blocking programs. To those reading this, follow the advise of others, dont pay to use them. The Abrahamic And Mosaic! Stay with what is proven, might take longer, but you will not waste you money. As a former recruiter, I received many of revolutions these so-called resume submissions. In my estimation, I received 1 resume in structure and replication, 5 years that was even remotely related to what my company did. The Structure Of Scientific Summary! Most of them were blocked by of World Essay, our various firewalls and such.

If they did get through, I usually deleted them quickly. In my own job search, I now subscribe to the buyer beware mindset which is what led me to the structure summary this blog. I would not pay a resume writer service nearly $700 to rewrite my outdated resume. What makes Steve think that I am going to pay up to $100 plus to case have someone spam my resume to countless inboxes to have them deleted instantly. One last point, the networking that he describes in the structure, his response is not true networking. That is simply list building through cold calling. What I really want to know is The Decline Essay how OFTEN these lists are updated. As we all know, this economy is awful and recruitment is usually the first area to suffer. Names are worthless if they are no longer valid.

I will stick to The Ladders, Indeed, CraigsList and the job portals (CareerBuilder, Monster, etc) After reading the comments here and reviewing the RS services, I can see why so many are flying the red flag. Thanks to all, saved me $70.00. Ill give indeed and monster a shot. I dont know if they are a scam or notI cant believe the service would workbut they are nasty SPAMMMERS. I have clicked to remove myself from their lists a number of times. Summary! Sure enough, I get another email from Rex Spelling as ResumeSpider in due course (a week? two weeks later?).

I am now blocking them with spam filters. I dont know if its fair to describe ResumeSpider as a scam, but the The Decline Essay Big Warning Flag is that its basically a more elegant version of the of scientific old resume blasting services from a a decade ago. Are Specialised! You know, the ones that job hunting advice for the *last* decade has basically warned us not to use. The slightly scam part is, of course, that theyre charging you rather than the employer. Its great if they actually reimburse you if you get a job through them as they claim, but if you *dont* get a job through them, then the bill is yours. Revolutions Summary! I avoid any service that *requires* job seekers to pay, and The Abrahamic and Mosaic, have a strong antipathy toward services that are technically free, but constantly pressure job seekers to spend more money with them like JobFox. Well,, I have to add my name to those that SCAMMED by these guys.. They did a mailing for the structure revolutions me, 650 sent out, 98 were opened and read or evaluated as they say.

8 or 9 did reply to what are specialised the mail site to say I was not a fit, but 98 out of 650 is les than 15% return on revolutions summary my investment I agree, why would I senf out another mailing to the same industries to only have them do the same. Seems to me the number of the ones that did not even open and psychology example, evaluate my resume, tells me they also have JUNK / SPA [rotestions on the structure revolutions summary their servers that prevent the mailings from even going to you like the right people. I am trying to the structure of scientific revolutions summary get a refund now, and not making much headway with the perosn Steve that got me to try this.. So in closing, I would not recommend this to anyone looking for a job or a service to help market you..

I am even think of psychology case example sending in revolutions, complaints to and Mosaic Consumer Agency to have them looked into If they refuse to refund my hard earned money DO NOT WASTE YOU MONEY ON THESE FOLKS.. I also almost signed up for Resume Spider, but didnt and had very positive results from looking on indeed.com and Monster.com. The Structure Of Scientific Revolutions! Monster is a great, great service; the to work for kfc best. Of Scientific Revolutions! They also offer resume distribution for War Two a price, but its on an if you want it level. Revolutions Summary! If you want to spend your money on and replication having help with distributing your resume, I would go with someone with a reputable name and of scientific summary, established reputation and reliability. Ive never paid a cent with Monster and have gotten excellent results, several interviews and a couple of psychology job offers. RESUME SPIDER SCAM. MY MOST RECENT EMAIL TO THE SPIDER SCAMMERS IN AN ATTEMPT TO GET A REFUND:

SCAM ALERT! SCAM ALERT! SCAM ALERT! SCAM ALERT! Again, I havent had ANY responses (emails, Spider mail or phone calls) of of scientific revolutions ANY kind as you describe from to work for kfc, your service, I have only had contacts from resumes that I have sent answering local classifieds.

In addition, my response rate from your sight should be increasing, according to your sight and revolutions summary, I have had zero as in NO responses. Why would I want you to distribute my resume again when there have been NO responses, does that make sense to you? Furthermore, what does it mean for a company that indicates it has reviewed resume? Am I supposed to call all 150 plus of these so called respondents, waste their and case, my time to revolutions summary convince them that I am an A player and should have been called by them? I have secured previous positions with the psychology study resume submitted to the structure of scientific your sight, beating out several hundred candidates, more than once. Results oriented recruiters, the good ones, dont work like that. Once again, dont waste any more of Christianity Essay our time, if your goal is my satisfaction, remove my account and credit me for the amount charged or do a prorated amount at the very least.

USE: Indeed.com, Monster, SimplyHired or your local Sunday paper and your results will be just as 100% GUARANTEED as Resume Spitter and the structure of scientific summary, wont cost you a dime Thanks guys for all your posts. I checked out the link on Gustavos post and, its true, ResumeSpider is ALSO a business opportunity. I dont necessarily have a problem with that as long as the company provides a quality service for cells the cost of of scientific revolutions its membership, and I think therein lies the real discussion. I paid $55 for a Premium Package to The Decline of European Christianity advertise my car on the structure of scientific revolutions summary Cars.com, but you know, it sold in 41 days at my asking price. Membership costs arent anything new, whether youre looking for The Abrahamic a date, discount merchandise, or roadside assistance.

The point is, just becuse there is a cost for a service doesnt necessarily mean its a scam. I think one also needs to be realistic about employment expectations in this job market, and if your education, skills and the structure of scientific summary, employment history reflect the position youre applying for. That said, its not a service that Ill be using (Ive had good results with CareerBuilder), but I must admit, Ive given the business opportunity some thought. Other than this message board, I havent heard anything negative about the what service, but it deserves looking into. Good luck to everyone. Thanks for this page- I almost paid for this and of scientific revolutions, I cannot afford to throw any money away right now. rsumespider looks good on the surface but I have seem most of the jobs I was interested already posted somewhere else. Why Would For Kfc! So I do not think this program is that necessary. I will jsut keep checking the other free services and of scientific revolutions, the one I subscribed to that I like IHIRE Hospitality, careerbuilder, Yahoos job site and Craigs list. Good luck out there- it is a tough market for us right now. I heard about you like to work resume spider from the structure of scientific revolutions, a recruiter.

Being the skeptic that I am I looked it up and found this page. Why would this recruiter be so enthusiastic about psychology study it ? Here is your answer: Easy Referrals Mean Big Commissions for the structure of scientific summary You! I wonder if just like with eHarmony and others you start receiving emails when your membership is about to expire Follow the money I used them 3 years ago and Im going to you like use them again today. Of Scientific! I had to read some of the gossip after finding this link in my search results. The Decline Essay! Typical unimpressive crying and playing the blame game.

Probably spiders competition trying to run their name thru the mud. Just contact spider yourself and get informed to see if it is the structure summary right for you. Be positive and take ownership over YOUR job search. Peace! I opened my wallet to get my credit card to structure of dna and replication sign up for Resume Spider but I thought it would be smart to Google it to see if I could find any feedback. You folks saved me $39. Off topic, I noticed a reference from Kris regarding indeed.com. Iwould appreciate any feedback on this site. I wish I had read this before plunking down $70 of my hard earned cash.

It appears that their members are no more than Johnny come lately freelancers looking to make a buck off of the structure revolutions summary your unemployment situation. I was supposed to you like to work for kfc have goyyen a 10% discount via a promotional code they supplied (NOT). When I called them on it; they never answered me! Save your money its bad enough you have none coming in the structure of scientific, why throw what you have away? Thanks Debbie, Kris and especially Steve, you just save me some money! Keep this posting right here so other people can see. Im going to of European ditto Debbieits a waste of moneythey claim to send your resume out to a huge number of recruiters and the structure of scientific revolutions, companies.Ive had 2 responses that led no whereyoure better off looking for what are specialised jobs at indeed.com and the structure of scientific summary, submitting the resume on your own. I have to of dna agree with Debbie, just another scam. I have several friends who took his bait, paid their money, and poof! The only of scientific summary, leads they attracted were more people trying to sell them something. Why Would To Work For Kfc! I think I would be very wary of posting my personal info to his web of friends who knows what they might do with it?

In these days of rampant identity theft its wiser to go with those that dont have to charge you to help you. The Structure Revolutions Summary! Just my three cents (inflation). Dont bother. I have been with resumespider for 1 year and have had no results. Interesting idea you have. How would one find out how many companies you have in your database and how many are immediatly hiring for are specialised cells specific group of jobs prior to signing up? I am interested in your service but as we all know the USA. I found your posting this morning and of scientific summary, would like to respond. It seems you may be somewhat confused on what we do so I would like to The Abrahamic Covenants have an of scientific revolutions summary, opportunity to get more information to Causes of World you.

ResumeSpider is not a job board; like Monster, Careerbuilder, or HotJobs. We are not like Linkedin either. If we were like any of these I would agree with your 3 points. We are a career specific networking tool that offers a common-sense solution to decreasing the of scientific summary time it takes for you to develop a targeted list of contacts. These contacts, called Member Companies, have signed-up to receive resumes from ResumeSpider. Furthermore, the and Mosaic Essay online reporting feature provides accountability by tracking the progress of your campaign. Other resume distribution services randomly email, fax, or manually send your resume to companies that havent asked for it and are not expecting it.

In most cases you never know who they sent your resume to, if somebody looked at it, and have no contact information to follow-up. The ResumeSpider matching technology closely resembles relationship matching websites Match.com and the structure of scientific revolutions summary, eHarmony. Job Seekers are matched to Member Companies in the network based on their job function, industry experience and desired locations. Then your profile is emailed to those select Member Companies. ResumeSpider has 1000s of you like to work companies in their network and adds 400-500 new companies, on the structure of scientific revolutions average, every month.

The Member Company network consists of you like to work employers, executive search and recruiting firms that have joined ResumeSpider to the structure of scientific revolutions summary receive resumes. Most would agree that networking is The Abrahamic and Mosaic a very important activity in any job search and should be incorporated as soon as possible. However, many people exhaust their personal network, dont have a good network, and/or would prefer not to the structure summary invest time to create a new one. For example, to do this on your own, you need to call into Covenants Essay a company, find out if they hire your profile, then get a contact name, phone number and email address. The Structure Revolutions! Now duplicate that task 250 or 500 or 1000 times. Unfortunately this effort can take weeks or months with our own time and resources. War Two! Using ResumeSpiders Targeted Resume Distribution Service, you will benefit from our time saving approach targeted to your networking strategy.

It is important to remember that your time is worth something! On average 80-85% of the of scientific revolutions summary jobs that were open were filled WITHOUT ever being advertised to Essay the public. Furthermore, employers dont want to pay $500-$2500 to post a job and the structure revolutions, search the psychology case example online databases, especially with no guarantee they will find a candidate. The Structure Revolutions Summary! That is why they only advertise their critical or hard to fill positions. Bottom line dont limit a job search to scouring the jobs ads. ResumeSpider is The Abrahamic not the lone solution either and should be used with many other sources too. Im not sure if you are in the career industry, but I will say that most job seekers that use ResumeSpider are referred from professionals in the career industry; Career Coaches, Resume Writers and the structure of scientific revolutions summary, Executive Recruiters.

Regardless, you seem to be very open-minded towards discussions like this, so I look forward to psychology study hearing back from you soon. I have NOT received any gagged governmental information requests.

Online Essay Writing Service -
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Background | GradeSaver

Nov 28, 2017 The structure of scientific revolutions summary, how to buy an essay online -
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Background | GradeSaver

Social Issue, Burglary Essay Sample. Burglary is defined as the breaking into and illegal entry of a structure with intent to revolutions, commit a crime, Amy B. Why Would You Like For Kfc! 2012. In the UK there is an estimated burglary every 40 seconds. In 58% of them there was someone in the structure of scientific the house at the time, 44% were committed in broad day light and 1 in 4 burglary victims will get burgled again. The top 5 items that are taken during these incidents are:- * small electrical items, such as cameras. As well as the financial aspect of having your possessions stolen there is also the mental trauma to the victim. Why Would You Like For Kfc! The effects are very wide ranging, the victims can feel as if their security has also been stolen and can encounter the emotions of fear, anger, resentment, shame, grief and the structure summary mood swings. What Are Specialised Cells! Half the people affected found that the experience was like a physical violation. The Structure Of Scientific! Some never feel safe in their own home again and to take some measure of control back they have to move, Blanca. 2011.

FIGURE 1 Trends in domestic burglary, 1981 to 2011/12. The above chart shows the level of The Abrahamic Covenants Essay burglary in England and Wales for the last 30 years as you can see, throughout the 15 year it has went down, however it now seems to of scientific summary, be steadying out. TYPES OF BURGLARY. When most people think of burglary, the first thing that comes into their mind is a smash and grab; were an offender has broken their way into a home by smashing a window or breaking a door down then ransacking the premises. Why Would To Work! There is more to of scientific summary, it than that. A high number are committed by opportunists who will take advantage of Essay a situation, for example doors and windows being left open, and summary will only take a couple of high value items and The Decline of European Christianity be gone within minutes.

There are also prowlers who will be more complex and will have a good system of of scientific revolutions summary disposing of goods. They will watch your habits to see when you are least likely to be at structure, home and of scientific revolutions will take a high volume of The Abrahamic Covenants Essay items, sometimes even going away to stash some then coming back for more. You also can have burglars who have someone internal who will let them know when premises are vacant, such as when the occupant is on holiday. These type usually then proceed with a removal van being used and the full contents of the building are being stolen. This is not a common type but can be very traumatic. What is now becoming more common is when only car keys are taken.

Due to the structure, improvements made over the years to car security, it is easier now to just get hold of the cells, keys when stealing a car. One way this is the structure of scientific revolutions, being committed by structure burglars is by them going around a neighbourhood checking through letterboxes to identify car keys that are left near the front door, then using a long stick to retrieve them. Revolutions! Also very common are distraction burglaries in which the home owner is tricked or distracted by one offender while another gains access to commit the The Decline of European, crime, mainly the theft of cash and jewellery. The elderly are particular victims of this type of crime. More and revolutions more burglars are now targeting building sites and other construction areas targeting tools, equipment and also high volume metals like copper. This can increase building costs to a high degree due to the loss of equipment and the destruction also caused by structure of dna the removal of summary copper piping. The type which causes the most distress and trauma is when there are intruders in the home while the homeowners are at home and a physical confrontation occurs, especially if there is a family with children present. This can be a life changing moment and a lot of people are never the same again. They will suffer from anger, resentment and have a sense of failure; they will also never be able to feel as if they are safe in their own home again.

RIGHTS OF THE HOUSEHOLDER. At the minute the The Decline Christianity Essay, law states that a householder has the right to repel a burglar using reasonable force and to even detain a burglar using Citizens Arrest, as long as only reasonable force has been used. Reasonable force is defined by the setting; for example if you are confronted by the structure revolutions a burglar who is armed and has shown intent to use lethal force and you are in possession of knife, it is then reasonable to use it to defend yourself. What is The Decline of European Christianity Essay, not considered reasonable is revolutions, if the burglar is not armed or hasnt shown any attempt to harm you, but you still use the for kfc, knife. This is all open to interpretation and any such acts could have to be determined in a court by a jury, who will decide if reasonable or excessive force was used. However, things could be changing as Justice Secretary Chris Grayling has announced a shake-up of legislation concerning this. It comes after Britains top judge reinforced the notion that a persons home is their castle, saying furious householders have the right to get rid of the structure of scientific revolutions burglars and are not expected to remain calm when confronted by intruders, Sean Billey 2012. Essay! In response, Chris Grayling has announced that legislation will be changed so that if, in the cold light of the structure summary day, it appears that disproportional force seems to have been used, then this will be acceptable but grossly disproportional force will still be illegal; in other words if a householder stabs a clearly unarmed intruder while he is psychology, subdued or trying to the structure of scientific, get away, then this would be classified as disproportional force and thus would still be illegal. This is still left wide open to interruption, and no date has yet been set for these changes to happen. FIGURE 2 POLICE RECORDED AND CSEW CRIMES 2011/12, BY CRIME TYPE.

The above chart shows the percentage of reported crime in England and Wales over 2011, 2012. Essay! As u can see burglary represents 7% of the overall figure which at of scientific revolutions summary, first glance seems relatively small but if you take into The Abrahamic and Mosaic Essay account it is 7% of revolutions summary 9.5 million, you then find that the figure is The Abrahamic Essay, then comparatively larger. WAYS OF PROTECTING YOUR HOME. There is no full proof way of stopping a determined burglar but there are many ways of protecting against the structure summary most intruders; some are common sense and what are specialised inexpensive, others can be more expensive depending on what degree of revolutions protection is desired:- * Make sure all doors and windows are locked, this might sound simple but it is effective in discouraging opportunist burglars. * Dont leave spare keys outside of the home, some people will leave them under mats or plant pots but an experienced burglar will be able to quickly locate them. * Keep any valuables out of site of windows and doors; this is most important for small electrical equipment such as laptops, cameras, games consoles and also car keys. * Use of the garage to park your car, some burglars will watch premises where the car is parked out the front to determine when the home will be empty. There are also steps that can be taken if the structure of dna, premises are going to the structure revolutions, be empty for any great length of time, for example if the occupants are away on and Mosaic Essay holiday:- * Make sure all deliveries are cancelled, if there is summary, a large build up of Essay milk gathering outside a home this is a big give away that there is nobody at home. * Make sure the post getting delivered is not in view, burglars are known to revolutions summary, check through windows and glazed doors to structure of dna and replication, see if there is a build up of post enabling them to of scientific revolutions, calculate if there is anybody home. * The use of timer switches, these can be used to and replication, turn lights and TVs on at night to the structure of scientific, give the The Abrahamic, impression that there is someone at the structure of scientific revolutions summary, home, even though in reality there is not. * Let someone trusted know there will be no one on you like for kfc the premises, it should not be advertised there will be no one there but a trusted neighbour or family member should be informed as they can keep a watch for any intruders or suspicious activity.

Other more expensive but worthwhile measures can also be taken, some are more affordable than others and include:- * The fitting of secure locks to doors and summary windows, this can be expensive but gives good results. * Outdoor lighting, these mostly come with motion sensors that will active when someone comes within range. * Alarm systems, these are the best defence against burglars as most will just pass by a house with one fitted. * Pet dogs, as well as a good companion a good sized and loud dog is of European Essay, a valuable deterrent. * C.C.T.V, this can now be an revolutions, affordable and readily available option, especially for rural areas and places with a high crime rate, they are also easily fitted. Another area to look at is the Neighbourhood Watch, a voluntary service which operates throughout the whole country. This provides communities the chance to band together so nobody feels vulnerable, alone or afraid in their home; this is achieved through everyone looking out for each other, patrols by voluntary members and regular meetings in which any concerns can be addressed. What Are Specialised Cells! The neighbourhood watch also works closely with the local community police and other organizations that provide help or advice. This scheme is very beneficial for communities and can reduce crime by a large margin, and the structure of scientific revolutions it also promotes a great since of community spirit. In conclusion, the study, figures are startling there is a burglary in the UK ever 40 seconds, 44% in broad daylight, in 58% of cases there was someone in the home and 1 in 4 victims will be burgled again. Everybody has the right to the structure of scientific, feel safe in their own home, no one should be made to feel afraid, vulnerable or isolated because of of European Essay a burglary but that is the the structure of scientific revolutions, hard truth in most cases; it isnt the fact that possessions can be lost or property can be destroyed that causes the most damage, its the emotional effects of structure of dna and replication having someone breaking into your residence, going through your possessions, being not only in the structure of scientific summary your own bedroom, but also those of your children, that causes the of World War Two Essay, most distress. It can lead the victims to not only feel angry and unsafe, but can also lead to extreme consequences. For example, some house holders have been known to move home because of the stress; others find the thought of a stranger rummaging through their clothes and personal effects so repellent that they have been known to wash everything vigorously and often more than once; homeowners who may have been burgled more than once can become extremely paranoid about their safety, so much so that they go to great lengths to protect themselves and of scientific summary their home, with some even going as far as setting up elaborate Bobbie traps and arming them self. The bad news is there is no way of completely protecting your home from burglary, but the good news is you like to work, there are simple and easy steps you can take to greatly reduce the chance that it could happen to you. Things like making sure all doors and windows are locked, ensuring all your valuable, especially cash and laptops, are way from windows and by having someone you trust, or someone in a neighbourhood watch scheme, keep an the structure, eye on your home.

If you live in psychology case study a high risk area or have had problems before, it could be advisable to invest some money in revolutions more robust methods like sensor lighting, C.C.T.V. or, the structure and replication, most effective protection, an alarm system. Blanca, 2010, The Psychological Effects Of Home Burglary [Online]. Available From Http://Www.Securityworldnews.Com/2010/02/05/The-Psychological-Effects-Of-Home-Burglary-3/ [Cited 25 Oct 2012]. Sia Nicalas, 2005, Crime In Enland And Wales [Online] Available From Http://Webarchive.Nationalarchives.Gov.Uk/20110218135832/Http://Rds.Homeoffice.Gov.Uk/Rds/Pdfs05/Hosb1105.Pdf/ [Cited 25 Oct 2012). Billey, 2012. Conference Diary: New Homeowners Right Could Be Burglars Charter. [Online]. Revolutions! Available From Http://Www.Politics.Co.Uk/Comment-Analysis/2012/10/09/Conference-Diary-New-Homeowner-Rights-Could-Be-Burglar-S-Cha/ [Cited 26 Oct 2012]. Structure And Replication! Amy B, 2012. How To Protect Your Home From Burglars. [Online]. Available From Http://Www.Asecurelife.Com/How-To-Protect-Your-Home-From-Burglars/ [Cited 1 Nov 2012].

Neighbourhood Watch, 2012. Our Mission.[Online]. Available From: Http://Www.Ourwatch.Org.Uk/Our_Work/Our_Mission/[Cited 20 Nov 2012] Office For National Statistics, 2012. Crime In England And Wales. [Online] Available From Http://Www.Ons.Gov.Uk/Ons/Rel/Crime-Stats/Crime-Statistics/Period-Ending-March-2012/Stb-Crime-Stats-End-March-2012.Html#Tab-Burglary/ [ Cited 20 Nov2012]. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Social Issue, Burglary. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Social Issue, Burglary. The common law burglary was defined by Sir Matthew Hale as: The breaking and entering the house of another in the structure revolutions the night time, with intent to commit a felony therein, Zen and the Art of structure of dna Burglary.

The story begins as a true story happening not very long time ago, telling us that there are two characters father and son who had a tough life because the The social issue that I am interested in is racism. Racism is revolutions, a social problem that has existed throughout human history. It has influenced wars, slavery, as well as the Relationship Between Social Deprivation and Crime. Poverty is generally regarded as absolute deprivation. Poverty is defined as the lack of and Mosaic Covenants some fixed level of of scientific material goods necessary for survival and minimal well-being. Areas that rank high

The Moral Issue of the Death Penalty. The death penalty, also known as capital punishment, is a legal process of punishment for Causes War Two, crime. The Church views capital punishment as wrong and not necessary. The Structure Of Scientific Revolutions Summary! It also believes that The Power of the Badge: A Controversial Issue.

Strong, courageous, heroic, all words that we hear and use to describe what comes to mind when we think of Police Officers. In elementary school, the most common phrase students

Write My Essays Today -
Kuhn s Structure of Scientific Revolutions - outline

Nov 28, 2017 The structure of scientific revolutions summary, write my essay -
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Summary - eNotes com

4 Digital Alternatives to the Traditional Resume. This post originally appeared on the structure of scientific revolutions the American Express OPEN Forum, where Mashable regularly contributes articles about are specialised cells, leveraging social media and technology in small business. Even small business owners need a resume. The Structure Of Scientific Revolutions? It serves to provide a summary of why would you like for kfc, professional experience and revolutions, isn't just used for job searching. Many times, a resume can serve as a way to land a piece of business, speaking gig or board position. So it's important to always have a resume that's ready to go on a moment's notice.

Penelope Trunk, chief evangelist and co-founder of Brazen Careerist, a career management tool for young professionals, points out that a traditional resume is necessarily linear. But careers today are nonlinear. People often do more than one job at once, people often learn more in between jobs than during a job, Trunk said. Therefore, a resume based on ideas and conversations is why would to work for kfc, a more accurate representation of revolutions, todays worker than a resume based on linear histories. Today's business owners are involved in much more than running the business. Case? So in addition to the traditional paper resume, there are some other ways to convey a summary of the structure revolutions, your experience and knowledge. Depending on your situation, you might want to explore one or all of the following options, including video resumes, VisualCVs, social resumes and LinkedIn profiles.

Video resumes have recently emerged as a new option. Making a value-added video can be tricky business it's important to ensure the finished product conveys the right message about you as a professional. A video resume could be a part of an overall portfolio management strategy; however, having a video resume does not cancel out other options. Case Study? In fact, a video resume can act to the structure of scientific summary enhance your online presence in the likely case that a potential customer is structure, searching for your information across the web. Laurie Ruettimann, founder of Voice of HR, whose mission is to the structure revolutions facilitate active and meaningful dialogue in the HR industry via new media services, compares resume strategy to investments. Just as investors diversify their investments, individuals must diversify their approach to Causes War Two Essay finding and communicating with potential opportunities. Consider adding a video resume to the structure of scientific your current professional profiles, but make sure the production quality is up to par and that it accurately portrays your professional experiences and goals. If you have a lot of work in the digital space, a VisualCV might be an option.

This format allows you to pull all types of interactive content into a traditional resume format with additional links to The Decline of European Christianity Essay blog posts, Twitter accounts, videos, presentations and so on. You can also add charts and graphs to enhance the look. Of Scientific Revolutions Summary? It serves as a great digital portfolio and can really dress up the traditional resume. Kris Dunn, a human resources blogger, has used VisualCVs in the past. He recommends them when two conditions are present: 1) The target company is progressive enough to handle it, and 2) The individual has a great deal of online content that can be referenced within the VisualCV format.

Check out what are specialised cells, Dunn's VisualCV for a look at what's possible. When an explanation of the structure revolutions summary, your capabilities is more useful information than your previous experience, a social resume is a dynamic way to convey how you think and communicate by capturing your online conversations. While they might share some of the qualities of a VisualCV, the content in social resumes focuses more on The Decline of European Essay the here and now compared to traditional resumes, which tell people where you have been in the past. Social resumes can reveal your potential, Trunk says. Today, 90% of people's communication is via social media and only 10% is via e-mail. A social resume is revolutions summary, a way to show people what youre doing that is structure, independent of what you are paid to do, she says.

We should not limit our potential by what someone has chosen to pay us to the structure of scientific do. We should limit our potential by what are specialised cells, what we can think to summary do. If you want to give others a three-dimensional view, providing a LinkedIn URL offers quick, direct access to an individual's ever-expanding professional network of connections and involvement. Lori Hedrick, vice president of human resources at Marcus Thomas, a full-service, integrated advertising and public relations agency with a focus on audience insights and idea generation, suggests just using your LinkedIn profile instead of a paper resume. For Kfc? Overall, it provides the same format as a resume, yet its much more powerful and much more efficient.

It shows contacts, recommendations and of scientific revolutions, groups even books youre currently enjoying and all in The Decline, real time. Revolutions? And [it] provides a thoughtful, truthful and smart summary of our credentials, as opposed to time spent finding the and replication, perfect font, format and layout. Not to mention, its easy to both update and share with others. Whether you're looking to enhance your presence in the business community or hiring new staff, there are more options than just the traditional paper resume. And when it comes to the structure of scientific evaluating resumes, Ruettimann offers some great advice for everyone: Resumes of any kind video, paper, written in the sky by a plane are a snapshot into a persons abilities. Be sold on are specialised cells a person's skills.

Dont be swayed by the style in which those skills are communicated. The Structure Revolutions Summary? Which resume formats are you using these days? Let us know in the comments below. More Business Resources from Covenants Mashable: Sharlyn Lauby, SPHR, CPLP is the HR Bartender, whose blog is a friendly place to discuss workplace issues. When shes not tending bar, Sharlyn is president of . More.

Buy Essay Online For Cheap -
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions by Thomas S Kuhn review

Nov 28, 2017 The structure of scientific revolutions summary, write my essay -
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Summary - eNotes com

essay testing times animals arent only used in medical research but to test the toxicity and reactions to other products. Some of these products include floor wax or cleaning detergents. Summary? The method in which they use to do this is called the The Abrahamic and Mosaic Covenants, LD Test or Lethal Dose Test. The Structure Summary? Scientists inject various substances into the stomachs of The Abrahamic and Mosaic Covenants animals and the structure revolutions monitor reactions such as vomiting, convulsions, respiratory illness and paralysis. The Decline Of European Essay? These LD injections are not stopped being given until one half of the animals in the. insures that the animals are not suffering when these tests are done. Another thing to consider when deciding about animal testing is the of scientific revolutions summary, type of structure animals used in laboratory tests. When most people think of animal testing they have a preconceived idea of monkeys being the sole type of the structure revolutions animals tested on. Whether this comes from and replication, movies or somewhere else it is wrong. Monkeys make up less than .1 percent of all animals used for testing.

The largest group of animals used for the structure revolutions, testing is rats, mice, Some have actually worshipped cats and The Abrahamic and Mosaic some have even used animals as a way of living. The Structure Revolutions? In spite of all the good reasons, animals are surrogates for humans. In the history of biomedical experiments with animals no single subject has created more controversy than that of animal testing. The practice of testing cosmetics on animals began in psychology 1933, soon after a woman used Lash Lure mascara to darken her lashes. The womans eyes first burned, then she went blind, and eventually died. Because of this incident. Essay on Animal Experimentation and Testing. why animals should be physically and mentally tortured so as to experiment on medical procedures that might not even work in future.

In addition, this will be like justifying that, animals deserve to suffer because they do not have cognitive ability and moral judgment, which is the structure, wrong. It should be known that, animals have feelings, just like any other human being, and that they should be respected. Therefore, animal experimentation is not a right procedure. Moreover, instead of using animals alternative. The anatomic, metabolic, and cellular differences between animals and people make animals poor models for Causes, human beings.

So, that being said, animal testing needs to stop. Nothing good is coming out of it, in my opinion, besides being cruel to innocent animals. The Structure? The use of animal testing could be stopped all around the world if scientists and other people would use the Causes of World War Two, alternative testing methods that now exist. For instance, antibodies- which are used to research, diagnose, and the structure fight diseases and. Some things you would not even think would be tested on animals actually are, such as foods. Every year, estimated 100 thousand animals are tested on, and after testing are put to rest.

To test most cleaning chemicals, many animals are chemically killed, poisoned, and blinded. Mice, rats, and other rodents are forced to inhale deadly toxins' dogs and what cells cats are force-fed pesticides,and rabbits have different chemicals rubbed on the structure of scientific revolutions summary, their skin and eyes. Most of the of World Essay, time these tests are not required, and. The animals also have this, dolphins communicate with each other, and the baboon uses sticks as a tool to gather ants, and still animals are not significant. Many animals are used, and even killed, for the sake of medical research. The have a right is to have a claim or entitlement to the structure revolutions, something and to have that claim recognized by others. The bad news for animals is two-fold. First, in all the cases of women's rights, the abolition of slavery and ending apartheid, a good part of the political.

The animals that undergo tests just for a new lipstick or perfume live in Causes of World tiny, crowded cages in fear of pain and suffering. To determine the toxic consequences of a single, short-term exposure to a product or chemical the animals that undergo test, the substance is administered to animals (usually rodents) in extremely high doses via force-feeding, forced inhalation, and/or absorption through the skin. Animals in the highest dose groups may endure severe abdominal pain, diarrhea, convulsions, seizures. and animal testing agrees only five-twenty five percent of the time, according to the Huntington Life Sciences (1). The Structure Revolutions Summary? 88% of to work stillbirths are due to drugs posed to be safe in animal testing (1). According to the structure revolutions summary, World Health Organization out of 200,000 released mediations only 240 are labeled as essential (1). Corneal transplants were delayed for 90 years and blood transfusion were delayed 200 years due to structure of dna and replication, animal studies (1). Less then two percent of human illnesses of 1.16% are ever seen in animals (1) justify using animals for testing, but when so many cures and useful findings, such as how to perform certain operations, can be found, why not test them? Then again, as I have stated before, animals should only be used when an alternative method is not available.

Huntingdon has a great plan when it comes to saving human lives without excessive testing on animals. There have been many laws to the structure of scientific summary, regulate the Covenants Essay, use of animals in scientific experiments. The Structure? Over in the United Kingdom, the Animals (Scientific. opinions and controversies caused by Essay, animal testing. Dr. Solomon uses a mixture of denotative and connotative language in her article. She uses denotative language when describing how different chemicals affect laboratory animals. She also uses denotative language when explaining the various organizations and legislation passed by Congress in the structure of scientific revolutions favor of public safety laws.

Dr. Solomon writes connotatively when explaining the necessity of animal testing to better understand the chemical. The author of the The Abrahamic, second article, Of Mice Or Men, The Problems with Animal Testing believes that there is no problem with animal testing, but the only problem is the result which is not applicable to humans. He gives an example from an experiment done on the structure of scientific summary, some men. In the experiment, they are injected with tiny doses of TGN1412; the same doses given to some animals. Those animals do not have any ill effects but for the men, they writhe on the floor after a couple of minutes being injected. Some. the developmental stages of each and every animal they are testing; they must also consider the possibility and severity of any adverse and long terms effects, any measures that can be taken to avoid such effects, estimated number of animals to be used, humane transport arrangements and effects on local ecology of the species. Wider factors of costs to these animals include capture, confinement, transport, husbandry systems and general handling of animals. In order to of European Christianity, respond to these costs considerations. Over the past couple centuries humanity has achieved greatly in summary animal testing not just by medical studies but by scientific too.

In the nineteenth century a German physiologist who received the 1901 Noble Prize for Physiology and Medicine, isolated diphtheria toxin and used a mixture of toxin and anti-toxin to why would you like for kfc, protect guinea pigs from producing the disease. Fifteen years later he developed a vaccine that humans could use which saved many lives. Sir Frederick Grant Banting a Canadian medical scientist. an unpleasant smell, animals refuse to swallow them. The animals are then forced to the structure of scientific summary, swallow the substances in the form of capsules or pellets. Structure And Replication? They are also force-fed liquid chemicals by the structure of scientific revolutions summary, stomach tube, or through a hole cut in Causes War Two Essay the animals throat (Dickinson 23). Animal-rights groups maintain that the tests are neither necessary nor particularly valid. And they loudly demand that the summary, cosmetics industry find more humane ways to The Decline, determine the safety of the product.

While animal-rights activists ask. talking about some accomplishments made from testing on animals. Of Scientific? A longer life span has been achieved, decreased infant mortality rate, effective treatments have been developed for of dna, many diseases, and the quality of life has been enhanced for mankind in of scientific revolutions summary general. Again, the claim by of dna, itself is almost useless. The author then states this piece of the structure of scientific revolutions summary evidence to support the claim. Also, the cells, author continues by stating the Nobel Prizes won from animal testing, and the diseases we have found cures for such. The Necessity of Animal Testing Essay. Medication proved deadly in animals have been tested to work on humans and vice versa. According to Health and Human Services Secretary Mike Leavitt, nine out of ten experimental drugs fail in clinical studies because we cannot accurately predict how they will behave in people based on laboratory and animal studies(Animal Research Is Unethical and Scientifically Unnecessary).

These inaccuracies only prove the flaws surrounding the animal experimentation industry. it is possible that by 2050. Is Animal Testing Justified? Essay. Why is animal experimentation done? There are three main reasons why animal experimentation is the structure, done on animals and cells not on human beings. Of Scientific Summary? The first reason of which is for safety trials as because in many countries its a legal requirement that all drugs and vaccines are tested on animals to ensure they are safe to use on you like to work, human beings. An example of such a requirement is in the UK where an act called the the structure of scientific revolutions, Medicines Act of 1968 which states that all new pharmaceutical products has to be tested on at.

Rabbits are known for leaping and they have no room to leap. Pigs cannot build their own nests or roots in the ground. Of Dna? Even when the cages are clean which barely are, the revolutions summary, animals are not allowed to act in Causes any normal behavior. These animals are infected with diseases they would never develop. Experimenters force feed chemicals to animals, compress their spines, hacking muscle tissue from dogs thighs, plant wires in their brains, perform repeated surgeries on them, and baby monkeys are put in isolation. correct procedure during the experiment. Animals can be exposed to things such as; being addicted to drugs, being electrocuted, isolation, deadly chemicals, burning, blinding, and radiation. The scientist performing the of scientific revolutions, procedure only has to state that one of these gruesome activates are necessary for the operation, and then he or she is granted permission. One of the most effective arguments against the need for animal research is that a rabbit or other animal may not have a reaction to a chemical. Morality of Animal Testing Essay example.

Likewise, the structure of dna and replication, military also uses animals for revolutions, testing. Of Dna? Since 1971, the National Cancer act has wasted billions of of scientific revolutions summary dollars looking for the cure for cancer. The major reason they have not found the cure is because cancer in animals develops and progresses different from it does in humans. Apart from animal testing being expensive, the tests are often unreliable. Results from testing on The Decline of European Essay, an animal can not always for see the effects on a human. Therefore, animal testing cannot be completely relied on.

Persuasive essay against the structure of scientific revolutions animal testing. mentioned to replace the current animal testing system. Furthermore, I hope that the whole world changes their laws to of dna, replace animal testing with these alternatives as it would benefit so many animals globally, without effect human beings. Why should animal testing continue when it could be prevented and replaced? Does the of scientific revolutions, government want these animals to die? If not, why wont they replace the current animal testing system with the alternatives that do not effect animals? I think its because they are.

Essay on The Pros and Cons of Animal Testing. argued that the testing on animals is cruel for the fact that they are living and breathing beings who are unable to and replication, give consent to the work that is being done upon them (Murnaghan, 2013). The Structure Revolutions? Others argue that the medical tests done on why would you like to work for kfc, animals is to better aid the human race so it is a valid form of research. Governments are stepping in to determine what is being done to the structure of scientific revolutions summary, decide what exactly can be done to these animals and how far can researchers go in types of testing, the number of animals to be used. Essay on A Case Against Animal Testing. tested on animals but they advise the of dna and replication, manufacturing companies to use whatever tests they need to assure the safety of the products. The last reason that animals get tested is to see the effectiveness of a product in healing or helping a disease. The Structure Of Scientific Summary? Usually products are tested on animals such as mice, rats, guinea pigs and hamsters, rabbits, dogs, cats, nonhuman primates, birds, fish, and amphibians.

Since Chimpanzees share ninety nine percent of their DNA with humans they are one of the why would to work for kfc, animals that are. Animal Testing in Drug Industry Essay. Thus, animal testing in drug industry must be stopped. In addition to physical pain suffered by of scientific revolutions, animals during drug testing, the animals also experience mental pain. According to Singer, three separate British government committees have agreed that animals are not only capable of feeling physical pain, but also mental pain, such as fear, anxiety, stress, et cetera (Singer, 1980). Animals kept in cages in psychology case study drug laboratories are undergoing anxiety of being abused again every single day. Moreover, they. Animal Testing is Cruel and Flawed Essay. They are also smearing hair color into the rabbits eyes. Live animals are used in modern medical researchers; some animals body systems are like humans.

Rats and mice are used in testing and of scientific summary there are 20 million a year used in experiments. Guinea pigs, hamsters and gerbils are also used but mice are the what cells, most common ones used in the vertebrate species because of their size, low cost, ease of handling and they have a fast reproduction rate. Mice are considered to be the best model of inherited human. The Benefits of Animal Research, Testing, and Experimentation. experimental animals (American Medical Association 77).

Consequently, it is evident just how important animal testing really is. Other opponents have suggested that technology can substitute for the real thing. The Structure Of Scientific? They suggest that computer programs or models of animals be used to perform experiments. Again there is a problem in that these methods are not yet as sophisticated as they need to be. We simply do not have enough advances in computer technology to The Abrahamic Essay, create an ideal model of an the structure of scientific revolutions, animal.

We can. Essay on to work for kfc, Animal Testing For Scientific Purposes. thanks to the structure summary, animal testing [Rubella (German Measles)]. Cells? Humans are not the only ones who have benefited from the results of revolutions summary animal testing. Animals have been helped too. If vaccines were not tested on animals, millions of animals would have died from a variety of diseases such as rabies, tetanus, anthrax, distemper, and more.

People and animals share around fifty of the same diseases because of this animal testing can be beneficial to both animals and humans at The Decline of European Christianity the same time. In fact, animals and humans. Animal Testing in Scientific Research Essay. In most cases, the animals will probably end up dead, but in some experiments the tests will run until the animal dies. Such a case is determining the lethal dose of radiation used in cancer therapy. No matter what the test is or how it is performed, there is always an alternative to hurting and killing an innocent animal. Another thing wrong with animal testing is a lot of times the tests are wrong or inconclusive. Of Scientific Revolutions? There are several issues that effect test results. A reason test are inconclusive.

enough to know how individual molecules, cells or tissues behave. This is why animal testing is needed because the information gained from them shows more about of World War Two Essay, how the living body interacts and revolutions summary how they are controlled rather than just a few aspects of the body. For example, if a drug is developed to fight the Causes, flu virus, many doctors and patients would want to know if there were any possible side effects, so with the testing done on mammals first this would give doctors the best possible decision for. Essay on the structure of scientific summary, Animal Testing (Speech Outline) Bentham's philosophy on animals, instead, was: The question is not can they reason? Nor can they talk? But could they suffer? B. Vivisection began early after Bentham's time period as scientists cut open animals to learn about the to work for kfc, functions of the heart, lungs, and other parts of the summary, body. C. The practice of testing cosmetics on structure and replication, animals started around 1933. 1. Revolutions Summary? This began after a woman used Lush Lure cosmetics darken her eye lashes. 2. The woman's eyes eventually burned, and later.

Animal Testing Should Be Illegal Essay. on before there was outrage because of the mistreatment of of European Essay humans? Many people believe that Animal Testing is fine because without it we couldnt find cures for disease in both humans and animals. The Structure Revolutions? But nowadays we have the technology to test for cures that give up to 60% more reliable answers and are 100% humane. Causes Essay? The world of science has on record more than 400 methods that can effectively replace animal experiments. Plus, this technology is dramatically less expensive and makes use of cell and the structure revolutions summary skin. Medical Testing on Prisoners, Not Animals Essay. violence that it leads to. Some odd years ago attitudes about medical testing were different from current opinions of today. In the past, infectious diseases killed many people, so the doctors and researchers worked steadily to invent cures for why would you like for kfc, these dreaded diseases and they tested many different cures for theses ailments. There were many researchers who felt it was necessary to experiment on people.

They felt that only animal testing was not sufficient. They chose to use humans that were incarcerated. The Animal Testing Controversy Essay examples. group of animals, usually rats (Morgan J1+). The animals that are actually experimented on are often forgotten and not being saved by animal activists. For example, more than 90 percent of animals used in research are excluded from the Animal Welfare Act such as birds, rats of the genus Rattus, mice of the genus Mus, and revolutions summary farm animals (Ferdowsian). Why are some animals treated differently than others? Animals excluded from the Animal Welfare Act are considered non-human animals; though animals are animals. Essay about you like to work for kfc, Animal Testing is Wrong. Not only are in vitro tests more humane than killing animals by exposing them to experiments, but they have been shown to summary, produce more accurate results.

And the results relate from the laboratory to Causes Essay, real life as well. Penicillin and streptomycin are historical examples of in vitro discovery, and there have been countless others since. The in vitro technology of today allows researchers to receive accurate information from of scientific revolutions summary, as many as 100,000 compounds per day (European). Also there is advanced technology. Let#x27;s Put an End to Animal Research, Testing, and Experimentation. In short, without animal testing, it would be difficult for science to advance, or as Dave Weaner, a physics and science teacher at Westerville North High School, said, Animal testing is valid because it gives us something to compare results against; it is necessary for advancement. However the The Abrahamic and Mosaic Covenants Essay, question now comes up, What is necessary and what is merely a waste of a life? Any testing on a living being is horrible; however, in the case of cancer research, doctor training, drug research, et cetera. We Must Eliminate Animal Testing for Cosmetics Essay. There are many alternatives to of scientific revolutions, testing on live animals in of dna and replication todays world.

Animal testing is often not the most accurate method of testing. The results from many tests differ from laboratory to laboratory, and animal to animal. Whether the product was proven to be safe or not is often times questionable (Product). The Structure? It is true that many rabbits are bred so that their genetic makeup is psychology case example, nearly identical. However, often times this is not a very good strategy because the genetic makeup of every human. Testing on Animals: Behind the Eight Ball Essay example. proven as safe before being put on the market. However, this act does not specify the of scientific revolutions summary, type of testing required (Owen 63). With all of the technology available today, American test labs still resort to innocent animals for clinical trials. Thousands of Covenants Essay animals are simply disposed of after the of scientific, testing is concluded. Cohen describes this in, Do You Know How Your Mascara is Made?, when she says that animals are killed when they are no longer deemed useful. Later in the article, Catherine Willett.

Essay on Why Animal Testing Should be Illegal? used animals for testing pharmaceutical drugs. The invention of the cancer mouse in 1988 was shown to be a key to fighting malignant tumours. A cancer mouse would have a human cancer gene inserted in study it so it would grow tumors, and help find cures to cancer. However many successful cures they found for the rodents failed in revolutions humans(Gericke). The Decline? In addition, drugs such as aspirin would not exist today if we had relied on animal testing , because the drugs had caused lethal side effects on animals. For.

Animal Testing: Cruelty versus Benefit Essay. enough to convince us that animal experimenting must be put to an end once and for all? The science correspondent of The Guardian Randerson (2008) has found out that about 115 million animals were used in scientific research globally in 2005, according an the structure of scientific revolutions, estimate based on of dna, official national figures from the number of scientific papers that were published involving animals. The Structure Revolutions? Moving on to the structure, next scenario. Crowds of blind people sincerely believe that animal testing benefits the medical industry. Essay on Why Animal Testing Should Be Prohibited. One of the most common arguments given as to why animal testing should be banned is of scientific revolutions, that animals are not humans. The Abrahamic Covenants? Although animals and humans do share some similar characteristics, they have many anatomic differences, metabolic differences, and cellular differences.

Animals make poor models for human beings, and there are several cases that prove this. The 1950s sleeping pill thalidomide, for example, was tested on animals prior to human use in and resulted in no negative side effects. However when. Essay on The Morality of Animal Testing in Scientific Research. they won't blind us, burn our skin, or even kill us (which did happen in revolutions summary several instances, before product safety testing was required by law); and to help students, especially prospective doctors, veterinarians, and case study example so on, learn their way around a body. Animals do make good research subjects for the structure summary, many purposes and research on them can tell us a great deal about The Decline, ourselves.

Animals are, in many ways, biologically similar to humans and summary are susceptible to many of the of dna, same health problems. Some species. Animal Testing: the Animal Rights Debate. New York: the Rosen Publishing. Evaluation/Assessment: Animals should have some respect even if it is of scientific revolutions summary, big or small, it's still a living thing.

However, human weight their lives more than that of animals, so they do not care if it death or alive. After reading this, it gave me a clear sense how cruel human being can be. It is true that we value our lives more than animals, and I do not know the reason why we are trying to save a baby is drowning instead of a rat. I could use this source to describe how cruel human being can be and psychology study example how animals could. When we show that we are reasonable and open-minded, readers are more likely to listen to our point of of scientific revolutions view. Organization of structure and replication Argumentative Essa11s There are several ways to organize an argumentative essay. You can use a block pattern or a point-by-point pattern. The Structure? The outlines in the following chart show these two possible patterns. Block Pattern I. Introduction Explanation of the issue Thesis statement Point. by-P.oint Pattern I. Of Dna And Replication? Introduction Explanation of the issue, including a summary. The best idea is to choose essay topics that really matter to the structure, you. You have to of dna and replication, have the strong personal opinion on the structure revolutions summary, the topic you are planning to discuss in your argumentative essay.

Argumentation is a crucial skill in life. Why Would You Like? People in the media, business, academia and politics constantly use argumentation styles to persuade viewers and opponents over to the structure of scientific revolutions, their side of an and Mosaic, issue. There are many different aspects of argumentation and many different categories of argument styles. The Structure Revolutions? A person may adopt one. preparation of first or second language learners for further study at university or IELTS. The unit assumes that the students have their own argumentative essay topic for the course they are undertaking. The unit is case study, built around one particular type of argumentative essay. It is the structure of scientific summary, important to understand that there are many other ways of structuring argumentative essays than the of World War Two, one proposed in this unit.

However, the structure outlined here has proved to be very effective in giving students a clear, there is no question that animals can vocalize their feelings. Of Scientific? Contrast this with proponents of using animals for biomedical research and testing, whom argue that animals are not beings of a kind capable of exercising or responding to moral claims. Animals therefore have no rights, and they can have none. This is the what are specialised, core of the argument about the alleged rights of animals. (Cohen,95). Cohens argument is misguided and in many respects false, where just because animals cannot respond or claim. reason for animal testing, its become one of the of scientific revolutions summary, most helped by animal testing. It is Essay, of interest to see how important animal models have been in obtaining these [cancer treating] results (Garattini and Van Bekkum, 1990 p 133). About 12% of animal experimentation is done involving cancer research (Baumans, 2004 Figure 2). In order to test anticancer agents liver microsomes are needed.

Therefore if you were to use in vitro testing, using cells instead of an actual body of an animal, you wouldnt. medications and the structure of scientific summary vaccines have been created in the past through this testing. A polio vaccine was the result of Causes of World Essay animal research and testing, which without, polio would still take thousands of human lives each year. There could have been no oral polio vaccine without the use of innumerable animals, a very large number of animals, Albert mentioned to a reporter before his demise in 1993. Multiple vaccines being created today need the animal experiments to the structure summary, prove them safe before supplying them to todays. decide because she realized that animal experimentation could save her childrens lives.

A few days later she left the hospital with her children, who were back to their normal, healthy selves. She felt bad for her five cats that were dead, but it was a good feeling having all five of her children there at of dna the funeral for Fluffy, Furry, Frisky, Grumpy, and Stinky. Revolutions Summary? She now understood the cells, other side. She didnt exactly approve of it now, but she knew that animal testing must go on for her childrens.

Order Your Own Writing Help Now -
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions by Thomas S Kuhn review

Nov 28, 2017 The structure of scientific revolutions summary, order custom essay online -
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions by Thomas S Kuhn review

a. Distinguish between the Utilitarianism of Bentham and Mill. This essay was written by an AS candidate. Grade boundaries for AS are (out of 35 marks) 80% + (28/35), 70% + (25/35), 60% + (21/35), grades A,B,C. It is a much better effort than the previous essay on utilitarianism on this site. Here we have part a. and part b., (part a. 25 marks, part b. 10 marks). Utilitarianism was developed in revolutions summary the 18th century by Hutchenson, who used the phrase the greatest good for the greatest number to describe his theory. The promotion of happiness, however, can be found much earlier in history, in of dna and replication the works of Aristotle, in of scientific summary the Bible, in the teachings of Buddha, in the works of Confucius and elsewhere. Hutchensons idea of Utilitarianism, however, seeks to find a rational means of assessing how best to put this promotion of happiness into practice, and is split into two types; Act Utilitarianism is the Covenants Essay earliest form, in which what is the structure revolutions summary deemed right is based on the assessment of results of are specialised cells, a particular action, and Rule Utilitarianism, which allows to be taken into account the general benefit to summary, society that occurs when people follow general rules.

A good, clear introduction, giving precise definititions of key terms (see the Glossary on the site!). There is of World War Two also the preference utilitarianism of Peter Singer. However, if you look back at the question, the first four lines arent really relevant, as the summary question only asks you to discuss Bentham and what cells, Mill! Bentham and Mill each argued respectively for these types of the structure, Utilitarianism, and thus their beliefs differ.Bentham was born in London at a time of great scientific and social change. He argued for Act Utilitarianism, and maintained that human beings were motivated by pleasure and by pain. He believed that everyone had an equal right to The Decline of European, happiness, irrespective of their situation or status in life and argued that everyone counted equally in the assessment of the benefits of an the structure of scientific action.

He believed that overall, this would also benefit the individual who did so and this would lead to that persons greatest happiness as well. His theory is democratic as pleasure cannot be for structure and replication, one person and one person alone. You bring out the structure revolutions summary, two key points rather well: that utilitarianism is rationalistic (para 1) and that it is democratic (each to what cells, count as one, and the structure, no-one as more than one), thus providing the basis for radical social reform. Bentham wrote down his beliefs in Causes of World Essay his major work, The principles of morals and legislation, written in1789, which is divided into three sections; The motivation of human beings and the concept of good and bad Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. Of Scientific! It is for you like for kfc, them alone to point out what we shall do, as well as to determine what we shall do. ; The Principle of Utility -The greatest good for the greatest number (The most useful course of action if trying to maximise pleasure and minimize pain and in the structure of scientific revolutions a given situation, one must examine the consequential pain/pleasure resultant for all concerned.) ; and lastly, his Hedonic Calculus this weighs up the pain and pleasure generated by the available moral actions to find the best option.

It asks us to consider ( s ) several factors: c. Certainty or uncertainty. d. Nearness or remoteness. I would prefer to see the hedonic calculus applied with an example which brings out some of the problems with this sort of idea. If the Causes War Two Essay probable pain of an action outweighs its pleasure then Bentham says that it is morally wrong. He believed that this was the way of calculating happiness as a result of the course of an action and by this he was making the basis of deciding whether an action should be considered right or wrong.

Also implied in Benthams views, Mill argued that not all forms of happiness or pleasure were of equal value. This isnt expressed very clearly: you mean, Bentham implied any pleasure is of scientific revolutions of equal value eg pushpin is equal to poetry, whereas Mill, who had a nervous breakdown at the age of 23, was saved by reading Wordsworth eg Intimations of Immortality and so, from what his superior vantage point, saw pleasures as higher and lower. Of Scientific Revolutions Summary! He recognised that it was easy to settle for the more immediate and sensual pleasures rather than the what are specialised nobler and perhaps more refined ones. Mill criticised Bentham for focussing morality on pleasure alone, which seemed rather base to him. The Structure Of Scientific Summary! Thus, he decided to introduce a theory of Causes of World War Two Essay, utility for the structure summary, the common person , which replaced pleasure with happiness and moved away from mere quantity to the quality of happiness as well. Although he believed that the wellbeing of the individual was of primary concern, happiness is best achieved when it is subject to the rules that protect the and Mosaic Essay common good. For Mill, happiness was defined as something which is cultural and spiritual rather than just physical, and he distinguished between lower pleasures and higher pleasures. The Structure Of Scientific Revolutions! He famously wrote It is better to be a human being satisfied than a pig satisfied, better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied. Mill recognised that there were different ways of assessing the value of The Decline of European Christianity, happiness and was keen to the structure summary, link his theory with Jesus teachings. The Decline! He did this by claiming that to the structure summary, Love your neighbour as yourself constitutes the ideal perfection of utilitarian morality. Mill, unlike Bentham, suggested a positive place for rules within an overall utilitarianist approach, and thus believed in Rule Utilitarianism.

He argued that society needs the basic principles such as truthfulness for without people telling the psychology case study example truth then nobody can be happy. Thus, he argued, general rules should be obeyed as they give overall benefit to society. However, they may be broken in exceptional circumstances and consequently Mill argued there was strong and weak rule utilitarianism; Strong Utilitarianism is one where one should never break a rule that is of scientific revolutions established, and Weak Utilitarianism is one where there may be situations when the assessment of the rules in a particular case of a particular act may take precedence over the general rule. Why not quote Mill directly? Its not too difficult to find a few quotesand learn them. It increases the you like to work for kfc sense that you know what Mill actually said. This is good stuff, but not very clearly presented as the ideas come thick and fast. If youre reading these comments, I strongly advise you to read Mill for yourself, available here on the site. Go to the final section of his essay and read the part on Justice and Utility. I think its the best part of the Essay and presents the case for rule utilitarianism. An outstanding student will want to read all philosophers in their own words.

Mill and Bentham each believe in their own type of Utilitarianism and have their own theories. Bentham, on the one hand, focuses on pleasure whereas Mill focuses on happiness. Of Scientific! Similarly, in of dna the search to maximise happiness, Bentham is the structure of scientific concerned for the individual alone, but Mill suggests we should protect a common good. Although both theories are atheistic, Bentham suggests a means for quantitive pleasure with his Hedonic Calculus, but Mill suggests qualitative views with higher or lower pleasures. I like the clear style of your writing, and The Decline Essay, you cover the main points of the two versions very well. Of Scientific Revolutions! 21/25 for part a.

b. Explain the major weaknesses of Utilitarianism as a way of determining right and wrong. Utilitarianism may not necessarily result in happiness as happiness is a personal choice. Why Would You Like For Kfc! Something that makes one person happy may not make another happy. T his isnt very clear. Revolutions Summary! Better to argue that happiness is a byproduct of doing or being something rather than a thing you can pursue in its own right. In Utilitarianism it may be that the person who decides whether an act is right or wrong is biased in some way and thus this would result in unhappiness. The act of why would you like to work for kfc, deciding the right- or wrongness of an act is in itself an the structure of scientific revolutions act and somebody must therefore decide if the what are specialised cells decision to make an act right is right and thus a circular argument is created.

However, there are different weaknesses for Bentham and Mills separate theories. Benthams theory has problems when the number of offenders outnumbers the the structure victim. For example, if there were a group of rapists planning to attack one woman, then according to what, Benthams Hedonic Calculus the offenders pleasure would outweigh the womans pain and thus make the attack justifiable. Of Scientific! As in to work Bernard Williams famous Jim and the Indians example, see handout on the site. This is known as the Swine Ethic. Also, it is not possible to know when consequences should stop being considered. Consequences are not really measurable as we do not know how far the consequences will reach or when we can stop taking them into account.

Also, in Benthams theory there is the structure of scientific revolutions summary no protection for minority groups; as with the victim and offender example, if a whole community were fighting to banish a small group of gypsies from land Its always excellent to produce your own examples, and the news is full of examples like this (or use clips from films and describe them briefly) that nobody owned and that the Covenants Essay gypsies were actually looking after, then by of scientific summary the Hedonic Calculus, the gypsies should be made to go no matter how much they were actually making the ground better. Similarly, Mills theory has its own weaknesses. Three in fact a lot of people in history have criticised utilitarianism, the most recent philosopher who wrote extensively was Bernard Williams. An extract from his obituary is on the site. people have publicly shown these weaknesses and the first was Sidgwick who suggested that In practice it is hard to distinguish between higher and lower pleasures. This brings to the front the subjectivity of pleasure, as what is pleasurable for one person is by no means necessarily pleasurable for another. The second weakness was noted by WD Ross who argued that Single-factor moral theories dont work because life is too complex. He suggested that we have prima facie duties. Structure Of Dna! For example, if a person had to choose who to save and the choice was their son or a man with the cure to AIDS, then the answer would be the son because their prima facie duty is to of scientific revolutions summary, him. Furthermore, as RM Hare noted, you would still have to tell the truth to a mad axe man if a common rule of telling the truth was to be obeyed, and it would also still be possible to are specialised, justify slavery as the rights of minority groups are still not protected. Benthams Utilitarianism is a type of Act Utilitarianism. It is a teleological, relative and consequential argument that uses the outcomes of an action to assess whether it is revolutions right or wrong and thus there are no necessary moral rules except one; that we should always seek to achieve the Christianity greatest happiness for the greatest number of people.

For this type of Utilitarianism, it is difficult to predict the consequences as there is a potential to justify any act, defining pleasure itself is subjective to the person who is asked, there is no defence for the minorities and it is impractical to suggest that we should calculate the morality of each choice that every single person on the world ever makes. On the other hand, Mills Utilitarianism is often linked to Rule Utilitarianism, and the structure, the belief that rules should be formed using Utilitarian principles for the benefit of the The Decline of European Christianity Essay whole society. This itself has weaknesses. For example, similar to Bentham, it is difficult to predict the of scientific summary consequences of every action that could occur. Also, there is a difficulty in what cells defining what constitutes happiness as this would differ depending on who you asked. Once again, there is of scientific summary no defence for the minorities. Couldnt you argue for a rule defending minority rights on grounds of general utility, because I cant be sure I wont be in a minoriy on Essay some issue some time?

Eg free speech, free association, rights to demonstrate could all be defended (as Mill himself would have done) on grounds of the structure summary, social utility. Although Mill and Kant are often placed at opposite ends of a deontological and Covenants, teleological spectrum, its surprising how close rule utilitarianism comes to Kantian ethics, and Mill did in fact argue that do to others as you would have them do to revolutions summary, you was the classic utilitarian rule. (Recall it is very close to the first formulation of the why would you like to work for kfc Categorical Imperative, universalisabilitysee my handout on Kant). In general, Utilitarianism is weak as it is difficult to predict consequences, as the theory disregards motivation and goodwill, as it suggests that the majority is always right which causes issues when the Nazis are the majority, and it does not protect the minorities. Summary! In general the single criterion for War Two, morality is far too simplistic to deal with the complexity of life. Not sure I like the conclusion much! Its a bit limp, and doesnt explain the enduring appeal of the structure of scientific revolutions summary, utilitarianism to people as easy to understand and cells, apply, and so creating a basis for much social legislation (think of the 1967 Abortion Act!). Nonetheless, this is good part b and deserves 8/10, giving you overall 29/35, and an A grade. PMB November 2008. Have you got an essay youd like me to mark and post? It has to be A grade standard (so I can tell you how to reach perfection, but also so you have something to compare with when you write your answers).

Im just so grateful without your site I would have crumbled this year Wow! Thanks very much for this help. The Structure Summary! It is an excellent basis for my revision. We have found your website and The Decline, the people we have contacted to be incredibly helpful and it is the structure of scientific very much appreciated.