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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century. He is often regarded as the founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of limited, liberal government. He was also influential in the areas of theology, religious toleration, and educational theory. In his most important work, the Hinton Life Essay Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke set out to offer an analysis of the what did jacques cousteau human mind and its acquisition of Hinton knowledge. He offered an empiricist theory according to which we acquire ideas through our experience of the & men book world. The mind is Eloise then able to examine, compare, and combine these ideas in numerous different ways. Parse Human Becoming! Knowledge consists of a special kind of Susan relationship between different ideas. Locke’s emphasis on the philosophical examination of the human mind as a preliminary to together mussolini, the philosophical investigation of the world and its contents represented a new approach to philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of converts, especially in Great Britain. In addition to this broader project, the Essay contains a series of more focused discussions on important, and widely divergent, philosophical themes.
In politics, Locke is best known as a proponent of limited government. He uses a theory of natural rights to argue that governments have obligations to their citizens, have only limited powers over Eloise Essay, their citizens, and can ultimately be overthrown by citizens under certain circumstances. He also provided powerful arguments in favor of religious toleration. This article attempts to give a broad overview of all key areas of Locke’s thought. John Locke was born in 1632 in Wrington, a small village in southwestern England. His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War. His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing. Locke spent his childhood in the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in parse becoming London. Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. He was to remain in Oxford from Susan Life 1652 until 1667. Although he had little appreciation for during the victorian the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of Life Essay administrative and academic posts in the college.
Some of of mice & men book Locke’s duties included instruction of undergraduates. One of his earliest substantive works, the Essays on the Law of Nature , was developed in the course of his teaching duties. Much of Locke’s intellectual effort and energy during his time at Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to the study of medicine and natural philosophy (what we would now call science). Locke read widely in these fields, participated in various experiments, and Susan Hinton Life Essay became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers. He also undertook the normal course of education and training to what happened the victorian age?, become a physician. Locke left Oxford for London in 1667 where he became attached to the family of Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the Earl of Shaftesbury).
Locke may have played a number of roles in Eloise Hinton Life Essay the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to Ashley’s son. In London, Locke continued to pursue his interests in stronger together medicine and Eloise Life Essay natural philosophy. He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the most famous physicians of the age. He made a number of did jacques cousteau contacts within the newly formed Royal Society and became a member in 1668. He also acted as the personal physician to Susan Eloise Essay, Lord Ashley. Indeed, on one occasion Locke participated in a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Human Becoming! Ashley was one of the most prominent English politicians at the time. Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of Susan Hinton Life governmental posts. Most of of mice book his work related to policies in Susan Hinton Essay England’s American and Caribbean colonies. Most importantly, this was the period in Locke’s life when he began the project which would culminate in Age his most famous work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . The two earliest drafts of that work date from Hinton Essay 1671.
He was to & men, continue work on this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in France for several years starting in 1675. When he returned to England it was only to be for a few years. The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away. Susan! Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of favor and Locke’s association with him had become a liability.
It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the Two Treatises Concerning Government . Although the Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on the nature and practical proper form of government. Susan! Following Shaftesbury’s death Locke fled to the Netherlands to escape political persecution. While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for his own safety) and worked on two projects. Human Theory! First, he continued work on the Essay . Susan Eloise Hinton Life! Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in 1689. Locke’s experiences in England, France, and the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of religious diversity than was common at the time. Following the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 Locke was able to return to England. He published both the Essay and the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return. Stronger Together Mussolini! He initially stayed in London but soon moved to Eloise Hinton, the home of Francis and Damaris Masham in the small village of Oates, Essex. Damaris Masham, who was the daughter of report a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Locke’s death.
During this period Locke kept busy working on politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and educational theory. Locke engaged in a number of controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over toleration. But Locke’s most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the Bishop of Worcester. Stillingfleet, in addition to Susan, being a powerful political and theological figure, was an astute and forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the the Drinking Essay positions in the Essay in Susan Hinton a series of published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of his attention to theology. His major work in this field was The Reasonableness of Christianity , published (again anonymously) in stronger together mussolini 1695.
This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to be mandatory for Christians were unnecessary. Locke argued for a highly ecumenical form of Christianity. Closer to the time of his death Locke wrote a work on the Pauline Epistles. The work was unfinished, but published posthumously. A short work on miracles also dates from this time and was published posthumously. Locke suffered from health problems for most of his adult life. In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by his visits to London where the air quality was very poor.
His health took a turn for the worse in 1704 and he became increasingly debilitated. Susan Eloise Hinton Life Essay! He died on 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the Psalms. He was buried at High Laver, near Oates. He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and forthright. According to Locke’s own account the motivation for writing the Essay came to him while debating an unrelated topic with friends. He reports that they were able to make little headway on this topic and that they very quickly met with a number of confusions and difficulties. Locke realized that to parse human becoming, make progress on this topic it was first necessary to examine something more fundamental: the human understanding.
It was “necessary to examine our own Abilities, and see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to deal with.” ( Epistle , 7). Locke’s insight was that before we can analyze the world and our access to it we have to know something about ourselves. We need to know how we acquire knowledge. We also need to know which areas of inquiry we are well suited to and which are epistemically closed to us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in principle. Susan Eloise Hinton Essay! We further need to know what knowledge consists in. In keeping with these questions, at the very outset of the happened the victorian age? Essay Locke writes that it is his “ Purpose enquire into the Original, Certainty, and Susan Eloise Extent of humane Knowledge; together, with the Grounds and Degrees of Belief, Opinion, and Assent.” (1.1.2, 42). Locke thinks that it is only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into the world. This may have been what Locke had in mussolini mind when he claimed that part of his ambition in the Essay was to be an “Under-Laborer” who cleared the ground and laid the foundations for the work of famous scientists like Robert Boyle and Susan Eloise Life Essay Isaac Newton.
The Essay is divided into four books with each book contributing to osmosis practical report, Locke’s overall goal of examining the human mind with respect to its contents and operations. In Book I Locke rules out one possible origin of our knowledge. He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate. This sets up Book II in Hinton Life which Locke argues that all of our ideas come from experience. In this book he seeks to give an account of how even ideas like God, infinity, and space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and our mental operations.
Book III is what during something of a digression as Locke turns his attention to language and the role it plays in Susan Hinton Life our theorizing. Locke’s main goal here is of mice book cautionary, he thinks language is often an obstacle to understanding and he offers some recommendations to avoid confusion. Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and opinion. Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of relations between ideas and that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the Essay contains an apology for the frequent use of the word “idea” in the book. According to Essay, Locke, ideas are the fundamental units of mental content and so play an what did jacques invent, integral role in his explanation of the human mind and his account of our knowledge. Locke was not the first philosopher to give ideas a central role; Descartes, for Hinton Life example, had relied heavily on the Drinking Essay them in explaining the human mind. Eloise Hinton! But figuring out precisely what Locke means by “idea” has led to disputes among commentators. One place to begin is with Locke’s own definition. He claims that by together mussolini, “idea” he means “whatsoever is the Object of the Understanding when a Man thinks…whatever is meant by Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the Mind can be employ’d about in thinking.” (1.1.8, 47). Susan Hinton Essay! This definition is helpful insofar as it reaffirms the central role that ideas have in Locke’s account of the understanding.
Ideas are the sole entities upon which our minds work. Locke’s definition, however, is less than helpful insofar as it contains an ambiguity. On one reading, ideas are mental objects . Lowering The Drinking Essay! The thought is that when an agent perceives an external world object like an Susan Hinton Life, apple there is some thing in her mind which represents that apple. So when an agent considers an apple what she is really doing is thinking about the parse becoming theory idea of that apple. On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . The thought here is Eloise Hinton that when an of mice & men book, agent perceives an Eloise, apple she is really perceiving the apple in a direct, unmediated way.
The idea is the mental act of making perceptual contact with the external world object. In recent years, most commentators have adopted the first of these two readings. Age! But this debate will be important in the discussion of knowledge below. The first of the Essay ’s four books is Susan Eloise Life devoted to a critique of nativism, the doctrine that some ideas are innate in the human mind, rather than received in experience. It is unclear precisely who Locke’s targets in this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of Cherbury and other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the Cambridge Platonists, and a number of osmosis lesser known Anglican theologians. Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of Susan Eloise Hinton Life Essay what Locke seeks to do in Book I is motivate and make plausible the alternative account of idea acquisition that he offers in Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is what happened the victorian innate in the mind. This means that there are certain ideas (units of mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by the mind out of ideas received in experience. Susan! The most popular version of together this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in all minds at Life the moment of Lowering the Drinking their creation. Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the whole is greater than the Susan Eloise part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the of mice view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and so forth).
The main thrust of Locke’s argument lies in pointing out that none of the mental content alleged to be innate is universally shared by Susan, all humans. He notes that children and stronger together mussolini the mentally disabled, for example, do not have in Life their minds an allegedly innate complex thought like “equals taken from equals leave equals”. He also uses evidence from travel literature to point out that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the idea of did jacques a God. Locke takes the fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by God in humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather than innate. There is one misunderstanding which it is Hinton Essay important to avoid when considering Locke’s anti-nativism. The misunderstanding is, in the Drinking Essay part, suggested by Locke’s claim that the mind is like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to sense experience. This makes it sound as though the mind is nothing prior to Eloise Hinton Essay, the advent of ideas.
In fact, Locke’s position is much more nuanced. Did Jacques Cousteau! He makes it clear that the Susan mind has any number of inherent capacities, predispositions, and inclinations prior to receiving any ideas from sensation. His anti-nativist point is just that none of these is triggered or exercised until the mind receives ideas from sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of how the human mind comes to be furnished with the ideas it has. Every day we think of complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and motion. Locke’s claim is that the parse human becoming theory ultimate origin of Susan Eloise Hinton Essay all of these ideas lies in experience: “ Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is founded; and from that it ultimately derives itself. Our Observation employ’d either about external, sensible Objects ; or about the internal Operations of Age our Minds, perceived and reflected on by ourselves, is that, which supplies our Understandings with all the material of thinking . These two are the Fountains of Susan Eloise Hinton Essay Knowledge, from whence all the Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring.” (2.1.2, 104). In the above passage Locke allows for osmosis report two distinct types of experience. Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the traditional five senses. Sight gives us ideas of colors, hearing gives us ideas of sounds, and so on.
Thus, my idea of a particular shade of green is a product of seeing a fern. Eloise Hinton Essay! And my idea of a particular tone is the product of my being in the vicinity of a piano while it was being played. Together! Inner experience, or reflection, is slightly more complicated. Locke thinks that the Susan Essay human mind is incredibly active; it is constantly performing what he calls operations. For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on vacation, desire a slice of pizza, or doubt that England will win the World Cup. Human Becoming Theory! Locke believes that we are able to notice or experience our mind performing these actions and when we do we receive ideas of reflection. These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and choice. Locke’s view is that experience (sensation and reflection) issues us with simple ideas. These are the minimal units of mental content; each simple idea is “in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in Eloise Essay it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in the mind, and is not distinguishable into different Ideas .” (2.2.1, 119). But many of my ideas are not simple ideas.
My idea of a glass of orange juice or my idea of the New York subway system, for example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas. His view is that complex ideas are the product of invent combining our simple ideas together in various ways. For example, my complex idea of Susan Hinton Life Essay a glass of orange juice consists of stronger together various simple ideas (the color orange, the feeling of coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and Life Essay so forth) combined together into one object. Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional. Simple ideas combine to form complex ideas. And these complex ideas can be combined to form even more complex ideas.
We are now in a position to understand the character of Locke’s empiricism. He is committed to the view that all of our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into simple ideas received in experience. Lowering The Drinking Age Essay! The bulk of Susan Eloise Life Essay Book II is the Drinking Essay devoted to making this empiricism plausible. Locke does this both by undertaking an examination of the various abilities that the human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and so forth) and by offering an account of how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and causation could be constructed using only the simple ideas received in experience. Our complex ideas are classified into three different groups: substances, modes, and relations. Ideas of substances are ideas of things which are thought to exist independently. Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and mountains fall into this group. Susan Eloise Essay! But there are also ideas of collective substances, which consist of individuals substances considered as forming a whole. A group of individual buildings might be considered a town. And a group of individual men and osmosis practical report women might be considered together as an army. In addition to describing the way we think about individual substances, Locke also has an interesting discussion of substance-in-general.
What is it that particular substances like shoes and spoons are made out of? We could suggest that they are made out of leather and metal. But the Susan question could be repeated, what are leather and metal made of? We might respond that they are made of matter. But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is made of. What gives rise to the properties of matter? Locke claims that we don’t have a very clear idea here.
So our idea of substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to observable properties like extension and solidity. Ideas of modes are ideas of things which are dependent on substances in some way. In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky. It does not seem to osmosis report, have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and it is sometimes thought to be a mere catch-all category for things which are neither substances nor relations. But it is helpful to Susan Hinton Essay, think of modes as being like features of substances; modes are “such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in them the supposition of stronger together mussolini subsisting by themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of Substances.” (2.12.4, 165). Modes come in two types: simple and Hinton mixed. Simple modes are constructed by combining a large number of during age? a single type of simple ideas together. For example, Locke believes there is Hinton Life Essay a simple idea of of mice & men unity. Eloise Hinton Life Essay! Our complex idea of the number seven, for example, is a simple mode and is constructed by stronger together mussolini, concatenating seven simple ideas of unity together. Susan Hinton Life Essay! Locke uses this category to explain how we think about osmosis report a number of topics relating to number, space, time, pleasure and pain, and cognition.
Mixed modes, on the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of more than one kind. A great many ideas fall into this category. But the most important ones are moral ideas. Our ideas of theft, murder, promising, duty, and the like all count as mixed modes. Ideas of relations are ideas that involve more than one substance. Susan Eloise Life! My idea of & men book a husband, for example, is more than the idea of an individual man. It also must include the idea of another substance, namely the idea of Susan Essay that man’s spouse. The Drinking! Locke is keen to Life, point out that much more of our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought. For example, when I think about Elizabeth II as the Queen of osmosis practical report England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of her as having a certain relationship of sovereignty to Eloise Life Essay, some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and J.K.
Rowling). Locke then goes on what did jacques invent to explore the role that relations have in our thinking about causation, space, time, morality, and (very famously) identity. Throughout his discussion of the different kinds of complex ideas Locke is keen to emphasize that all of our ideas can ultimately be broken down into simple ideas received in sensation and reflection. Put differently, Locke is Hinton Essay keenly aware that the success of parse human his empiricist theory of mind depends on its ability to account for all the Susan Life contents of our minds. Whether or not Locke is successful is a matter of dispute.
On some occasions the analysis he gives of how a very complex idea could be constructed using only simple ideas is vague and happened the victorian requires the reader to fill in some gaps. And commentators have also suggested that some of the simple ideas Locke invokes, for example the simple ideas of power and unity, do not seem to be obvious components of our phenomenological experience. Book II closes with a number of chapters designed to help us evaluate the quality of our ideas. Our ideas are better, according to Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and Susan Eloise Hinton Life true. Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and false. Lowering The Drinking Age! Clarity and Eloise Hinton Essay obscurity are explained via an analogy to vision. Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and fresh, not faded or diminished in the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. Invent! Distinction and confusion have to Susan Eloise Hinton, do with the individuation of ideas. Ideas are distinct when there is only one word which corresponds to them. Mussolini! Confused ideas are ones to which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and consistent correlation to one particular word. To use one of Locke’s examples, an idea of a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused.
It is not distinct because the word “lynx” could apply to that idea just as easily as the word “leopard.” Real ideas are those that have a “foundation in nature” whereas fantastical ideas are those created by the imagination. For example, our idea of a horse would be a real idea and our idea of a unicorn would be fantastical. Adequacy and inadequacy have to do with how well ideas match the patterns according to which they were made. Adequate ideas perfectly represent the Hinton thing they are meant to depict; inadequate ideas fail to do this. Ideas are true when the mussolini mind understands them in a way that is correct according to linguistic practices and the way the world is structured. They are false when the mind misunderstands them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of ideas are better or worse according to Eloise Hinton, this evaluative system. Simple ideas do very well. Because objects directly produce them in the mind they tend to be clear, distinct, and so forth.
Ideas of modes and did jacques invent relations also tend to do very well, but for a different reason. Eloise Hinton Essay! Locke thinks that the archetypes of these ideas are in the mind rather than in the world. As such, it is easy for these ideas to be good because the mind has a clear sense of osmosis what the ideas should be like as it constructs them. By contrast, ideas of substances tend to fare very poorly. The archetypes for Eloise Life Essay these ideas are external world objects. Did Jacques Invent! Because our perceptual access to these objects is limited in a number of ways and Susan Essay because these objects are so intricate, ideas of substances tend to be confused, inadequate, false, and so forth. Book III of the Essay is concerned with language. Locke admits that this topic is something of a digression. He did not originally plan for language to take up an entire book of the Essay . But he soon began to realize that language plays an important role in our cognitive lives.
Book III begins by noting this and by discussing the nature and proper role of language. Lowering The Drinking Age Essay! But a major portion of Book III is devoted to combating the misuse of language. Susan Eloise Hinton Life Essay! Locke believes that improper use of language is one of the greatest obstacles to knowledge and clear thought. He offers a diagnosis of the problems caused by language and recommendations for avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is a tool for communicating with other human beings. Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to communicate about our ideas, the contents of our minds. From here it is a short step to the view that: “ Words in their primary or immediate Signification, stand for nothing, but the Ideas in the Mind of him that uses them .” (3.2.2, 405). Stronger! When an agent utters the word “gold” she is referring to Susan Eloise Hinton, her idea of a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of great value. When she utters the word “carrot” she is referring to her idea of a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground. Locke is, of course, aware that the names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and merely a matter of of mice book social convention. Although the Eloise Hinton Essay primary use of words is to refer to ideas in the mind of the speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls “secret reference” to two other things.
First, humans also want their words to of mice & men book, refer to Hinton Essay, the corresponding ideas in the minds of other humans. When Smith says “carrot” within earshot of Jones her hope is the Drinking Essay that Jones also has an idea of the long, skinny vegetable and that saying “carrot” will bring that idea into Jones’ mind. After all, communication would be impossible without the supposition that our words correspond to ideas in the minds of others. Second, humans suppose that their words stand for objects in the world. When Smith says “carrot” she wants to refer to more than just her idea, she also wants to refer to the long skinny objects themselves.
But Locke is Hinton Essay suspicious of these two other ways of understanding signification. He thinks the latter one, in particular, is illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of Essay language and reference Locke goes on to discuss specific cases of the relationship between ideas and words: words used for simple ideas, words used for modes, words used for substances, the way in which a single word can refer to a multiplicity of ideas, and Susan so forth. There is also an interesting chapter on “particles.” These are words which do not refer to parse, an idea but instead refer to a certain connection which holds between ideas. For example, if I say “Secretariat is brown” the word “Secretariat” refers to my idea of a certain racehorse, and “brown” refers to my idea of a certain color, but the word “is” does something different.
That word is a particle and indicates that I am expressing something about the relationship between my ideas of Hinton Essay Secretariat and brown and suggesting that they are connected in a certain way. Other particles includes words like “and”, “but”, “hence”, and so forth. As mentioned above, the problems of language are a major concern of Book III. Locke thinks that language can lead to confusion and misunderstanding for a number of reasons. The signification of words is arbitrary, rather than natural, and this means it can be difficult to understand which words refer to which ideas. Many of age? our words stand for Essay ideas which are complex, hard to acquire, or both.
So many people will struggle to use those words appropriately. And, in some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only a very confused and inadequate corresponding idea. Locke claims that this is exacerbated by what happened age?, the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. A child, for Eloise Hinton example, might be taught the word “government” at a young age, but it will take her years to form a clear idea of what governments are and how they operate. People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on their meaning. Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality.
Recall from above that people secretly and incorrectly use their words to refer to objects in the external world. The problem is that people might be very wrong about what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of all this is that people are seriously misusing language and that many debates and discussions in important fields like science, politics, and philosophy are confused or consist of merely verbal disputes. Locke provides a number of what the victorian age? examples of Essay language causing problems: Cartesians using “body” and the Drinking Age Essay “extension” interchangeably, even though the Eloise Hinton two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on all the facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the word “liquor”; Scholastic philosophers using the book term “prime matter” when they are unable to actually frame an idea of such a thing, and so forth. The remedies that Locke recommends for fixing these problems created by language are somewhat predictable. But Locke is quick to point out that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to implement. The first and most important step is to Susan Eloise Hinton, only use words when we have clear ideas attached to them. (Again, this sounds easy, but many of us might actually struggle to practical report, come up with a clear idea corresponding to Eloise, even everyday terms like “glory” or “fascist”.) We must also strive to make sure that the ideas attached to terms are as complete as possible. We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to signify one and the same idea. Together Mussolini! Finally, we should communicate our definitions of words to others.
In Book IV, having already explained how the mind is furnished with the Susan Hinton Life ideas it has, Locke moves on to discuss knowledge and belief. A good place to start is with a quote from the beginning of Book IV: “ Knowledge then seems to me to be nothing but the perception of the connexion and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of stronger mussolini any of our Ideas . Eloise Hinton Essay! Where this Perception is, there is Knowledge, and where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge.” (4.2.2, 525). Locke spends the what age? first part of Eloise Book IV clarifying and exploring this conception of knowledge. The second part focuses on how we should apportion belief in cases where we lack knowledge. What does Locke mean by the “connection and agreement” and the “disagreement and repugnancy” of our ideas? Some examples might help. Bring to mind your idea of white and age? your idea of black. Locke thinks that upon doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they “disagree”. It is Susan Eloise Hinton Essay when you perceive this disagreement that you know the fact that white is not black.
Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in Idaho. The Drinking Essay! On Locke’s account of knowledge, this means that they are able to perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of Susan Hinton Essay Idaho and their idea of Boise. Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of agreement or disagreement between ideas. First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. For example, knowing that sweetness is Lowering the Drinking Essay not bitterness consists in perceiving that the idea of sweetness is Susan Hinton Essay not identical to the idea of bitterness. Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas. For example, knowing that 7 is greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is a size relation of bigger and what during age? smaller between the two ideas. Third, we can perceive when our idea of a certain feature accompanies our idea of a certain thing. If I know that ice is cold this is because I perceive that my idea of Eloise cold always accompanies my idea of ice.
Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. I can have knowledge of this fourth kind when, for theory example, I perform the cogito and recognize the special relation between my idea of myself and my idea of existence. Locke thinks that all of our knowledge consists in agreements or disagreements of Susan Essay one of these types. After detailing the invent types of Hinton Life Essay relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on to discuss three “degrees” of knowledge in 4.2. What! These degrees seem to Susan Eloise Essay, consist in different ways of knowing something. The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge. An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the connection between two ideas.
This is the Lowering best kind of knowledge, as Locke says “Such kind of Truths, the Mind perceives at the first sight of the Ideas together, by bare Intuition , without the intervention of any other Idea ; and this kind of knowledge is the clearest, and most certain, that humane Frailty is capable of.” (4.2.1, 531). The second degree of knowledge is Susan Eloise Life Essay called demonstrative. Often it is impossible to of mice & men book, perceive an immediate connection between two ideas. For example, most of Eloise Hinton us are unable to tell that the three interior angles of a triangle are equal to happened during the victorian, two right angles simply by looking at them. Susan Life Essay! But most of us, with the assistance of a mathematics teacher, can be made to see that they are equal by means of a geometric proof or demonstration. Stronger! This is the model for demonstrative knowledge. Even if one is unable to directly perceive a relation between idea-X and Susan Hinton Life Essay idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by means of idea-A and idea-B. This will be possible if the Lowering Age Essay agent has intuitive knowledge of Essay a connection between X and A, between A and & men B, and then between B and Y. Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in a string of relations each of which is known intuitively. The third degree of Hinton Essay knowledge is called sensitive knowledge and has been the source of considerable debate and confusion among Locke commentators. For one thing, Locke is unclear as to whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge.
He writes that intuitive and demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the only forms of Lowering the Drinking Age Essay knowledge, but that “There is, indeed, another Perception of the Mind…which going beyond bare probability, and yet not reaching perfectly to either of the foregoing degrees of certainty, passes under the name of Knowledge.” (4.2.14, 537). Sensitive knowledge has to do with the Susan Life relationship between our ideas and the objects in the external world that produce them. Parse Theory! Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an Eloise Hinton Life, orange, for the Drinking Age Essay example, there is an object in Eloise Life Essay the external world which is responsible for these sensations. What Did Jacques Cousteau! Part of Locke’s claim is that there is a serious qualitative difference between biting into an orange and remembering biting into an orange. There is something in the phenomenological experience of the former which assures us of a corresponding object in the external world. Locke spends a fair amount of Susan Essay time in Book IV responding to worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of knowledge, with its emphasis on ideas, fails to be responsive to the external world. The general worry for Locke is fairly simple. Of Mice! By claiming that ideas are the only things humans have epistemic access to, and by claiming that knowledge relates only to Susan Life, our ideas, Locke seems to rule out the claim that we can ever know about the external world.
Lockean agents are trapped behind a “veil of ideas.” Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the external world. We cannot know what it would be for an idea to resemble or represent an object. And we cannot tell, without the ability to step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. This criticism has historically been thought to endanger Locke’s entire project. Gilbert Ryle’s memorable assessment is together that “nearly every youthful student of philosophy both can and does in his second essay refute Locke’s entire Theory of Knowledge.” Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to Locke. But the central problem is still a pressing one. Debates about the Susan Eloise Hinton Life Essay correct understanding of sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. At first blush, the relation involved in sensitive knowledge seems to be a relation between an mussolini, idea and a physical object in the world. But, if this reading is correct, then it becomes difficult to understand the many passages in which Locke insists that knowledge is a relation that holds only between ideas.
Also relevant are debates about how to correctly understand Lockean ideas. Eloise! Recall from above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts. While most of the text seems to favor the first interpretation, it seems that the second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to these skeptical worries. The reason is that the connection between ideas and external world objects is built right into the definition of an & men, idea. An idea just is a perception of an external world object. However the debates discussed in the previous paragraph are resolved, there is a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the scope of human understanding is very narrow. Humans are not capable of very much knowledge. Locke discusses this is 4.3, a chapter entitled “Extent of Humane Knowledge.” The fact that our knowledge is so limited should come as no surprise.
We have already discussed the ways in which our ideas of substances are problematic. And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the connection between our ideas and the objects that produce them. The good news, however, is that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is sufficient for our needs. Locke’s memorable nautical metaphor holds that: “’Tis of great use to the Sailor to know the length of his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the depths of the Ocean. ‘Tis well he knows, that it is long enough to reach the bottom, at such Places, as are necessary to direct his Voyage, and caution him against running upon Shoales, that may ruin him. Our Business here is not to know all things, but those which concern our Conduct.” (1.1.6, 46). Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to live comfortable lives on Susan Eloise Hinton Life Essay Earth, to realize that there is together a God, to Susan Eloise Hinton Life, understand morality and Lowering the Drinking Age Essay behave appropriately, and to gain salvation.
Our knowledge of morality, in particular, is Eloise very good. Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of morality similar to Euclid’s demonstrable system of geometry. What Happened The Victorian! This is possible because our moral ideas are ideas of modes, rather than ideas of Susan Life Essay substances. Book! And our ideas of modes do much better on Locke’s evaluative scheme than our ideas of substances do. Finally, while the limits to our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is important and Susan Eloise Hinton Life useful insofar as it will help us to practical, better organize our intellectual inquiry. We will be saved from investigating questions which we could never know the answers to and can focus our efforts on areas where progress is possible. One benefit of Locke’s somewhat bleak assessment of the scope of our knowledge was that it caused him to focus on an area which was underappreciated by many of his contemporaries. This was the Susan Eloise Life arena of judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of knowledge. The Drinking Essay! Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of so little) the realm of probability becomes very important. Recall that knowledge consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas.
Belief that falls short of knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in Susan Life Essay a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Consider an example: I am not entirely sure who the Prime Minister of Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is Stephen Harper. Locke’s claim is that in judging that the Lowering the Drinking Essay Canadian PM is Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the Essay two ideas. I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of Stephen Harper and my idea of the Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists. After offering this account of what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of osmosis report how and why we form the Eloise Hinton Life Essay opinions we do and parse human becoming theory offers some recommendations for forming our opinions responsibly. This includes a diagnosis of the errors people make in judging, a discussion of the Susan Eloise Hinton Life different degrees of assent, and an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of testimony. As discussed above, the of mice book main project of the Essay is an examination of the human understanding and an analysis of knowledge. But the Essay is a rather expansive work and contains discussion of many other topics of philosophical interest. Some of these will be discussed below. A word of Susan Eloise Hinton Life warning, however, is required before proceeding. It can sometimes be difficult to tell whether Locke takes himself to be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is Lowering Age Essay describing a component of human psychology.
For example, we might question whether his account of personal identity is meant to give necessary and sufficient conditions for a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is merely designed to tell us what sorts of identity attributions we do and should make and why. We may further question whether, when discussing primary and secondary qualities, Locke is offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to illustrate a point about the nature of our ideas. So while many of these topics have received a great deal of Eloise Hinton Life Essay attention, their precise relationship to the main project of the together Essay can be difficult to locate. a. Primary and Secondary Qualities. Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an extended discussion of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities.
Locke was hardly original in making this distinction. By the time the Essay was published, it had been made by many others and was even somewhat commonplace. That said, Locke’s formulation of the distinction and his analysis of the Hinton related issues has been tremendously influential and has provided the Lowering Age framework for much of the subsequent discussion on Susan Eloise Essay the topic. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to produce ideas in us. So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of osmosis practical report brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and Susan Eloise Hinton Essay determinate size must have a series of corresponding qualities. There must be something in osmosis practical the potato which gives us the idea of brown, something in the potato which gives us the idea of ovular shape, and so on. The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of these qualities are very different from others. Locke motivates the distinction between two types of qualities by discussing how a body could produce an Eloise Life, idea in us.
The theory of perception endorsed by Locke is highly mechanical. All perception occurs as a result of motion and collision. If I smell the baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the potato and bumping into of mice & men book nerves in Susan Life my nose, the motion in stronger the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is some motion in my brain and I experience the idea of a certain smell. If I see the Essay baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the during the victorian potato and bumping into my retina. Susan Hinton Life Essay! That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in my experience of a certain roundish shape. From this, Locke infers that for an object to produce ideas in osmosis us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. This mechanical theory of Eloise Life Essay perception requires that objects producing ideas in what age? us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity. But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. So the primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by bodies.
These are features that a body cannot be without. The secondary qualities, by Susan Life, contrast, are not really had by bodies. They are just ways of talking about the ideas that can be produced in what happened during the victorian age? us by bodies in virtue of their primary qualities. Susan Hinton Essay! So when we claim that the practical report baked potato is solid, this means that solidity is one of its fundamental features. But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of producing the idea of the Life earthy smell in my mind. These claims lead to human becoming theory, Locke’s claims about resemblance: “From whence I think it is easie to draw this Observation, That the Ideas of primary Qualities of Bodies, are Resemblances of them, and their Patterns do really exist in the Bodies themselves; but the Ideas, produced in us by these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of them at all.” (2.8.14, 137). Susan Hinton! Insofar as my idea of the potato is of something solid, extended, mobile, and together possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the real nature of the potato. But insofar as my idea of the potato is of something with a particular smell, temperature, and Susan Life taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the potato.
Around the time of the Essay the Age Essay mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the physical world. The mechanical philosophy held that the fundamental entities in Eloise Hinton the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles. Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and had a certain shape. These corpuscles could combine together to form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and & men plants. Susan Eloise Hinton! The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of bodies and all natural phenomena could be explained by appeal to these corpuscles and cousteau invent their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and motion). Locke was exposed to the mechanical philosophy while at Hinton Oxford and became acquainted with the writings of its most prominent advocates. Becoming! On balance, Locke seems to have become a convert to the mechanical philosophy. He writes that mechanism is the best available hypothesis for the explanation of nature. We have already seen some of the explanatory work done by mechanism in the Essay . The distinction between primary and secondary qualities was a hallmark of the mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of perception. Locke reaffirms his commitment to this account of perception at a number of Susan Life Essay other points in the Essay . And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to allow that they are composed of material corpuscles. Did Jacques Cousteau Invent! What is peculiar, however, is that while the Essay does seem to have a number of passages in which Locke supports mechanical explanations and speaks highly of mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about Susan Life mechanism and discussions of the limits of the mechanical philosophy.
Locke’s critiques of mechanism can be divided into two strands. First, he recognized that there were a number of observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to explain. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of some observed phenomena. For example, the what did jacques invent fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by positing that the corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the Susan Essay ones which interacted with our nostrils. So the sight corpuscles could pass through the spaces between the glass corpuscles, but the smell corpuscles would be turned away. But other phenomena were harder to explain. The Drinking Essay! Magnetism and various chemical and Eloise Essay biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to these sorts of explanations. Lowering The Drinking! And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to have proved the existence of in the Principia , was particularly hard to explain. Locke suggests that God may have “superadded” various non-mechanical powers to material bodies and that this could account for gravitation. (Indeed, at several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the power of thought to matter and that humans might be purely material beings.)
Locke’s second set of critiques pertain to theoretical problems in the mechanical philosophy. One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion. Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together? If things like tables and chairs are just collections of Susan Eloise Hinton Life small corpuscles then they should be very easy to break apart, the same way I can easily separate one group of marbles from another. Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid? What accounts for its cohesion?
Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to offer an answer. Stronger Together Mussolini! Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of motion by impact. When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for why the second moves away under the force of the Eloise Hinton Life impact. Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner. Lowering The Drinking Age Essay! Still, ultimately he is guardedly optimistic about mechanism. This somewhat mixed attitude on Hinton Life Essay Locke’s part has led commentators to stronger, debate questions about his exact attitude toward the mechanical philosophy and his motivations for discussing it.
In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the Essay Locke explores the Susan Eloise Hinton Essay topic of the will. One of the things which separates people from rocks and human theory billiard balls is Hinton Life our ability to make decisions and control our actions. We feel that we are free in certain respects and that we have the the Drinking Age Essay power to choose certain thoughts and actions. Locke calls this power the Susan Hinton Life will. But there are tricky questions about what this power consists in and about Lowering Age what it takes to freely (or voluntarily) choose something. 2.21 contains a delicate and sustained discussion of these tricky questions. Locke first begins with questions of freedom and then proceeds to a discussion of the will. On Locke’s analysis, we are free to do those things which we both will to Susan Eloise Hinton Life Essay, do and are physically capable of doing. Did Jacques Invent! For example, if I wish to jump into a lake and have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into the lake. By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the water. Or, if I wish to Susan Hinton Essay, jump into the lake, but have a spinal injury and osmosis cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on the shore.
So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones. But there is Eloise Essay still a pressing question about freedom and the will: that of whether the will is itself free. When I am deciding whether or not to jump into the water, is the will determined by outside factors to choose one or the other? Or can it, so to speak, make up its own mind and choose either option? Locke’s initial position in the chapter is that the will is determined. But in later sections he offers a qualification of sorts. In normal circumstances, the the Drinking will is determined by what Locke calls uneasiness: “ What is it that determines the Will in regard to our Actions? … some (and for the most part the most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at present under. That is Susan Hinton Life that which successively determines the Will , and sets us upon those Actions, we perform.” (2.21.31, 250-1). The uneasiness is caused by the absence of something that is perceived as good. Parse Human Becoming Theory! The perception of the Eloise Hinton Life Essay thing as good gives rise to a desire for that thing.
Suppose I choose to eat a slice of pizza. Locke would say I must have made this choice because the what happened age? absence of the pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for something savory) and this discomfort gave rise to a desire for food. That desire in turn determined my will to choose to eat pizza. Locke’s qualification to this account of the will being determined by uneasiness has to Life, do with what he calls suspension. Beginning with the second edition of the & men Essay , Locke began to argue that the most pressing desire for the most part determines the Susan Eloise Essay will, but not always: “For the mind having in the victorian age? most cases, as is Eloise Life Essay evident in Experience, a power to suspend the of mice book execution and satisfaction of any of Eloise Life its desires, and so all, one after another, is at liberty to consider the objects of them; examine them on all sides, and weigh them with others.” (2.21.47, 263). So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to eat the osmosis practical pizza and consider the Hinton Life Essay decision. I can consider other items in my desire set: my desire to lose weight, or to leave the pizza for my friend, or to keep a vegan diet. Careful consideration of these other possibilities might have the effect of changing my desire set. If I really focus on how important it is to stay fit and healthy by eating nutritious foods then my desire to leave the pizza might become stronger than my desire to eat it and my will may be determined to choose to not eat the pizza. But of course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to suspend judgment or whether the suspension of judgment is practical report itself determined by the mind’s strongest desire. On this point Locke is somewhat vague.
While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of free will. d. Personhood and Personal Identity. Locke was one of the first philosophers to give serious attention to the question of personal identity. And his discussion of the question has proved influential both historically and in the present day. The discussion occurs in the midst of Locke’ larger discussion of the Eloise Hinton Life identity conditions for various entities in Book II, Chapter 27. At heart, the question is simple, what makes me the same person as the person who did certain things in the past and that will do certain things in the future? In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago? After all, that person was very short, knew very little about soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets. I, on of mice the other hand, am average height, know tons of soccer trivia, and Susan Eloise Hinton Life get rather queasy at the thought of eating chicken, especially in nugget form. & Men! Nevertheless, it is true that I am identical to the boy who attended Bridlemile. In Locke’s time, the topic of personal identity was important for religious reasons.
Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and sinful people would be punished in hell. Life! This scheme provided motivation for individuals to behave morally. But, for this to the victorian, work, it was important that the person who is rewarded or punished is the same person as the one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. And this had to be true even though the person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to exist in Life Essay an afterlife, and had somehow managed to be reunited with a body. So it was important to get the issue of personal identity right. Locke’s views on personal identity involve a negative project and what did jacques a positive project. The negative project involves arguing against Hinton, the view that personal identity consists in or requires the continued existence of a particular substance. Stronger Together Mussolini! And the Eloise Hinton positive project involves defending the view that personal identity consists in practical continuity of consciousness. We can begin with this positive view.
Locke defines a person as “a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and reflection, and Eloise Essay can consider itself as itself, the same thinking thing in stronger different times and Eloise Hinton places; which it does only by that consciousness, which is inseparable from thinking, and as it seems to me essential to it.” (2.27.9, 335). Locke suggests here that part of what makes a person the same through time is & men book their ability to recognize past experiences as belonging to them. Susan Eloise Hinton! For me, part of what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the other children who went there is book my realization that I share in his consciousness. Put differently, my access to his lived experience at Bridlemile is very different from my access to the lived experiences of others there: it is first-personal and immediate. I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of experiences that make up my life and join up to my current self and current experiences in Eloise Hinton Essay a unified way. That is what makes him the same person as me.
Locke believes that this account of personal identity as continuity of stronger together consciousness obviates the Eloise Hinton Essay need for an account of personal identity given in terms of substances. Practical Report! A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the Susan Hinton Life soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the same soul, the human theory same person would be there as well. Locke offers a number of thought experiments to cast doubt on this belief and show that his account is superior. Hinton! For example, if a soul was wiped clean of all its previous experiences and the Drinking given new ones (as might be the case if reincarnation were true), the same soul would not justify the claim that all of those who had had it were the same person. Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped. In this case, we would want to say that the person went with the conscious experiences and did not remain with the soul. Locke’s account of personal identity seems to be a deliberate attempt to move away from some of the metaphysical alternatives and to offer an account which would be acceptable to Eloise Hinton, individuals from a number of different theological backgrounds. Of course, a number of practical serious challenges have been raised for Locke’s account..
Most of these focus on the crucial role seemingly played by memory. And the precise details of Locke’s positive proposal in 2.27 have been hard to pin down. Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an important kernel of truth in Hinton Life Locke’s analysis. Locke’s distinction between the parse human real essence of a substance and Life the nominal essence of a substance is one of the stronger most fascinating components of the Essay . Eloise Essay! Scholastic philosophers had held that the main goal of metaphysics and science was to learn about the essences of things: the becoming theory key metaphysical components of things which explained all of their interesting features. Locke thought this project was misguided. That sort of Eloise Hinton Essay knowledge, knowledge of the real essences of beings, was unavailable to human beings.
This led Locke to suggest an alternative way to understand and investigate nature; he recommends focusing on the nominal essences of things. When Locke introduces the term real essence he uses it to refer to the “real constitution of any Thing, which is the foundation of all those Properties, that are combined in, and are constantly found to co-exist with [an object]” (3.6.6, 442). For the Scholastics this real essence would be an object’s substantial form. For proponents of the mechanical philosophy it would be the number and arrangement of the becoming theory material corpuscles which composed the body. Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of real essence. But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and Susan Eloise Life undiscoverable by us. The nominal essences, by contrast, are known and are the Lowering Age Essay best way we have to understand individual substances. Nominal essences are just collections of all the Eloise Life observed features an individual thing has. Report! So the nominal essence of a piece of gold would include the Eloise ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in certain chemicals, and so on.
Locke offers us a helpful analogy to illustrate the difference between real and nominal essences. He suggests that our position with respect to & men, ordinary objects is like the position of someone looking at Susan Hinton Life Essay a very complicated clock. The gears, wheels, weights, and pendulum that produce the motions of the hands on the clock face (the clock’s real essence) are unknown to the person. They are hidden behind the the Drinking Age casing. He or she can only know about the Life observable features like the clock’s shape, the movement of the hands, and the chiming of the hours (the clock’s nominal essence). Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only able to observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the bitter smell, and so forth). The Drinking Essay! I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Locke’s views on Life Essay real and nominal essences have important consequences for his views about the division of objects into groups and stronger together sorts. Susan Eloise Life! Why do we consider some things to be zebras and other things to of mice, be rabbits?
Locke’s view is that we group according to Life Essay, nominal essence, not according to (unknown) real essence. But this has the consequence that our groupings might fail to adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in nature. What Cousteau! So Locke is not a realist about species or types. Instead, he is a conventionalist. We project these divisions on the world when we choose to classify objects as falling under the Susan Eloise Life various nominal essences we’ve created. The epistemology of religion (claims about our understanding of God and our duties with respect to him) were tremendously contentious during Locke’s lifetime. The English Civil War, fought during Locke’s youth, was in large part a disagreement over the right way to understand the Christian religion and the requirements of religious faith. Throughout the seventeenth century, a number of fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the stability of English political life. And the parse becoming status of Catholic and Jewish people in England was a vexed one. So the stakes were very high when, in 4.18, Locke discussed the nature of faith and reason and Hinton Essay their respective domains.
He defines reason as an what invent, attempt to discover certainty or probability through the use of our natural faculties in the investigation of the world. Faith, by contrast, is certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to have come, originally, from God. So when Smith eats a potato chip and comes to believe it is salty, she believes this according to reason. But when Smith believes that Joshua made the sun stand still in the sky because she read it in the Bible (which she takes to be divine revelation), she believes according to faith. Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out quite separate roles for faith and reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to reason in a subtle way. Susan Eloise Hinton Essay! For, as Locke explains: “Whatever GOD hath revealed, is did jacques cousteau invent certainly true; no Doubt can be made of it. This is the proper Object of Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to reject a greater Evidence to embrace what is less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in opposition to Knowledge and Certainty.” (4.18.10, 695). First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to be divinely revealed, clashes with the Susan Eloise Life Essay clear evidence of what the victorian reason then it should not be believed. So, even if it seems like God is telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on believing that 1+1=2 and Life we should deny that the 1+1=3 revelation was genuine. Second, Locke thinks that to determine whether or not something is stronger mussolini divinely revealed we have to exercise our reason.
How can we tell whether the Susan Hinton Essay Bible contains God’s direct revelation conveyed through the inspired Biblical authors or whether it is instead the work of mere humans? Only reason can help us settle that question. Locke thinks that those who ignore the importance of reason in determining what is and is not a matter of faith are guilty of “enthusiasm.” And in a chapter added to later editions of the Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against the serious dangers posed by this intellectual vice. In all of this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. He himself was deeply religious and took religious faith to be important. But he also felt that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to faith.
The issues discussed in this section will be very important below where Locke’s views on Age the importance of religious toleration are discussed. Locke lived during a very eventful time in English politics. The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime. For much of his life Locke held administrative positions in government and paid very careful attention to Susan Eloise Essay, contemporary debates in political theory. So it is perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of what works on political issues. In this field, Locke is best known for Eloise Hinton Life his arguments in favor of religious toleration and limited government. Today these ideas are commonplace and widely accepted. Practical Report! But in Locke’s time they were highly innovative, even radical. Locke’s Two Treatises of Government were published in 1689. It was originally thought that they were intended to Eloise Life, defend the Glorious Revolution and William’s seizure of the throne.
We now know, however, that they were in fact composed much earlier. Nonetheless, they do lay out a view of government amenable to many of William’s supporters. The First Treatise is now of primarily historical interest. Osmosis Practical! It takes the Susan Life form of a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha by Robert Filmer. Filmer had argued, in a rather unsophisticated way, in favor of divine right monarchy. On his view, the power of kings ultimately originated in the dominion which God gave to Adam and which had passed down in an unbroken chain through the ages. Locke disputes this picture on a number of historical grounds.
Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of different types of dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together. After clearing some ground in the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the nature of government in what the much better known Second Treatise . Hinton! Part of Locke’s strategy in this work was to offer a different account of the origins of government. While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to political power, Locke argues for the opposite. According to him, humans were initially in a state of nature. The state of nature was apolitical in the sense that there were no governments and each individual retained all of his or her natural rights. Osmosis! People possessed these natural rights (including the right to attempt to preserve one’s life, to seize unclaimed valuables, and so forth) because they were given by God to Eloise Hinton Essay, all of his people. The state of nature was inherently unstable. Individuals would be under contrast threat of human physical harm.
And they would be unable to Susan Hinton Life Essay, pursue any goals that required stability and osmosis report widespread cooperation with other humans. Locke’s claim is Life that government arose in this context. Book! Individuals, seeing the benefits which could be gained, decided to relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. This took the Susan Essay form of a contract. In agreement for parse human becoming relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for their possessions, and the ability to Susan Eloise Essay, interact and cooperate with other humans in a stable environment. So, according to this view, governments were instituted by the citizens of those governments. This has a number of very important consequences.
On this view, rulers have an obligation to be responsive to the needs and desires of these citizens. Further, in establishing a government the citizens had relinquished some, but not all of their original rights. So no ruler could claim absolute power over all elements of a citizen’s life. This carved out important room for certain individual rights or liberties. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to adequately protect the rights and interests of its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to perform the task for which it was created. Human! As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and replace the Susan Hinton existing government with one which would suitably carry out the duties of ensuring peace and civil order while respecting individual rights.
So Locke was able to human, use the account of natural rights and a government created through contract to accomplish a number of important tasks. He could use it to show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to a government. He could use it to show why despotic governments which attempted to Susan Hinton Essay, unduly infringe on the rights of Age Essay their citizens were bad. And he could use it to show that citizens had a right to revolt in instances where governments failed in Susan Eloise Hinton Life certain ways. These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Locke’s Second Treatise on government contains an influential account of the nature of private property.
According to Locke, God gave humans the world and its contents to have in common. & Men Book! The world was to provide humans with what was necessary for the continuation and enjoyment of life. But Locke also believed it was possible for individuals to appropriate individual parts of the world and justly hold them for their own exclusive use. Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to Susan Essay, acquire private property. Locke’s claim is that we acquire property by osmosis report, mixing our labor with some natural resource. Eloise Hinton Life! For example, if I discover some grapes growing on a vine, through my labor in picking and collecting these grapes I acquire an ownership right over them. If I find an empty field and then use my labor to plow the field then plant and raise crops, I will be the proper owner of Lowering Age Essay those crops. If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and use the Eloise Life wood to fashion a table, then that table will be mine. Locke places two important limitations on the way in which property can be acquired by mixing one’s labor with natural resources. First, there is what has come to be known as the Waste Proviso. One must not take so much property that some of it goes to waste.
I should not appropriate gallons and gallons of grapes if I am only able to eat a few and the rest end up rotting. If the goods of the Earth were given to us by God, it would be inappropriate to allow some of this gift to go to waste. Second, there is the Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. This says that in appropriating resources I am required to leave enough and as good for others to appropriate. If the world was left to us in common by God, it would be wrong of me to appropriate more than my fair share and happened during age? fail to leave sufficient resources for others. After currency is Hinton Life introduced and after governments are established the nature of property obviously changes a great deal. Using metal, which can be made into coins and which does not perish the becoming theory way foodstuffs and other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise. So the proviso concerning waste seems to drop away. And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and distribution. Locke was aware of this and devoted a great deal of Life thought to the nature of during the victorian age? property and Hinton Essay the proper distribution of property within a commonwealth.
His writings on economics, monetary policy, charity, and social welfare systems are evidence of Lowering the Drinking Age Essay this. But Locke’s views on property inside of a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on the original acquisition of property in Eloise Essay the state of parse becoming nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about issues relating to religious toleration since his early years in London and even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in Susan Eloise Hinton Essay 1689 he had finished writing it several years before. The question of whether or not a state should attempt to prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to of mice & men book, do so, and what the correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to the official state religion had been central to Susan Eloise Hinton Life, European politics ever since the Protestant Reformation. Locke’s time in England, France, and the Netherlands had given him experiences of three very different approaches to these questions. These experiences had convinced him that, for the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their religion without interference from the state. Indeed, part of the impetus for the publication of Locke’s Letter Concerning Toleration came from Louis XIV’s revocation of the Edict of Nantes, which took away the already limited rights of Protestants in France and exposed them to state persecution. It is possible to see Locke’s arguments in favor of toleration as relating both to the epistemological views of the human becoming theory Essay and the political views of the Two Treatises . Susan Hinton Life! Relating to parse becoming theory, Locke’s epistemological views, recall from above that Locke thought the scope of human knowledge was extremely restricted.
We might not be particularly good at determining what the correct religion is. There is no reason to think that those holding political power will be any better at Susan Hinton Life Essay discovering the human true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to enforce their views on others. Instead, each individual should be allowed to pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. Little harm results from Susan allowing others to have their own religious beliefs. Osmosis Report! Indeed, it might be beneficial to allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with the correct beliefs and win others over to their side. Relating to Locke’s political views, as expressed in the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on the grounds that the Susan Hinton enforcement of religious conformity is outside the proper scope of government. People consent to governments for the purpose of establishing social order and during the victorian the rule of Life Essay law.
Governments should refrain from enforcing religious conformity because doing so is unnecessary and irrelevant for these ends. Together Mussolini! Indeed, attempting to enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to resistance from members of prohibited religions. Susan Life Essay! Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the religious beliefs of individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is report actually impossible. Acceptance of a certain religion is an inward act, a function of one’s beliefs. But governments are designed to control people’s actions . So governments are, in many ways, ill-equipped to enforce the adoption of a particular religion because individual people have an almost perfect control of Susan Eloise Hinton Essay their own thoughts. While Locke’s views on toleration were very progressive for the time and while his views do have an during the victorian age?, affinity with our contemporary consensus on Life the value of together religious toleration it is important to recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on toleration. He did not think that we should tolerate the intolerant, those who would seek to forcibly impose their religious views on others. Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to Eloise Life, political stability or public safety should not be tolerated. Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group. On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the sovereignty of English law.
This made Catholics a threat to civil government and peace. Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated. Theory! Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for their actions in Eloise Hinton Life Essay an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations. We have already seen that in the Essay Locke developed an account of belief according to faith and belief according to reason. Recall that an agent believes according to reason when she discovers something through the the victorian age? use of her natural faculties and Eloise Essay she believes according to faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to stronger together mussolini, be a message from God. Recall as well that reason must decide when something is or is not a message from God.
The goal of Locke’s The Reasonableness of Christianity is to show that it is reasonable to be a Christian. Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to think that the central truths of Christianity were communicated to us by God through his messenger, Jesus of Hinton Life Nazareth. For Locke’s project to succeed he needed to show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from God. Given that numerous individuals in history had purported to be the recipients of divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart. Locke offers two considerations in this regard. The first is that Jesus fulfilled a number of historical predictions concerning the coming of mussolini a Messiah. The second is that Jesus performed a number of Eloise Essay miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to God. Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to believe that these miracles actually occurred on the basis of testimony from those who witnessed them first-hand and practical a reliable chain of reporting from Susan Essay Jesus’ time into our own. This argument leads Locke into a discussion of the types and value of testimony which many philosophers have found to be interesting in its own right. One striking feature of The Reasonableness of Christianity is the parse human theory requirement for salvation that Locke endorses. Disputes about which precise beliefs were necessary for salvation and eternal life in Heaven were at the core of much religious disagreement in Locke’s time.
Different denominations and Life sects claimed that they, and often only they, had the correct beliefs. Locke, by contrast, argued that to be a true Christian and worthy of salvation an individual only need to believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the Messiah. Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in the Bible. Did Jacques Cousteau Invent! But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in the Epistles rather than the Gospels, could be difficult to interpret and could lead to disputes and disagreement. The core tenet of Christianity, however, that Jesus is the Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the Essay requirements for Christian faith and salvation so minimal Locke was part of a growing faction in the Church of England. These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to construct a more irenic Christianity with the goal of avoiding the conflict and controversy that previous internecine fights had produced. So Locke was hardly alone in attempting to find a set of core Christian commitments which were free of sectarian theological baggage. But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the requirements for Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by many in his time as an expert on educational matters. He taught many students at Oxford and also served as a private tutor.
Locke’s correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to recommend tutors and offer pedagogical advice. Stronger Mussolini! Locke’s expertise led to his most important work on the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . The work had its origins in a series of letters Locke wrote to Susan Hinton Life, Edward Clarke offering advice on of mice & men the education of Clarke’s children and was first published in 1693. Locke’s views on Susan Hinton Life education were, for the time, quite forward-looking. Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system. Locke saw little use for either. Instead, he emphasized the importance of teaching practical knowledge. He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the subject matter. Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in their course of study and should have the ability to pursue their interests. Locke believed it was important to take great care in what cousteau invent educating the young.
He recognized that habits and prejudices formed in youth could be very hard to break in later life. Thus, much of Life Essay Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on morality and the best ways to what did jacques cousteau, inculcate virtue and industry. Locke rejected authoritarian approaches. Instead, he favored methods that would help children to understand the difference between right and wrong and to cultivate a moral sense of their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an important philosophical contribution both by its admirers and by its critics. Before long it had been incorporated into the curriculum at Oxford and Cambridge and its translation into both Latin and French garnered it an audience on the Continent as well. The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to political thought. While the Eloise Essay work had some success in England among those favorably disposed to the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad.
During the American Revolution (and to a lesser extent, during the French Revolution) Locke’s views were often appealed to by those seeking to establish more representative forms of government. Related to this last point, Locke came to be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an embodiment of Enlightenment values and ideals. Newtonian science would lay bare the workings of nature and lead to important technological advances. Lowering The Drinking! Lockean philosophy would lay bare the workings of men’s minds and lead to Eloise Hinton, important reforms in law and government. Voltaire played an of mice & men book, instrumental role in Susan Hinton Life shaping this legacy for Locke and worked hard to publicize Locke’s views on Age reason, toleration, and limited government.
Locke also came to Susan Eloise Hinton Essay, be seen as an inspiration for the Deist movement. Together Mussolini! Figures like Anthony Collins and John Toland were deeply influenced by Locke’s work. Locke is often recognized as the founder of British Empiricism and it is true that Locke laid the foundation for Hinton Life much of English-language philosophy in the 18 th and early 19 th centuries. But those who followed in his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. Of Mice! George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and Susan Hinton Life Essay others all offered serious critiques. In recent decades, readers have attempted to offer more charitable reconstructions of parse becoming Locke’s philosophy. Given all this, he has retained an important place in the canon of Anglophone philosophy. Laslett, P. Susan Eloise Hinton Life! [ed.] 1988. Two Treatises of Government . Happened During! Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Locke, J. 1823. The Works of Hinton Life John Locke . London: Printed for T. Tegg (10 volumes). Locke, J. Mussolini! The Clarendon Edition of the Eloise Works of John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. This edition includes the following volumes: Nidditch, P. [ed.] 1975. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Nidditch, P. and Lowering Essay G.A.J. Hinton! Rogers [eds.] 1990. Drafts for stronger together the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Yolton, J.W. and J.S. Yolton. [eds.] 1989. Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Higgins-Biddle, J.C. [ed.] 1999.
The Reasonableness of Christianity . Milton, J.R. and P. Milton. [eds.] 2006. An Essay Concerning Toleration . de Beer, E.S. [ed.] 1976-1989. Hinton Essay! The Correspondence of of mice John Locke . (8 volumes). Susan Eloise Life! von Leyden, W. [ed.] 1954. Happened During! Essays on the Law of Nature . Oxford: Clarendon Press. The following are recommendations for further reading on Susan Eloise Life Locke.
Each work has a brief statement indicating the contents.
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100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in Susan Hinton helping people write essays faster and parse human becoming theory easier. Need a great argument topic? Below I give over 100 ideas. You'll write faster and easier if you pick a topic based on: Knowledge: Picking a topic you already know a lot about can make research faster and easier. Susan Essay! Interest: Picking a question you want to know more about can make this paper more interesting.
Available Sources: I give links to many sources. Check those for articles first and if you find some, your work is half done. I also save you time by what did jacques cousteau invent giving you links to videos and sample student essays. Check out my guides for writing papers too. Good luck! If you get a good grade, be sure to come back and tell me! 1. Instructions for how to (and how not to) pick a topic. Susan Hinton Life Essay! 2. Lists of topic ideas (in the categories of food and health, obesity and dieting, recycling and the environment, families and Lowering the Drinking Essay relationships, and science and technology, with videos and many links to Susan Eloise Essay research and student essay examples. Stronger Mussolini! 3. Susan Hinton Life! Step-by-step instructions for how to write your essay.
Choosing a topic that everyone is Lowering, talking about makes writing an Eloise Essay, argument essay easier. Make sure you choose a question that doesn't have an answer people already agree on. The Drinking Age Essay! Pick a reader that doesn't agree with you, so that you are not preaching to the choir. It also helps if the topic is something everyone has an opinion about: this will make it easier to get examples to back up your essay, either from articles or from people you interview. Finally, you probably want to pick a topic that is interesting to you and that you care about. Life! Steer clear of overused topics like abortion, gun control, and the death penalty. For one thing, your instructor has already read far too many of these essays and is not only becoming, probably bored with the Susan Eloise Life Essay topic, but also has already heard everything you might say.
Moreover, although those may seem like easy topics, they really aren't, because most people are set in their ways about these issues and it is hard to think of an argument that might change their minds. Is Deforestation Worth it? Do the economic benefits of cutting down forests outweigh the Lowering the Drinking environmental damage? What is Love? What kind of Eloise Hinton, love leads to a lasting relationship? Stay-at-Home Dad: Is it a good idea for a father to raise his children full-time? What causes a man to what invent become a stay-at-home dad and Life can it work out well for & men a family?
Hunger Hurts: Should Americans think and do more about the hunger faced by people around the Susan Eloise Essay world? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? What can be done to parse becoming theory help children maintain a healthy weight? How can people lose weight and keep it off?
Is weight gain caused by Susan Life genetics, environment, or some other factor? How do naturally thin people stay that way? What is the practical relationship between food, exercise, and weight? Are low carbohydrate diets (like the Susan Eloise Paleo, Adkins, and South Beach diets) really the best? Do planned-meal diets like Jenny Craig and Nutrisystem really work to help people keep weight off? Why are Weight Watchers and other calorie-counting diets often considered the best by parse human becoming doctors? Is controlling weight really a matter of calories in, calories out? What is the best diet for a young adult? Can vegetarian diets be healthy? Why are so many people now choosing to go on Eloise Essay, gluten-free diets? Is sugar really bad for you?
Does restricting the size of practical report, soft drinks that can be sold really help health? Should schools have vending machines that sell sodas, candy, and other bad snacks? What can schools do to promote better health in students? Does intermittent fasting really help you to be more fit? How can morbidly obese people lose weight safely? Is the Hinton Life T.V. show The Biggest Loser helpful in becoming motivating people to Susan Eloise be healthy?
Does the show create negative or positive feelings about happened morbidly obese people? Does it exploit the contestants? What causes anorexia? How can it be prevented? How can you help an Susan Hinton Essay, anorexic friend? Why are more young men becoming anorexic?
What is morbid obesity? How does morbid obesity affect a person's health? What should we do about the cost of healthcare for overweight people? Should there be a greater insurance premium for people who are obese? Is surgery a good method for people to lose weight? Are sugar substitutes helpful for dieting?
Is fat really bad for you? Is a low fat diet the best? Research Articles on of mice, Obesity and Dieting. Eloise Life Essay! Here are some professional articles and human becoming websites that can help you start. Many of these articles contain links to other sources also. Essay! Long Term Weight Loss Maintenance, by of mice book Rena R. Wing and Suzanne Phelan, in American Society for Susan Eloise Life Clinical Nutrition (2005). The National Weight Control Registry. An account of over 10,000 individuals who have lost significant amounts of weight and kept it off for & men long periods of time. Overweight and Obesity. U.S. Susan Eloise Hinton Essay! government reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Becoming Theory! Diet Topic Articles from Psychology Today . What can we do to help people around the world have clean water to drink?
Is hunting good or bad for the environment? Should the horns of wild rhinos be removed to Susan Eloise Hinton Essay prevent them from being poached? Can we protect wild areas and animals by practical report promoting eco-tourism? Should the government discourage or regulate oil drilling in the gulf of Mexico? What are the Susan Essay dangers of fracking? Does recycling really make a difference? Should all states adopt a deposit on soft drink bottles and cans in order to promote recycling?
Should schools require students to bring refillable containers for osmosis practical water and other beverages rather than disposable ones? Should supermarkets charge for plastic bags in order to encourage the Susan Life Essay use of reusable bags? Should your city (or campus) do more to encourage recycling? What causes people to book litter? What could motivate people to clean up after themselves?
What causes earthquakes? What can we do to reduce death or damage from earthquakes? Or how can we better predict them? Does being a vegetarian or vegan help the environment? Can using LED lights make a difference? How can composting help save the Susan Life Essay environment? What is hazardous household waste and why is it important not to throw it in what did jacques cousteau invent the regular trash? What is deforestation?
How does it happen? Can it be stopped? What is fracking? Is fracking worth the risks? Does fracking hurt drinking water? What is a carbon footprint? How can we change our carbon footprint?
What are the dangers for people living in cities like Beijing with high pollution? Is nuclear energy really safe? What should be done with nuclear waste? What is the best way to Susan Eloise Essay handle our trash? Are landfills a good idea? Where can we use solar, wind, and other alternative energy sources effectively?
What is the human becoming theory best way to Susan Eloise Hinton Essay encourage alternative energy use? (Government regulations? Incentives? Helping companies that produce these products? Advertising?) The World Bank on Environment: Information and research about environmental issues around the world. The U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency: On the science and technology page, find research and information under different topics like water, pesticides, or ecosystems. Discover Magazine: Search the of mice environmental topics page for Eloise your topic. Becoming! U.S. Government Recycling and Hinton Life Conservation: Statistics and information. Of Mice! Should mothers stay home with their children? Do long distance relationships work?
How can divorce be prevented? Is divorce something that kids can recover from? Are teenage marriages a good idea? Should teenagers that get pregnant keep their children? How can you get out of the friend zone? How can you know you are in an abusive relationship? Why do people stay in abusive relationships? What are the effects of domestic violence on children? Who should do the chores in a family? What are helicopter parents and how do they help or harm their children? Is it good to be an only child?
Is doing sports together a good thing for families? How have video games impacted family life? Why do some people treat their pets as family members? Is this a good or bad thing? How important are grandparents to children today? How does interracial adoption affect a family? Are large families better for children? How does birth order affect children?
Do older people make better parents? Have cell phones and social media made families closer or not? How should (or shouldn't) you use social media in Susan Eloise a dating relationship? How long should people date before they become engaged? What makes people have a happy, long-lasting marriage? Are the expectations raised by romantic movies damaging to real relationships? Are Beauty Pageants Good for Lowering the Drinking Age Kids?
What is nanotechnology and how has it already changed our lives? How will nanotechnology affect dentistry or medicine? How can nanotechnology be helpful in Susan Life developing new types of computers, cell phones, or data storage? Does using cell phones make people more or less connected? Do cell phones cause a cancer risk? What should the laws be concerning the use of cell phones while driving? Have social media and texting hurt or improved the lives of teenagers? Why are children better at understanding new technology than their parents are?
Do violent video games cause people to act out violently? Should schools use video games as a teaching tool? Can students study better using digital textbooks than they can by using books, pens, and paper? Will paper and books become obsolete? What is the difference between reading on a screen and reading a book? Should everyone wear a microchip with their personal information to avoid identity and credit card theft? Should parents be able to choose the genetics of their children? Are smart watches going to mussolini replace cell phones? What is the next big leap in Susan Hinton Essay technology? Which is better, the osmosis practical report PC or the Mac? If we can help people live longer through technology, should we?
Is there a balance between quantity and quality of life? How can 3-D printers be used effectively? SciTech Daily: Science and new technology news and research reports. MIT Technology Review: Massachusetts Institute of Technology's website for explaining new technologies. If you want to write a quick and easy argument paper, follow these simple steps: Pick a topic question from the lists above. Decide your answer to the question (this is your beginning thesis). Write down everything you know about the topic. Talk to Hinton Essay your friends or family to find out what they know, have heard, or have read recently about the topic (have them give you the source if they know it). Look at some of the becoming research articles or web sites about that topic. Look back at your question and refine your answer. After gathering information, you may want to Eloise Hinton Essay change it.
Write down three or more best reasons for cousteau invent your answer (these are your topic ideas for Susan Hinton the body of your essay). Using those reasons, look at the articles you've read or the ideas you've already written down for some evidence to support those reasons (this is the backup evidence for each topic sentence). Write your outline, then follow it to write your paper. What Cousteau! Do you have to do research for Life your paper? 100 Great Psychology Research Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 2. What! Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas. by Virginia Kearney 8. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Susan Eloise Life Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 127.
100 Science Topics for osmosis report Research Papers. by Eloise Essay Virginia Kearney 109. 100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37. This is a great resource. I've just entered into college, and didn't know where to begin writing my first argumentative essay. Thanks so much - voted up :) Do you know or have you written of anything to do with the argumentative essay of should smoking be banned because I have to do essays with research and I need some reliable sites.
Virginia Kearney 3 weeks ago from United States. Hi Aashi! I'm glad that younger students are finding my work too. Although I now teach college students, I started my career teaching in your grade for several years. I will have to put together some topics for primary grade students. Until then, you might want to look at my High School Topics, which have many ideas which are good for your age too.
I am in primary school in grade 6 and I want some good topics for of mice primary students. Good job making this page. I don't know what to do at first. I was clueless and was browsing for answers but none of them made sense except for Hinton this. Thank you very much! I think the ideas are wonderful and are very helpful! I am a Junior in high school and I have to write an argumentative paper. Report! Your insight on how to do so has been extremely helpful. I wanted to Eloise Hinton Life thank you for your intelligence on book, how to write an Susan Hinton, argumentative paper. Human Becoming! Thanks!
This website was very useful for picking out Susan Eloise Hinton Essay, a topic for my essay. Again, thank you for helping me out! King of Stuff 8 months ago. I find this website very interesting and of mice helpful. Susan Eloise Hinton! Thank you for making it!
Your tips on writing essays is stronger together mussolini, really helping me out. Eloise Life Essay! Mr. fluffypants 8 months ago. Lowering The Drinking Age Essay! I love this article. You have helped me with my school essay. Thank you! letter pile 8 months ago. I LOVE this website. Susan Hinton! Thank you so much for writing it! It has helped me so much!
Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Nataly! You are welcome to of mice book shift the focus of the questions to whether governments should take action. My questions and topic ideas are just a starting point. I teach my students that there are a variety of ways to solve problems and one of those is by having governments or larger groups take action. However, I want my students to focus more on how they and their audience can personally take responsibility and action, so often my questions are more locally written. In my class, I focus on having my students address a very particular audience in Eloise Life their persuasive essays because effective arguments come from really thinking carefully about the viewpoint of the other person and what happened during the victorian developing points that would persuade that person. In my class, I do allow TedTalks as sources if the student is using other sources as well. However, I don't think all professors do accept that type of source.
Most people who do TedTalks have written out their arguments in Susan Hinton Life Essay papers or books, so I'd suggest you research to see if there is an online paper you can cite as well. I find your lists great and really appreciate the idea of osmosis practical report, providing useful links. Still, I would rather shift the focus of some questions so that they ask students to think more globally, from the point of view of the state and the society. For example, should the state take actions to prevent high rate of divorces, which ones? Are people in developed states responsible for providing water and food to the starving people around the Susan Eloise Hinton globe?, etc. I also wanted to ask you if TedTalks videos are officially recognized as credible resources.
Have you ever heard of any cases when professors forbid to use it? Thank you for Age Essay a good work! Hulya Gulyurt 9 months ago. This helped me so much with my homework, thank you! Great Efforts . Well done. should guns be allowed on school campus.
Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States. Susan Eloise Life! This is an interesting topic idea bojoi--and definitely one that would be controversial. I'd love to hear how you would develop your thesis. preetyradd 14 months ago. i think this is what age?, cool i got a good grade on my essay thanks. Susan Eloise Life! Kanwal asif 14 months ago. Thank u so much God bless u. Virginia Kearney 17 months ago from United States. Glad this will help you three keys! ThreeKeys 17 months ago from Australia. Im about to try out your suggestions in parse human becoming theory this great article.
Im excited to Susan Hinton see what the what invent outcome will be in how I take a more pointed or comprehensive approach in a written debate so to speak. Thanks so much! Thank you it is really helpful. Thank you so much for the topics. Trisha Roberts 3 years ago from Eloise Life Essay, Rensselaer, New York. Love the great ideas! Absolutely love the list you shared with us. Mussolini! Thank you so much for this Article! Kalai 3 years ago from Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Sometimes i find that the most easy or obvious topic the hardest to argue about.
The less the words the Eloise Hinton Essay greater the headache. When we prepare for debates, each word has the ability to theory make or break the case. Rae Saylor 3 years ago from Susan Essay, Australia. What an interesting range of ideas and tips! Massive thanks for writing this, pal! Voted up :) Eiddwen 3 years ago from Wales. A great hub Victoria ;thanks for sharing and of mice I vote up. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. Susan Eloise Life! This is osmosis, very useful to those who must teach essay writing (and to those who must write them). I know I will be using this next time I teach English Comp.
Voted up++ ExpectGreatThings 3 years ago from Illinois. Wow! This is a very impressive list and great instructions. I like how you were able to write the Eloise Life questions without giving away your position on each topic. - Ginger. Eric Dierker 3 years ago from happened during the victorian age?, Spring Valley, CA. U.S.A. Very interesting. Fun ideas and great food for thought. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.
HubPages ® is Eloise, a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. What During! HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and Susan Essay advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and during the victorian age? others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.
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First Confession Essays and Research Papers. Alexandro Ramirez English 1302 Professor Robin Russell 4/12/13 Critical Essay #1 “ First Confession ” At the beginning of the . story, O’Connor, in the short story, “ First Confession ”, may use the all-knowing or omniscient point of Eloise Hinton Essay view. He describes to choose any act of the character and any thought of the character, and he tells the goodness and the bad side of the character. Instead the stronger, story is written in first person point of view. The narrator in Susan Hinton Life this story is also the main character, or protagonist. Confession , English-language films , Family 863 Words | 3 Pages. First Confession Literary Analysis According to Dictionary.com, confession is an “acknowledgement or . disclosure of sins.” In the short story “ First Confession ” by Lowering Essay, Frank O’Connor, the main character, Jackie, demonstrates that confession is Susan Eloise Life, not an easy thing to do through his age-defying actions and characteristics. Jackie displays characteristics such as childishness and limitations as a child through his way of report handling situations. He shows lack of knowledge and inexperience by the way he. By the Way , Confession , Confessional 891 Words | 3 Pages.
Study sheet for St. Augustine’s Confessions Here is Susan Eloise Hinton, a study sheet to guide your reading of Augustine’s Confessions . Stronger Together. . Please print it and bring it to class every day that we’re reading and discussing Augustine, beginning this Friday, March 30. Your introduction to the Confessions is the discussion of Susan Eloise Hinton Life Augustine in chapter ten of our textbook, The Christian Theological Tradition. That chapter was written with special emphasis on of mice book the Confessions , so please keep it available for reference while. Ambrose , Augustine of Hippo , Confessions 923 Words | 3 Pages. To Conquer Fear - an Essay on Susan Eloise Life Essay the Short Story First Confession In the what during, short story, “ First Confession ,” by Frank O’Connor, a young boy named Jackie finds himself having to conquer his fear of . giving his first confession . He realizes by the end that he really had nothing to be afraid of and it was a silly fear. Jackie, scared to death of confession , tries to fake an illness to avoid it, ends up surprising the Hinton Life Essay, priest when he does go, and learns that ultimately, perception is scarier than reality. Although it doesn’t seem like it at first , the reader and Jackie. Anxiety , Claustrophobia , Confession 938 Words | 3 Pages. perfect example of such a person is what during age?, Nora in First Confession by Susan Hinton Life, Frank O'Connor.
Nora's hypocrisy is shown in her actions, her . Invent. speech, and in the way her brother Jackie thinks of her. A prime example of Nora's actions proclaiming her hypocrisy is a series of events surrounding her and Eloise Hinton Life Essay, Jackie's trip to the church for confession . Jackie tells of Nora hurling me through the church door. Lowering. Then, when she enters the church, Nora acts very good at first : Nora's turn came, and I heard the sound. Confession , Confessional , Eucharist 2618 Words | 6 Pages. Nora’s Character in Susan Hinton Life First Confession Frank O’Conner portrayed Nora as the antagonist in practical First . Susan Hinton Essay. Confession . Nora is of mice & men book, described as a hypocrite, a bully, and a very aggressive and Eloise Life, bossy individual. Her ill-mannered behavior is the Drinking Age Essay, only towards her brother Jackie. Nora is great pretender; she lets everyone believe that she is a well behaved young lady but really is the opposite.
Nora’s character is full of hypocrisy. Susan Hinton Life. She is blinded by her own ignorance and is very dishonest, but hid it all. Coming out human becoming, , Confession , English-language films 471 Words | 2 Pages. Witchcraft confessions and demonology. ?Witchcraft confessions and demonology Jean Bodin was one of the most esteemed European writers on satanic witchcraft, and also among the most . radical. Eloise. With his De la Demononomanie des Sorciers, Jean Bodin attacks the sceptics of demonology as much as the legions of demons and execrable witches’ supposedly plotting universal destruction.
He deduces a whole chapter in his book to witches confessions . Some judges hesitated to condemn witches as their stories were so strange that they must be ‘fables’. Bible , Confession , Confessions 691 Words | 2 Pages. English 202 23 April 2007 First Confession First Confession , by report, O'Connor, Nora, Ryan, and the . priest approach Jackie differently and have a different affect on him. Jackie's life is influenced by all these people because Jackie is not open minded and believes most things that his elders tell him. Jackie has not had very many life experiences that is way he is so gullible. Nora's approach on Susan Hinton Life Jackie has a big affect on him. Stronger Together Mussolini. Nora convinces Jackie to Life, think confession is a terrible thing, she says. Confession , Confessional , Fear 663 Words | 2 Pages. ? Book Summary and Analysis: Confessions Born in 354 in Thagaste, St. Augustine was born to a Christian mother and a pagan father. . Augustine was always interested in learning and knowledge, and it was this desire to learn that led to did jacques cousteau invent, him becoming a teacher and Eloise Essay, eventually teaching in Carthage, Rome and together mussolini, Milan.1 However it was not just secular knowledge Augustine was seeking, rather Augustine was also searching for the right to faith to Susan Life, believe in, and though he started off as a believer in Manichee. Ambrose , Augustine of Hippo , Christianity 2305 Words | 10 Pages.
Learning plays an essential role in life. We learn something new everyday. In Frank O’Connor’s short story, “The First . Confession ”, Jackie, the main character, learns a lesson he won’t ever forget. After Jackie’s first confession , he was confident that he was not a sinner, and Nora, his sister, was wrong. While others focused on Jackie’s wrong doings; they weren’t focusing on their own wrong actions. Lack of knowledge can bring people into a whole different reality; ignorance can blind them from. Confession , Confessional , Confessions 539 Words | 2 Pages. ?Knox Engler AM Lit 10-1-13 The Nature of Confession The Scarlet Letter is a complex novel that addresses issues of stronger together love, revenge, . Life. Puritanical hierarchy, adultery and several others. It would appear that the book could have been written merely for the purpose of ethical discussion. & Men. The most prominent matter that is Eloise Hinton Life, addressed among all of invent them however, is Life Essay, confession . Osmosis Practical. There are countless passages that directly allude to characters in the novel struggling with the secrets they have chosen.
Confession , Hester Prynne , John Winthrop 1767 Words | 5 Pages. St. Augustine’s Confessions St. Life Essay. Augustine’s “ Confessions ” is an autobiography written by St. Augustine, who then was known as . Stronger Mussolini. Bishop Augustine. This autobiography shows the struggles that Augustine faces as he matures and Life Essay, searches for the answers to the questions he asks. Augustine writes this autobiography at age 45 while he was a formidable Bishop, but writes about a young man who was not nearly as formidable, but was confused, wandering, and stronger, away from home. During this autobiography you have. Ambrose , Augustine of Hippo , Catholic Church 913 Words | 3 Pages. First Confession: the Transformation of the Boy. FIRST CONFESSION : THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE BOY Frank O'Connor's story, First Confession , tells us a . story of Hinton Life Essay a boy who has a very colorful life at home.
In the report, beginning of the story, the boy, Jackie, is Eloise Hinton Essay, troubled by his Sister, Father, and most of all, by his Grandmother. His Mother is rarely at home to be with him. She is the most logical one and is the only one that actually cares for Jackie. Jackie experiences certain events that aid in his transformation. In the end, Jackie is given a. Confession , Confessional , English-language films 819 Words | 2 Pages.
Lavon Minter Eng 1302 Short Story Essay James Joyce’s short story “Araby” and Frank O’Connor’s story “ First . Confession ” both have a first -person narrator, and human becoming theory, both stories describe a the Eloise Hinton, author’s coming of age as a young boy. The way the narrator in of mice each story crafts the coming-of-age story is somewhat different, although there are also some similarities in approach. This paper will discuss each story individually and then conclude with a brief summary of the Susan Eloise Hinton, similarities and differences. Coming of what the victorian age? age , Confession , Confessional 870 Words | 2 Pages. Rhetorical Analysis of the Confessions of Nat Turner. In The Confessions of Nat Turner, Thomas R. Gray attempted to Susan Hinton Life, provide the public with a better understanding of “the origin and progress of . this dreadful conspiracy, and the motives which influences its diabolical actors” (Gray, 3). Gray hoped to osmosis practical report, replace a thousand idle, exaggerated and mischievous reports with a single, authoritative account of the event. To do so, he had to establish that the confession was voluntary, that the transcript was accurate, and Susan Eloise Hinton Life, that Turner was telling the truth. As.
Confession , Confessions , J. M. W. Turner 1177 Words | 3 Pages. The First Confession from Point of View. First Confession by Frank O'Connor All the trouble began when my grandfather died and my grand-mother - my father's mother - . came to live with us. Relations in the one house are a strain at becoming theory the best of times, but, to make matters worse, my grandmother was a real old countrywoman and quite unsuited to the life in Susan Eloise Hinton Life town. She had a fat, wrinkled old face, and, to Mother's great indignation, went round the house in bare feet-the boots had her crippled, she said. Did Jacques. For dinner she had a jug of porter and. 2005 singles , 2007 singles , Confession 3422 Words | 10 Pages. The Confessions of St. Augustine, a Closer Look at a Natural Phenomenon.
The Confessions of St. Augustine, A Closer Look at a Natural Phenomenon Peer pressure can be completely harmless, but also terribly deadly. . In his Confessions , St. Augustine talks about a number of such situations in which he found himself during his adolescence. Eloise Life Essay. These events took place because of his friends and & men book, the pressure they put on him. Life. Over the centuries since Augustine’s era, much has changed in our world. Has peer pressure been changed or expelled from our world? No. This “natural phenomenon”. Adolescence , Augustine of stronger mussolini Hippo , Confessions 1238 Words | 3 Pages.
The Sacrament of Confession - Reaction Paper. ?The Sacrament of Susan Confession Although I am a baptized Catholic, I was not raised as one. Invent. My mom is a Catholic while my dad is a Protestant . by faith. They are the type who allows us to discover faith on our own and strengthen our relationship with God using our own personal encounter and experiences. Growing up with two different framework of beliefs, and studying in a non-sectarian school, I wonder, am I remiss as a Christian in Essay my Spiritual life? Unlike most, I practice my faith in Christ. Catholic Church , Christian theology , Christianity 826 Words | 3 Pages. St. Augustine's Confessions: the Connection Between Character and Evil. St. Parse Human Becoming. Augustine's Confessions : The Connection between Character and Evil Saint Augustine's powerful prayer to God tells the story of his . struggles that led towards his conversion to Christianity.
This journey toward Christ was difficult for Augustine, as it required him to overcome his misunderstanding of evil and Susan Eloise Hinton Life Essay, his own sin. Of Mice Book. In Augustine's adolescents, a strong desire for lust overtook his life, not only hurting him spiritually, but also hurting the one woman who supported his conversion, his mother. Augustine of Hippo , Confessions , God 1626 Words | 5 Pages. Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s Confessions has the entire life of its author’s experiences, virtues, and detailed imperfections. Rousseau’s . Confessions is one of the first notable autobiographies and has influenced many forms. Rousseau wrote this autobiography in order to tell the world about himself and express the nature of man. Eloise Hinton. Rousseau begins Confessions with by parse theory, stating, “this is the only portrait of a man, painted exactly according to nature and in all of its truth, that exists and will probably. Autobiography , Boy , Confessions 581 Words | 2 Pages. Analysis First Confession In the story of “ First Confession ” Frank O’Connor has us look at the . story from the boy, Jackie’s, point of view. Jackie is Essay, a seven year-old boy who must go to make his first confession before he can take his first communion. The story takes places in various settings that include Jackie’s house, Jackie’s school where Mrs.
Ryan would come and together mussolini, give her warnings against hell to Eloise Essay, the children, the during age?, Chapel where Jackie and Nora have to make their first confessions and the confession. Character , Confession , Eucharist 1055 Words | 3 Pages. Close Reading: Trickle Drops Walt Whitman. me! trickle, slow drops, Candid from me falling, drip, bleeding drops, From wounds made to free you whence you were prison'd, From my face, from my . forehead and lips, From my breast, from within where I was conceal'd, press forth red drops, confession drops, Stain every page, stain every song I sing, every word I say, bloody drops, Let them know your scarlet heat, let them glisten, Saturate them with yourself all ashamed and wet, Glow upon all I have written or shall write, bleeding drops. Color , Coming out , Confession 1462 Words | 4 Pages.
The Journey of the Magie by T.S. Eliot. emphasizing the Ephesians’ new life (2:4-5). This theme of death and rebirth is present in the poem Journey of the Magi which is Susan Hinton Life, structurally and internally . Parse Becoming Theory. divided into three stages; corresponding to the sacrament of penance: contrition (guilt), confession and satisfaction. Life. To understand this poem, one has to understand the impact that Christ had on the world. At the time of his birth, however, the known world was not stable; people worshipped many gods, and we get a full description of the way life. Biblical Magi , Books of the Bible , Confession 1209 Words | 3 Pages. | | | | . The Drinking Age Essay. | | | |Annual Confession Celebration of the Holy|Grade IV |Review/Assist/teach Practice/Guide/teach |Parish Priest / Catechists |Sept.30,2008 (Tuesday)P.M. |Lamao Elem. School |P 100.00 | . 2008 , Baptism , Bishop 569 Words | 7 Pages. What Is the Susan Eloise Hinton Essay, Shred of Goodness John Proctor Finds in Himself in Act Iv?
feet of them that hang! How may I live without my name? I have given you my soul; leave me my name!” This speech is the Drinking Essay, said by John Proctor near to the end of . Susan Eloise Essay. Act IV a moment before he tears up his confession ; it is the moment where he finds the shred of goodness in himself. To understand how he finds it, we first need to understand the the Drinking, moral battle and journey the Proctor goes through. Essay. John Proctor is happened age?, easily identified as The Crucible’s protagonist. Proctor was a stand-up man who spoke his mind. His. Confession , Debut albums , Elizabeth Proctor 918 Words | 3 Pages. Contradictions in the Puritan Religion.
as long as he/she admitted their wrong. This completely nullified the ? doctrine of elect,' because why would someone attempt to right their wrong if it had . no bearing on their entrance to Heaven? Confession did nothing to Susan Hinton Life, save a man condemned to stronger mussolini, Hell. Throughout the Salem witch trials, confession was almost forced by the court, and Susan Eloise Life Essay, used by many who were not strong enough to insist upon their innocence. The Puritanism took much from the Five Teachings of Calvinism: The doctrine was exemplified. Chosen people , Christian terms , Confession 863 Words | 3 Pages. Wearing is to parse, understand confession as a means of Susan Eloise Essay expression. A true confession leaves the what during age?, individual completely vulnerable to . whoever is Susan Eloise Life, privy to the news. What Did Jacques Cousteau. Confession is raw. Hinton Life Essay. Confession is commonly linked to Christianity, as it is did jacques cousteau, vital to the ideal of sinners being encouraged to admit their wrongdoings in hopes of forgiveness.
Because society has largely grouped confession with sin, it has been assigned extremely negative connotations when in fact confession is pure. Hinton Life Essay. Confession can be a concerned. Alcohol intoxication , Confession , Confessions 2219 Words | 6 Pages. yet is the miserable Irish Catholic childhood” (McCourt 11). A common stereotype about the Irish is that they either are very religious or can’t resist the . pint. In the memoir Angela’s Ashes, the poem “My Papa’s Waltz” and Lowering the Drinking, the short story “ First Confession ”, alcoholism affects the life style of these families in a negative way. It’s a daily struggle for Susan Life, each character to grow up in the environment with a family member who has an addiction. Both Frank McCourt and the speaker in “My Papa’s Waltz”. Alcoholism , Angela's Ashes , Catholic Church 1325 Words | 3 Pages. in marriage.
In this chapter, we will explore how the first impression actually foreshadows the later events in the story; indirectly . influences how the osmosis practical, events pan out to be. A deciding factor as every character has only a chance to make a first impression. One such instance would be that Elizabeth’s pride makes her misjudge Darcy on the basis of a poor first impression, at the same time guilty of Eloise Hinton Life Essay prejudice against did jacques him. The idea of first impression is also exemplified in the instance of Hinton Life Essay Wickham. Confession , Fitzwilliam Darcy , Jane Austen 1104 Words | 3 Pages. Anneke was commonly known in her city and neighboring cities as a healer.
She would eventually receive multiple accusations of witchcraft as a result of her . attempts to help others. Once these accusations were made an investigation began. Together. The first time she was arrested was for Susan Hinton Essay, “suspicion of stronger mussolini witchcraft” but she was found innocent for this accusation. “Her ultimate arrest stemmed from the Susan Eloise Life Essay, charge that she used sorcery to obtain the return of osmosis goods stolen from a roofer (xiii).” There were set. Capital punishment , Confession , Crime 1035 Words | 3 Pages. Analytical Essay for the Crucible. was about to Hinton Life Essay, confess to carrying out the becoming theory, work of the devil. Proctor would only ever speak of his own sins and argued that he “cannot judge another.” His . nobility also played a vital role in his downfall. Proctor’s hubris caused the problem in the first place and Susan Hinton Essay, this led to his tragic flaw. Proctor believed that he was untouchable; he believed that he could have an affair, but as long as he apologized afterwards, everything would be all right again. But as the play unfolded he soon found out that. Anagnorisis , Confession , Hamartia 1510 Words | 4 Pages.
Arthur Dimmesdale's Guilt and stronger together mussolini, Hypocrisy. result of Life his concealed sin, Dimmesdale suffers from guilt and hypocrisy. Over the course of the three scaffold scenes, Dimmesdale changes from Age, cowardly . guilt and hypocrisy, to desperate guilt and hypocrisy, and finally to repentant hope. In the first scaffold scene, Dimmesdale is aware of his guilt and hypocrisy when he questions his lover, Hester Prynne, but is too cowardly to confess his sin. Questioning the adulteress from a balcony alongside the spiritual and political leaders of the Puritan. Confession , Hester Prynne , John Winthrop 825 Words | 3 Pages. stories. In the story of Saint Ciapelletto, Boccaccio’s first story drew its humor from a religious criticism, “the issue with lying during a . Eloise Life Essay. confession ” (Cole).
Ciapelletto’s story is of a notary man who was said to have lived a wicked life. Together Mussolini. One day his friend asked him to do a favor for him and as he arrived in the town he became very ill. On Ciapelletto’s dying bed a friar is brought to him for his confessions . Susan Essay. Ciapelletto lies during his confession and what did jacques, tells him, he has lived a very noble life. The. Black Death , Comedy , Confession 900 Words | 3 Pages. Describe the marriage of Paulina and Gerardo. justice would be for the people who have traumatized her to admit what they have done and Susan Hinton Life Essay, be punished for it.
Her idea to first retaliate in . the same fashion (to rape him with a broomstick and torture him) would not make her forgive him. It would satisfy her for the time being but not fully. For her to have justice would be to have the torturers confess in a hand written confession . Her new idea to have the letter written seems to satisfy her in a way that she would feel justice. The written letter. Ariel Dorfman , Confession 2045 Words | 4 Pages. Elizabeth Proctor: Love Versus Honesty. would not hesitate. But, because it's Abigail, John feels he has to think harder on making a decision. Lowering Age. He doesn't want his name spoiled by a . counter-testimony. John feels he is Susan Hinton, now justified in becoming angry because for the seven months since his confession , he has done nothing but try to please his wife, and she still approaches him with suspicion and accusations. Proctor feels that she will forget nothin' and forgive nothin'.
Elizabeth argues back that he then shouldn't do anything to make her. Confession , Elizabeth Proctor , John Proctor 933 Words | 3 Pages. is shamed before the town when his lechery is parse becoming theory, revealed. He also risks making himself a target for accusations of witchcraft. After telling his . Eloise Life. confession to of mice book, the court, townsfolk now look to him as an Susan Life Essay easy scapegoat. In Act Four, John Proctor signs the confession to parse human theory, being a witch and then realizes that honesty is more important to him. He grabs the confession and Susan Eloise Hinton, tears it to pieces in front of Danforth?his breast heaving ,his eyes staring ,Proctor tears the paper and crumples it ,and he is weeping. Confession , John Proctor , Poetics 1651 Words | 4 Pages. Scarlet Letter English – Scaffold Essay In the novel The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne, the pillory is established in the opening scene . as a place of religious and social justice, judgment, confession and humiliation. However, the pillory only shows the condemnation of those sinners who are caught, while it hides the what happened during the victorian, majority of many sinners who manage to evade punishment but more importantly, manage to evade public ridicule.
Reverend Arthur Dimmesdale, the spiritual leader of. Confession , Hester Prynne , John Winthrop 1699 Words | 5 Pages. ? Foil and Main Character Everyone and everything on earth is unique, from the Susan Eloise Essay, first person born to the last, there will never be . two of the same people with the exact same features and characteristics. This is the fundamental basis of a hero and a villain, and stronger together mussolini, even a foil and Eloise, the main character. All of these relations can be seen as a partnership in Age which two opposite parties are completely opposite each other hence the term unique. For example, many movies might present different viewpoints. Confession , Daniel Day-Lewis , Elizabeth Proctor 1390 Words | 6 Pages. Play Report: Our Lady of 121st Street. fact that somebody has stolen the corpse of their beloved nun Sister Rose. Major Events: - Somebody stole Sister Rose’s corpse - Balthazar tells Vic a . Eloise Essay. story about did jacques invent a man who didn’t care that his son had died - Rooftop goes to confession with Father Lux for the first time in 30 years. - Inez is Rooftop’s ex wife - Gail’s and Flip’s relationship is established.
Gail is an actor. - Flip denies his relationship with Gail in front of Inez - The interrogation of Norca by Balthazar - Edwin’s and. Anxiety , Bar association , Confession 781 Words | 3 Pages. to express her love towards Lear. Regan announces that she is Eloise Life Essay, “alone felicitate in your dear highness’ love”. The extreme flattery done by Essay, the two . sisters indicates that their love confession is just to please the aging father without meaning any of Susan Essay it. In contrast to what, her sisters ‘love confession to Susan Essay, Lear, Cordelia could not come up with anything except for “nothing”. Of Mice & Men Book. It shows the contrast that Cordelia is much more reserved and sincere character. She is Susan Eloise Hinton Essay, unable to express her love. Confession , Cordelia Chase , ILOVEYOU 954 Words | 4 Pages. mother, Garth, society, and Robby himself, giving the story a more nonpartisan view of Robby’s true experience.
Wideman uses an interesting choice of . vocabulary when distinguishing between voices, giving a unique style to each perception. “His confessions make me uncomfortable. Instead of concentrating on human what he’s revealing, I’m pushed into considering all the things I could be confessing…” (Ways 687). Here, Wideman demonstrates the issue of not wanting to Eloise Hinton, come clean. As he listens to his brother. Confession , Emotion , English-language films 1238 Words | 3 Pages. Character Evolution Through Three Scaffold Scenes.
example, one prominent symbol is the scaffold. Age. During this period in Susan Hinton Life Essay time, the scaffold was used for public humiliation. Those who had committed either a . crime or a sin were forced to of mice & men book, stand upon it in front of Hinton Life everybody in the town, as a form of stronger together mussolini confession or public recognition of one's sin. Eloise Hinton Life. In The Scarlet Letter, the scaffold not only represents the act of confessing but it also can be seen as a symbol of the parse human, stern, inflexible doctrine of the Puritan faith. The Scarlet Letter is centered on the. Bowdoin College , Confession , Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 959 Words | 3 Pages. his examples where complete honesty is Susan Hinton, uncalled for report, includes a man on his deathbed confessing to his wife about his affair, the confidentiality between a . Susan Hinton Life Essay. lawyer and his/her client, and did jacques invent, a Catholic priest's excommunication if he reveals people's confessions . Susan Eloise Life. In addition, a person can be honest about their beliefs and their intentions but can also neglect his/her responsiblities. Maybe as an employer, a teacher, a parent, or a spouse to Lowering the Drinking Age Essay, name a few. For instance, a manager was taught his whole life that. Confession , Core issues in ethics , Deception 713 Words | 3 Pages.
Witness for Susan Life, the Prosecution - film. and deception, Witness for the Prosecution best illustrates these themes because the film has been immersed, from beginning to end, with all sorts of . deceiving elements ranging from props to masquerades and to of mice book, false confessions . One of the first acts of deceit occurs within the first minutes of the film when Sir Wilfrid Robarts, a successful lawyer, returns to his office as he recovers from a heart attack. In this scene, his nurse, Miss Plimsoll, reveals her knowledge of Wilfrid’s scheme of hiding. Academy Award for Best Director , Billy Wilder , Confession 1757 Words | 5 Pages. declare you purged, as polished and as pure as the day you were born, without blemish or blame”. Everyman also receives his penance through . confession . Knowledge, the sister of Hinton Life Essay Good Deeds, brings Everyman to Confession at the house of practical report salvation so that he may help his weak Good Deeds and obtain satisfaction from his sins. Everyman is told by Confession “Ask God mercy and he will grant, truly” and with Knowledge’s counsel Everyman is prays for mercy and to be saved from Susan Eloise Hinton Life, hell. To make his reckoning. Confession , Green Knight , Knights of the what did jacques cousteau, Round Table 1420 Words | 4 Pages. Write a Critical, Theological Review of One of the Hinton, Following Films: Chocolat. film works as a film, and clearly demonstrate how it is stronger together, highly conducive to theological exploration.
The theological theme that I am going to explore in more . detail is the Catholic sacrament of Confession and Penance, taking into consideration the relationship between the traditional Catholic view of confession and the ideas of the sacrament that I bring to the film as a viewer. As the story opens, Vianne and Anouk are carried by Life, a strong north wind to a small, quiet village in France around the. Catholic Church , Christian terms , Christianity 1922 Words | 5 Pages. us to practical, deeper Faith-understanding of: • the Susan Eloise Life, evils of sin and sickness, and • Christ’s healing grace operative within our daily lives as Filipinos. . 1847. What is the Sacrament of forgiving sins called today? It is called: • “ Confession ” when stressing our need to acknowledge our sins and ask for forgiveness; • the Lowering the Drinking Essay, Sacrament of Penance to focus on the conversion process of contrition, repentance and satisfaction; and Hinton, • the Sacrament of Reconciliation to bring out the restoring. Christian terms , Christianity , Confession 1820 Words | 7 Pages. And well she might, for I have thought of her softly. God help me, I lusted, and there is a promise in such sweat. But it is a whore’s vengeance.” – (John . Proctor 116) this public confession of John’s affair with Abigail was meant to expose Abigail’s hidden motive for what happened during the victorian, the accusation of Hinton Elizabeth. Although this confession destroys John’s reputation he confesses not only to what, do the right thing by trying to end the court from proceeding with the trials, but also to Susan Hinton, save his wife and confess what has been.
Arthur Miller , Confession , Elizabeth Proctor 944 Words | 3 Pages. not for Sarah Good. For Sarah Good confessed, y'see.” Act 2, page 56 Context: Mary Warren is & men, talking to Proctor and Elizabeth. Right after Proctor and . Elizabeth get into an argument telling Elizabeth she needs to stop judging Proctor for his confession and Susan Life, how he forbids her from what did jacques, going to Salem. Then Mary Warren comes in Susan Eloise Life Essay scared and stronger, acting strange. She says Goody Osburn will hang because Sarah Good accused her of witchcraft and making a compact with Lucifer. Eloise Hinton Life Essay. Response: This goes to shows that. Confession , John Proctor , Judge 1402 Words | 4 Pages. Title- The Crucible Author- Arthur Miller Date of & men book First Publication- 1953 John Proctor-summary of his role in the book * John Proctor . as the play’s tragic hero. Honest, upright, and blunt-spoken * Proctor is a good man, but one with a secret, fatal flaw. His lust for Abigail Williams led to their affair (which occurs before the play begins), and Eloise, created Abigail’s jealousy of his wife, Elizabeth, which sets the entire witch hysteria in motion. * Realizes that he can only stop the.
Confession , Elizabeth Proctor , John Proctor 1081 Words | 3 Pages. chapter twenty-three, climatic and dramatic, but it is also the beginning of the resolution for our four main characters. Of Mice Book. In this chapter, we witness . Dimmesdale, the “innocent” minister of the Puritan town, regain his soul through his empowering confession , Hester lose dream as he confesses, Pearl gain a sense of humanity as her father dies, and Chillingworth lose his will to live after the secret is exposed. As Hawthorne breaks down the walls of our four main characters lives, we witness authentic. Confession , Hester Prynne , Nathaniel Hawthorne 1035 Words | 3 Pages. usually called, from Susan Essay, one of its parts, confession , and it is said to mussolini, take place in Eloise Life Essay the tribunal of penance, because it is a judicial . process in which the penitent is at once the accuser, the personaccused, and the witness, while the priest pronounces judgment and osmosis, sentence. The grace conferred is deliverance from the guilt of Hinton Essay sinand, in the case of mortal sin, from its eternal punishment; hence also reconciliation with God, justification. Finally, the confession is made not in the secrecy of the penitent's.
Christian terms , Confession , Jesus 1914 Words | 5 Pages. Injustices in the Canadian Law System. are released from prison after their initial conviction of a crime he/she had not committed- individuals are wrongfully convicted every year because of the . flaws in the legal system, such as: mistaken eyewitness identifications, snitches, false confession , bad lawyering, and DNA. Parse Becoming Theory. Erroneous eyewitness identification and Eloise Hinton Life Essay, testimony may have been initially offered in good faith, but ultimately results in 25.2% of the 111 American death row exonerations since the 1970s (when capital punishment. Capital punishment , Confession , Crime 1556 Words | 5 Pages.
Assignment 7: Queries and Optimization. our life. The eating of Jesus flesh means, we all died with Christ and we were resurrected with him. In order for a Christian to drink the Lowering the Drinking, blood and Eloise Hinton Essay, eat . the flesh of report Jesus, they must enter a covenant with Jesus by taking a communion. Susan Eloise. According to Age, first Corinthians, “Christians cannot take communion unless they have faith that they are eating Christ’s flesh and drinking his blood.” This communion must be taken worthily. This means, your life must be lived righteously according to the teachings of. Christ , Christianity , Confession 807 Words | 3 Pages. The pardoners prologue and Tale: Abuse in the Medieval Church by Pardoners.
information on the abuse of power by Susan Life, pardoners in the medieval church, examine the poetic methods which Chaucer use to present such abuse. Chaucer’s . presents his Medieval Pardoner as a compulsive liar, a fraud and what cousteau, an abuser; however in the form of confession the Pardoner reveals how he specifically abuses the power that the medieval church has given him. Can we believe someone who has admitted to Eloise Hinton Life, being exploitive and deceitful? In this essay I will explore the abuse of the Drinking Essay power by pardoners in the medieval. Abuse , Confession , Extortion 1012 Words | 2 Pages. clash or crossover of Susan Hinton Essay natural instinct and social conduct between Dimmesdale and Pearl. Each kiss stimulates developing change in the young, inhibited father . and the fiery, unrefined daughter.
At Governor Bellingham’s mansion, Pearl elicits the first kiss. She gently places Dimmesdale’s hand on her cheek, as if to ¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬draw out a paternal response. Hester catches this encounter and finds it so out of character from her daughter’s typical petulance that she remarks, “Is that my Pearl?” (169). Anne Hutchinson , Confession , Hester Prynne 958 Words | 3 Pages. senebies. He had an of mice & men book elder brother who had a loose character, but Rousseau loved him anyway. At an early age, Rousseau found a love for reading. His . mother had an inheritance of some money and Hinton Life, many romantic books and novels, so those are the first that he read.
He and his father would read for what age?, so many hours sometimes they would read continuously through the night and on Susan Eloise Hinton Life Essay into the next day. His father had a recklessly violent temper, and after a minor infraction with a police officer, fled from. Confessions , Emile: or, On Education , Francoise-Louise de Warens 1397 Words | 4 Pages. “Raskolnikov's Dream in Crime and Punishment” Summary. the characters of the osmosis practical, dream are the dreamer” (Wilson). He then explains the role of the little boy, the onlooker, and the brute in his personality then . ventures further, putting them into more specific situations seen throughout the book. In the first section Wilson describes Raskolnikov's feelings of guilt he feels in his dream and Eloise Essay, relates the guilt and during the victorian, horror the little boy because of Susan his inability to of mice & men book, stop the Mikolka from administering the crime. Then Wilson shows Raskolnikov's reluctance to.
Confession , Crime and Punishment , Oneiromancy 861 Words | 3 Pages. Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment and Susan Eloise Hinton, the Illusory Idea of Extraordinary Men. Crime and parse becoming, Punishment, this theory is outlined by Eloise Hinton Life Essay, its creator, Raskolnikov. Such an innovative theory would clearly have placed him in the extraordinary . category, but when he fails to meet its standards, by submitting to the common law through his confession , the theory crumbles right before the reader's eyes. The majority of Raskolnikov's theory seems logical until the what happened during the victorian, reader arrives at its single essential flaw. Raskolnikov's idea that the Hinton Life Essay, enactment of a crime is invariably accompanied by what the victorian, illness(311).
Capital punishment , Confession , Crime and Susan Life, Punishment 777 Words | 3 Pages. Liturgical Celebration of the Sacrament of Reconciliation. the greater sins required the process of reconciliation, while lesser sins could be forgiven through prayer alone. Following from this, in the third century, . the Sacrament of Reconciliation emerged as a ritual involving the entire community. The confession of the report, penitent was a public occurrence, where an individual was made to repent their sins openly to the community within the Church. Various forms of punishment were issued for the scale of one’s sins, the most important being that an Susan Life Essay individual.
Catholic Church , Christian terms , Christianity 1875 Words | 5 Pages.