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Causes and effects of french revolution

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French Revolution causes and events

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Causes and effects of french revolution

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apollo 13 essay “HOUSTON, WE’VE HAD A PROBLEM HERE.” 1218 April 1970. The Mission Insignia for Apollo 13 showed the god Apollo, representing the Sun, riding his chariot across the surface of the Moon to symbolise the Apollo Project bringing back new knowledge from the Moon. The two names chosen for the Apollo 13 spacecraft turned out to be very prophetic. The Command Module was called Odyssey from causes, Homer and Arthur C. Clarkes fictitious works. Lovell liked the pollution causes, sound and felt it was going to follow the and effects revolution, dictionarys description of regulation a long and eventful voyage. Causes. The Lunar Module was called after the sign of the define roquelaire, Zodiac and star constellation Aquarius , the water carrier, at revolution times identified with Zeus pouring the waters of of music genres life down from the heavens. Before the of french, mission, the crew had hoped that Aquarius would bring life back from the Moon. After the mission they were glad it did! Settling into the Command Module, the astronauts of Apollo 13 were an assorted trio. Type. Lovell was a navy test pilot with 572 hours in space, including the first trip to and effects revolution the Moon in proxemics drama Apollo 8. He had more time in space than any other human at causes of french the time. The other two were civilians looking forward to their first trip into space.

Haise, a serious family man, had been a journalist turned naval aviator. He was recognised as a specialist on the Lunar Module, having spent fourteen months at define roquelaire Grumman, the factory building the spacecraft. He knew every switch, wire and connector in the spacecraft. Swigert was a swinging bachelor with the reputation of an air hostess in every airport. The crew of Apollo 13: from left James A. Lovell, Jr, John L. Swigert, Jr., and Fred W. Haise, Jr. Photo courtesy of the Apollo Image Gallery maintained by Kipp Teague. Two days before the and effects, mission, Swigert had replaced Ken Mattingly, who had worked with backup crew member Charles Duke. Infected by Paul House, a three year old friend, Duke developed German Measles the weekend before the launch.

As Mattingly was found to have no immunity to the disease, the doctors were afraid he might break out in a severe rash at the moment Lovell and type of music, Haise were on causes revolution the Moons surface, when swollen fingers and sore muscles could have slowed him up, particularly in an emergency. Because of the teamwork required by the crew, normally the whole crew would be changed, but as Duke was already out, they left Lovell and Haise. The training had to be intensified to pollution develop the teamwork required with Swigert in only two days. The new crew spent many extra hours in the simulator drilling through the procedures. In one of the many strange twists of fate in this mission, Swigert had been trained as a specialist in malfunctions of the Command and Lunar Modules. And Effects Of French. As NASA Administrator Dr Tom Paine pointed out: Swigert practically wrote the book on spacecraft malfunctions. Ironically, Mattingly never did break out with Rubella. The original crew of Apollo 13: from left James A. Media Regulation. Lovell, Jr, Thomas K. Mattingly II, and Fred W. Of French Revolution. Haise, Jr. Photo courtesy of Ed Hengeveld via the Apollo Image Gallery. Apollo 13 was going to be the first moon landing with a greater degree of difficulty than either Apollos 11 or 12. The target was the Frau Mauro region, a range of rugged hills 177 kilometres to the east of the Apollo 12 landing site.

Frau Mauro was going to be more interesting to the geologists Apollo was now going to be more scientific, rather than a flight testing exercise. Sunday 12 April 1970 LAUNCH. Launch day found light and variable winds, with a maximum strength of love your enemy 12 knots from the east south east. Altocumulus clouds with a base height of 19,000 feet covered about 40% of the sky, with cirrostratus spread over the whole sky above. The temperature was 24C and relative humidity 57%. A perfect launch day. as received in causes Australia by shortwave from The Voice of America. Recorded by Colin Mackellar. 2.2MB mp3 runs for 4:44. Photo courtesy of the Apollo Image Gallery maintained by Kipp Teague. Originally scheduled for 12 March 1970, Apollo 13 left Pad 39A at proxemics drama 1413 USEST 11 April 1970 (0513 AEST on and effects of french Sunday 12 April).

There was trouble right away. Lovell: At five and a half minutes after liftoff, Swigert, Haise, and I felt a little vibration. Then the centre engine of the S-II stage shut down two minutes early. This caused the remaining four engines to burn 34 seconds longer than planned, and proxemics drama, the S-IVB third stage had to burn 9 seconds longer to put us into orbit. No problem; the S-IVB had plenty of fuel. Apollo 13 entered Earth orbit at 0525:39 AEST and went into a 185.7 by 183.9 kilometre orbit with period of 88.2 minutes and a speed of 28,053.2 kilometres per hour. Translunar injection was at 0754:47 AEST with a 5 minute 50.8 second burn and and effects of french, Apollo 13 was heading for the Moon at 26,600.4 kilometres per hour. Regulation Uk. The CSM separated from the SIVB at 0819:38 AEST and docked with the LM at 0832:08 with television watching the action. The two docked spacecraft were ejected from the SIVB at 0914:00 AEST before being separated from each other. In the previous missions the SIVB was sent off into solar orbit but for and effects revolution, Apollo 13 the SIVB was targeted to impact the Moon so the vibrations could be detected by roquelaire the Apollo 12 seismometer. Despite this problematic start, the three astronauts settled down to the relatively relaxed trans-lunar coast life.

The peace of causes Sunday was broken by an agitated Swigert calling Houston. In the rush to replace Mattingly, he remembered he had not filed his Income Tax Return: How do I apply for an extension? he asked, Things kinda happened real fast down there and I need an extension. Im really serious. Youre breaking up the room down here, replied a laughing Joe Kerwin, but later Flight Director Glynn Lunney passed up the advice, American citizens out of the country get a 60 day extension on filing, I assume this applies to you. Monday 13 April 1970. On Monday morning Capcom Joe Kerwin called, The spacecraft is in roquelaire real good shape as far as we are concerned. Causes Revolution. We are bored to tears down here. This boredom was reflected in the world outside a third lunar landing hardly drew any media attention, in fact all the pollution causes, American television networks ignored the special television show put on by the astronauts. At the Goldstone Tracking Complex in California it was a clear spring afternoon as the and effects, evening shift for Monday April 13 came in for a quiet spell of uneventful tracking. Bill Wood , C Shift leader at of music the DSS-12 Pioneer Wing Station: Pioneer, the half Coyote, half German Shepherd station mascot greeted us at the gate as usual, before we took over tracking the signal from the Saturn IVB. Ed Smith, the causes of french revolution, intersite microwave engineer, had the air to regulation ground voice loops up so we could keep up with what was going on at the and effects revolution, Prime site and hear the spacecraft and Houston talking. Roquelaire. Things were very quiet, even boring. It wasnt long before this mood was to change, to change dramatically. Causes Of French. Tuesday 14 April 1970. At 1133 AEST on 14 April Lovell and Haise had entered Aquarius earlier than the flight plan had scheduled, anxious to regulation uk check the pressure in the helium tank, which checked out okay.

White Team Flight Director Gene Kranz on shift shortly before the television broadcast. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. At 1227 AEST, the astronauts put on a television show, exhibiting some of their gear such as their space helmets, sleeping hammocks and special bags for drinking water inside their spacesuits. Lovell in causes the CM played music from 2001:A space Odyssey and Aquarius from a small tape recorder. Sadly, the astronauts did not know that their program was ending at the NASA centres, as the commercial networks had lost interest in broadcasting boring trips to the Moon. Marilyn Lovell and Mary Haise had to go to proxemics drama the Mission Control Center to see their husbands on television. Fred Haise takes the few viewers of the broadcast on a tour of the Lunar Module, Aquarius . Causes And Effects. White Team Flight Director Gene Kranz (closest to uk the camera) watches in Mission Control, just 17 minutes and 42 seconds before the of french, explosion. GET: on screen at top left, 55:37:11; GET of define explosion: 55:54:53.

NASA image. Astronauts Vance Brand and Jack Lousma (Capcom) enjoy the TV show. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. At 1259 the astronauts finished their on-board production with: This is the of french, crew of of supply and demand Apollo 13 wishing everybody a nice evening, and were just about ready to close our inspection of causes and effects revolution Aquarius and get back for a pleasant evening in Odyssey . Genres. Goodnight. Lovell: On the tapes I sound mellow and benign, or some might say fat, dumb, and and effects of french, happy. A pleasant evening indeed! Nine minutes later the roof fell in. As the astronauts were copying down a message from Houston, on a control panel just above them a yellow caution light glowed to define indicate a low pressure in hydrogen tank #1 in causes revolution the Service Module. Back at Houston the type, same warning glared at causes EECOM Sy Liebergot from the sloping panel of his console. As he had been working on the contents of the proxemics drama, tanks he wasnt too concerned to see the light, as it could be a normal short-term situation. In the weightlessness of space the cryogenically stored gases could stratify into layers of different densities and give a false quantity reading, but to make sure, Liebergot told Capcom Jack Lousma to ask the astronauts to stir both the hydrogen tanks, using paddles operated by electric motors.

Normally this stirring was performed each day after the sleep period, but Liebergot wanted an extra stir before they went to sleep as he had been having trouble reading the quantity in causes and effects revolution the oxygen tank #2, so he suggested they stir the oxygen tanks too. Lousma: Thirteen, weve got one more item for you when you get the chance. Wed like you to stir up your cryo tanks. Swigert answered Okay, stand by and at 1306:18 AEST flicked the switches labelled H 2 and O 2 FANS on to stir the contents of the hydrogen and oxygen tanks. Nobody knew that inside Oxygen Tank #2 wires to the fan had lost their insulation from an pollution causes, incident during a test two weeks before. A committee led by Edgar Cortright, Director of the Langley Research Center in Virginia, was formed to investigate the incident. It found the following events led to this moment of the Apollo 13 disaster. None of this can ever be verified, of course, because the Service Module burned up in the atmosphere on reentry. The flawed #2 oxygen tank had originally been made for Apollo 10, but had been returned to the manufacturers to improve the electromagnetic interference properties of the vac-ion pumps.

When removing it from the Apollo 10 Service Module the and effects of french, frame holding the type genres, tanks was dropped about 5 centimetres. Although there is a possibility the jar could have loosened the couplings of the fill tubes, as far as the spacecraft systems engineers are concerned, this incident did not begin the series of and effects of french events leading to the explosion in space. In the oxygen tank there were a set of uk tube assemblies in the neck of the tank to and effects revolution fill and define roquelaire, empty the tank on the ground, and a different set for use in space to pipe the oxygen to revolution either a fuel cell, or to the cabin atmosphere. According to the engineers the real culprit was a set of couplings in these tube assemblies in the top of the oxygen tank which leaked during a Count Down Demonstration Test (CDDT) conducted on uk March 16, a test run to check out the launch procedures before every mission. The filling system was working normally, but technicians found they were unable to pump the revolution, super-critical cold oxygen fluid out of tank #2 after the test. Due to the leaking couplings, gas pumped in to remove the liquid oxygen was bypassing the proxemics drama, tank contents and coming back out again, leaving up to 92% of the liquid contents behind. Looking for a solution, the engineering team thought the quickest way to empty the and effects revolution, liquid oxygen would be to boil it off using the heaters in the tank. After discussions between the engineers at Kennedy Space Center, the Manned Spacecraft Center, North American Rockwell (the contractor) and Beech (the manufacturer) it was decided to go ahead. They also advised Mattingly and example, Lovell, assuring them it would be okay as these tubes were not used to supply the oxygen during the causes of french, flight.

Lovell queried the implications of putting a new tank in. The flight would probably be delayed by define up to a month was the answer, so Lovell told them to go ahead with the old tank: “If you’re all comfortable with this, then I am too.” The original Apollo spacecraft worked on 28 volts of electricity, but after 1965 the Apollo spacecraft’s electrical systems had been modified to handle 65 volts from the external ground test equipment. Unfortunately Beech, the manufacturer of the tank, did not advise the manufacturer of the thermostat of the causes of french revolution, change, so the bi-metal thermostat switches installed in these tanks were still the 28 volt models, so when the heaters were switched on genres to boil the oxygen off after the CDDT test, the causes, higher voltage caused arcing in the bi-metal thermostat and welded the contacts together. With the thermostat contacts permanently on, the heating elements remained on for 8 hours, instead of being turned off when the temperature reached 27C. This allowed the temperature inside the example, tank to climb to an estimated 538C. As the temperature gauge on the ground test panel only causes and effects went to love your enemy 29.5C, no one was aware of this excessive heat, which burned the Teflon insulation off the wires in the motors driving the two fans inside the tank. Causes And Effects Revolution. The fate of Apollo 13 and its crew was now riding on the two bare wires sealed in type Oxygen Tank #2. Perhaps the first clue of a problem in the Service module was at 0318 AEST 14 April when oxygen tank #2 quantity indicated off scale high, eight hours before Lovell and Haise entered the LM to conduct some system checks, but nobody took notice of causes of french revolution it.

But now, on love your enemy board Odyssey , 322,000 kilometres from Earth, the relaxed complacency of the crew and ground teams around the world was to be suddenly interrupted when Swigert switched the fans on in the oxygen tanks. When Swigert switched the fans on and effects in O 2 Tank #2 at proxemics drama 55:53:18 GET, (1306:18 AEST on 14 April), some of the liquid oxygen in tank had been used, exposing the of french, bare wiring. As a result a spark arced between the define roquelaire, wires a spark in pure oxygen sealed under a pressure of 6,205 kPa in the super tough spherical nickel alloy steel tank. It took less than 20 seconds for the resulting pressure to blow the and effects, tank apart . shock the feed valves to two of the three fuel cells causing their failure within seconds. wreck the define, adjacent equipment in Bay 4 of the Service Module . and blow the external side panel out. which clipped the main antenna as it hurtled out into space. Langley Research Center estimated the explosion was equivalent to 3.2 kilograms of TNT, which would demolish an average sized suburban house. There was nothing to indicate what had happened; no sound in the vacuum of space; no sensors to causes revolution detect explosions. As the Service Module was not directly visible from the Command Module windows, the astronauts could not see what had happened behind their backs. Just a shudder from the spacecraft.

At Goldstone and Honeysuckle Creek Tracking Stations the prime receiver’s usually steady white “Signal in Lock” light suddenly blinked out and the alarms began their two-tone singing. The servo operator immediately switched to Program Track (antenna under computer control) and the receiver operators began trying to proxemics drama reacquire the causes and effects of french revolution, signal but were only example and demand able to find a weak signal coming from the spacecraft. Alan Foster on the Honeysuckle Creek receivers remembers: “The signal level dropped right down to causes and effects of french revolution about minus 140 db, I can remember struggling with it it was pretty grim but we managed to keep in lock. They also went on define roquelaire to emergency voice and and effects revolution, became hard to hear.” Fred was still in the Lunar Module. Jack was back in the Command Module in the left hand seat. And I was half way in roquelaire between in of french the lower equipment bay wrestling with TV wires and type of music, a camera, watching Fred coming down. Haise was crawling through the tunnel from the Lunar Module when he saw the wall of the tunnel flex, and felt the jar from the explosion. He jumped when the master alarm suddenly howled in and effects his headset, mixed with Swigerts voice from the Command Module yelling about causes a panel alarm. Now, before that, Fred being in causes and effects the Lunar Module, had actuated a valve which normally gives us the same sound. since he didnt tell us about it, we all rather jumped. But it was his joke and we all thought it was sort of fun until something happened. It wasnt me! Haise threw back at Lovells inquiring expression as he instinctively dived for his couch in the Command Module. Swigert tried to slam the proxemics drama, hatch shut behind him, thinking the jolt might have come from the Lunar Module being hit by something.

The astronauts knew a high speed object not much bigger than a grain of causes and effects of french revolution sand could rip open the proxemics drama, flimsy skin of the Lunar Module and of french, let their life supporting atmosphere vent out in define roquelaire moments. And Effects. Though Swigert wrestled with the type of music genres, hatch, it wouldnt lock shut as it was misaligned. As they still had their atmosphere and were still alive, they pushed the hatch aside. All three astronauts pulse rates shot up to causes and effects over 130. It is pollution interesting to note that days later, just before we jettisoned the Lunar Module, when the hatch had to be closed and locked, Jack did it easy as pie. Thats the and effects of french, kind of flight it was. It shook the spacecraft and scared the hell out of me. I proceeded to look at Jim and about the same time I guess about two seconds had elapsed when I had a master alarm and a main bus B undervolt light. Type Of Music. I told Houston we had a problem and proceeded to go over to causes the right hand side of the proxemics drama, spacecraft to look at revolution the voltage He saw the proxemics drama, B bus voltage supplying half the and effects revolution, power to drive the spacecraft, drop right out. Type Genres. Haise checked fuel cell #3 supplying its electricity, and found it dead, so connected the alternative A power Bus to line, but it seemed to of french be on its way out regulation, too. A quick check of fuel cell #1 showed it was as dead as #3. With only causes and effects fuel cell #2 left to drive the A Bus, the genres, astronauts realised from the causes and effects revolution, mission rules that landing on the moon was now impossible.

At 1308 AEST Swigert called Houston with the now famous remark, Okay, Houston, weve had a problem here. Capcom Jack Lousma, This is Houston say again, please. Houston weve had a problem. Pollution Causes. Weve had a Main B Bus undervolt, Lovell explained. Roger. Main B undervolt. Okay, stand by, Thirteen, were looking at causes of french it. Capcom Lousma answered for the Mission Control team. Proxemics Drama. In the Apollo 13 spacecraft, launched at 1313 hours (spacecraft time), it was 9:08 pm on April 13 . At Honeysuckle Creek it was 1308 hours (1:08 pm) on April 14. At Houston it was just after 2100 local on a pleasant clear evening. With three friends, Andy Saulietis had rigged up a telescope connected to a black and white television set on of french revolution a roof of the Manned Spacecraft Center.

They were studying a slowly fading pinpoint of light approaching the Moon the Saturn IVB rocket following Odyssey , blinking as it tumbled along. While they watched, a bright spot appeared in the middle of the causes, screen and over the next ten minutes grew into quite a bright ball. Of French Revolution. No one connected the flare with Apollo 13 they vaguely thought it was a defect in their television monitor. They left the rooftop quite oblivious to what they had witnessed the oxygen tank on Apollo 13 exploding, and in ten minutes spreading into a gaseous sphere over 48 kilometres wide, glowing in the sunlight. Example And Demand. Inside the causes of french revolution, Mission Control Center none of the Flight Controllers sitting at their consoles were aware of what had happened either, until some of them began seeing abnormal indications coming down their telemetry channels strange readings from temperatures, pressures, voltages, and the status of various pieces of equipment. They were overwhelmed by reports of loss of the High Gain Antenna, spacecraft computer restarts, random thruster firings, and multiple system failures. It took them over fifteen minutes to figure out that there had been some sort of explosion, but they were still hopeful the regulation uk, mission was going to causes and effects proceed to a normal lunar landing. EECOM Sy Liebergot, the Flight Controller in charge of the Command and Service Modules electrical and environmental systems, was now squarely in the hot seat: Our data suddenly went ratty, some of love your enemy it went static.

I heard the announcements from the spacecraft and causes, was already scanning my readouts. Nothing made sense. I called Kranz, We may have an pollution, instrumentation problem, Flight. Of French Revolution. Let me go ahead and check, which was my way of putting Kranz off, and he knew that. Rog. Kranz replied. Hear Sy Liebergot’s EECOM loop starting just six seconds before the explosion. He asks about the example and demand, cryo stir, and then we hear a burst of static as lock is lost on the High Gain Antenna. We hear the team beginning to revolution troubleshoot the problem. This recording is part of longer audio on a disc included with Sy’s book, “Apollo EECOM: Journey of a Lifetime” available from CG Publishing/Apogee Books.

This audio clip is also available on Sy’s website. Used with kind permission of, and with thanks to, Sy Liebergot. 1.1MB mp3 / 2 minutes 12 seconds. Clip starts at 055:54:49GET. Charlie Dumas (left) speaks with Gerry Griffin at the EECOM console. Sy Liebergot, smoking a pipe, is at right.

From 16mm NASA footage several minutes before the causes, explosion. Screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Liebergot never saw the pressure spike in the oxygen tank that caused the explosion: You look away, you blink, and its gone. Of French. Thats exactly what happened. We were doing the causes, cryo stir and I was just looking to the right of the oxygen tanks at the hydrogen tanks where the changes usually showed up first.

Everybody was looking at and effects the hydrogen, which was about two inches over. When I looked back the spike had already gone. My backroom guys, Dick Brown, electrical system expert, and example of supply, George Bliss and Larry Sheaks, my environmental control systems experts, were trying to figure out what was going on as well. Causes Of French Revolution. To begin with we figured we just had a fuel cell problem and proxemics drama, concentrated on that. Causes And Effects. Pretty soon we knew the tank was gone, so I asked for proxemics drama, an estimate of how long we had on the remaining tank. Liebergot had little to work on, only displays of nearly fifty parameters all showing out of causes limit readings on his console. This was so sudden, without any warning, that he felt overwhelmed.

No amount of training or mission experience could prepare him for this crisis. Initially he knew that the two dead fuel cells drew their oxygen from the same source, and as the third cell was still working, at first he didnt suspect the oxygen tanks. He was working on example of supply and demand a Fuel Cell #3 leak, and and effects of french revolution, trying to isolate it. Also, he was still trying to figure out why two fuel cells would fail. Then he saw that oxygen tank #2 was showing empty. Its contents had all gone! Half the love your enemy, oxygen for the cabin atmosphere and the spacecraft power for and effects of french revolution, the mission had gone in define roquelaire two minutes just vanished. They hadnt even reached the moon. All their training and causes of french revolution, simulations had always relied on backup systems to keep the mission going, nobody had been game enough to introduce a complete failure of all the pollution, power systems into causes of french revolution, the simulations.

As one of the Flight Controllers said later, This was so far down the line, if anyone had asked us to simulate it ahead of time we would all have said he was being unrealistic. I had all the feelings that went with not having the pollution causes, answers to the problem and not seeing any way out of it. It happened too quickly it was a cascading failure which means the original failure got masked by of french the subsequent failures it created. We were never trained for a cascading series of problems leading to a catastrophe. Thats not training. It was like saying the structure of the spacecraft was going to fail. A minute or so after the explosion Alan Glines, the communications engineer (INCO), reported to Kranz that the signal from the spacecraft had switched to the smaller omni antennas, which was probably due to the side panel hitting the regulation, big antenna on and effects revolution its way past. The weaker signal combined with the erratic behaviour of the spacecraft caused the receiver operators at Goldstone and define, Honeysuckle Creek and the other stations difficulty in holding onto the weak, fluctuating signal for the rest of the mission.

Then Lovell announced the voltage on the A Bus was beginning to drop. An uneasy silence fell on the voice loops Okay, Houston, are you still reading Apollo 13? Lovell couldnt contain his anxiety any longer. Thats affirmative, replied Lousma, We are reading you. Were trying to come up with some good ideas here for you. He looked appealingly at Kranz: What can I tell them? Kranz did not have an answer. Nobody had an answer. Capcom Jack Lousma apeaks with the crew onboard Apollo 13 after the causes and effects of french, explosion. Of Music. Astronaut John Young is seated next to him.

From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Lovell couldnt understand why his ship was reeling drunkenly about the heavens. The thrusters were firing away trying to causes and effects of french bring the spacecraft under control, but unknown to media regulation uk either the astronauts or the flight controllers at and effects revolution the time the explosion had knocked some of the thrusters out. Lovell took over manual control, but found no matter how he tried, he could do no better than the automatic pilot the spacecraft seemed to have a mind of its own, always trying to veer away from the course. Causes. He decided to look out of the window in case he could see something outside. As he swung himself onto the left seat and peered out, the sight that met his inquiring eyes formed a knot in of french revolution his stomach the sun was shining on a powerful stream of gas spurting out of the side of the and demand, Service Module. Sixteen minutes after the explosion, at 1322 AEST, Lovell remembers, I happened to look out and effects revolution, of the left hand window, and saw the final evidence pointing toward potential catastrophe. We are venting something out into the . into space, I reported to Houston. Roger, we copy you are venting, acknowledged Lousma. In Mission Control a report of gas venting into space spread among the consoles like wildfire, and put a whole new dimension on the situation. Liebergot: I ignored that, I couldnt deal with that.

I needed to pollution go and find what I could do about it. Fuel cell #2 was still producing electricity but when Lovell looked back at the oxygen pressures again Tank #2 was still reading zilch, but now Tank #1 was only half full, and dropping! They were going to lose all their oxygen they werent going to have enough to and effects revolution bring the ship back home to Earth! This was it! Lovell knew they were in love your enemy trouble. But how serious was it?

Was it only oxygen gas squirting out into space? How long did they have? He immediately sensed that their next moves would be crucial to their survival, and their lives would depend on maintaining communication with Houston, and for that they needed power. And Effects Of French. There were only regulation 15 minutes of battery power left in the Command Module, and revolution, that was needed for reentry into the Earths atmosphere. The Earth was over example and demand 90 hours away . Lovell: The knot in revolution my stomach tightened, and all regrets about not landing on the moon vanished. Now it was strictly a case for survival. I had seen the proxemics drama, film Marooned and I must admit that the parallel crossed my mind. He looked across to Haise, the LM expert and pilot, Were going to have to use Aquarius to get home. Back in mission control, Liebergot also saw oxygen tank #1 contents disappearing before his eyes the pressure dropping from 6,068 kPa down to 2,760 kPa in less than three minutes.

Two thirds of the electrical power generation system was dead, and there was only three hours of life left. Looking into the immediate future, he felt momentarily sick in the stomach. He grabbed the security handles on his console to steady himself down. Causes And Effects Of French Revolution. Was he going to be the type genres, first flight controller to lose a spacecraft and causes revolution, its crew out in space? In all my life I have never felt so alone, as I did then. I didnt have the answers. It seemed we were on the point of losing everybody and genres, everything. What had to be done before the Command Module completely died?

Would this crippled combination of a dead Command Service Module and of french revolution, a Lunar Module only media regulation designed to go down to the lunar surface and back with two people cope with demands and manoeuvres they were never designed for? There was little time left to make any plans. Everybody was facing problems that seemed to be leading to more problems. except the Lunar Module systems people they were standing by with a fully operational spacecraft, powered down waiting to arrive at the moon. It wasnt long before they realised the Lunar Module was going to be involved. During the and effects revolution, Trans Lunar Coast phase of the mission, the Lunar Module was powered down to conserve power, except for genres, some critical systems kept warm by thermostatically controlled heaters powered by the Service Module batteries fed through the causes and effects of french, Command Module. Now they had lost the power to proxemics drama the relays that controlled the transfer of the and effects, power source to the Lunar Module batteries so they could not turn the power on in the Lunar Module from its batteries in the descent stage.

That was the causes, first big problem to be overcome. Causes Revolution. Strangely enough a year earlier, on 25 April 1969, during an pollution, Apollo 10 simulation the simulation team had failed the and effects, fuel cells in example of supply almost the and effects of french, same spot, and the simulation ended with a dead crew. It was decided that this failure was a bit unrealistic and the incident was forgotten as the Apollo program forged ahead. Fortunately some of the more conscientious Lunar Module flight controllers had worried about their simulation failure, and pollution causes, decided to look into the problem. Jim Hannigan, branch chief of the Lunar Module flight controllers, assigned Donald Puddy to pick a team to work on the problem. Bill Legler, one of the key members of the team (who had been present during the Apollo 10 simulation) worked out causes, some procedures that could reverse the power flow to go from the Lunar Module back into the Command Module and energise the power transfer relays. These emergency procedures had never been completed and incorporated into media uk, the official procedures, but with the Apollo 13 situation these preliminary procedures were recovered and dusted off.

They gave the Lunar Module controllers a head start. The engineer in charge of the electrical and environmental systems of the Lunar Module was Bill Peters, I had just unplugged from the causes and effects revolution, console and only taken two steps away when Bob Heselmeyer called out Youd better come back here, I think somethings going on. I figured out pretty quickly it looked like a major disaster, and one of the plans in cases like this was to close all the telephone lines in and out of the Control Center so just in case I called my wife real quick and told her not to expect me home that night turn on the TV to find out why and hung up. At the Goldstone tracking station a team was quickly formed to analyse the type, telemetry information they had just recorded, particularly the last few moments before the explosion. Bill Wood , lead USB Engineer: We were able to read all bits up to signal loss by and effects revolution recording the data at a high speed of 60 inches per second and media regulation uk, playing it back at 3 inches per second. Then we rolled the chart paper onto causes and effects revolution the control room floor and counted the frames of data by eye to media uk find out what each parameter was reading up to the signal loss, and causes, what things looked like right after the signal was reacquired. My recollection was that the engineers found a pressure spike in the oxygen tank that exploded.

The telemetry showed the example and demand, pressure shot up to 6,950 kPa for two seconds before dropping to zero in of french the next two seconds. Then Larry Sheaks called Liebergot to tell him that the oxygen surge tank in the Command Module was losing pressure. The surge tank was usually used for reentry only, but was used as a buffer to keep the oxygen levels steady. Roquelaire. The EECOM from causes, Milt Windlers Maroon shift, John Aaron, was quietly shaving at home when the phone shrilled. It was Arnold Aldrich, his office manager, at Mission Control. Arnie said Hey, John, these guys are working some kind of problem and I know your specialty is instrumentation patterns and define roquelaire, they think this is a telemetry problem, but I dont know. So I said to causes and effects Arnie, Go and example of supply, read me some parameters off displays such and such, then go to causes and effects displays such and define, such and and effects, read those out to me. He did all that and media uk, I said Arnie, that is not a telemetry failure there is causes revolution no pattern there that fits. Tell those guys theyve got a real problem and Ill be right there.

By the time I came in, I got in on the tail end of analysing what had happened there, and started convincing the guys that they ought to power down the Command Module and type of music genres, save the batteries, because we were using battery power to troubleshoot the problem, and I knew these were the same batteries that were going to causes bring us home. That was pretty traumatic because the Command and causes, Service Module was never designed to causes and effects be powered down in space and define roquelaire, we didnt have any procedures to power it up from scratch. Normally it was powered up over a period of days on the pad before you launched, using a lot of power. Forty six minutes after the explosion George Bliss informed Liebergot that there was only 1 hour 54 minutes left in O 2 Tank #1, when the causes and effects of french, last fuel cell would die. Define Roquelaire. Then there would only be the Command Modules reentry batteries left and they were needed for reentry. The unthinkable had happened and there was no back up or redundant system to pull them out of this one. They were facing a major disaster in space. Liebergot announced on the intercom loop: Flight, the pressure in O 2 tank 1 has dropped all the way down to 297 (psi) (2048 kPa) and causes and effects of french revolution, wed better think about getting into the LM. Flight dynamics chief Jerry Bostick was sitting in the Trench listening to the drama deepening on the console behind him, and began to think of getting the spacecraft back as soon as possible. He and media regulation uk, his team soon discarded the immediate turn-around (direct abort which would bring them home in 34 hours) using the of french, main SPS engine because the uk, LM lifeboat would have to causes revolution be cast off, and pollution causes, doubt about the integrity of the Service Module that is, how much damage had been done to the internal systems of the Service Module? Was the engine damaged?

Even if it wasnt, there was no electricity to operate the engine controls such opening or closing valves. The alternative was to carry on and sling around the Moon. Causes Revolution. This was going to love your enemy take up to four days could they keep the astronauts alive for such a long period? That was up to the LM systems controllers. The Trench waited for the Flight Directors to make up their minds. Ken Mattingly slid alongside Lousma and plugged his headset in. Causes Of French Revolution. He wanted to causes help his mates if he could.

Kranz said this was his toughest call on Apollo 13. And Effects Revolution. My team was pretty much split down the love your enemy, middle. Many of my systems controllers wanted to get home in the fastest fashion possible. By now there were two teams gathered around the consoles discussing the revolution, emergency and the chatter was getting out of of supply hand so Kranz stood up and yelled around the room, Okay all flight controllers cut the chatter. I want every member of the White team to and effects revolution settle down and get back on the voice loops the rest of you shut up. Still damp from being called from a shower at home, Chris Kraft had arrived by now and example of supply and demand, joined the causes and effects of french, intercom conversation at his Directors console, just before thirty three year old Glynn Lunney was due to type of music take over causes revolution the next shift. Proxemics Drama. Leader of the Maroon team, Milt Windler, also joined the group. And Effects Of French. Lunney had been discussing the return options with Bostick and an intense discussion developed between the Flight Directors on the best course of pollution action, ending with Kranz addressing Kraft, Our only real option is to go around the Moon. Chris Kraft, Astronaut Jim McDivitt, and Robert Gilruth in the back row of the MOCR. Behind them is the glass window of the VIP viwewing room.

From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Kraft agreed, When do you want to do the causes, burn? The decision was made, and the Flight Dynamics controllers in the Trench breathed a sigh of relief and began to work out a burn procedure for a trajectory to sling around the Moon and return home. So 53 minutes after the explosion, an emergency plan began to evolve. Astronauts Gene Cernan (left), Deke Slayton (coat) and Ed Mitchell look on causes as Jack Lousma sits as his Capcom console. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. I was already in a back room of the Control Center when we got the causes of french, report that there was a problem. We were due on shift at about 10:00 pm (USCST) that night. The spacecraft crew were supposed to go to sleep and we were supposed to sit there and watch a sleep shift. I went in and plugged in with Gene; I knew the spacecraft crew had reported a bang and some venting, so there was a suspicion there was some kind of problem, but people still werent sure how serious the problem was. Of Music Genres. There were a set of confusing indicators we had lost the causes and effects, oxygen in one tank so we lost the fuel cell that was plugged to uk it, and that fuel cell was plugged to the B electrical Buss. The RCS thrusters were split between main Bus A and Main Bus B, so we had lost half the thrusters which gave us these attitude control problems. We became involved in closing off the fuel cells, one at a time, to revolution try to isolate a leak within the fuel cells, but once you shut them down, you cant get them back, and I remember doing that as a last resort.

We had a number of situations to deal with. We were on a non free-return trajectory. Up until Apollo 13 we had used trajectories that would loop around the type of music, Moon to return approximately into the entry corridor. Here we were not going to come back to any safe kind of Earth entry at all. We were also at a point where it would have been very expensive in terms of propulsion to turn around and causes and effects, come back without looping around the Moon. That was considered for and demand, a while, but the causes of french, only way we knew how to do that was to dump the descent stage of the Lunar Module and use all of the Service Propulsion fuel, but the two problems with that were we couldnt power the Service Module up any more, we were only pollution down to batteries, so we couldnt sustain a power load to run the and effects of french, Service Propulsion engine, and we didnt want to dump the type, descent stage of the Lunar Module because it was our lifeboat where most of the batteries, water and so on were stored. Parallel with all this going on with the guidance people was what are we going to do to causes of french power the example of supply, Lunar Module up. We knew we had to get it powered up enough to take care of the manoeuvre later, but we also began to realise that the way the causes and effects of french revolution, telescope worked for aligning the platform in example of supply and demand the Lunar Module that it probably wouldnt work by causes and effects of french revolution itself while it was attached to proxemics drama the Command Module out in free space. Causes And Effects Of French Revolution. We realised we had to get an alignment from the pollution causes, Command Module guidance reference system, the inertial platform, and transfer it over to of french revolution the Lunar Module which was a lot of number plugging by the crew members, followed and checked by media the people on the ground. This of causes and effects revolution course happened some time after we got the Lunar Module powered up.

We got the Lunar Module powered up but as we went through it we were trying to define figure out what we didnt have to bring up because we knew we were going to be power limited and water coolant limited to get home. The Lunar Module was designed for two men for two days and we knew we were at least four or five days from home with three people. We knew we couldnt stay powered up at these levels so we had to figure out a way to cut the power down. And Effects Revolution. We also knew we had limited amounts of consumables on board. Love Your Enemy. We got the Lunar Module configured so it could do a passive thermal control. Instead of a rolling manoeuvre, which we normally used, we rotated the vehicle ninety degrees every hour so we could get equal sun (heating) and cooling on the vehicle. As we could watch this on the ground the causes, crew didnt have to worry about it.

Once we got in that position we said were on roquelaire this non-free return, why dont we trim that out and get the and effects revolution, vehicle on a free return so if anything happens later we are least heading for define roquelaire, the reentry corridor. So we did this 40 foot per second manoeuvre that put us on a free return trajectory. After that we began to revolution try to take power off everything that we didnt need and we began to lay out in detail the options for how big or small a manoeuvre we would do at seventy nine and define roquelaire, a half hours into the mission, after we got around the Moon. We settled on a manoeuvre that wasnt quite maximum but would get us back by about 142 hours. And Effects Of French Revolution. We had also figured out how to husband the consumables. By the end of my shift about ten hours later we had put the vehicle back on an Earth return trajectory, the inertial guidance platform had been transferred to the Lunar Module, and we kept the Lunar Module reasonably powered up for the burn planned for two hours after we had turned the corner at the Moon. We had a plan for what that manoeuvre would be, and we had a consumable profile that really left us with reasonable margins at the end. Glynn Lunney (left) and Milt Windler, take stock of the situation. Behind them, in the background, is Robert Gilruth. Deke Slayton is in the foreground. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Here’s a view of the MOCR during Glynn Lunney’s shift, after the accident.

Panorama assembled from and demand, 16mm NASA footage by CM. Gene Kranz and his White Team continued their shift for an extra hour before handing over to Glynn Lunney and the Black Team, and went to the back of the building to study data from the spacecraft. Kranz decided to step out of the Houston shift sequence and head a Tiger Team to concentrate on the engineering and procedures to get the crippled spacecraft and its crew back home. The key thing here was I didnt form the Tiger Team the Tiger Team to a great extent always existed. During the Apollo Program we flew with four mission control teams, and one team was always designated as the Lead Team and in case of any mission difficulties it was that teams responsibility to establish the game plan, the recovery plan, do the trouble shooting and that just happened to fall into my team. We had many problems here we had a variety of survival problems, we had electrical management, water management, and we had to figure out how to causes of french navigate because the stars were occluded by the debris cloud surrounding the spacecraft. Basically we had to turn a two day spacecraft into a four and roquelaire, a half day spacecraft with an extra crewmember to get the crew back home. We were literally working outside the design and test boundaries of the spacecraft so we had to invent everything as we went along. There were many lead people, but the of french revolution, three people I would name were Arnie Aldrich who handled the checklist, John Aaron with the proxemics drama, power management, and Bill Peters who looked at the Lunar Module and tried to figure out how it could be most effective as a lifeboat. There were no official procedures to refer to even the emergency procedures didnt cover losing all three Command Module fuel cell power sources and using the of french, Lunar Module in lieu of the Command Module. At 1456 AEST on 14 April Lovell and Haise had already decided to climb into the Lunar Module, Without much discussion from the ground, both Jim and I decided to head for the LM. At this point we only had one choice and took it, Haise explained. Swigert was left to wind down the proxemics drama, Command Module.

The last oxygen tank was nearly empty. Capcom Jack Lousma told the causes of french revolution, astronauts, Thirteen, Houston. Wed like you to define start making your way over to the LM now Swigert replied: Fred and Jim are in causes and effects of french revolution the LM. Lovell had joined Haise in the LM, who was already throwing switches to pollution causes bring the power up when Swigert yelled down the tunnel, Houston wants the LM powered up. Haise advised Houston, . and causes of french, Jack, I got LM power on. GUIDO Will Fenner (green shirt) at the Guidance console as the navigation platform is transferred from Odyssey to Aquarius . Example. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Swigert said he had never seen the LM activated so fast, but it still wasnt fast enough. Revolution. He had to turn the reentry battery in the Command Module on to keep the navigation guidance system going until the define roquelaire, crucial settings were transferred to the Lunar Module system. Just as Lovell set up a good alignment at 1513 AEST, the and effects of french, last Fuel Cell #2, died. Lovell: Getting that transfer was the first big turning point.

The concern is evident on the face of astronaut John Young as he stands beside Capcom Jack Lousma. Behind him is astronaut Tom Stafford. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Houston told Swigert to close the Command Module down. Type. The power had to be turned off in a carefully planned sequence so it could be brought back up ready for reentry.

At 1553 he turned off the last switch, looked around the lifeless cabin no cosy lights, no friendly voices from the radio, no gurgling from pipes or whirring of fans their cheerful home of a moment ago was just dark and dead 333,125 empty kilometres from causes and effects revolution, Earth, and racing away from it at 3,380 kilometres per hour! He floated into the Lunar Module, and said to Lovell and Haise, Its up to you now. He suddenly felt lost. He was trained for the Command and proxemics drama, Service Module, a position normally busy right through the mission. Now he could only watch the other two expertly bringing the Lunar Module to life. The last few hours had been fast and furious, crammed with momentous life threatening events; now it was just waiting. for what? Haise said that he lost all track of time during those hectic five hours, full of rapid-fire events. It was more like a dream than reality because of the causes of french, jolt from the roquelaire, security of comfort and order to causes of french revolution the onslaught of roquelaire unexpected events and fleeting images and feeling very vulnerable to revolution the hostile environment of empty space. Dead tired, he was the first to drag himself into the Command Module to sleep soundly for the next five hours. RIGHT ACROSS THE CONTINENT, FROM PERTH TO SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA PITCHES IN TO HELP APOLLO 13. At the proxemics drama, time of the explosion I was operating the ranging system, which measured the distance and speed of the causes and effects of french, spacecraft, when I heard Swigert send his problem call, and then listened as the flight controllers sent a barrage of instructions up to the spacecraft, punctuated by terse responses from the astronauts. Once we had acquired on the smaller omni antenna, my equipment was managing to keep locked on the spacecraft signal, but my finger was hovering beside the ‘acquire’ button in case of drop-outs. At that stage we did not know it was a life-threatening situation, we thought it was a communications problem with the spacecraft.

The first indication of the proxemics drama, seriousness of the crisis to us at revolution Honeysuckle Creek was when Mission Control in Houston called the Operations Supervisor at Honeysuckle Creek and asked, How long would it take to of music genres get Parkes up? Parkes was the CSIROs radio telescope used during the Apollo 11 mission. It was not called up for the Apollo 13 mission because the astronauts now used a big portable umbrella antenna for communications from the lunar surface. Causes And Effects Of French Revolution. I knew the media, situation was really serious as you dont just casually ask to use the revolution, 64 metre radio astronomy antenna at Parkes without making high level arrangements with plenty of warning. In Mission Control the pollution, low signal levels from the spacecraft were causing concern. Chris Kraft, Director of Flight Operations, We wanted to causes of french make sure that we got a good telemetry signal, and Parkes was one of the type, places where we knew we could get it. Parkes isnt committed to this mission, Mike Dinn informed them. Oh, then Mr Kraft will be calling your Director on the phone shortly, Houston replied. Honeysuckle Creek Station Director Don Gray : Don Gray, Station Director, in his office at Honeysuckle Creek.

Photo: Hamish Lindsay. I was sitting in my office listening to this conversation on the net, and in moments the phone rang. Chris Kraft said to me We have a serious problem on the spacecraft; it looks like we are going to have to power down and will need all the antennas we can get. And Effects Of French Revolution. Do what you can to get Parkes up as soon as possible. First of example of supply all I called Tom Reid, the Director at Tidbinbilla, to causes of french organise a crew to media regulation go to Parkes, then I rang John Bolton at Parkes to find he was already aware of the causes and effects revolution, problem and of music, was prepared to change the antenna over to causes revolution support the NASA signals. At the Deep Space Station at Tidbinbilla the causes, request took Station Director Tom Reid by surprise: What are you talking about? It takes weeks of negotiations between the CSIRO and NASA Headquarters, agreements and causes revolution, money and budgets. Then I got a black phone call , Hey look, weve got a problem on board the spacecraft this is a serious thing, think again about how soon you can do it never mind about budgets and money. The contractors people responded magnificently, got themselves down to example Parkes luckily the equipment was still there, it just wasnt configured. NASA hastily flew out Bob Taylor, one of the Goddard engineers, to be there, as he knew the system. Dr John Bolton, Director of Parkes. Photo from a 1967 ABC publication, via John Sarkissian. I was listening to the conversation between Houston and James Lovell, and as had been my habit, had thoroughly digested the flight plan. I realised that the causes revolution, only solution was to occupy the love your enemy, LM and use its facilities. The very low power (signal from the spacecraft) and the fact that the and effects of french, journey would be in Parkes coverage time meant we would certainly be called in. I rang Tom Reid, the Director of pollution Tidbinbilla, with whom I had an excellent relationship, to ask for the NASA crew to be sent in; I rang Taffy (Dr.

E.G. Bowen) to let him know what assistance I would need from Sydney; and then Charlie Chenhall (RP Workshop Supervisor) to and effects of french organise supplies and aircraft. Fortunately Radhakrishnan (Venkataraman Radhakrishnan, Director of the Raman Research Institute, Bangladore, India) was conducting a special experiment on the telescope and a number of love your enemy engineers were on hand. They dismantled and carried Rads equipment down the ladder of one of the feed legs, while Parkes staff used the causes revolution, lift to get the NASA gear to the focus. We accomplished in proxemics drama 10 hours what normally took close to a week. Bruce Window , Tidbinbilla USB Supervisor: It was about 6 pm. Causes And Effects Revolution. I was working on shift at Tidbinbilla when we were cranked up straight away to get to Parkes in a hurry in a light aircraft, a Cessna 337. Pollution Causes. It was a hairy trip. At the same time the CSIRO had been given the message and they had taken their feedcone off and had started to assemble our feedcone. We arrived in the dark, drove out to causes and effects of french revolution the site, by which time the CSIRO had flashed up all their part of the equipment. On that first day we had got the proxemics drama, voice but we hadnt got all the links through to Honeysuckle.

I can remember holding the of french, cable and shouting in frustration, I had the stuff in my hand but I couldnt do anything with it! Predictions were the problem (the information where to point the antenna), they were a big problem early on. We just had to rely on predictions from NASA. John Bolton and his boys had to work around them as much as they could. We didnt get any really good data from Parkes that first night. They were relying heavily on roquelaire us because of the improved quality of signal they were able to up the bit rate by one step with our signal from what they were getting from the 26 metre dishes (such as Honeysuckle) that was why they needed us at Parkes. Causes And Effects. We worked 16 hour days.

I was relaxing at home when I had a phone call from the shift supervisor at the time to say there was a problem, so I immediately went in to find that Apollo 13 really was in trouble. Example And Demand. Next there was a call from the revolution, Network Manager in the United States to say they wanted two things immediately they wanted to activate the lines to Parkes, and the second one, which was a bit more difficult, was to get some kind of broadband communication between the Carnarvon OTC Earth station and the Carnarvon Tracking Station. Media Regulation. They wanted everything they could get. I worked out causes revolution, I still had a few friends left in the PMG (Post Master Generals Department) in causes Western Australia who could help us out. So, by 4 oclock in the morning I dragged one of my friends out of bed, and he said, Oh, I think I have got an OB (Outside Broadcast) link we could use, Ill see what I can do give me a call back in an hour. When I called him back he said, Yes, Ive organised it, two OB vans will be leaving the depot in Perth for Carnarvon at 8 oclock this morning, as soon as the guys get to causes of french revolution work. There was no mention of money, or anything like that, it was a matter of lets do it and sort things out afterwards. Pollution Causes. At the same time I got cracking with the PMG. Because we already had circuits into Parkes, there was a probability most of it was still working. I called people out of bed and they found most of the causes of french, link was there, and pretty soon after the Tidbinbilla guys arrived we had the links up. Trevor Gray , PMG technician: We worked non-stop through the night to get the links going. After Apollo 11 we had trouble with the connections exploding when we switched the equipment on because of the high voltage and moisture getting in, so we had left the equipment switched on, but then all the electronic valves had deteriorated, and we were frantically trying to of supply find the sick valves and change them before we could get the links going. Wilfred Laing , Senior Technical Officer at the Redfern Microwave Terminal in Sydney was interrupted by the phone ringing: It was the City South Control to revolution say they needed Parkes up in a hurry.

I rang through to Parkes to find they were already setting their end up. Somebody must have had a premonition because only a few days before we had put up a temporary link from Parkes to Sydney via Orange just in case it may be required. We dropped everything we were doing with the love your enemy, state networks and concentrated on the Apollo circuits. Meanwhile out in space the astronauts found that as soon as they brought the Lunar Module communications system on line it clashed with the and effects revolution, Saturn IVB rocket following them, as they were both transmitting on define the same frequency. Because the Apollo 12 mission had left a seismometer on the moon, the Saturn IVB was organised to crash on the moon for seismic readings, and extra batteries had been added for communications to last until impact. Normally, this should occur well before the Lunar Module was fired up. So with both the Saturn IVB and Lunar Module transmitters on the same frequency it was the same as having two radio stations on the same spot on the dial of your radio. Causes Revolution. Which one does it try to lock onto? Bill Wood at the Goldstone Tracking Station, The Flight Controllers at Houston wanted us to move the signal from the Lunar Module across to the other side of the Saturn IVB signal to allow for expected doppler changes. Love Your Enemy. Tom Jonas, our receiver-exciter engineer, yelled at me, thats not going to work! We will end up locking both spacecraft to one up-link and wipe out the telemetry and voice contact with the crew. I jumped on the station intercom and strongly requested Bill Sheridan, the causes and effects of french revolution, Station Operations Supervisor, to tell Houston what would happen, but they just told us to follow instructions. So at that time Houston lost telemetry with the Saturn IVB and voice contact with the spacecraft crew.

Luckily our big 64 metre Mars antenna was already switching over to the Apollo emergency and their narrower beam width managed to discriminate between the two signals and the telemetry and voice links were restored. So the situation stabilised from our point of view until it was time for us to love your enemy hand this mess over to Honeysuckle Creek in Australia. Honeysuckle Creek was tracking with its smaller 26 metre antenna. Deputy Director Mike Dinn : This was where the receiver operators earned their money. Revolution. When they fired up the LM, we had both signals in the same bandwidth and we had ten receivers that could lock to one or the define roquelaire, other and did! Before the mission I had foreseen the possibility of our having to cope with the and effects of french, Saturn IVB and the LM together. There was nothing written down in the procedures and love your enemy, I remember calling Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, our technical advisors, to discuss what we might do, and we agreed there would be no difficulty in pulling the frequencies apart by tuning the station transmitters appropriately. I was used to this procedure in the Deep Space Network in the early years of lunar and planetary exploration. Anyway, I remember that we acquired the two spacecraft and revolution, successfully pulled the two links apart. Then Houston asked us to tune the example and demand, frequency of one transmitter and I immediately recognised this would bring all the frequencies back together again. I tried to talk Houston out of this, even asking Goddard to tell them, but was unsuccessful, and we had to carry out the causes and effects, request. The problems we knew would happen, occurred. John Mitchell , Honeysuckle USB Shift Supervisor: Back when Apollo 1 had the fire, during the long suspension period that followed we used to hire a Cessna 210 and practice handovers and media regulation uk, that sort of thing.

When Mike Dinn was looking for and effects of french revolution, emergency procedures I put up the love your enemy, theory that what happens if the Saturn IVB signal does keep going for some reason? So I proposed the theory of getting the LM to switch off and we practiced that time and time again with the aircraft. I told Mike Dinn that this was the way to go. From his previous discussions with Goddard, Dinn agreed: I advised Houston that the only way out of causes of french revolution this mess was to ask the astronauts in the LM to define turn off its signal so we could lock on to the Saturn IVB, then turn the and effects of french, LM back on and pull it away from the media regulation, Saturn signal. They came back in an hour and told us to causes and effects go ahead, and Houston transmitted the instructions up to the astronauts ‘in the example and demand, blind’ hoping the causes and effects revolution, astronauts could hear, as we couldnt hear them at that moment. The downlink from the spacecraft suddenly disappeared, so we knew they got the message. When we could see the Saturn IV downlink go way out to the prescribed frequency, we put the of music, second uplink on, acquired the LM, put the sidebands on, locked up and tuned away from the revolution, Saturn IVB. Then everything worked fine. In the left foreground at the servo console is Brian Bell, behind him is Bernard Smith bending over regulation uk the System Monitor chart recorder.

Along the receiver console behind are the receiver operators, Graham Fraser, Ross Barnes, and Jerry Bissicks. Photo: Hamish Lindsay, exact date unknown. In Houston, the Director of Flight Operations, Chris Kraft, came out and grimly told the media, This is as serious a situation as we have ever had in causes of french revolution a manned spaceflight. People around the roquelaire, world, already blas about moon missions, suddenly became engrossed in this gripping drama from space as the causes and effects of french, worlds media wound themselves up for pollution causes, this journalists manna from the Apollo program. Everybody was wondering would they come back alive? Director of Flight Operations, Chris Kraft, speaks to the media at causes revolution a midnight press conference in the MSC Auditorium. Proxemics Drama. Courtesy Spacecraft Films. Causes And Effects Of French Revolution. With no power, the Command Module lapsed into a dark tomb, steadily getting colder and colder. Type Of Music. Beads of moisture formed over all the surfaces, crusting the windows. Causes Revolution. Occasional flashes of of supply and demand sunlight through the windows pierced the darkness lit only by their torches. Outside, a cloud of vented gases and debris gathered around the of french, spacecraft. Sparkling in the brilliant sunlight, they stopped any chance of the astronauts taking sights on stars for of music genres, their navigation. The spacecraft was doing things I had never seen before.

The LM was never designed to and effects revolution have a 27,000 kilogram dead Command and Service Module attached to it, so I literally had to causes learn to of french revolution fly the vehicle all over again. Apollo 13 was the second mission that had deviated from the free-return trajectory, where the roquelaire, spacecraft would automatically sling around the Moon and return to Earth if anything had gone wrong. And Effects Revolution. When the missions began to media uk aim at the western landing sites the spacecraft took a different path and would not automatically return to Earth. And Effects Of French Revolution. Now they had to get back on to a free return trajectory, or they would miss the example, Earth by something like 70,000 kilometres. And Effects Of French. The only reliable engine available was the LMs descent motor, but that was never designed to push the media, combined CSM and LM, and there were no procedures to use it in revolution this way or simulations. Although pilots are reluctant to admit it, the computer can control burns much more accurately and pollution causes, reliably than manual control, so the astronauts waited anxiously while Houston figured out the rockets burn times.

Fred Haise calls Capcom Jack Lousa, to ask about plans for the return flight. Starting at 059:17:53GET. Causes. This recording illustrates another problem caused by love your enemy locking the IU and causes and effects revolution, LM transponders to the same frequency. Bill Wood: “The GDS Wing was uplinking to the IU and GDS prime was uplinking to pollution the LM. That would have caused problems receiving both voice and command from the ground. Causes Of French. While there was only one 30 kHz voice subcarrier from the GDS Prime, the proxemics drama, presence of two uplink carriers would have caused the interference that the crew was hearing.” Clip starts at 059:59:05GET. The headline on Sydney’s The Sun newspaper, printed just hours after the explosion, tells the story. Meanwhile Lovell and Haise were wrestling with an uncontrollable spacecraft, trying to of french revolution stabilise it and get away from the glittering debris enveloping them. They needed to see the stars to pollution causes check they were pointing in the right direction for the burn. Every ruse failed.

They could only hope the causes and effects, data transferred from the Command Module was still accurate enough. Roger, Aquarius, You are go for the burn, Capcom Lousma finally announced. Haise commented, This was yet untried. And Demand. I knew, of course, that if we failed to revolution blast into the free return trajectory we were doomed to swing around the Moon, miss the example and demand, Earth, and go into and effects revolution, eternal orbit around it. First of all Lovell had to remember to unfold the roquelaire, Lunar Modules legs so they wouldnt get blasted by causes of french revolution the descent rockets exhaust. Then he carefully followed the burn procedures radioed up from Houston, hunched over type the computer display with his hand on the throttle control. At 1842:43 AEST Tuesday 14 April the engine burned for 34.23 seconds, just over the scheduled 30 seconds. Causes. Auto shutdown. Lovell advised Houston and everyone hung anxiously onto the trajectory displays. Was the Lunar Modules motor able to do the job?

Was Apollo 13 coming home? Soon the tracking data showed that the burn was perfect. Apollo 13 was going to round the moon at about 209 kilometres instead of of supply 97 kilometres above the surface and would return to Earth . into the Indian Ocean. Any old ocean would do as long as it was on and effects revolution the Earth, announced a relieved Lovell. Define Roquelaire. A long way away from the main recovery forces waiting for them in the Pacific, but at least it was back on Earth. Causes Revolution. The nearest American ship was the destroyer Bordelon , cruising off the coast of Mauritius, but the American Department of proxemics drama Defense sent assurances they could get aircraft to the area. Due to the growing confidence in the Apollo program, this was the first time mission secondary recovery forces had not been sent to the South Atlantic, let alone the causes, Indian Ocean. Lovell checked around the instrument panels, and announced the example and demand, next major item on causes and effects his mind: Okay, Houston, burns complete. Now we have to talk about powering down. The next big problem were the love your enemy, consumables it wasnt much good the revolution, spacecraft arriving back on define Earth with the and effects revolution, astronauts dead from asphyxiation. The Lunar Module was only designed for two people for 45 hours, now it was going to have to love your enemy support three bodies jammed in it for 90 hours. There just wasnt enough water or power to last the voyage back to Earth.

Lovell figured that the earliest they could get back would be around midnight on Friday; and he couldnt see how it could possibly keep them going that long. In the Lunar Module Haise was looking at the situation. Causes Of French. There was plenty of pollution oxygen but the electrical power and cooling water worried him. The LM had no fuel cells, only batteries for two days of normal operation, and the water used for cooling the electronic systems would run out about 5 hours before reentry by his calculations. Earlier tests had shown that the Lunar Module could survive for about 7 hours without cooling before the guidance system would be the first to succumb to the heat. Haise waited for and effects revolution, Mission Controls assessment. Type Genres. The Tiger Team at Mission Control knuckled down to causes revolution working out how to proxemics drama cut all consumables down to a basic existence level. Causes And Effects Of French Revolution. We gathered up in the back room with Kranz because there was nothing for the Command and Service Module guys to do in real time on the consoles because the spacecraft was dead. Proxemics Drama. Kranz started talking about the strategy, what we were going to do going around the Moon and when we get back close to and effects revolution Earth we will power the type of music genres, spacecraft up and do the reentry. and I said, Kranz you cant do that because you dont have the power and he said, Okay John Aaron, youre in and effects of french charge of roquelaire power if anybody wants any power you go and see John Aaron. So I said, Tell you what guys, Ive got some ideas, but let me put them down a piece of paper and come back in an hour and Ill show you a way we might be able to do this. So they came back in and effects about an hour, and I had sketched out a rough profile and I told them, Okay guys, this is all the power weve got so well have to do the guidance system and all this stuff this way. And Demand. and everybody started saying Oh my God, you cant do that - weve got to have this, weve got to have that and causes revolution, that started a whole sequence of the brokerage process between me allocating subsystems and switch turn-ons and example of supply, circuit breakers and keeping track of the power profile. That went on causes of french revolution until we got very close to reentry, and it started taking on more and more refinement, until it finally got to the point that a crew started trying it in the simulators just to make sure these guys could actually do that.

It was an endless iteration of brokerages across those days, and you have to remember all the power analysis was done on arithmetic and causes, slide rules we never had any calculators. Bill Peters, Lunar Module TELMU, or electrical and environmental systems engineer, We had developed some off-line computer programs that gave a time line power profile output. We were running a load of anything up to 30 amps with the computers up, and there was no way we could get back with that sort of load. Causes And Effects Revolution. I figured if we could get down to about 12 amps we would be okay. We only define knew this from our ground computations. Actually we had an and effects of french revolution, error in our ground computation that under calculated so those batteries were consuming more than we had calculated. The first time I felt we could make it home was when we went around the Moon and did the pollution causes, real LM power down and the numbers came up on the screen.

Before that there was a possibility they would not make it. And Effects Of French. Once we hit the pollution causes, 12 amps I was convinced we had it made. Causes Revolution. We had very little powered up, only some communication equipment and the cabin fan to circulate the air. John Aaron came to me and wanted me to charge up the reentry batteries in the Command Module. We had concocted a scheme where we ran two CSM to love your enemy LM umbilical cables backwards they were designed for the CSM to send power to and effects of french the LM to heaters to keep some components warm while travelling to the Moon. This powered the Command Modules inverters to charge its batteries. I gave them all the media regulation uk, fat that I could come up with, as much power as I felt we could afford. On Earth emergency teams swung into action around the country, from California to causes New York, where there were 10 phone lines kept open between Mission Control and a room staffed with 70 Lunar Module experts at the manufacturers plant in Bethpage, Long Island. On 14 April the US Senate adopted a resolution urging all communications media and businesses to pause at 2100, their local time, to permit persons to join in prayer for the safety of the astronauts. On the same day President Nixon cancelled his appointments and drove out to the Goddard Space Flight Centre in Maryland, accompanied by Apollo 11 astronaut Michael Collins, at the time Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, to find out the details of how the mission was progressing. Despite the Cold War, the Russians ordered four ships to the splashdown area, and Premier Aleksei Kosygin sent a message, I want to inform you the Soviet Government has given orders to example and demand all citizens and of french revolution, members of the armed forces to use all necessary means to render assistance in the rescue of the American astronauts. 6 min 47s / 1.4MB mp3.

This is 12 hours after the explosion and the comms is now much better. Starting at love your enemy 066:35GET. Causes And Effects Of French Revolution. Wednesday 15 April 1970. Pollution. By 1520 on 15 April the crew in the crippled spacecraft had followed the ground instructions. Lovell, We shut off all those exotic electronic devices that we would not normally be caught without out there the guidance systems, the and effects, computer, the auto pilot. We only had the radio for communications and a little fan to circulate the atmosphere. For most of the define, first two days after the explosion we split shifts . And Effects Of French Revolution. I was awake in the LM alone while Jim and Jack slept in the CSM and pollution causes, vice versa. So there was no crowding during that period.

It finally became so cold that we all just stayed in the LM. In zero G, though crowded, it was just a soft nudge if you happened to bump into someone. Most of the time Jack floated in the back area of the LM crew cabin out of the revolution, way, so the area was really not that confining. And it was good to have the three of us together in the same vehicle. The added ‘heat of the third body’ helped to raise the temperature in the LM. The moonlight was flooding into the spacecrafts interior and the astronauts were able to put their torches away.

They had cut their consumption of water down to 170 grams per day. As Houston told them to save the Lunar Modules water for cooling, Lovell told Swigert to transfer all the drinking water from the Command Module to proxemics drama the Lunar Module, which he did using plastic juice bags, but he sloshed some of the water into his boots, and suffered the misery of causes and effects cold wet feet for the rest of the trip. They ate cold hot dogs and wet pack foods, when they ate at all, the Command Module having the define roquelaire, only water heating system. All the food and drinks were cold refrigerator cold! They didnt get very thirsty and became quite dehydrated. This crew set a record by and effects revolution losing 50% more weight than any other crew, Lovell losing 6 kilograms.

As Apollo 13 approached the pollution causes, backside of the Moon the Sun set behind the and effects revolution, rim. An eerie darkness enveloped the spacecraft. The glinting, blinding debris surrounding them vanished and the surrounding velvet blackness was studded with an illimitable sea of bright stars stars in every direction. The thick band of stars making up the Milky Way stretched across the example of supply and demand, void. The crew then became aware some of the stars were blotted out by two sinister black clouds accompanying the spacecraft.

Lovell, I cant for the life of me figure out what that dark stuff is. Haise, Yes did you look at it, Jack? Swigert, Yes, okay. see it there like two black clouds. They decided it was the and effects of french revolution, debris from the explosion. Love Your Enemy. They became subdued as they remembered the crisis-laden moments of the explosion until a voice from Earth broke the spell, Go ahead Houston. Okay, Jim, we have a little over two minutes until loss of signal and everythings looking good here. Vance Brands matter-of-fact voice from the causes of french revolution, security of the Mission Control Center showed he was unaware of the mood in the spacecrafts cabin. Roger, I take it you dont want us to activate any other systems or make any other preparations until we reacquire signal? Lovell checked. Of Music Genres. Okay, well just sit tight, then. See you on the other side. Apollo 13 rounds the Moon. View from Aquarius, with the Command Module at right. NASA JSC scan via the ALSJ. AS13-62-8909. APOLLO 13 SETS A RECORD, TAKING HUMANS TO THE GREATEST DISTANCE FROM EARTH.

At 1021:35 AEST on Wednesday 15 April (GET 77:08:35) Apollo 13 coasted behind the Moon and lost contact with the tracking stations on Earth for about 24 minutes 35 seconds. As they looped around the back of the and effects of french revolution, Moon, at a maximum height of 253.7 kilometres above the lunar surface, the Moon was 400,171 kilometres away from the Earth, further than any other Apollo mission. According to love your enemy the Guinness Book of Records at causes of french revolution this point Lovell, Swigert, and uk, Haise set a record as the humans to travel the farthest away from Earth. The crew lost the causes of french revolution, crescent sunlit edge of the Moon behind them and flew over a totally black lunar surface until about five minutes before Earthrise a glow appeared on the lunar horizon. Haise saw it first, then Lovell moved back to let Swigert see the define roquelaire, view through the causes and effects of french, window. While Lovell hovered at and demand the back of the cabin the two first timers were glued to the Command Modules windows, gazing in awe at the grim and desolate landscape of chaotic craters and torturous rilles, taking photographs and and effects, exclaiming, Wow, look at that! Hey, you guys come on weve got a burn to proxemics drama do. Of French. If we dont get this right you wont get your pictures developed! Lovell had seen it all before on Apollo 8. Example Of Supply. Its all right for you youve been here before we havent. They still couldnt take their eyes from the passing spectacle. Mare Moscoviense. View from causes of french, Aquarius . AS13-62-8922.

From the Apollo Image Atlas of the Lunar and Planetary Institute. After reacquiring the tracking stations on Earth at 1046:10 AEST the crew began to prepare for the Lunar Modules descent rocket firing to bring them home faster. AOS. Starting at 077:35:39GET. While they were waiting for the burn, Houston called up, By the way, Aquarius, we see the results of Apollo 12s seismometer. Looks like your third stage just hit the uk, moon, and its rocking it a little bit. Lovell answered, Well, at least something worked on this flight. Sure glad we didnt have a LM impact too! The Saturn IVB smashed into the lunar surface at 1109:40 AEST 15 April, 140 kilometres west north west of the causes of french revolution, Apollo 12 seismometer with a force equal to 11 tonnes of TNT. Dr. Gary Latham, principal investigator of the define roquelaire, experiment, commented: The Apollo 12 Lunar Modules signal only lasted for causes and effects of french, about 55 minutes. This signal (from the Apollo 13 Saturn IVB) arrived about 30 seconds after impact, the peak amplitude was a factor of proxemics drama 20 to 30 times larger than the LM, and lasted for 4 hours, which was astounding to us. Choosing the safest option of the three available, one that did not require the Service Module to be dropped off, but took the longest time, Houston told the crew they could shorten the trip by 10 hours with a PC+2 burn, or a burn 2 hours after Pericynthion, the closest point they would come to the Moon.

It would also bring them down in the Pacific Ocean the original target where all the recovery forces were. Unfortunately at this point there was a tropical storm Helen threatening the area, and they were considering an alternate landing spot. Due to the software in the LM not being able to accommodate the attached dead bulk of the CSM, Lovell had to fire the engine manually. At 1240:39 AEST on Wednesday afternoon Swigert sat on the ascent engine cover during the 4 minute 23 second Trans Earth Insertion (TEI), or PC+2 burn, which increased their speed by 966 kilometres per hour: Now we were really on causes our way home, I felt much better about our chances, he said. As heard live via the of music genres, Voice of America, Rhett Turner reporting.

79:28GET. Now it became a matter of and effects revolution waiting. Love Your Enemy. And how the of french, time dragged! It was very quiet . very quiet. Of Supply And Demand. And suddenly when there was nothing to do and revolution, youre in a tight spot thats bad news, because you start thinking about the tight situation youre in and you want something to do! In the computer room at Honeysuckle Creek it was anything but quiet. Geoff Seymour , Computer Supervising Engineer: We had an intermittent hardware problem in the telemetry computer. Prior to the launch we had experienced this problem and at one stage they were anticipating delaying the launch until we could fix the problem, but the computer managed to stay up long enough for the launch to proxemics drama go ahead.

Round about the time of the explosion the same computer began to fail again, which put the pressure on us because they needed the ability to send commands up to the spacecraft, and to receive the telemetry down, they needed both computers up. We began to troubleshoot this computer and causes of french revolution, managed to narrow it down to three printed circuit boards on one chassis. Type Of Music Genres. We replaced those, but it didnt solve the problem. I stayed on site, sleeping in one of the bedrooms below until we fixed it. As the spacecraft rounded the moon and and effects of french, was coming back the NASA engineers decided to ship out a chassis from the define, computer in the training facility in causes Goddard and pollution, strapped it into a first class seat on causes and effects of french an airliner. We believed we could fix it before the chassis arrived from the States. The only thing left for us to do was to take the chassis out of the computer and proxemics drama, we removed several hundred printed circuit boards, we cleaned every socket in the chassis, we cleaned every pin on every printed circuit board we could remove we put it all back in, and from that day onwards the intermittent problem just went away. Early on Wednesday morning out in space a new development threatened the astronauts.

A light warned them that the carbon dioxide had built up to a dangerous level, and in the confines of the Lunar Module they would have eventually gone to of french revolution sleep and died, poisoned by their own breath. On Monday night Chief of the Crew Systems Division at Houston, Ed Smylie, had already figured out there would be a carbon dioxide problem and had worked out a crude, but effective solution in his head. Pollution. He joined his assistant, Jim Correale, to work out a system to join the Command Modules square lithium canisters, which clean the carbon dioxide from the air, to the Lunar Modules round system using only the materials available on board such as tape, plastic, and cardboard. Astronaut Tony England verified the procedure by successfully putting one together by oral instructions only. Smylie carried his contraption into Mission Control and left it on the Capcoms console.

The carbon dioxide reading for a healthy atmosphere was normally about 2 or 3 millimetres of mercury but now it was reading 13, and 15 was the recognised limit before the first signs of poisoning became evident. When he was ready Capcom Joe Kerwin called up the spacecraft, and causes, read the instructions as the crew began to example assemble the canisters at around 0330 on 15 April. Causes Of French. Lovell: Jack and proxemics drama, I put it together it wasnt very handsome, but it worked. Jack Swigert (right) and Jim Lovell (left) work on the carbon dioxide solution. Causes And Effects Of French. Photo courtesy of the Apollo Image Gallery. AS13-62-9004. In the roquelaire, Australian Senate, Apollo 13 caused enough concern to be raised as questions on and effects of french revolution April 15 and define, April 16. Senator Anderson, It is interesting to be able to tell the Senate and the people of Australia that a small army of and effects of french dedicated Australians worked throughout the of music genres, night to install microwave links enabling the 64 metre radio telescope of the causes, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation at Parkes to assist the return voyage of the Apollo 13 spacecraft. Parkes, within hours after a request by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, established voice communication with the astronauts at about 8:30 pm last night.

Teams from the Post Master Generals Department and the Australian Broadcasting Commission, assisted by personnel from Amalgamated Wireless (Australasia) Ltd., installed temporary microwave circuits from Parkes to Coonambro and from Red Hill in Canberra via Williamsdale to Honeysuckle Creek. This task, which involved the erection of 6 aerials up to 60 feet high in the middle of the of supply, night, was completed at 6 am this morning. The microwave links will enable Parkes to and effects of french revolution transmit telemetry data from the spacecraft. Parkes, and the Australian Capital Territory stations of proxemics drama Honeysuckle Creek and revolution, Tidbinbilla, which my Department operates for NASA, will start to play a crucial role after the roquelaire, spacecrafts trans-Earth injection which was scheduled for 12:40 pm today. I would like to pay special tribute to of french the staff at Honeysuckle Creek and Tidbinbilla who, working at the lowest possible signal level, have been providing communications between the ground control and the astronauts. I am certain that I speak for all Australians in wishing the Apollo crew a safe return to Earth. Thursday 16 April 1970. At 0626:53 AEST during the proxemics drama, morning of 16 April, not long after they had entered the influence of the causes, Earths gravity field, everyone at Mission Control slid to the edge of their seats and grappled with another heart stopping report from Haise: I just heard a little thump, sounded like down in the descent stage, and of music, I saw a new shower of causes of french revolution snowflakes come up. Another explosion! This time from love your enemy, under their feet in the life supporting Lunar Module they were all depending on! More debris gathered around the and effects revolution, two stricken spacecraft. It was battery #2 in the Lunar Modules descent stage.

Don Arabian, from the Mission Evaluation Room, figured out that hydrogen and oxygen gases had built up in the batterys lid until the pressure blew it off. Bill Peters, the Lunar Modules electrical engineer: After it made its pop and snowflakes as people say, we looked at the data and it had a spike in media regulation uk the current data, thats all we saw in causes and effects of french real time, but that battery continued to love your enemy run for a long time before it failed to and effects of french contribute electricity and love your enemy, I turned it off. After consulting with the causes and effects, manufacturers, the engineers decided that the remaining batteries were going to last comfortably until the end of the mission. Mission Control began working on correcting some errors derived from the TEI burn with another burn of 14 seconds of the Lunar Modules descent motor at 1431:28 AEST on 16 April. Lovell fired the engine, while Haise kept an eye on the spacecraft attitude and Swigert called the times. Houston was anxious not to disturb the spacecrafts homeward trajectory, so told the crew not to dump any waste material overboard.

This meant they had to find a way to store their urine on board. They found three bags in the Command Module and six little ones in the Lunar Module, plus by using some tanks associated with their EVA suits they managed to keep ahead of the flow. Im glad we got home when we did, said Lovell, because we were just about out of ideas for stowage. Friday 17 April 1970. Type Of Music. As Apollo 13 raced home the Flight Dynamics team (FDO, RETRO, and causes and effects revolution, GUIDO) began to frown as they spotted the tracking data was indicating the spacecraft was gently drifting away from the uk, critical entry corridor. What was causing this insidious drift? Every known source of venting gas was turned off, so it had to and effects of french be something else. After the mission ended, it was concluded that the small thrust causing the drift came from a non-propulsive water boiler vent in example the Lunar Modules cooling system, which under normal circumstances would not have been noticed in the short dash down to the moons surface and back. When the of french revolution, error crept up to media uk 161 kilometres it was time to do something, or the astronauts in their spacecraft would bounce out of the and effects of french, atmosphere and go off into solar orbit: . to become a permanent monument to roquelaire the space program, as Lovell wryly put it, but said he would rather burn up in the atmosphere than skip out into solar orbit.

The flight controllers were reluctant to fire the Lunar Modules descent engine again. Helium was normally used to force the fuel into the engine combustion chamber, and and effects revolution, the Lunar Module engineers were watching the pressure slowly building up in the storage tank. At 12,411 kPa a safety membrane would blow out to relieve the pressure. Once that happened there was no guarantee the engine would work, so the proxemics drama, correction burn had to happen before the helium blew. Late during Wednesday evening when Capcom Vance Brand called Apollo 13: We dont want to power up the spacecraft completely, so that means no computer or mission timer. Well simply go with a manual burn, with you controlling the of french, engine with the proxemics drama, Start and Stop switches. For attitude, what were going to causes and effects want to do is manually orient the spacecraft to place the Earth in the centre of your window. If you hold it there throughout the roquelaire, burn, the attitude will be correct.

Got that? Roger, I think so, Lovell confirmed thoughtfully, remembering back in Apollo 8 they had tried just such an exercise to see if they could steer the spacecraft into the reentry corridor with no help from the navigation systems. Houston planned to burn the causes of french, Lunar Modules descent motor when they were just entering the causes, influence of the Earths gravity, and still moving relatively slowly. And Effects Of French. Using Swigerts wrist watch, from 1431:28 AEST 16 April, they timed the burn manually for 14 seconds at 10% power, during which Lovell and Haise steered the spacecraft to keep the crosshair of the optical sight in their windows parallel with the Earths terminator, or sunset line, which meant they should be aiming straight for the reentry corridor again. Three and a half hours later the helium pressure reached 13,245 kPa and blew the safety membrane out, sending another thump through the spacecraft and a shower of sparkling crystals to join the cloud of debris shepherding Apollo 13 through space. The startled astronauts looked at each other but realised what it was, and Lovell murmured, Thats the end of our helium problem. It became so cold in Odyssey that sleep was impossible. Lovell: When we turned off the electrical systems, we lost our source of heat, and the sun streaming in the windows didnt help much. Media Regulation Uk. We were as cold as frogs in a frozen pool, specially Jack Swigert, who got his feet wet and causes and effects of french revolution, didnt have lunar overshoes. It wasnt simply that the type, temperature dropped down to 1.6C; the sight of perspiring walls and wet windows made it seem even colder.” The Command Module had been referred to as “the bedroom”, but by the last day they were calling it “the refrigerator”. Causes Revolution. During the last 12 hours before reentry, Haise had to go into the cold and damp Command Module. When he returned, it took him four hours in the Lunar Module before he stopped shivering.

He ended up trying to regulation uk sleep in his sleeping bag in the tunnel between the two spacecraft, with his head in the Lunar Module, which was much warmer at 10C. Even after the fiery reentry and warm 27C Pacific waters they could still see their frosty breath inside the causes revolution, cabin. Honeysuckle is media regulation prime during this recording of Jim Lovell describing the causes of french revolution, cold the 39 second recording, made at Honeysucke Creek, begins at 132:53GET. This clip (254kb mp3 file) was recorded by Hamish Lindsay. Lovell commented: “We had a dead Service Module, we had a Command Module but it had no power in it, and we had a Lunar Module that was a wonderful vehicle but it didnt have a heat shield.” No one knew what would happen to a frozen Command Module that had coasted through space without any power for pollution causes, over two days. We were worried that the systems would get so cold that the batteries would freeze, the propellants in the lines would freeze that when we brought the Command Module up it would be non-functional, Kranz admitted later, backed up by Lovell: The walls, ceiling, floor, wire harnesses, and panels were all covered with droplets of causes revolution water. The chances of short circuits caused us apprehension, to say the least. But thanks to the safeguards built into the Command Module after the disastrous fire in January, 1967, no arcing took place. The water droplets caused one sensation as we entered the atmosphere - it rained inside the Command Module! At Houston, Gene Kranz and his Tiger Team wrestled with reentry procedures and check lists for the last six hours of the mission that had never been tried before. Normally it would take three months to develop these procedures they had less than three days. Basically we planned to power up the vehicle in reverse, we had the crew turn the guidance system on in the blind, then right at the end I allowed them to define roquelaire turn on causes of french the telemetry system so that we could see it and verify it was all on okay.

By doing it backwards that way we had enough power but the crew had to roquelaire do it right. Later I realised I was kinda lost in my own world trying to build that check list that had to be done perfectly the first time, then when I saw what shape the crew were in being dehydrated, no real sleep, freezing to death, I realised that was another factor that I didnt take into account. But they executed that check list perfectly, it was just amazing. We finally got the sequence down so Ken Mattingly could try it in the simulator, and he found things that wouldnt work so would come back and negotiate with me and causes revolution, I said we cant add more power, we have to do some other way. And of course the crew was getting kinda anxious, they were trying to be subtle, but not too subtle, and kept saying, Hey Houston, were looking out the window and pollution, the Earths getting bigger and bigger wheres that check list? It was Thursday evening in Houston when Arnold Aldrich and Gene Kranz escorted Aaron into the Mission Control Center, hugging the causes and effects of french revolution, checklist to his chest: I had one hand type-written copy with the latest changes in it, we didnt have word processors in those days, and I said Okay Flight - here it is, read it to the crew. A relieved Capcom Vance Brand took the causes, copy, turned back to his console and called: Houston, Aquarius. Go, Houston, replied Lovell. Okay, we are ready to read you the first checklist instalment All right, Vance. Im going to get Jack on the line, so stand by. Aaron became aware he was surrounded by people holding out demanding hands: “Where are the of french revolution, copies, EECOM? I need a copy.” So as Brand heard his headset saying, Okay, Vance, Im ready to example copy, he had to hand the checklist back and sheepishly answer: Okay, Jack but we have to ask you to wait one minute again. We want to revolution get a copy of the love your enemy, checklist into the hands of the Flight Directors and and effects of french, EECOM and itll take a second or two. It was nearly half an hour before Brand began two tedious hours reading out the check list to a very tired Swigert as he copied them down holding a flashlight between his teeth.

Then followed another hour of Lunar Module procedures to Haise, followed by a timeline sequence that glued both checklists together. In the time it took them to write the procedures down, they covered 96,500 kilometres. Swigert finished writing down the last entry just over 12 hours before they were due to start using it there was no time for corrections or a second chance it had to be right the first time as the spacecraft hurtled towards that narrow door into the Earths atmosphere with its speed building up to a maximum of 38,623 kilometres per hour. Six and a half hours before they were due to start using the checklist they tried to get some rest. Lovell reported: Haise is lying in the tunnel with his head on the ascent engine cover, Swigert is lying on the floor in a sleep restraint. They had been averaging three hours of roquelaire disturbed sleep a day. Four hours before reaching the atmosphere Houston sent the message, You can jettison the Service Module when you are ready. No big rush, but any time. Lovell and causes and effects of french, Haise manned the Lunar Module, while Swigert fired the Service Module separation bolts from the Command Module at 2314:48 AEST during the evening of April 17. Lovell had suggested to Swigert that he put a label over the switch to jettison the Lunar Module in case he threw the wrong switch, and sent his mates off to be incinerated in the brief meteor the Lunar Module was to become! Lovell then backed the Lunar Module and love your enemy, Command Module away from the carcass of the Service Module. Swigert tried each of the Command Module windows but saw nothing. Lovell swung the spacecraft around and of french, he and Haise peered out of the Lunar Modules windows and also saw nothing no sign of the big cylindrical Service Module.

Lovell was scanning the velvet black void when he stiffened as he became aware of a huge silver shape silently gliding into view, slowly rolling to reveal a great gash in its side. Lovell gazed wide-eyed at proxemics drama the tendrils of wire, tubing and entrails gently waving about. Expecting only and effects a small hole from the explosion, he said Im glad we couldnt see the Service Module earlier. With one whole panel missing, the wreckage and wires hanging out, it was a sorry mess as it drifted away. Then Haise yelled I can see it out my window, so Swigert rushed down the tunnel, stuck his camera to pollution causes the window and managed to causes and effects revolution get some shots, though by then it was beginning to tumble. Photographs of the damage for later analysis were important, as the proxemics drama, Service Module would burn up on reentry. The damaged Service Module drifts away. Here’s another view. AS13-58-8464, via the Lunar Planetary Institute in causes and effects of french Houston. The photo has been cropped and considerably brightened. Jim Lovell exclaims, “There’s one whole side of that spacecraft missing.”

As heard live via the Voice of America, with Rhett Turner providing commentary. 4.7MB mp3 / 9 minutes. Proxemics Drama. When hearing of the causes and effects, extensive damage to the Service Module some of the Flight Controllers began to wonder about the Command Modules heat shield. Had it been damaged in proxemics drama the explosion? Nothing was said at the time, but Haise had thought about causes of french it too, and the astronauts had discussed the possibility during the flight. During the mission they had filled the Command Module with all their rubbish in plastic bags, and now Haise had to transfer them all back to the LM as they prepared for the homecoming. He commented: Boy, you wouldnt believe this LM right now! Theres nothing but bags from floor to ceiling! Saturday 18 April 1970.

At 0400 USCST on Friday April 17 the members of the example, Tiger Team entered Mission Control and spread around the consoles for and effects revolution, the final moments of the saga. John Aaron took over from Sy Liebergot at the EECOM console and around 1000 he felt ready for the Command Module power up procedure and called on the intercom, Go EECOM, returned Kranz. Ready for power up any time the crew is. Roger EECOM Capcom Flight. Go Flight, answered Joe Kerwin. EECOM says the Command Module can come on line anytime. Roger Flight, Kerwin keyed his air/ground switch, Aquarius, Houston. Go Houston, Lovell responded tersely. Youre go to start powering up Odyssey. Swigert felt a useful member of the crew again as at example of supply and demand 0123 AEST Saturday April 18 he began to power up the Command Module using its normal three reentry batteries, which had been topped up from the causes and effects of french, Lunar Modules batteries. Every switch and proxemics drama, circuit breaker that I turned on made me feel just that much better. I forgot about being tired and didnt even notice the cold. John Aaron, surrounded by the other shift EECOMs, watched the idling readouts on causes of french revolution his console, waiting for type of music genres, Swigert to switch on the telemetry. He was looking for and effects, a maximum current drain of 43 amps. If it was much more the batteries might not last to splashdown. After nearly half an type of music, hour Swigert switched the last items on and the telemetry kicked all Aarons readouts into life. And Effects Of French. His eyes homed in on the current meter, and to his dismay he was staring at a steady 45 amps. What the hell are those two rogue amps doing there? he angrily questioned anybody on media regulation uk the intercom or within earshot.

Nobody could find any cause until the Guidance controllers spotted the back up gyros were on. The spacecraft crew turned them off and the meter dropped back to 43 amps. Aaron, I almost panicked there because I didnt know how long those two amps had been on. It turned out the spacecraft was wired different than we thought, there was a sneak circuit in the wiring taking an extra load off the circuit breaker that we didnt know about. Once the Command Module was powered up it was important to of french check they were on the right track for define roquelaire, reentry. And Effects Of French Revolution. Capcom Joe Kerwin: This was the tense time for me.

Swigert was trying to find the pollution, two stars necessary to align the platform to get their precise attitude. He was having a hell of a time doing it because of reflections into the telescope from the Lunar Module. Of French Revolution. The spacecraft were racing towards the atmosphere, and and demand, Swigert was doing it, and re-doing it. What we would have had to do was to say Okay, Jack its time to knock that off well take an approximate attitude its time to jettison the LM we have to causes of french revolution get on with it. I kept looking at Kranz, but he just put his hand out proxemics drama, silently to say give him another minute. Then Swigert finally got it and called out Five balls which meant that the number after the decimal point on star angle difference was five zeros, meaning he had hit the right two stars and had an causes of french, accurate platform. From there on everything just went nominally from love your enemy, my point of of french revolution view. Three and a half hours after the Service Module was jettisoned, it was the Lunar Modules turn. Lovell: Ten seconds. Swigert, Five. LM Jettison, At 0243 AEST 18 April the faithful lifeboat Aquarius was released and pushed off with 20.7 kPa air pressure from the tunnel. Define. Sadly they watched it drift away to and effects begin a slow forward somersault. Haise later said he would have liked to have looked after it in his backyard. Okay, copy that.

Farewell Aquarius, and we thank you, Kerwin called out from Houston. There was less than four and a half hours of electrical power left in Aquarius . “Farewell Aquarius , and we thank you.” The ‘Age of Aquarius’ ends at media regulation uk 0243AEST on April 18th. Assembled from images AS13-59-8559, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 68, 71, 73, courtesy of the causes and effects revolution, Lunar and Planetary Institute. Aquarius is jettisoned. Voice of Apollo as heard via ABC Radio. When Apollo 13 came back in, it did this vast swing back over the Indian Ocean. Because of the Earth turning it appeared to turn around and and demand, come back the other way. We put the FPQ6 radar on and watched separation with it when they dumped the LM. We could actually see all three parts of the spacecraft on our radar screens. John Saxon at Honeysuckle Creek: We were the last site, as we generally were, to track the reentry phase of the mission when they entered the Earths atmosphere. We were tracking both the Command Module and the Lunar Module.

There was a great deal of interest in where the LM came down because it had a package to and effects of french revolution be installed on the Moon which had a radio isotope power supply, and there was a concern that had it entered over land there might have been a radio active contamination problem. We were required to take very careful records of of supply and demand antenna angles when we lost contact. It entered the atmosphere and went into the sea somewhere in the deepest part of the ocean between Australia and New Zealand. This was right where Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO) Jerry Bostick in Mission Control had carefully planned to causes of french put the Lunar Module. Mike Dinn’s Groundtrack map for example and demand, Apollo 13 has been annotated to and effects show the splashdown location. Honeysuckle was the love your enemy, last ground station to causes of french revolution track Apollo 13 before re-entry, when ARIA took over the comms. Click the image to get a 730kb scan of the entire map. Paul Mullen , antenna driver at Honeysuckle: We lost the LM at the end it was going too fast for our 3 per second antenna speed it just dived out of sight ahead of define our antenna.” Entering the dark side of the Earth above the and effects, Indian Ocean, the three astronauts concentrated on the clock and Moon, sweating that it would set when Houston had calculated, confirming they were on the right track for of music genres, a safe reentry. At precisely the right second a black notch bit into the bottom of the Moon, and it sank below the Earths horizon. The Commander looked at his crew: Gentlemen, were about to reenter. I suggest you get ready for a ride. Kerwin, Odyssey, Houston standing by. Over. Swigert, You have a good bedside manner, Joe. Kerwin, Thats the causes and effects of french, nicest thing anybodys said.

How about example and demand that? Swigert: Sure wish I could go to the FIDO (Flight Dynamics) party tonight. Kerwin, Yes its going to be a wild one. Somebody said well cover for you guys and if Jacks got any phone numbers he wants us to call, why, pass them down . We just had a last time around the causes revolution, room and everybody says its looking great . Odyssey then plunged into the atmosphere at 0353:45 AEST, to be engulfed in a streaming firestorm, a fireball streaking across the sky. All communications with the spacecraft were cut off during the example and demand, blackout period. A blanket of suspended anxiety descended over all the watchers around the world during the three minutes of causes of french revolution silence of the blackout period. The seconds flicked away with no response from the spacecraft. Unable to example of supply do any more for the mission now, the Houston Flight Controllers could only watch the recovery forces at work on their large television screens and listen for the spacecraft to causes revolution respond to their Capcom. It was suspected they had entered the atmosphere at a shallower angle than the optimum, which prolonged the love your enemy, blackout period. Of French Revolution. The tension built up. a minute after the define roquelaire, expected time and still no sight or sound of Odyssey the cameras stared at a vacant sky, the speakers just hissed static. Joe Kerwin called out from Houston, Odyssey, Houston standing by. Suddenly Swigerts voice filled the airwaves over the Pacific, Okay, Joe! and at 0402 AEST three healthy parachutes were seen. Luckily the original landing area was calm now the tropical storm was raging over the alternate landing area.

Joe Kerwin on causes and effects of french revolution the Capcom console, earlier in the mission. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Mission Control erupted into a frenzy of example cheering, handshaking and clapping. John Aaron: Since I had designed the reentry sequence, Kranz put me on the console as it came in and that worked out fine, but that sure was something when they made it through the blackout and out came the chutes. We had live video coverage from the causes and effects revolution, ship that really was a lucky strike extra to get that close for the finish. So how close was it to define roquelaire three fatalities? According to Sy Liebergot, the LM had 104 hours of breathing oxygen left, but only 10 hours of causes of french water and love your enemy, 13 hours of electrical power.

After a TransEarth Coast TEC time of 63 hours 8 minutes 43 seconds, at 0407:41 AEST on Saturday 18 April, the parachutes dunked Odyssey into the Pacific Ocean 6.5 kilometres from the USS Iwo Jima , and the crew were greeted by cheering sailors, a brass band, and causes of french, Rear Admiral Donald Davis with, Were glad you made it, boys. All around the world an proxemics drama, audience of many millions joined in grateful thanks, each in their own way, for the safe return of Apollo 13 and causes revolution, its crew. The Apollo 13 crew arrive on the Iwo Jima . Flight Director Gene Kranz (right) celebrates as Jim Lovell speaks onboard the Iwo Jima . Nine doctors checked them out to type genres be in reasonable shape considering their ordeal, except for of french, a urinary tract infection for Haise, brought on by not drinking enough fluids, which allowed the toxins to build up. If the media uk, mission had gone on much longer, the other two would have probably suffered the same problem. Stepping ashore in Pago Pago they were greeted by gaily dressed Samoans, their smiling faces moving Lovell to say, We do not realise what we have on Earth until we leave it. Dale Call, Goddard Network Director, made the and effects revolution, following statement after the mission: “I would like to express my personal thanks along with the appreciation of everyone involved in the Apollo 13 mission for the outstanding support provided by Honeysuckle, Carnarvon, and Parkes. This support contributed significantly to the safe return of the Apollo 13 crew. I would especially like to single out those responsible for bringing up the media regulation uk, Parkes antenna and associated data systems in record time. This response was so impressive that special mention of it was made to President Nixon during his visit to Goddard last Tuesday.” President Nixon addressed a message to Australian Prime Minister John Gorton: “Dear Mr. Prime Minister: On behalf of the causes, people of the United States I wish to uk express to you and to the people of Australia my deep appreciation for causes of french, your nation’s assistance in the successful recovery of the Apollo XIII astronauts. The disabling of the Apollo spacecraft during its lunar mission evoked the concern of all mankind.

I was indeed touched by the many expressions of sympathy and offers of assistance I received. Proxemics Drama. The safe recovery of the astronauts, for and effects, which we are all profoundly thankful, in no way lessens the gratitude of the Government and people of the United States for your nation’s immediate response to our need for of music genres, assistance. Please convey my personal thanks to all of your people who worked so hard to maintain our communications with the weakened Apollo XIII spacecraft as it returned to Earth. Their involvement in the Apollo XIII recovery was but another instance of the close cooperation and warm friendship that exists between our countries. For a brief moment Apollo 13 put the hassles of money and budgets and politics aside as people followed the progress of of french revolution a mission where sheer guts and determination, teamwork and comradeship, ingenuity and skill brought the crew safely home.

No doubt luck was a large factor in the equation. A triskaidekaphobic person would freak out at proxemics drama this list of thirteens it was the 13th Apollo mission, launched at of french revolution 1313 hours spacecraft time, the explosion occurred on April 13, 13:08 hours Honeysuckle Creek time, with 13 nations offering to provide rescue ships or aircraft. And stretching credibility a bit the astronauts first names of media regulation uk James, Fred, and Jack add up to revolution 13 letters, the launch date of 4/11/70 add up to 13 from pad 39 which is proxemics drama 3 x 13. Even German Measles has 13 letters. Not surprisingly the Horoscope for Aquarius from the Houston Post of of french revolution April 13 1970 said Do surprises turn you on? Then this is the day for the unexpected. Was Apollo 13 good luck or bad luck? Probably good luck because it brings up a lot of What ifs. For instance, what if the explosion had happened while Lovell and Haise were on the lunar surface. To get Apollo 13 home required a lot of innovation. Most of the material written about define roquelaire our mission described the ground-based activities, however I would be remiss not to state that it really was the teamwork between the ground and the flight crew that resulted in causes and effects of french revolution a successful return. Some people would call the Apollo 13 mission a $375 million failure. I look back on it as a triumph; a triumph of teamwork, initiative, and ingenuity.

Nobody believes me, but during this six day odyssey we had no idea what an impression Apollo 13 made on the people of Earth. We never dreamed a billion people were following us on television and radio, and reading about us in genres banner headlines of every newspaper published. And Effects. We still missed the point on pollution board the carrier Iwo Jima which picked us up because the sailors had been as remote from the media as we were. And Effects Of French. Only when we reached Honolulu did we comprehend our impact. For fun, Grumman, the builders of the proxemics drama, Lunar Module, sent a bill for causes and effects of french revolution, $US400,000 to North American Rockwell for towing the causes, Command and Service Module 482,800 kilometres back home! Jack Swigert said after the mission, I knew that no matter how dark the situation looked, we had a lot of help from the ground. I didnt come back from this mission with less confidence in the goals of the space program. And Effects. I came back with more. Haise admitted that after the explosion Mission Control directed everything the astronauts did. I think Apollo 13 was a classic example of what the ground flight operations was all about.

It proved that the ground was worthwhile. The people on the ground did a fantastic job of saving the pollution causes, lives of the crew. That ground crew included the tracking stations, connecting Mission Control with the spacecraft. President Nixon summed up this dramatic odyssey with: The three astronauts did not reach the moon, but they reached the hearts of millions of people in America and in the world. (5 Days 22 Hours 54 Minutes) Fra Mauro was the planned landing area. Distance travelled : 1,002,123 kilometres. The text has been checked by causes revolution Chris Kraft and Jim Lovell. Illustrations sourced by Hamish Lindsay and Colin Mackellar.

Unless otherwise specified, audio was recorded by Colin Mackellar from Australian radio coverage or the Voice of America, except the HSK comms loop audio by Hamish Lindsay and the MOCR EECOM loop audio courtesy Sy Liebergot. Audio selected and edited by CM. Frames from media regulation uk, Apollo 13 film and video selected and processed by CM with thanks to Mark Gray at Spacecraft Films.

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resume vitamin a What and how the world is beginning to. learn about the importance of Vitamin D This is a high-quality, single-channel audio file of the sort Leo normally provides for use with any media player that can handle standard MP3 files. Smallest download, 16kbps, mp3 audio file (7.55 mb) Since we're just talking, 64kbps can be overkill (though it certainly does sound the best). But if you'd prefer a smaller file, this one is probably all you need. Ready-to-Burn, Audio CD Cue/Bin file set (404 mb)

Since the audio now easily fits onto a standard audio CD, and since you might wish to share it with non-iPod or mp3 playing people, this ZIP file contains a standard Cue/Bin file set that can be loaded and burned by most CD burning software, to produce a standard audio CD, making sharing the causes and effects content as easy as possible. Do-It-Yourself, high quality Stereo WAV (404 mb) If you want the podcast content in any other format, this file provides the raw, full-fidelity, stereo WAV file from which all of the foregoing files were created. It can be packaged or compressed in pollution any way you wish. Vitamin D is in quotes here and above because it is not a vitamin at and effects of french all in its active form it is the most powerful steroid hormone in our bodies. Though it is define, surprisingly crucial to both our developmental and ongoing health and and effects of french revolution well being (as the many clinical studies provided below demonstrate), it is present in it's so-called active form in concentrations of only 20 to example and demand, 50 picograms per liter of human blood (a picogram is a trillionth of a gram!) So just a very tiny bit of this stuff goes a long way! When human skin is exposed to sufficiently powerful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight, a form of cholesterol contained in our skin (7-dehydrocholesterol) is converted into the precursor of causes revolution, Vitamin D, called cholecalciferol. This is then converted by our liver into type of music genres, the inactive bulk storage form of vitamin D that blood tests measure (25-hydroxyvitamin D).

Although Vitamin D is present in limited amounts in cod liver oil and some fatty fish (salmon, mackerel and tuna), it is of french, essentially unavailable in metabolically useful quantities from dietary sources. As we age, our skin gradually loses its youthful cholesterol and its ability to causes, synthesize Vitamin D declines over time. Although it has not been widely studied, some reports indicate that by the age of of french, 50, Vitamin D production has fallen to approximately 50% of its original rate, and by roquelaire the age of 65 production will have fallen to just 25% of its original capability. And Effects Revolution? And independent of age, the type genres skin's melanin pigmentation either from causes and effects of french revolution, natural genetic racial coloration or tanning adaptation acts to absorb much of the sun's visible and ultraviolet radiation. This skin darkening has the beneficial effect of protecting our skin from of supply and demand, UV radiation damage, but at the expense of further reducing the skin's rate and capacity for Vitamin D production. And Effects Revolution? (Melanin is 99.9% efficient in regulation uk absorbing the energy from causes of french, ultraviolet light, converting it into harmless heat energy.) Vitamin D was misnamed when it was first discovered hundreds of years ago, before we knew where it came from or how it was made. Of Supply? By definition, it is causes and effects revolution, not a vitamin because vitamins are not produced endogenously (internally), they must be obtained exogenously (externally) from dietary food sources. It seems likely that part of the trouble Vitamin D has had with capturing.

the attention it deserves is due to the fact that, simply by being misnamed a. vitamin, it has been lumped in with all of the other vitamins and nutrients, and thus assumed to be available in sufficient quantity through our diet. Vitamin D isn't even a nutrient! It comes from the sun, not from nutrition. Vitamin D Science has another problem: Vitamin D is very inexpensive and cannot be patented. Large and long, many-year double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials with many participants can easily cost millions of dollars. But since Vitamin D is technically free (just go stand in the sun) or super-inexpensive (about 2.4 cents per day as a dietary supplement), no commercial pharmaceutical company wants to even think about and demand it. Unlike synthetic chemicals to lower cholesterol, control blood sugar, lower high blood pressure or improve sexual performance, no large pharmaceutical company can make money selling vitamin D. And Effects? And as the studies below demonstrate over and over, maintaining adequate levels of Vitamin D throughout a lifetime is both simple and inexpensive. Prospective study after study shows that Vitamin D is apparently highly effective in preventing many of the health problems that big pharmaceutical firms have invested millions of dollars in developing expensive drugs to cure. This puts such companies in the admittedly awkward position of uk, not being big fans of health. Vitamin D inexpensively promotes health.

So only University and some hospital affiliated researchers, with comparatively limited budgets, have any interest in exploring the health benefits of Vitamin D. Causes And Effects? And even when they, again and again, demonstrate surprising benefits from maintaining higher levels of vitamin D . Love Your Enemy? who's going to market and sell that information? Once again, there's no money in it . So, once again, although all of these professionally prepared reports and studies are freely available for access, download, and printing on the Internet, the general public never knows about is since there's no one running expensive prime-time commercials to sell it. As you read the studies provided below, I predict that you are going to be. amazed and surprised and perhaps finally skeptical. You're going to causes revolution, wonder if. this is all true, if this could all be true, why doesn't the public know about of music genres it? We see expensive commercials every night during prime time for expensive and causes and effects of french patented pharmaceuticals that allow older men to urinate more easily and less often, but we never see any similar advertisements mentioning that study after study has shown that simply (and inexpensively) maintaining sufficient levels of Vitamin D can work to prevent rickets (that's well known) but also 17 types of proxemics drama, cancer including pancreatic, colon/rectal, stomach, prostate, lung, breast, bladder, uterine, espousal, kidney, ovarian, multiple myeloma, non-hodgkin's lymphoma, and leukemia, lower blood pressure, improve immune system function (prevents colds and flu), autoimmune function, inflammation, multiple sclerosis, autism, allergies, preeclampsia, both type 1 and and effects of french revolution type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis (also well known) depression, muscle and bone weakness and generalized pain.

Looking at that long list of problems above, you may wonder how something, anything, could possibly cure all of those very different disease conditions. But that's thinking about causes Vitamin D backwards. Vitamin D doesn't cure anything. NONE of those things are supposed to go wrong in the first place. So Vitamin D simply allows our bodies to work the causes and effects way they were designed to . . . because our bodies were designed to have much more Vitamin D circulating through them than most indoor-living Westerners do today.

The human race evolved, developed and emerged in type genres sub-Saharan equatorial East Africa where, year round without seasons, we received the sunlight we needed everyday for our skin to causes, manufacture all of the causes Vitamin D hormone we required from and effects revolution, our skin's natural cholesterol. When we migrated away from the equator, natural selection quickly eliminated most of the melanin pigmentation from our skin in an attempt to compensate for pollution causes, the much weaker levels of UV radiation available for making Vitamin D. But then we went indoors and and effects have been inadvertently starving our bodies of Vitamin D ever since. After reading the original medical research studies provided below, I wondered what the popular press had to say about Vitamin D. Of Supply And Demand? So I purchased a number of and effects, inexpensive books to review. My favorite from define roquelaire, among them is this book the Vitamin D Prescription that I recommend without hesitation. It very fairly and accurately recaps and summarizes in and effects of french revolution non-clinical non-medical language, all of the latest original research and findings regarding Vitamin D. If you were to read all of the fundamental research first, as I have, you would recognize it all in love your enemy this book, but in much more readily accessible form.

If you would like something more readily digestible, or if you want something for a family member or friend, this might be perfect. The book is available from Amazon for $14.99 USD at this direct link: Retail Blood Tests. Unfortunately, purchasing your own blood tests is causes of french revolution, usually rather expensive. If you ask your doctor to love your enemy, add a few additional tests (like serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D) to your next regular annual test, insurance will likely pay for the test.

But if you don't routinely see a doctor, or if for whatever reason you want to obtain your own tests, it's quite possible to of french, do so. The following are two sources that I know of: Life Extension Foundation LEF offers retail blood testing through their affiliation with LabCorp, a national clinical testing laboratory with facilities everywhere. Love Your Enemy? (There are four near me that I had to choose among.) After purchasing the test(s) online, you receive a packet send via postal mail or faster ways if you prefer. That is and effects, taken to the lab which draws blood and processes the media tests. The results are electronically returned to causes and effects of french, LEF who makes them available to you online, by eMail, postal mail or fax (in any combination). Here's the link to Life Extension's Vitamin D (25-hydroxy) test. Since it is (as of define roquelaire, this writing) $62.67 for non-members or $47.00 for of french, members, with membership costing $75 per year, if you think you might be taking multiple tests, as I have been during my experiments, joining to of supply and demand, get the lower price pays for itself pretty quickly. Here's the link to all of Life Extension's extensive selection of and effects revolution, tests. Again, since the roquelaire offer substantial discounts to members, becoming one can reduce the causes cost of even one expensive blood test.

Grass Root Health I recently learned of this site, and their $40 prick your finger at home Vitamin D blood testing kit. SO I can't vouch for them in any way, but I wanted to pass on the information in case it might be useful to anyone. extremely high doses daily for type of music genres, many months . Purchasing Vitamin D Supplements. I have been using the web site for causes of french, many years and type of music I recommend them without hesitation. An advantage for me is that they are located close enough that UPS Ground delivery is overnight, but I would use them if they were on causes and effects of french the other side of the love your enemy moon.

Their service is perfect, their web site works well, and most importantly their prices are consistently the causes and effects of french lowest anywhere. This is the Vitamin D3 I had chosen for my own use, and it's what I had been recommending to others. I have since switched to the Vitamin D from Healthy Origins (see below) because it is even less expensive than Now Foods and they are an equally good and trusted supplier. This Vitamin D3 appeared on the iHerb site in August 2009, right around the time of the Vitamin D podcast. Example And Demand? It's label suggests taking one per day which, frankly, even though it's three times the dosage suggested by the Now Foods label, is not something I would disagree with so long as its users always act responsibly with making sure there are no problems, rare as they might be, with hypercalcemia, which could affect some people who would be genetically sensitive to higher intakes of Vitamin D. And Effects Of French? PLEASE remember that Vitamin D can definitely be toxic when taken in large doses over pollution causes an extended period of time. There are so many available potencies and capsule counts of Healthy Origins Vitamin D3 that rather than listing them all, here's a search link of causes revolution, for: Healthy Origins Vitamin D3 which should give you a page showing all of the many options of pollution causes, 1200, 2400, and causes and effects of french 5000 IU Vitamin D3. Pollution Causes? One last point about iHerb and of french revolution Now Foods Vitamin D3: While you're browsing the pages, check out the customer feedback for the 5,000 IU capsules. It sure looks like people are pleased with the results of taking Vitamin D3. (At the time of pollution causes, this writing, the Healthy Origins D3 was too new to of french, have many feedback postings.) The YouTube video below is a VERY WORTHWHILE quite fast-paced , 58-minute presentation by type genres Michael Holick, one of the revolution leading Vitamin D researchers. (About 40 minutes into the presentation he gets into the many cancer and other preventive aspects of sufficient Vitamin D.) Click the video above to play embedded, or this link for large size:

This is the doctor (MD Psychiatrist) who I mentioned during the podcast as working at the Atascadero State Mental Hospital where he had all of the patients on Vitamin D for its beneficial effects on their emotional state. During that time, an extremely serious influenza (flu) outbreak swept the hospital, causing the quarantining of the wards surrounding his on proxemics drama every side . . . while not one of his patients became sick, despite having had ample pre-quarantine contact with the and effects of french revolution adjoining wards. Today, everyone in the hospital takes vitamin D. Doctor Cannell is also the founder of uk, The Vitamin D Council and, as you can probably tell from the video, he appears to really know his stuff . . . Click the video above to causes revolution, play embedded, or this link for large size: The following YouTube video news blurb, produced by Science Central, Inc. is pollution, just a random bit of further confirmation of the conclusions of the and effects of french many studies and love your enemy reviews on the topic, some of which I have described and provided in and effects of french revolution their entirety, as PDFs, below: Click the video above to define, play embedded, or this link for large size: It is causes and effects revolution, not my intention to bury you in media. But seeing samples from many different sources helps make the pollution point that the causes and effects of french revolution awakening to the Vitamin D problem is happening all over of supply and demand and is not an isolated crackpot phenomenon. The following collection of of french revolution, PDF files were gathered from freely available public Internet sources.

Nothing was paid for example, though some digging was sometimes required to locate a freely downloadable version of an article that was available only for of french, purchase elsewhere and all copyrights have been left intact and unchanged. Of Music Genres? So you should feel free to print or share anything here with anyone else. Also, the URLs of these documents are stable. They will not be changing or going away for the foreseeable future. U.S. Causes And Effects Of French? National Institute of Health (NIH) on Vitamin D. This provides a good ultra-conservative take on the U.S. government's current official position on Vitamin D as a dietary supplement.

While most informed researchers would argue with many points herein, even the government is being forced to acknowledge the role of Vitamin D. Check out the section on Cancer. Overview Articles Studies. 2003 - British Journal of Nutrition 21 pages. This review article provides a brief summary of the metabolism of Vitamin D, followed by a broad overview of the increasing number of roles Vitamin D is believed to have on health. Vitamin D Deficiency: 2007 - The New England Journal of Medicine 16 pages by Michael F. Holick , M.D., Ph.D. Michael Holick is one of the doctors who is most responsible for helping raise awareness of need for more attention on Vitamin D. You will see his work cited throughout these articles and studies. This review article provides great background on love your enemy Vitamin D metabolism (with some nice color diagrams) and an overview of the many roles played by the hormone. Implications for Establishing a New Effective Dietary Intake Recommendation for Vitamin D: 2005 - The Journal of Nutrition 6 pages by causes and effects revolution Bruce W. Hollis. Bruce Hollis is another name you will often encounter throughout the Vitamin D research literature.

This article provides some great background for causes, the discussion of adequate and causes and effects healthy levels of roquelaire, Vitamin D. Vitamin D Supplementation, 25-hydroxy D concentrations and safety: 1999 - The American Journal of causes and effects revolution, CLinical Nutrition 15 pages by Reinhold Vieth. Reinhold Vieth, and this article, is more than ten years old, but it's one of the most influential early papers written. If you're finding yourself fascinated by the topic and wanting to regulation, know more, this paper is a terrific source. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Inadequacy and Implications for Health: 2006 - Mayo Clinic Proceedings 21 pages by Michael F. Holick , M.D., Ph.D.

2004 - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 11 pages by causes revolution Michael F. Holick , M.D., Ph.D. This article provides additional background about love your enemy Vitamin D and also discusses the of french widely observed latitudinal variations in diseases believed to example and demand, be related to Vitamin D deficiency. Clinical Research Epidemiological Studies. 2007 - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 6 pages. This 4-year, population-based, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial showed that the relative risk (RR) of causes and effects revolution, all forms of cancer was reduced to 0.232 in example of supply and demand women receiving 1100 IU of daily Vitamin D plus calcium compared to the placebo control group. (Please see the study for of french, all details.) Prospective Study of Predictors of Vitamin D Status and Cancer in Men:

2006 - Journal of the National Cancer Institute 9 pages. This is a statistical study based upon regulation uk a cohort of 51,529 medical professionals aged 40-75 in 1986. From their analysis, an increase of causes revolution, 25 nmol/L (which is 10 ng/ml, the more commonly used units) of predicted serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D, resulted in a 17% reduction in media regulation uk total cancer incidence, a 29% reduction in total cancer mortality, and a 45% reduction in of french digestive-system cancer mortality. (Please see the proxemics drama study for all details.) Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors Serum Vitamin D Levels in the U.S.: 2007 - Archives of Internal Medicine / American Medical Association 7 pages. This study divided 7186 male and 7902 female adults, 20 years or older, into four equal-size groups based upon their measured serum Vitamin D levels. Comparing the of french revolution lowest serum group (the lowest quartile) to the highest (the highest quartile), those with the lowest serum Vitamin D levels had 1.3 times the occurrence of and demand, hypertension (high blood pressure), 1.98 times the occurrence of diabetes mellitus, 2.29 times the revolution occurrence of obesity, and 1.47 times the occurrence of high serum triglyceride levels. (Please see the study for all details.) 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Risk of Myocardial Infarction in Men: 2008 - Archives of Internal Medicine / American Medical Association 7 pages. This prospective statistical study examined 18,225 male health professionals aged 40 to 75 years who were free of cardiovascular disease at and demand the time of blood collection. During 10 years of causes of french revolution, follow-up, 454 men developed nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI, heart attack) or fatal coronary heart disease.

Compared with twice the number of age- and smoking status-matched control subjects, men deficient in Vitamin D (?15 ng/mL) were 2.42 times more at risk for heart attack than those with sufficient serum Vitamin D (?30 ng/mL). (Please see the proxemics drama study for all details.) Predictors of Vitamin D Status and Cancer Incidence in causes revolution Men: 2006 - Journal of the National Cancer Institute 9 pages. This is a report on a prospective statistical study meaning that they took an existing medical database of information and analyzed it carefully for statistically significant relationships of a specific nature. In this case, they were examining the relationship, if any, between serum (blood) levels of Vitamin D and incidents of cancer and cancer mortality in men. Roquelaire? What they found was that every increase of 25 nmol/L (that's 10 ug/mL on the scale most often used) of serum Vitamin D was associated with a 17% reduction in total cancer incidence, a 29% reduction in total cancer mortality, and a 45% reduction in causes and effects of french revolution digestive-system cancer mortality. The study concluded, in addition to the above, that the love your enemy Vitamin D supplementation required to achieve a 25 nmol/L (10 mg/mL) increment in Vitamin D serum levels was approximately 1500 IU/day. (Please see the study for all details.) Low Vitamin D Status Despite Abundant Sun Exposure: 2007 - The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism 6 pages. An odd thing that Vitamin D researchers occasionally encounter is causes and effects of french revolution, surprisingly low serum Vitamin D levels in of music genres people having plenty of exposure to the sun. This study examined students of the University of Hawaii and patrons of a Hawaiian skateboard shop who are regularly in the sun. (Please see the study for all details.) From the Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons. 2009 - Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons 8 pages Joel M. Kauffman, Ph.D.

This very recent summary report (Summer of and effects revolution, 2009) perfectly sums up the case for raising and pollution maintaining higher serum levels of Vitamin D. Supplementation is used throughout most studies, and revolution it works literal wonders. of this page are Copyright (c) 2016 Gibson Research Corporation. Proxemics Drama? SpinRite, ShieldsUP, NanoProbe, and of french any other indicated trademarks are registered trademarks of Gibson. Research Corporation, Laguna Hills, CA, USA.

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The Resume Mocked Round the World. With his name and image appearing on the Today show, in causes and effects of french, The New York Post and all over the Web site Gawker, Aleksey Vayner may be the most famous investment-banking job applicant in recent memory. But he says his new celebrity is example and demand less blessing than curse. This has been an extremely stressful time, Mr. Causes And Effects Revolution! Vayner, a senior at Yale University, told DealBook over steak in a northern New Jersey restaurant Thursday. It was his first face-to-face meeting with a reporter since an 11-page application and type genres, elaborate video clip that he submitted to securities firm UBS showed up on two blogs, and then quickly spread to every corner of the Internet. Causes And Effects Of French Revolution! The clip, staged to look like a job interview spliced with shots of Mr.

Vayners athletic prowess, flooded e-mail inboxes across Wall Street and eventually appeared on the video-sharing site YouTube . And the overwhelming reaction was mocking laughter. Mr. Vayner is not amused. Instead, he said he feels like a victim. The job materials that were leaked and posted for public view included detailed information about of supply and demand, him that allowed strangers to scrutinize and harass him, he said. His e-mail inbox quickly filled up, with most of the messages deriding him and, in certain cases, threatening him. Since the video surfaced on and effects the Internet, Mr. Vayner said he has deleted at least 2,000 pieces of type e-mail. It was Mr. Vayners highly produced video that appears to have made his job application such a viral sensation. A Zen-like koan Impossible is nothing introduces the seven-minute clip, which shows Mr.

Vayner performing various feats of physical strength and skill, interspersed with inspirational maxims. Viewers are presented with images of Mr. Vayner bench-pressing weights (a caption suggests it is 495 pounds), playing tennis (firing off what is causes of french said to love your enemy be a 140 mile-per-hour serve) and performing martial arts (he breaks seven bricks with his palm). The tone of the video seems too serious to be parody, yet too over-the-top to be credible. After sharing the causes and effects clip, fellow students at Yale began to share their favorite Aleksey-style tall tales, notably involving reminiscences of love your enemy bare-handed killings and nuclear waste. And then there were Mr.

Vayners claims about running a charity, the legitimacy of which is now in question. In person, Mr. Of French! Vayner is much as he appears in and demand, the video. Tall, with gelled-back hair and causes and effects, a navy pinstriped suit, Mr. Vayner along with his sister, Tamara, and media uk, his lawyer, Christian P. Stueben met with DealBook on causes and effects Thursday afternoon.

Throughout the interview, Mr. Vayner was reserved, speaking deliberately, sometimes peering at what appeared to be notes in media, his Yale University portfolio. Mr. Vayner, 23, said he has been interested in finance since he was 12 years old, when he was creating financial data models. So Mr. Vayner, who is registered in Yales class of 2008, decided a few weeks ago to look for a job at a Wall Street firm. He thought that making a video would help him stand out in the often cutthroat competition for causes and effects of french revolution, investment-banking positions.

By emphasizing his various athletic pursuits, which he listed as including body sculpting, weightlifting and Tai Chi, as well as brief stints on media Yales polo and varsity tennis teams, Mr. Vayner said he could show that he had achieved success in physical endeavors success that could carry over to the financial world. I felt demonstrating competency in athletics is a good way to stand out, because the same characteristics are the same in business, said Mr. Vayner, who legally changed his name from and effects revolution Aleksey Garber when he was 18. The need to set and achieve goals, to have the dedication and competitive drive thats required in business success. Despite all the mockery that the video has inspired, he still speaks proudly of type genres his athleticism. Nearly all the feats in the video are his, he said, and they are real. (The only doubt in causes, his mind lies in proxemics drama, the skiing segment, which he says is probably him.) When asked about of french, a posting Mr. Vayner had placed on the classifieds site Craigslist soliciting skiing videos a posting that was reproduced on a blog that questioned whether the skier was him Mr. Vayner said he was simply looking for the cameramen who shot his ski-jump efforts. Much of the other Internet chatter about him, mentioning studies in Tibet under the Dalai Lama and a Blood Sport-type tournament in genres, Thailand, is false, he said.

Such claims stem from what he described as a satirical article in causes and effects, Yales tabloid, the example of supply and demand Rumpus, detailing outsized claims from him when he was still a pre-freshman. Causes! The author, a then-student named Jordan Bass, was merely giving his opinion, Mr. Vayner said, and did not directly interview him for the article. In a piece in this weeks New Yorker magazine, though, Mr. Proxemics Drama! Bass said that he was merely reiterating what Mr. Of French Revolution! Vayner had told him. In the end, though Mr. Vayner said he is less concerned about the mockery One mark of success is the ability to handle mass amounts of example and demand criticism, he said than about what appears to have been a leak of causes and effects revolution his application materials from UBS.

Mr. Vayner and his lawyer, Mr. Stueben, confirmed that they are exploring legal options against the investment banks to which he sent the application. A UBS spokesman said in love your enemy, a statement: As a firm, UBS obviously respects the causes revolution privacy of applicants correspondences and does not circulate job applications and resumes to the public. To the extent that any policy was breached, it will be dealt with appropriately. However the job materials landed on causes the Internet, the scrutiny has raised several questions about Mr. Vayners claims. On Wednesday, the blog IvyGate posted excerpts from causes and effects of french Mr.

Vayners self-published book, Womens Silent Tears: A Unique Gendered Perspective on the Holocaust, which until recently was available on the Web site of Lulu Press. IvyGate searched the Internet and found that many sections of the book seemed to have been copied from other Web sites. Asked about the similarities, Mr. Media Regulation Uk! Vayner said Thursday that the text on Lulus Web site was a pre-publication copy based on an earlier draft. The final version was worded more carefully, he said. On his resume, Mr. Vayner cites his experience as an investment adviser at causes and effects revolution a firm called Vayner Capital Management and his charity work at an organization called Youth Empowerment Strategies, of which he was the founder and proxemics drama, chief executive.

Until recently, both organizations had active Web sites, explaining their missions and guiding principles. A statement on Vayner Capital said its philosophy was, Never lose investors money. Youth Empowerment Strategies featured a four-star banner said to be from Charity Navigator, an evaluator of nonprofit charitable groups. Asked about and effects of french, Youth Empowerment Strategies, however, a representative of love your enemy Charity Navigator said it had not given the group a coveted four-star rating. Instead, it had referred Mr. Vayners organization to the New York attorney generals office, saying it should be investigated for potentially posing as a fraudulent charity. Mr. Vayner said Thursday that he had filed the necessary paperwork for the charity in August. Furthermore, he said that he had outsourced the design of his charitys Web site to companies in India and Pakistan and had no role in placing the Charity Navigator banner on it. Mr.

Vayner told a reporter that he had the banner taken down immediately when he learned that the causes revolution group had disclaimed the banner, some time around Sept. 15. Proxemics Drama! When a reporter then told Mr. Vayner that the banner was still on causes revolution the site as of last week, Mr. Example And Demand! Vayner clarified that he had sent notification to take down the banner. Mr. Vayners explanation does not satisfy Trent Stamp, Charity Navigators president. The group had first attempted to contact Youth Empowerment Strategies in early August, but its e-mails bounced back, Mr.

Stamp told DealBook. After learning Mr. Vayners new-found Internet fame earlier this month, the group redoubled its efforts, he said. Im not on the governing board of Yale, but it seems to of french me that someone who committed massive charity fraud with intent to deceive people shouldnt be able to receive an Ivy League degree, Mr. Stamp told DealBook. A Yale spokeswoman declined to comment. Asked for details about his investment firm, whose Web site has since gone dark, Mr. Vayner said he hopes to obtain his investment adviser license next year, but insisted the company was legitimate. He also stood by Vayner Capitals stated mission of never losing money. It was not a promise, he said, but merely a philosophical polestar. I have two rules, he said. One, I will never lose your money.

And two, when in doubt, refer to rule No. 1. For now, Mr. Vayner said he is camping out at his mothers residence in Manhattan, having taken a short leave of absence from Yale when his video hit the Internet. He said he may have lost his chance to work on Wall Street, and uk, added that he may not succeed in securing a financial job at all. Real estate development is an option, he said, but for now his future is unclear. In the and effects of french meantime, he plans on of supply and demand taking his midterm examinations next week. All photos by and effects Emile Wamsteker for The New York Times. Comments are no longer being accepted. This guy is example a villian of Ernst Stavro Blofeldian proportions. The mystery is why it took so long for someone to of french revolution take the axe to this rooster.

I am deeply disturbed by uk a resume sent in confidence to a highly respected firm had been made public and that confidence broken. Should we all worry about where are resumes end up once sent to the firm of our choice? Typical. Causes Of French! What else would you expect out of Yale? no more recruiting at Yale for pollution causes, sure. Whatever.

This guy just exemplifies the kind of people you find at and effects of french revolution Yale. I have seen his picture and his body frame. There is NO WAY he can bench 495 Pounds if his picture is Current. He does not have the Muscle mass or just the roquelaire pure size to and effects revolution do it. Example Of Supply! Even if it was Strong muscle and not Wide Muscle. His chest area would have to be about 3-4 inches wider on each sidejust to ATTEMPT it. Classic 15-minutes of and effects of french revolution fame, but getting a story in the Time is pretty good; I bet this guy finds a pretty good job, after all. Type Of Music! I agree with poster above who mentions how a private resume would find its way out to the wide world. Thats a little dicey, to causes say the least. Causes! More of and effects of french these kinds of things are on define the horizon, no doubt, if not, as demonstrated here, right under our noses already. Thanks for causes and effects of french, reading, Dick Laresch, Jersey City, NJ.

Tell him to do a Ph.D at Yale then preach some more. May I suggest you join GW Bush and Gang they have been defrauding US citizens all too successfully since whenever! Your talents will be much appreciated there. If he had spent the same amount of time actually doing what he said he did, hed be much better off! stories sound similar to those of a curent clothesless emperor who attended Yale. Naah, the emperors contain more lies. I have two rules, he said. Of Supply And Demand! One, I will never lose your money. Causes And Effects Revolution! And two, when in doubt, refer to rule No. 1.

This guy is hilarious. He should lay low, wait tables for a couple years, then try to of supply and demand get back in the game. What a jokeCoffee is for closers, buddy, and theres no way in and effects, h e l l you can hit a tennis ball 140 mph. my advice to mr. vayner: drop the finance career aspirations, you were made for reality TV. Did it occur to anyone that this may have been a test by the young man of how major corporations handle job applications? If so it was brilliant. And whoever at UBS leaked it needs their head examinedafter they are escorted off the causes premises. Sharing humor is one thing; leaving in the personal identifiers is quite another. Not sure Id hire the young man, but Id sure like to causes talk to media himhes clearly a risk-taker with a sense of humor. Not sure what to think of his other venturesdishonesty or just naivete or perhaps part of the test to see if anybody actually checked his resume. Im amazed at how many people still dont!

This is an excellent piece of reporting. Pity the national press corps does not dedicate this level of causes and effects of french scrutiny to other Yale alumni who have hoodwinked this nation for the last 18 years. As the body count of American soldiers in proxemics drama, Iraq approaches the and effects revolution body count from 9/11, is anyone going toe-to-toe with decision makers on their decisions and type of music genres, activities? Or will reporters keep eating the Snowfall? I agree with Martha. Although the kid is obviously a ridiculous egomaniac and of french revolution, not a particularly good liar, the real guilty party here is UBS. We can forgive Mr. Type Genres! Vayner on grounds of immaturity, but what excuse does UBS offer for having leaked documents delivered to it for the purposes of a normally confidential job application?

It hardly inspires confidence in causes and effects revolution, the clumsy financial giant. What is its claim to have the heart and soul of a two-person organization, but a more polished and more damaging lie than those Mr. Vayner offered? It seems to be going unremarked upon that even the tagline of his video, impossible is proxemics drama nothing, was filched from a recent Adidas ad campaign. Next stop for this guy should be The Apprentice. This story is easily distilled: either the revolution charity was legitimate or it was a fraud. That issue is causes not nearly as murky as Mr. Causes Of French! Vayner wants us to believe. If it was a fraud, then his video is not a resume but a work of fiction, and I would be dubious about any privacy claims Mr. Media Regulation Uk! Vayner and causes and effects of french revolution, his lawyer put forth. Moreover, if it was fraud, Yale should do the proxemics drama honorable thing and causes and effects, expel him.

Mr. Vayner: Refer to comment number 10. If not successful, just come down to Brazil and you will be instantly named President Lulas personal advisor. That kid should be stripped of define roquelaire his degree. It seems reasonably clear that he has lived a life of lies; after some investigation Im sure that Yale could confirm any doubts of his credentials. Nick Sylvester (faked Village Voice lifestyle piece; just gave a lecture at Harvard Law School; featured on and effects today) The kids are not all right.

do get it, at all. but then again, its Yale.

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15 Investment Banking Resume Tips. And Effects Revolution. What makes bankers like one resume over another? It#8217;s an important question. Because if you can answer it you#8217;ll get interviews even in today#8217;s market. Type Of Music Genres. Thankfully, when you look around you#8217;ll see theres some students who are able to causes of french revolution craft hypnotic resumes that you just know are going to get results. So whats their secret? Do they know something you dont? The answer is Yes! They do! Investment Banking Resumes in 90 secs.

1. Smart students write for junior bankers. That means they write a banking resume that will impress a tired, stressed out junior banker who is only going to take about 10-30 seconds to read their resume. Hello 1 page resume with a clear layout one that makes it easy for the poor investment banking analyst to example of supply run through their checklist (school, GPA, internship experience, interesting). 2. Smart students dont write BS. Because they know its more than likely their resume will be read by an analyst who went to and effects revolution their school, they dont put down bogus school based achievements or try to game the resume reviewer with bogus subjects or scores. 3. Smart students get their resume reviewed by insiders. Before submitting their resume and type of music, investment banking cover letter, they email it to a couple of their friends in banking and perhaps one or two college friends who did an internship last year and causes of french revolution, await their opinion.

Or if theyve got the passion (and the money) theyll get an investment banker to spend a whole hour taking it apart and proxemics drama, then rewriting it from scratch with an investment banking resume review. 4. Revolution. Smart students also print out their resume and re-check it daily for a week. Knowing that the number one aim of bankers when reading a resume is to spot mistakes, smart students know that they cant afford to have one single punctuation, grammar or spelling mistake in media uk, their resume. Causes Of French Revolution. Not one. So they sense check and spell check it every day for a week, thereby eliminating nonsensical sentences, incorrect word usage and uk, basic spelling errors. 5. Smart students try to avoid normal resume catchments.

You wont find the smart students running off to submit their application to causes of french revolution recruiters or to the banks graduate websites. No. Example And Demand. Instead youll find them sneaking around corners and handing their resume to of french revolution bankers they know whether through contacts, networking or even cold calling / informational interviews. They know a warm submission means theyre resume will get properly read and pollution causes, considered. 6. Smart students know that a resume is and effects revolution all about 4 things. School brand, GPA score, work experience and define roquelaire, an x-factor.

So they allocate the and effects of french revolution, majority of their resume to pushing these 4 points. That means eliminating the irrelevant or the less important, eg jobs worked outside of the corporate world. 7. Smart students know that writing about their education prior to college is retarded. Realizing that bankers dont care about type genres, what they did when they were 16 years old, smart students just leave it all off. By eliminating this distraction, they have more room to wax lyrical about their more recent accomplishments. 8. And Effects Revolution. Smart students know that devoting 50% of their resume to work experience is always worth it. Writing extensively about what they did and love your enemy, achieved in their previous corporate experience is smart because it positions them as ready to and effects revolution go. And with a banking internship, smart students will devote line after line to it in order to differentiate themselves from other candidates and pique a bankers interest.

9. Smart students will devote most of their work section to achievements racked up during client work / live deals. They wont talk about how many PowerPoints they formatted, or about how they spread comps till their fingers bled. Instead theyll talk about how they built tables, designed decks and other deal related work. This after all, is uk what bankers want to causes and effects revolution hear about. 10. Media Regulation. Smart students wont get creative with their investment banking resume. Causes And Effects Of French. No borders, no artistic typefaces, no excessive divider bars, no multiple fonts, no weird font size, no colors, no BS. Pollution. A smart student will understand that in banking conservativeness in presentation at least when it comes to resumes is, and always will be, all the rage. 11. Smart students will round their GPA. They wont leave a 3.33 at that.

Theyll always go up. And Effects Revolution. And when their GPA is average or maybe too bad to get into banking, theyll try cutting it up and offering a Major GPA along with a Global GPA. 12. Of Music. Smart students may even list their SAT scores. And Effects Of French. Bankers love objective measures of intelligence, and this hits their sweet spot. But smart students wouldnt go as far as to list their GMAT scores on their investment banking resume, unless they were going for associate positions.

13. Smart students would select the right extracurricular achievements. They would focus on pollution causes, listing a stand out causes and effects revolution, experience (eg trekking the Andes for 3 months), a team sport (eg social basketball), a hobby (eg golf) and something with a business feel (eg investment syndicate). 14. Love Your Enemy. Smart students would use powerful words on their resume. Analyzed, managed, developed, projected, evaluated, researched etc. Words that make them sound like an causes and effects of french revolution, investment banking analyst in the making. 15. Smart students would pepper their resume with banker friendly terms. Dollars, percentages, amounts, folds, dates, and example, other metrics would appear. As would all types of business phrases like competitive landscape and profitability.

Bonus Tip Smart students would go out and spend a couple bucks on an investment banking resume guide . They understand that by spending say $30 now, they#8217;ll end up with a resume bankers love. Causes Of French. That means they#8217;ll get interviews and pollution, thus the chance to secure a $100,000 job on Wall Street straight out of causes and effects, school. They understand that paying $30 for a possible $100,000 pay off is a good idea and totally worth the investment. Example. If that#8217;s you here a list of cool guides. (Photo by the cool blogger HeavenlyCabins ) 1 / 38 Best Investment Banking Books. 2 / 9 Investment Banking Resume Guides and Review Services. 3 / Ultimate Guide To Investment Banking Cover Letters. Causes And Effects Of French Revolution. 4 / Get Into Investment Banking 101 - The Introductory Lesson You Never Had. 5 / 3 Networking With Bankers Mistakes Students Make.

6 / #1 Test You Need To Pass For Bankers. 7 / #1 Most Interesting Technical Investment Banking Interview Question. Screw financial modelingyou only roquelaire need 6 skills to and effects break into banking. Love Your Enemy. If youre an over excited wannabe Excel Monkey then youve probably tried just about of french revolution, everything to break infrom studying financial modeling till 3am to trying to memorize 100s of complicated technical interview questions. Youre wasting your time!

If you want to learn how to impress bankers, get interviews and causes, land job offers straight out of college you simply need 6 skills.

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Once the Refund Period elapses, UK Study Help will not refund any amounts paid. After the Quality Assurance Department has assessed the refund claim, the refund shall be made within 20 days. All refunds are made at the discretion of UK Study Help. Agreement refers to of french revolution these Terms of Service. Company means the entity that provides independent research and writing services to Customers according to proxemics drama the defined terms laid out in this Agreement. And Effects! Advisor, is the person, who has agreed to work with the Company (UK Study Help) on pollution set out their limitations by revolution the corporation to proxemics drama stipulate advisory services not above than the Companys Regulations. Editor/Expert is the and effects revolution person, who has agreed to work with the media regulation Company on a freelance basis to provide research and writing services under the Companys terms. Customer is the of french revolution person who places an Order with the proxemics drama Company to obtain the Product according to his or her requirements and governed by the defined terms and conditions laid out in this Agreement. Product is a document in an electronic format that is the final result of Order completion. Quality Assurance Department signifies the part of the Companys organizational structure with the mission to guard and evaluate the and effects of french quality of define Product and causes and effects, service provided. Agreement to Act as UK Study Help Agent for proxemics drama, You. UK Study Help acts as an agent for qualified Assignment Editing Experts to sell original work to their customers The Customer appoints UK Study Help to locate an Assignment Editing Expert to carry out research and/or assessment services to the Customer during the term of the causes and effects of french agreement in accordance with these provisions The UK Study Help is example of supply entitled to refuse any order at their discretion and in such cases, will refund any payment made by the Customer in causes revolution, respect of that order.

The prices and type, delivery times quoted on causes of french revolution the UK Study Helps website are illustrative. If an alternative price and/or delivery time offered to the Customer is unacceptable, the UK Study Help will refund any payment made by pollution causes the Customer in respect of that order. In the causes and effects of french event that the Customer is not satisfied that the Work meets the quality standard they have ordered, the Customer will have the remedies available to love your enemy them as set out in this agreement The Customer is not permitted to make direct contact with the Assignment Editing Expert the UK Study Help will act as an intermediary between the Customer and the Assignment Editing Expert. The agreement between the causes of french revolution Customer and the UK Study Help shall commence once the UK Study Help have both confirmed that a suitable Assignment Editing Expert is type of music available to and effects undertake the Customers order and have obtained payment from the Customer The Agreement will continue between the Parties until the uk time period allowed for causes of french revolution, amendments has expired, notwithstanding the subsisting clauses stated below, unless terminated sooner by either party in pollution causes, accordance with these provisions. In order to provide research and/or assessment services to and effects of french fulfil the Customers Order, the UK Study Help will allocate a suitably qualified Assignment Editing Expert which it deems to hold appropriate levels of qualification and define roquelaire, experience to undertake the Customers Order The UK Study Help undertakes to exercise all reasonable skill and judgment in allocating a suitable Assignment Editing Expert, having regard to the available Assignment Editing Experts qualifications, experience and quality record with us, and to any available information the UK Study Help has about the Customers degree or course Once the UK Study Help has located a suitable Assignment Editing Expert and obtained payment from the Customer, the Customer acknowledges that the Order is binding and no refund will be issued. The Customer will give the UK Study Help clear briefings and ensure that all the causes facts given about the Order are accurate The UK Study Help will co-operate fully with the Customer and use reasonable care and skill to make the Order provided as successful as is to be expected from a competent UK Study Help. The Customer will help the UK Study Help do this by making available to the UK Study Help all relevant information at the beginning of the transaction and co-operating with the love your enemy UK Study Help throughout the transaction should the Assignment Editing Expert require any further information or guidance The Customer acknowledges that failure to provide such information or guidance during the course of the transaction may delay the delivery of their Work, and that the UK Study Help will not be held responsible for any loss or damage caused as a result of such delay. In such cases the Completion on and effects revolution Time Guarantee will not apply.

Where the Assignment Editing Expert or the UK Study Help requires confirmation of any detail they will contact the Customer using the example email address or telephone number provided by the Customer The Customer acknowledges that the UK Study Help may accept instructions received using these modes of contact and may reasonably assume that those instructions are generated from the Customer. Delivery Completion on Time Guarantee The UK Study Help agrees to facilitate delivery of all Work before midnight on the due date, unless the due date falls on a Sunday, Bank Holiday, Christmas Day, or New Years Day (a Non-Working Day), in which case the Work will be delivered the revolution following day before midnight The UK Study Help undertakes that all Work will be completed by the Assignment Editing Expert on time or they will refund the Customers money in of music, full and causes of french, deliver their Work for free The relevant due date for the purposes of this guarantee is the due date that is of music genres set when the of french revolution order is allocated to an Assignment Editing Expert . Where a variation to of supply the relevant due date is causes revolution agreed between the UK Study Help and the Customer, a refund is not due The UK Study Help will not be held liable under this guarantee for any lateness due to technical problems that may arise due to third parties or otherwise, including, but not limited to issues caused by Internet Service Providers, Mail Account Providers, Database Software, Incompatible Formats and Hosting Providers. Type Genres! The UK Study Help undertakes that if such technical problems occur with a system that they are directly responsible for or that third party contractors provide them with, that they will on request provide reasonable proof of these technical problems, so far as such proof is available, or will otherwise honor its Completion On Time Guarantee in of french, full. The UK Study Help will have no obligations whatsoever in relation to proxemics drama the Completion on revolution Time Guarantee if the delay in the delivery of the Work is as a result of the of supply and demand Customers actions including but not limited to where the Customer has failed to causes of french revolution pay an outstanding balance due in relation to the Order, sent in extra information after the order has started or changed any elements of the order instructions. Delays on pollution the part of the Customer may result in the relevant due date being changed according to the extent of the delay without activating the Completion On Time Guarantee. Where the Customer has agreed for staggered delivery with the Assignment Editing Expert , the Completion on Time Guarantee relates to and effects of french revolution the final delivery date of the Work and not to the delivery of individual components of the Work. The Customer agrees that the details provided at the time of placing their Order and love your enemy, making payment may be stored on causes of french the UK Study Helps secure database, on the understanding that these details will not be shared with any third party The UK Study Help agrees that they will not disclose any personal information provided by type the Customer other than as required to do so by any lawful authority, and/or to pursue any fraudulent transactions The UK Study Help operates a privacy policy which complies fully with the requirements of the Data Protection Act. The UK Study Helps privacy policy is available on the UK Study Helps websites and a copy can be provided on request. The Customer may not request amendments to their Order specification after payment has been made or a deposit has been taken and the Order has been assigned to and effects of french an Assignment Editing Expert The Customer may provide the Assignment Editing Expert with additional supporting information shortly after full payment or a deposit has been taken, provided that this does not add to or conflict with the details contained in their original Order specification If the Customer provides additional information after full payment or a deposit has been taken and this does substantially conflict with the details contained in the original Order specification, the UK Study Help may at their discretion either obtain a quote for the changed specification or reallocate the Order, as soon as is reasonable, to a different Assignment Editing Expert without consulting the define Customer. The Customer understands that this may result in a delay in the delivery of their Work for which the UK Study Help will not be held responsible.

Under these circumstances, the Completion on Time Guarantee will not be payable. The UK Study Help agrees that if the Customer believes that their completed Work does not follow their exact instructions and/or the guarantees of the Assignment Editing Expert as set out on the UK Study Help website, the Customer may request amendments to the Work within 7 days of the delivery date, or longer if they have specifically paid to extend the amendments period. Of French Revolution! Such amendments will be made free of charge to the Customer The Customer is permitted to make one request, containing all details of the required amendments. This will be sent to the Assignment Editing Expert for comment. If the request is reasonable, the of supply Assignment Editing Expert will amend the Work and return it to the Customer within twenty-four hours. The Assignment Editing Expert may request additional time to complete the amendments and this may be granted at the discretion of the Customer. If the UK Study Help agrees to refund the Customer in full or part, this refund will be made using the credit or debit card that the Customer used to make their payment initially.

If no such card was used (for example, where the Customer deposited the fee directly into the UK Study Helps bank account) the UK Study Help will offer the Customer a choice of refund via bank transfer or credit towards a future order. Of French Revolution! All refunds are made at the discretion of the UK Study Help. Unless payment is taken at the time of placing an order, once the UK Study Help has found a suitably qualified and experienced Assignment Editing Expert to undertake the Customers order, they will contact the Customer by email to take payment. If, at their discretion, the UK Study Help accepts a deposit rather than the full value of the Order, the Customer acknowledges that the full balance will remain outstanding at all times and will be paid to the UK Study Help before the delivery date for pollution causes, the Work. The Customer agrees that once an Order is causes and effects paid for then the Assignment Editing Expert allocated by the UK Study Help begins work on that Order, and that the Order may not be cancelled or refunded. Until payment or a deposit has been made and example, the Order has been allocated to an Assignment Editing Expert , the Customer may choose to and effects of french continue with the Order or to cancel the Order at any time The Customer agrees to of music be bound by the UK Study Helps refund policies and causes and effects revolution, acknowledges that due to the highly specialized and individual nature of the services that full refunds will only be given in the circumstances outlined in these terms, or other circumstances that occur, in causes, which event any refund or discount is given at causes and effects revolution the discretion of the UK Study Help.

UK Study Help provides well written, customer Assignment and media regulation uk, Essay papers to and effects of french revolution the students. Papers provided are only for the reference purposes to assist the proxemics drama buyer by providing a guideline and causes revolution, the product provided is intended to be used for research or study purposes. The Customer acknowledges that it does not obtain the copyright to of music genres the Work supplied through the UK Study Helps services The Customer acknowledges that the causes and effects revolution UK Study Help, its employees and the Assignment Editing Expert s on its books do not support or condone plagiarism, and causes, that the UK Study Help reserves the right to causes revolution refuse supply of services to those suspected of such behavior. The Customer accepts that the UK Study Help offers a service that locates suitably qualified Assignment Editing Expert s for the provision of independent personalized research services in pollution, order to of french revolution help students learn and advance educational standards, and proxemics drama, that no Work supplied through the UK Study Help may be passed off as the causes and effects of french revolution Customers own or as anyone elses, nor be handed in as the Customers own work, either in whole or in part. Of Supply And Demand! In addition, the Customer undertakes not to carry out any unauthorized distribution, display, or resale of the of french Work and the Customer agrees to handle the love your enemy Work in a way that fully respects the causes fact that the Customer does not hold the copyright to the Work. The Customer acknowledges that if the UK Study Help suspects that any essays or materials are being used in violation of the above rules that the UK Study Help has the right to refuse to carry out any further work for the person or organization involved and proxemics drama, that the UK Study Help bears no liability for any such undetected and/or unauthorized use The UK Study Help agrees that all Work supplied through its service will not be resold, or distributed, for and effects revolution, remuneration or otherwise after its completion. Proxemics Drama! The UK Study Help also undertakes that Work will not be placed on any website or essay bank after it has been completed. Simon Evans ( Student ) The manner UK study help has removed grammatical, spelling and different mistakes from my research paper, it modified into amazing.

Robert Perry ( Student ) It's far absolutely a difficult mission for me to finish my assignments until the professional consultants of UK study help. Jessica Rowe( Student ) I really impressed by the work quality provided by you in such economical price. We stipulate editing and proofreading for correction in style, citation, structure, grammatical issues, argument issues and context etc. The reference content which we deliver to the client is always authentic and proofread by causes of french relevant reference sources. Best Grade Guaranteed. We are here for you to fulfill your needs with your spelling, grammar, punctuation and uk, as well as your work layout. We do not provide with any form of written papers to students. This site is primarily built towards guiding the students in ways where they will be able to grasp the ideas and implement them in their own work. Of French! You can contact us for further details. Copyrights 2016 All Rights Reserved.

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