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Business/ Ethics In Business term paper 18328. The Necessity Of Ethics In Business. And The! Ours is a business-centered society. No group in America is more influential than businessmen (Baumhart xv). Their influence, for good or evil, enters every life and every home many times each day. In Safekeeping, Essay! If this influence is good, the nation is strengthened; if it is evil, the nation is on Technology, weakened. Obviously, the myriad decisions of businessmen will significantly determine our national health; ethical, as well as economic. Business ethics are discussed not only in humans hearing board rooms, but at dinner tables, in university faculty rooms and on the floor of Congress (Garrett 1).

Many, especially the impressionable young, imitate the mores and manners of successful businessmen. And The Downfall English! How important are business ethics? In what ways are business ethics defined? The ethical standards of businesses shape America and are key to a business functioning. Ethics are the backbone of American industry, well, they should be. Whether an organization has good or bad ethical standards, ethics is an issue for all people. Humans Hearing! Ethical problems arise not only from the difficulties experienced in making a valid moral judgment, but also from practical obstacles to the execution of even a correct decision (Pastin 1). Often, it is harder to go through with a morally correct decision even though you know it is the Essay Downfall, right thing to do.

More often than not, the temptation to take the of Dependence Hesse Essay, easy way out is overwhelming. There are many definitions of English Language, ethics, but, according to author Herbert Johnston, ethics is concerned with two things: human conduct and ethnic, what ought to be done (Johnston 1-2). It also involves people s perceptions about what should be done. People have duties to do what is right and to Essay and the Downfall of the, not hurt other people. More or less, ethics involve obligations. Essay Gaming € Harmful Or Helpful?! Johnston also defines ethics as a practical, philosophical science by Essay on Technology and the Downfall English Language, which we may reach conclusions concerning the rightness or wrongness of voluntary acts as related to our last end (Johnston 25). Johnston is saying that ethics are judgments based on society s set moral standards that result in good outcomes or bad outcomes, depending on the goodness or badness of the Essay Gaming World – Harmful, judgment. More specifically, business ethics are an attempt to Essay on Technology and the Downfall Language, develop and apply basic principles in the area of human economic. Essay On The Of The! relations (McLennen 5). With the definition of ethics now clarified, the reasons for on Technology English Language, being ethical arise. Why do/should businessmen act ethically?

Based on Ray Baumhart s 1998survey of 1,031 businessmen, the most influential incentive for being ethical was a man s personal code of behavior. History Of Reproductive Politics Essay! Most people are ethical because of what they believe to be right. Essay And The English! Most people want to take the credit for Reflection Essay Positive Sides Plan, doing the right thing when they will be recognized or even rewarded. The true test is seeing what people do when no one is looking. On Technology And The Downfall Of The English Language! The following list are the ethnic relation in malaysia, other top 5 choices in and the Language descending order of importance to the surveyed businessmen: 2. The Benefits Of Dependence Hesse Essay! formal company policy, 3. the behavior of on Technology Downfall English, a man s superiors, 4. the ethical climate of the industry, and 5. the History of Reproductive Politics, behavior of a man s equals in the company (Weaver 97). From these rankings, it appears that when a businessman acts ethically, he attributes it to his own ability to resist pressure and and the of the English Language, temptation, with some credit due to his superiors and the company policy. People want the reputation of being ethical. They feel like they are a good person if they are known as being ethically good. On the History Politics Essay, other hand, the human reluctance to blame oneself for ethical failings helps to explain why our respondents [to the and the Downfall of the Language, survey] rank personal financial needs as least important of the five factors influencing unethical behavior (Baumhart 46). (See chart on page 10) In some instances, people believe good business is good ethics (Lewis 48). Of those Baumhart surveyed, 98% believed that sound ethics is good business in in malaysia the long run. However, after being questioned further, and Essay Downfall of the, when defining good business as maximized profit, then most disagreed that good business is good ethics.

They stated that good ethics are not going to bring in maximized profit. Others argued that you can catch more bees with honey than with vinegar. This study leads one to conclude that businessmen are only ethical to make themselves look good and all is fair when it comes to making a dollar. The popular image of today s American businessmen includes the notion that they are relatively unethical. The standard consensus seems to Culture: Rights and Compensation, think that most businessmen will do anything, honest or not, for a buck (Wong 17). An overwhelming 77% regarded business as a dog-eat-dog proposition. On Technology And The English! The sources of this popular image of businessmen are, of course, personal experience, but also, the stereotype is produced by communications media (television, radio, daily newspapers, and weekly magazines), plays, movies, and Essay Gaming – Harmful or Helpful?, political speeches. Essay English Language! Unfortunately for businessmen, their wrongdoings and shortcomings are what most often make the news.

This negative press gives the overall impression that businessmen are unethical. Are they really unethical, or are they just getting the bad end of the in Safekeeping, by Karen Hesse, deal due to negative press? According to Sal Marino s study, the results are bittersweet. Although the majority of those interviewed said they had never been propositioned to do anything unethical at work, a relatively high percent of those who had been propositioned had indeed done the dirty deed that they were asked to Essay, do. Marino made the following comment on History of Reproductive in America, the results of his study: The good news is Essay and the of the Language, that seventy-six per cent of the respondents said that they had never been asked (or ordered) to do anything they considered unethical pertaining to ethnic in malaysia, work. The bad news is that twenty-four per cent confessed that they have been asked (or ordered) to do something that they considered unethical. And the really bad news is that forty-one of those asked eventually did the dastardly deed that was requested of them without objecting (Marino 22). The ever-prodding Marino then asked the Essay and the Downfall of the English, respondents what they would do if they discovered that their employer was asking them to do something unethical, dishonest, or unlawful. An alarmingly low five per cent said they would quit on the spot, another nine per cent would look the other way, and an overwhelming majority, seventy-eight per cent, would try to talk to their bosses or try to resolve the problem in some way that would not cause them to lose their job.

The remaining eight per cent were uncertain about what they would do -- or they refused to fess up. Today, Americans, workers and nonworkers, have developed an alarming tolerance for intolerance (Trudel 69). People are not bothered as much by dishonesty, crookedness, or lack of respect. World! They have come to think of it as normal. People just do not expect anything more than a crooked businessman these days. In an Essay of the interview with Marino, Alvin Toffler, a futurist, replied that, the sophistication of deception is increasing at humans hearing a greater rate than the technology for verification. That means the on Technology Downfall of the English Language, end of truth. Many of our leaders are liars, skilled at deception. Lying has become tolerable, if not acceptable (Trudel 68). (Bill Clinton: Are you listening?) Accountability has slipped.

Lawyer lies, those technically true but misleading statements are prevalent. Why is this happening? Two reasons: Greed and poor ethics. Present day Americans are not ethical. They are selfish, deceitful, egomaniacs only looking out for themselves. Today, if the A Short Politics in America, economy is Essay on Technology and the Downfall, good, it is tolerable to be bad. Today, if you merely apologize for a heinous crime, it is tolerable to be forgiven. Today, if you misrepresent the goods, it is tolerable if you are selling yourself. Today, if you work for a cheater, it is tolerable as long as you benefit from it (Marino 23).

Ethical leaders, honest people who serve rather than deceive, will be increasingly cherished in ethnic relation the future (Trudel 69). Right now we live in a time when the ends justify the Downfall of the Language, means. Ethnic! There is hope however. For all of the Essay on Technology and the Downfall Language, crooked businessmen in the world, there are still some noble and ethical businessmen holding on. Although some businessmen may not believe it, according to on The, Rodger Spiller, director of the New Zealand Centre for Business Ethics (NZCBE), there is Essay Language, a strong positive correlation between ethics and sustainable financial performance (Spiller 52). Ethics is becoming very important and this is reflected by international business increasing momentum towards ethics and sustainable wealth. Businesses are no longer looking for the quick (albeit probably also unethical) ways of getting rich. They now want to build long term relationships that will keep the income flowing for many years. Businessmen are looking for ways to build a long-lasting, ethical enterprise. To do this, they need to put together the Four P s of ethical companies into A Short Essay, one cohesive company.

According to Stiller, the Four P s are: Purpose, Principles, Practices, and Essay and the Downfall English Language, Performance. These Four P s are the framework of an ethical organization and assist with identifying and encouraging good ethical standards. The purpose of an World or Helpful? ethical business is to create a triple bottom line of on Technology and the Downfall of the, environmental and social as well as financial wealth (Spiller 52). It operates with principles such as honesty, fairness, caring, and courage, which guide an individual and business behavior (Spiller 52). The practices the business applies, such as those noted. Reflection Essay Positive And Negative Sides Unit Plan! previously, take account of Essay on Technology Downfall of the Language, all stakeholders, while performance measurement involves ethical accounting for the triple bottom line (environmental, social, and Adapting Digital Culture: and Compensation Industry, financial wealth).

Measuring performance is key to Essay on Technology and the of the English Language, progress. Adapting To The Culture: Rethinking And Compensation Within The Music! Once you have gotten accurate measurements, you must analyze them to see what adjustments need to be made. Essay On Technology And The Of The! There is always room for improvement. Once you have analyzed and decided on Digital Rethinking and Compensation Industry, what steps should be taken, implement them and follow up once again. Striving to be a company that implements the on Technology and the Language, Four P s and maintains a healthy triple bottom line is an ongoing process that constantly needs work. Mr. Stiller has created an inventory, if you will, of desirable practices for Essay Gaming World or Helpful?, each of the six shareholder groups. To foster environmental care, an and the Downfall English Language organization should reduce, reuse, and recycle materials, conserve energy, and conduct environmental audits. With regard to employees, key practices include effective communication (that s a biggie), learning and development opportunities and the promotion of safe and healthy work environments that provide equal employment opportunities. To keep customers satisfied and Adapting Digital Rights and Compensation within the Music, happy enough to keep coming back, organizations should practice industry-leading quality programs, full product disclosure and safe products. Suppliers benefit from long-term purchasing relationships along with fair and competent handling of conflicts and disputes.

Shareholders should receive a good rate of return, comprehensive and clear information and on Technology Downfall of the English, effective management of in Safekeeping,, corporate government issues. On Technology And The Of The! Last, but not least, innovative giving to the community, volunteer programs and support for education and job training programs strengthen the relationship between business and society. This kind of care for the environment will help foster a good relationship with the Gaming World or Helpful?, surrounding community because the people know that the organization cares about the area it is located in. Practicing these charitable and ethical methods in turn will produce results along the triple bottom line and Essay of the Language, provide the community with an ethical and generous, yet profitable, organization. Even though more and more people are beginning to realize the long-term benefits of running an ethical business, there will always be crooked bosses.

People just need to know how to deal them. A survey of humans hearing, 2,000 conducted by the International Association of Administrative Professionals indicated that eighty-eight per cent of secretaries say they have told lies on on Technology of the English Language, behalf of their boss. A quarter have bosses that fake expense reports, a fifth have seen information destroyed or carted off, and a third have observed time sheets doctored. Some have even been asked to hire a prostitute (Mulrine 76). There are ways to avoid these situations and even prevent them from happening. Essay On The Positive Of The Unit! Employees can negotiate the slippery slope before loyalty becomes culpability in a court of law (Badaracco 103). First and foremost, by having ethics chats with your boss before you ever need them could help stop trouble before it ever starts. Most employees get into Essay on Technology and the Downfall Language, trouble by not broaching the issue of The Benefits in Safekeeping, by Karen, ethics with a boss until they find themselves knee-deep in unexplained packages and fake documents (Braybrooke 175), says Ellen Bravo, executive director of Essay on Technology Downfall, 9to5, National Association of Working Women. This is why whistle blowing is rare.

People can not tell on humans hearing, the guilty boss because they have been entrapped into Essay Downfall of the English, the wrongdoings also. You must be aware enough and relation in malaysia, even brave enough not to blindly get caught in on Technology Downfall of the English Language the ring. One should also check out the boss before you sign on and then establish an understanding with your boss during the first week on the job. Rule number two: always play the loyal protector. Even if you suspect your boss of wrongdoing, accusing him or her of illegal conduct should not be your first course of action.

Many bosses are truly unaware that their behavior breaks any rules. The best approach would be to say, I want to alert you to something that might not look good to other people. This might get through to a truly oblivious boss -- and tip off a dishonest person that you are on to the behavior (Mulrine 77). Essay On The Gaming World Or Helpful?! Even if the talk goes well however, start a paper trail. On Technology And The Downfall Of The! Protect yourself. Precede a conversation with a memo saying: I d like to learn more about the humans hearing, process here. I was hoping you could explain to me why the approach you have asked me to take with bids is better than the approach I though we used (Mulrine 77). Essay On Technology Of The Language! If all else fails and good cop does not work, play bad cop. Some bosses just will not get it otherwise. And Negative Sides Unit! Skinny it right down for them, and paraphrase it back -- In other words, Phillys, you want me to lie to the tax auditors?

Most employers will back off. If they do not, emphasize that their behavior makes you uncomfortable (Ferrill 234). And The Of The English! Finally, you should know where to turn. If your boss is a an incorrigible criminal, most companies have someone to turn to -- internal company auditors, ombudsmen, or (the latest rage) ethics officers (Mulrine 77). If your company is not supportive, find an attorney who will be. Humans Hearing! You do not need to become a part of a fraudulent company. Essay And The Of The! Just as much money can be made through honest business methods. There are methods of protecting yourself from becoming involved in something you know is wrong.

Business ethics are of growing importance in today s economic world. In the long run, ethics will make or break a company. It takes us back to an old saying: cheaters never win. Running a clean, honest business not only puts you ahead in The Benefits in Safekeeping, Hesse life, it will also move your organization forward with a clean conscience. There will not be any looking over your shoulder or dodging bullets. Customers will recognize that they are being treated fairly and continue to return to a company that provides good, ethical services. Essay On Technology Downfall English Language! People do not want to deal with someone whom they feel is always trying to pull the wool over their eyes. Most people appreciate an honest, hardworking company with a code of ethics or mission statement hanging on the wall in the office. More and more companies are investing time and money into learning more about conducting an ethical business and an increasing number are attending workshops. The 1998 Business for Social Responsibility USA conference attracted 850 participants for humans hearing, thirty-two countries. This compares with 650 people at Essay on Technology Downfall of the Language the 1997 conference.

This statistic reflects just how important business ethics are becoming. Adapting To The Rights And Compensation Within The Music Industry! The more businesses learn about ethics, the more they will be able to on Technology and the Downfall of the English, practice the future of business: ethics. The Necessity Of Ethics In Business. Ours is a business-centered society. No group in America is Rights and Compensation, more influential than businessmen (Baumhart xv). Their influence, for good or evil, enters every life and every home many times each day. If this influence is good, the nation is Essay of the Language, strengthened; if it is evil, the nation is weakened. Obviously, the Essay on The Gaming, myriad decisions of businessmen will significantly determine our national health; ethical, as well as economic. Business ethics are discussed not only in board rooms, but at dinner tables, in university faculty rooms and on the floor of Congress (Garrett 1). Essay On Technology And The English Language! Many, especially the impressionable young, imitate the ethnic relation, mores and manners of Essay and the Language, successful businessmen. How important are business ethics?

In what ways are business ethics defined? The ethical standards of businesses shape America and are key to a business functioning. Ethics are the backbone of American industry, well, they should be. Whether an organization has good or bad ethical standards, ethics is an issue for all people. Ethical problems arise not only from the difficulties experienced in making a valid moral judgment, but also from practical obstacles to the execution of even a correct decision (Pastin 1). Often, it is harder to go through with a morally correct decision even though you know it is the right thing to do. More often than not, the temptation to take the easy way out is overwhelming. There are many definitions of ethics, but, according to author Herbert Johnston, ethics is concerned with two things: human conduct and what ought to be done (Johnston 1-2). It also involves people s perceptions about History Politics what should be done. People have duties to do what is right and to not hurt other people.

More or less, ethics involve obligations. Johnston also defines ethics as a practical, philosophical science by which we may reach conclusions concerning the rightness or wrongness of voluntary acts as related to our last end (Johnston 25). Essay And The Downfall Of The! Johnston is A Short History Politics in America Essay, saying that ethics are judgments based on Essay on Technology Downfall Language, society s set moral standards that result in good outcomes or bad outcomes, depending on the goodness or badness of the judgment. More specifically, business ethics are an attempt to develop and apply basic principles in the area of human economic. relations (McLennen 5). With the definition of ethics now clarified, the reasons for being ethical arise. Why do/should businessmen act ethically? Based on Ray Baumhart s 1998survey of The Benefits in Safekeeping, Essay, 1,031 businessmen, the most influential incentive for being ethical was a man s personal code of on Technology and the Downfall English, behavior. Most people are ethical because of what they believe to be right. Most people want to Digital and Compensation within the Music, take the on Technology, credit for doing the right thing when they will be recognized or even rewarded. The Benefits Of Dependence By Karen Hesse! The true test is and the Downfall of the, seeing what people do when no one is looking.

The following list are the other top 5 choices in descending order of importance to the surveyed businessmen: 2. formal company policy, 3. the A Short Essay, behavior of a man s superiors, 4. the ethical climate of the Essay on Technology and the of the Language, industry, and 5. the behavior of a man s equals in the company (Weaver 97). From these rankings, it appears that when a businessman acts ethically, he attributes it to his own ability to resist pressure and temptation, with some credit due to Essay on The – Harmful or Helpful?, his superiors and the company policy. People want the reputation of being ethical. They feel like they are a good person if they are known as being ethically good. On the other hand, the human reluctance to blame oneself for ethical failings helps to explain why our respondents [to the survey] rank personal financial needs as least important of the Downfall of the Language, five factors influencing unethical behavior (Baumhart 46). (See chart on page 10) In some instances, people believe good business is good ethics (Lewis 48).

Of those Baumhart surveyed, 98% believed that sound ethics is good business in A Short History Essay the long run. However, after being questioned further, and when defining good business as maximized profit, then most disagreed that good business is and the Downfall of the, good ethics. History Of Reproductive Politics In America! They stated that good ethics are not going to bring in Essay on Technology English Language maximized profit. Others argued that you can catch more bees with honey than with vinegar. This study leads one to conclude that businessmen are only History Essay, ethical to make themselves look good and all is fair when it comes to making a dollar. Essay And The Downfall Of The Language! The popular image of today s American businessmen includes the Adapting Digital Culture: Rethinking Rights the Music, notion that they are relatively unethical. The standard consensus seems to think that most businessmen will do anything, honest or not, for Essay, a buck (Wong 17). An overwhelming 77% regarded business as a dog-eat-dog proposition. The sources of this popular image of businessmen are, of course, personal experience, but also, the stereotype is produced by communications media (television, radio, daily newspapers, and weekly magazines), plays, movies, and political speeches.

Unfortunately for businessmen, their wrongdoings and shortcomings are what most often make the humans hearing, news. This negative press gives the overall impression that businessmen are unethical. Are they really unethical, or are they just getting the bad end of the deal due to negative press? According to and the Downfall of the English, Sal Marino s study, the results are bittersweet. Although the majority of those interviewed said they had never been propositioned to on The World, do anything unethical at work, a relatively high percent of and the, those who had been propositioned had indeed done the dirty deed that they were asked to do. Marino made the following comment on the results of his study: The good news is Essay on The Gaming, that seventy-six per cent of the respondents said that they had never been asked (or ordered) to do anything they considered unethical pertaining to work. The bad news is that twenty-four per cent confessed that they have been asked (or ordered) to do something that they considered unethical. And the really bad news is that forty-one of those asked eventually did the dastardly deed that was requested of them without objecting (Marino 22). The ever-prodding Marino then asked the Essay on Technology English, respondents what they would do if they discovered that their employer was asking them to do something unethical, dishonest, or unlawful. An alarmingly low five per cent said they would quit on the spot, another nine per in Safekeeping, by Karen, cent would look the other way, and an overwhelming majority, seventy-eight per cent, would try to talk to their bosses or try to resolve the problem in Essay English some way that would not cause them to lose their job. The remaining eight per cent were uncertain about what they would do -- or they refused to fess up.

Today, Americans, workers and The Benefits of Dependence in Safekeeping, by Karen Essay, nonworkers, have developed an alarming tolerance for intolerance (Trudel 69). People are not bothered as much by dishonesty, crookedness, or lack of Essay of the English, respect. Reflection Essay On The And Negative Sides Of The Plan! They have come to think of it as normal. People just do not expect anything more than a crooked businessman these days. In an interview with Marino, Alvin Toffler, a futurist, replied that, the sophistication of deception is increasing at a greater rate than the technology for and the Downfall of the English, verification. That means the end of truth. On The Gaming World Or Helpful?! Many of our leaders are liars, skilled at deception. Lying has become tolerable, if not acceptable (Trudel 68). (Bill Clinton: Are you listening?) Accountability has slipped. Lawyer lies, those technically true but misleading statements are prevalent. Why is this happening? Two reasons: Greed and poor ethics.

Present day Americans are not ethical. They are selfish, deceitful, egomaniacs only Downfall Language, looking out for themselves. Ethnic Relation! Today, if the Essay on Technology of the English Language, economy is good, it is tolerable to be bad. Today, if you merely apologize for a heinous crime, it is tolerable to be forgiven. Today, if you misrepresent the goods, it is tolerable if you are selling yourself.

Today, if you work for a cheater, it is in malaysia, tolerable as long as you benefit from it (Marino 23). Ethical leaders, honest people who serve rather than deceive, will be increasingly cherished in Essay on Technology of the the future (Trudel 69). Right now we live in Adapting to the Digital Culture: within a time when the ends justify the means. There is hope however. On Technology Language! For all of the crooked businessmen in the world, there are still some noble and ethical businessmen holding on. Although some businessmen may not believe it, according to Rodger Spiller, director of the New Zealand Centre for Business Ethics (NZCBE), there is a strong positive correlation between ethics and sustainable financial performance (Spiller 52). Ethnic Relation In Malaysia! Ethics is becoming very important and this is reflected by international business increasing momentum towards ethics and on Technology and the Downfall Language, sustainable wealth. Businesses are no longer looking for the quick (albeit probably also unethical) ways of getting rich. They now want to build long term relationships that will keep the income flowing for Digital, many years. Businessmen are looking for ways to build a long-lasting, ethical enterprise. To do this, they need to put together the on Technology of the English Language, Four P s of ethical companies into one cohesive company.

According to Stiller, the Four P s are: Purpose, Principles, Practices, and Performance. Humans Hearing! These Four P s are the framework of an ethical organization and assist with identifying and Essay Downfall of the English Language, encouraging good ethical standards. The purpose of an in malaysia ethical business is to create a triple bottom line of environmental and social as well as financial wealth (Spiller 52). Essay On Technology And The Language! It operates with principles such as honesty, fairness, caring, and courage, which guide an individual and business behavior (Spiller 52). The practices the business applies, such as those noted. previously, take account of all stakeholders, while performance measurement involves ethical accounting for the triple bottom line (environmental, social, and financial wealth). Measuring performance is key to progress. To The Digital Culture: Rethinking Rights And Compensation Within Industry! Once you have gotten accurate measurements, you must analyze them to see what adjustments need to be made.

There is always room for improvement. Once you have analyzed and decided on what steps should be taken, implement them and follow up once again. Striving to be a company that implements the Four P s and Essay Downfall of the Language, maintains a healthy triple bottom line is an ongoing process that constantly needs work. History Of Reproductive Politics In America Essay! Mr. On Technology Downfall! Stiller has created an A Short History Politics in America inventory, if you will, of Essay on Technology and the, desirable practices for each of the six shareholder groups. Of Dependence In Safekeeping, By Karen Essay! To foster environmental care, an organization should reduce, reuse, and recycle materials, conserve energy, and conduct environmental audits. With regard to employees, key practices include effective communication (that s a biggie), learning and on Technology Downfall English, development opportunities and of Reproductive Essay, the promotion of safe and healthy work environments that provide equal employment opportunities. To keep customers satisfied and happy enough to keep coming back, organizations should practice industry-leading quality programs, full product disclosure and safe products. Suppliers benefit from long-term purchasing relationships along with fair and competent handling of on Technology and the, conflicts and disputes. Shareholders should receive a good rate of return, comprehensive and clear information and effective management of corporate government issues. Last, but not least, innovative giving to the community, volunteer programs and support for education and job training programs strengthen the relationship between business and society.

This kind of care for on The World, the environment will help foster a good relationship with the surrounding community because the people know that the organization cares about the area it is located in. Practicing these charitable and ethical methods in turn will produce results along the triple bottom line and provide the community with an on Technology and the Downfall English Language ethical and generous, yet profitable, organization. Ethnic Relation In Malaysia! Even though more and more people are beginning to on Technology and the of the English Language, realize the long-term benefits of running an ethical business, there will always be crooked bosses. People just need to know how to of Reproductive Politics in America, deal them. On Technology Downfall English! A survey of 2,000 conducted by the International Association of Administrative Professionals indicated that eighty-eight per humans hearing, cent of secretaries say they have told lies on Essay on Technology English, behalf of their boss. On The Gaming World € Harmful Or Helpful?! A quarter have bosses that fake expense reports, a fifth have seen information destroyed or carted off, and a third have observed time sheets doctored.

Some have even been asked to hire a prostitute (Mulrine 76). There are ways to avoid these situations and even prevent them from happening. Employees can negotiate the on Technology Downfall English, slippery slope before loyalty becomes culpability in a court of law (Badaracco 103). First and foremost, by having ethics chats with your boss before you ever need them could help stop trouble before it ever starts. Ethnic! Most employees get into trouble by on Technology and the Downfall of the English Language, not broaching the issue of ethics with a boss until they find themselves knee-deep in unexplained packages and fake documents (Braybrooke 175), says Ellen Bravo, executive director of 9to5, National Association of Working Women.

This is why whistle blowing is rare. People can not tell on the guilty boss because they have been entrapped into the wrongdoings also. You must be aware enough and Digital Rethinking, even brave enough not to blindly get caught in Essay on Technology and the English the ring. A Short History! One should also check out the Essay on Technology Downfall of the English, boss before you sign on and then establish an understanding with your boss during the first week on Adapting to the Culture: and Compensation Industry, the job. Rule number two: always play the loyal protector.

Even if you suspect your boss of wrongdoing, accusing him or her of illegal conduct should not be your first course of action. Many bosses are truly unaware that their behavior breaks any rules. The best approach would be to say, I want to alert you to something that might not look good to other people. This might get through to a truly oblivious boss -- and Essay of the English, tip off a dishonest person that you are on to the behavior (Mulrine 77). Even if the talk goes well however, start a paper trail.

Protect yourself. Precede a conversation with a memo saying: I d like to learn more about the The Benefits of Dependence Hesse, process here. I was hoping you could explain to me why the approach you have asked me to take with bids is and the Language, better than the approach I though we used (Mulrine 77). If all else fails and good cop does not work, play bad cop. Some bosses just will not get it otherwise. Skinny it right down for them, and paraphrase it back -- In other words, Phillys, you want me to lie to the tax auditors? Most employers will back off.

If they do not, emphasize that their behavior makes you uncomfortable (Ferrill 234). Finally, you should know where to turn. If your boss is a an incorrigible criminal, most companies have someone to Hesse Essay, turn to Downfall of the English Language, -- internal company auditors, ombudsmen, or (the latest rage) ethics officers (Mulrine 77). If your company is Adapting Rethinking Rights, not supportive, find an attorney who will be. You do not need to become a part of a fraudulent company. Just as much money can be made through honest business methods. There are methods of protecting yourself from becoming involved in something you know is wrong. Business ethics are of growing importance in today s economic world. In the long run, ethics will make or break a company. It takes us back to an old saying: cheaters never win.

Running a clean, honest business not only puts you ahead in life, it will also move your organization forward with a clean conscience. There will not be any looking over Language your shoulder or dodging bullets. Customers will recognize that they are being treated fairly and humans hearing, continue to return to Essay on Technology and the Downfall Language, a company that provides good, ethical services. People do not want to deal with someone whom they feel is always trying to pull the Adapting to the Culture: Rethinking Rights within, wool over their eyes. Most people appreciate an honest, hardworking company with a code of ethics or mission statement hanging on the wall in the office. More and more companies are investing time and money into learning more about conducting an ethical business and an increasing number are attending workshops. The 1998 Business for Social Responsibility USA conference attracted 850 participants for thirty-two countries.

This compares with 650 people at the 1997 conference. This statistic reflects just how important business ethics are becoming. On Technology And The Of The! The more businesses learn about ethics, the more they will be able to ethnic in malaysia, practice the future of ethics. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of and the of the Language, ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Every paper is A Short Politics in America Essay, written from scratch based on your instructions and there is no plagiarism of any kind. English! Plus, we guarantee free unlimited revisions. You will enjoy direct contact with the writer throughout the entire process and will receive the paper by e-mail/download. The projects are never resold and will remain your unique property for a lifetime. The service is Adapting Rethinking within Industry, totally confidential and all client information is kept private.

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How College Students Cheat On In-Class Examinations: Creativity, Strain, and Techniques of Innovation. Phillip C. H. Shon. There is adequate consensus among researchers that cheating is widely practiced by Downfall, students and poses a serious problem across college campuses. Previous studies of academic dishonesty have systematically identified the psychological and social variables correlated to A Short Politics in America, cheating, but how students actually cheat has often been overlooked. Essay On Technology And The Downfall. Using in-depth narratives from 119 students enrolled in an introductory criminology class, this paper examines the variety of creative tactics that students use to cheat during in-class examinations. Ethnic Relation. Findings indicate that students manipulate variables such as the on Technology and the, psychological and behavioral profiles of their professors, unwitting accomplices, technology, peers, spatial environments, and The Benefits by Karen, their own bodies, to negotiate the on Technology and the Downfall of the Language, contingent intricacies and dialectics of academic dishonesty. There is adequate consensus among researchers that cheating by college students is a pervasive phenomenon (Aiken, 1991; McCabe and Bowers, 1994; McCabe and Trevino, 1996; Spiller and Crown, 1995). The literature on humans hearing academic dishonesty provides a structural framework for on Technology and the of the Language, understanding exactly what constitutes cheating. It also documents the social and personal characteristics of cheaters, their motives, where they are most likely to A Short Politics, cheat, and when they are most likely to cheat; but where the literature is less thorough is when it comes to Essay on Technology Downfall English Language, documenting what the students do to cheatthat is, how they cheat. This gap in the literature exists because the techniques and tactics that students use to cheat have been largely presupposed rather than thoroughly examined. This paper examines the varieties of creative tactics that students use to cheat during in-class examinations.

Analysis of such tactics indicates that aside from the brute mechanics of cheating, some very basic variables play a role in students' decision to Essay on The Gaming World – Harmful, cheat: the possibility of detection, surveillance from Downfall English Language proctors, strategies for escape, projection of normalcy, and minimization of culpability. Cheating during in-class examinations is mediated by certain variables which are part of the student's decision to Adapting Culture: Rights and Compensation the Music, cheat as well as the overall negotiation and management of the cheating strategies and and the Downfall of the English, processes themselves. Based upon this study of how students cheat, specific techniques for enforcing academic integrity during in-class examinations will be suggested along with speculations as to the emotional and moral attractions of humans hearing, academic dishonesty. Previous Work On Academic Cheating. An understanding of cheating on college campuses today must account for on Technology of the, its pervasiveness (Baird, 1980; Diekhoff et al., 1996; Graham et al., 1989; Hollinger and Kaduce, 1996; Karlins et al., 1988; Labeff et al., 1990; McCabe, 1992), the personal and social characteristics of cheaters (Cooper and Peterson, 1980; Flyn et al., 1987; Kelly and Worell, 1990; Newsteadt et al., 1996; Ward and Beck, 1990; Whitley et al., 1999), their motivations (Barnett and Dalton, 1981; Drake, 1941; Labeff et al., 1990; Schab, 1991), and the situational and environmental factors that facilitate it (Bonjean and McGee, 1965; Bushway and Nash, 1977; Genereux and ethnic, McLoed, 1995; Houston, 1976, 1977, 1983, 1986). The principal thrust of this type of English Language, research has come primarily from two disciplines: education and psychology. Consequently, researchers in those two disciplines have been content to Essay of the Unit Plan, survey the attitudes of individuals that best predict cheating (see Anderson, 1957; Enker, 1987; Eskridge and Ames, 1993; Johnson and Klores, 1968). However, aside from the attitudes about cheating that students, faculty, and peers hold, cheating is a suitable topic for researchers within disciplines such as sociology and on Technology and the Downfall of the, criminology.

From a sociological/criminological perspective, cheating behavior represents an illegitimate means of Adapting Rethinking Rights and Compensation the Music Industry, dealing with perceived frustrations encountered in the pursuit of a desired goal (Merton, 1938). In the context of higher education, that goal is a college degreeseen by many students to on Technology Downfall Language, be a pre-requisite for on The Gaming or Helpful?, upward mobility. A college education might seem to be within reach of most students today, yet the reality is that educational achievement remains socially stratified. Academic dishonesty has little sociological relevance if students conform to culturally prescribed aspirations and Essay on Technology and the Language, means toward attainment of their educational goals; however, when students assimilate the Reflection Essay on the Unit, cultural emphasis on English success without equally internalizing the morally prescribed norms governing means for its attainment, then the illegitimate methods employed to achieve the desired state becomes a pivotal focus of rule-breaking behavior (see Merton, 1938, p. 678). A recent application of two dominant criminological theories to academic dishonesty hypothesizes that students whose ambitions are thwarted from achieving their valued goals (i.e. students with a low GPA), who are threatened with removal of A Short History of Reproductive in America, positive goals (i.e. loss of scholarship), and who are bombarded with negative stimuli (i.e., excessive parental pressure to obtain good grades) ought to be more likely to cheat than those who do not face such strains (Smith 2000; see also Agnew, 1985, 1992).

However, Smith's (2000) findings did not support the Essay, claims of general strain theory, and the perceived strains did not significantly affect students' decisions to cheat. [1] In some cases, attempts to address prevalent cheating have had to grapple with an absence of standardization regarding exactly what constitutes academic dishonesty, but there is remarkable consistency in the literature as to what behaviors count as cheatingespecially on Reflection Essay on the and Negative Plan exams (see Cizek, 1999; Eve and Bromly, 1981; Graham et al., 1994; Wright and Kelly, 1974). For example, McCabe and Bowers (1994, p. 7) define the parameters of cheating on tests/exams as: copying from another test or exam helping someone on a test using a crib note copying from someone without their knowledge (see also McCabe and Trevino, 1996, p. On Technology Downfall Of The English. 31). Smith's (2000: 100) work offers a more nuanced way of differentiating and classifying cheating on Adapting to the Digital and Compensation Industry tests, but his questionnaire also implicitly hints that there might be other places and ways that crib notes may be creatively imported and used during an exam. This leads to Language, a logical question that is not addressed in the current literature: what type of innovative and creative tactics do students use to cheat during in-class examinations? And once crib notes are used, what strategies do students use to destroy the evidence of their illicit actions? Newstead et al. (1996) and Smith (2000) note that prearranged signal systems are used to receive or communicate answers to and from others; if this is so, are hand signals and tapping one's pencils the Reflection on the Positive and Negative Sides of the, only way that cheating occurs?

How do students avoid the obvious possibility of on Technology and the Downfall of the English, drawing the teacher's suspicions while employing such intrusive methods of communication? Using crib notes has long been noted as a common tactic that students use to cheat, but how students actually plan, manage, and execute the intricacies of Essay – Harmful, importing the crib notes to the exam and then use it while eluding detection from proctorsa situational and routine activities approach to rule breakinghas not been addressed sufficiently in the existing literature (Cohen and Felson, 1979). That is, how students actually cheat, and the varieties of methods they employ for illegitimate purposes, has been overlooked. This gap in the literature exists because the techniques and Downfall of the English, tactics that students use to cheat have been largely presupposed and not examined as a justifiable topic in their own right. When that topic has been treated as a justifiable object of analysis, two principal shortcomings can be noted. First, the Essay World, novel methods that students use to cheat have not been rigorously and cogently developed. Thus, Cizek (1999) noted that in-class cheating involves Giving, Taking, and Receiving (GTR) of information, the use of Forbidden Materials (FM), and Taking Advantage of the Testing Process (TAP), but these categories are too broad and English, lack thematic coherence and specificity. Second, even a comprehensive work such as Cizek's (1999) ignores the processes that precede cheating. For instance, Cizek offers a compendium of methods that students use to cheat, but how students actually manage the intricacies and contingencies that arise during the planning and commission phases are largely presupposed.

This type of of Dependence in Safekeeping,, stance overlooks the and the of the English Language, sequential and progressive aspects of cheating that might illuminate how it is actually carried out. This paper attempts to The Benefits by Karen Hesse, remedy that gap in the existing research by classifying and Essay and the, collating the in Safekeeping, by Karen Hesse Essay, innovative methods that students use to adapt to their perceived strain in Essay of the Language, the pursuit of scholastic aspirations, and presents a typology of the innovative methods students use to Essay on the and Negative Sides Unit Plan, cheat on in-class examinations. This study was concerned with identifying and classifying the specific techniques that students use to cheat during in-class exams; it was exploratory in nature, designed to elicit detailed narratives. Consequently, no hypotheses were tested. Rather than using pre-formulated surveys and coding schemes, students were instructed to on Technology and the, be as detailed and as descriptive as possible in their narratives.

The narrative responses were then inductively categorized into recurring analytical patterns (see Emerson et al., 1995). To capture the authenticity of students' experiences, I have chosen to let the students represent their own stories, in their own ungrammatical voices. The data for this study were collected from a medium-sized regional university in the Midwest (MU) and a medium-sized regional university in the South (SU) in the spring of 2003 and fall of 2003. The subjects were chosen from a convenience sample of 128 undergraduate students, 72 male and 56 female, who had enrolled in an introductory criminal justice/criminology course. Although participation was voluntary, and for extra credit, two respondents did not give consent to use their responses so they were excluded from the ethnic relation, analysis; furthermore, seven respondents stated outright that they had never cheated on any exam, so their responses were not included in the substantive portions of the paper.

While it could be argued that these two courses are not representative of the university population as a whole, the on Technology Language, two courses fulfilled the general education requirements of both universities; hence, students from a broad range of majors and disciplines, as well as class standing, were represented in of Dependence by Karen Hesse Essay, the sample. Each student was asked to complete a semi-structured questionnaire. [2] The students were asked two questions: Have you ever cheated during an in-class examination? (Cheating was defined as copying a test from others, using unauthorized crib notes and and the of the, cheat sheets during an exam.) If students answered yes to 1, they were directed to Essay, a second question which asked them to on Technology Downfall English Language, write a detailed narrative as to how they cheatedthe specific tactics they used to cheat during in-class examinations. There were wide variations in the length and detail of or Helpful?, students' narratives, ranging from one paragraph to Essay and the Downfall English Language, several pages; for the purposes of this paper, narratives that are rich in descriptions and representative of the analytical category under discussion are chosen as examples. Despotic professors incur the deviant wrath of their students, thus facilitating their justifications and The Benefits in Safekeeping, by Karen Hesse Essay, rationalizations for cheating (Haines et al., 1986; McCabe, 1992). Practically, however, students who decide to cheat on in-class exams have to find innovative ways to avoid the surveillance of professors and teaching assistants. Thus, in addition to completing the exam, students who decide to Essay on Technology English Language, cheat must first determine their potential for success; to this end, they engage in a qualifying process whereby they determine if the person is desirable as a victim (Leo, 1996, p. 266). Essentially, students size up their teachers, testing their vigilance, and ethnic in malaysia, establishing the behavioral parameters of permissible illicit actionhow much they can get away with. This process is similar to Essay on Technology Downfall of the English Language, the way police detectives size up a suspect in an interrogation room in that students, too, create a psychological profile of their professors, and conjure up ways to dupe them.

In the following, a student explains her decision to cheat on an in-class quiz as a function of the difficulty of the of Dependence in Safekeeping, Essay, course, her pressing need to pass, and the physical limitations of the teacher: One summer I decided to take the hardest class of my college career. I was terrified of this class for a long time, so I put it off to Downfall Language, the very end. I had heard horror stories of different teachers but I had never heard anything about the particular teacher that I would be taking. She was the head of the in malaysia, department so I knew she would not play any games. Quiz number one I mad an F after studying practically the whole morning. So, by quiz two I got smart because I saw how she operated. She was an old lady dying of on Technology Downfall Language, cancer. She was in a wheel chair and Digital Culture: Rights and Compensation, she never moved from the spot her husband put her in. I knew that we would have to take the second quiz on Downfall of the loose-leaf paper. When class began and she said clear your desk of everything but a sheet of paper I took out a blank sheet and put it over my answers.

I could see the answers through the blank sheet of paper. Even if she was to walk around or if we had a rat in the class no one would look that hard to see pencil through a sheet of loose leaf. I wasted my time making my cheat sheet because she did not give anyone less than a B in the class it was her last good deed before she died. From the outset, this student makes a distinction between regular faculty members and department chairs, assuming that the humans hearing, courses taught by department chairs are substantively more difficult, the teacher more vigilant and stricthard (she would not play any games). That assumption is Essay and the of the English, initially confirmed when the student fails the first quiz, despite the student's assiduous morning study. In this narrative, the difficulty of the exam is Essay and Negative of the Unit Plan, formulated as an English extreme case, and offered as an Essay on The Gaming or Helpful? implicit justification of her decision to cheat (see Edwards, 2000). That is to say, the student almost talks herself into cheating. After the first failed quiz, however, the student re-evaluates the professor's suitability as a potential target for and the of the English Language, cheating after discovering an obvious limitation in the professor's surveillance capability: she has to remain stationary, hence, limited in her field of vision. Furthermore, the student has already identified the situational and normative contours which affect the feasibility of her illicit action during the A Short Politics in America Essay, in-class exams and quizzes: she knows that they will be conducted in a predictable way, and Essay on Technology of the Language, relies on Reflection Essay Positive and Negative Sides of the Unit her knowledge of situational routines to mobilize and execute her illegitimate plans. On Technology Of The English Language. In this excerpt, the student sizes up the professor's constraints in her mobility, range and scope of her surveillance, and typifications of test administration and uses them to her unfair advantage; consequently, she is able to successfully cheat without detection. In the next narrative, a student elaborates in considerable detail how he sizes up the professor and constructs a working profile:

How do you do it [cheat] without getting caught? Well, that takes some planning, just like if you were planning to rob a bank. You won't just bust down the banks doors yell FREEZE! No, you have to Politics Essay, do it in a calmer more pre meditated manner to help reduce the risk of and the of the English Language, being caught. The first way is by knowing the professor. What I mean by that is knowing understanding your professors habits routines. In other words your teacher is human so his daily plan or the way he does things is by repetition and are usually the same. The way he goes to work, goes to the bathroom, drinks his coffee and so on. But you have to notice his habits and routine in the classroom. Another thing learn his interests. What I mean by that is notice if he brings a magazine or newspaper and if he does this everyday.

If you see him reading something on campus, notice what it is and how long he'll read than look up. Bring a watch. Most people begin reading something they like and forget what they are supposed to be doing and in about 5 minutes they'll look up to see where they are or look at their watch to remember what they have to do. After you notice these things a few times your set. If you are going to Essay on The Gaming World – Harmful, a test and he comes in with a magazine or paper he read daily or every other day you got him. You've already studied his reading habits and you know about how often he'll look up at the class. Say he looks up about Downfall of the Language, every 3 minutes. You know you have at least 2 minutes to cheat so now you got him. He is in America Essay, unaware of his thought less routines or habits so the chance of getting caught in virtually gone.

Oh, another things, remember that group or people you learned your professor likes or is Downfall English Language, his favorites. You want to be one of them. Why? Because someone who pretends to pay attention or participates will be most unlikely to History of Reproductive in America Essay, cheat right? Well, that's what your professor thinks. So you need to participate and ask questions you know only your professor would know so he thinks your trying to learn. This is very effective. The first noteworthyand impressivepoint about the way this student sizes up the professor is the rigorous planning, attention to detail, and the sophisticated gathering of intelligence through systematic observations. Similar to the way an armed robber cases a potential victim through staged ploys and reading of subtle cues, the student does not just observe the teacher; he collects, sorts, and analyzes behavioral data, carefully noting the professor's reading habits, body and eye movements, and general comportment in the classroom (see especially Jacobs, 2000, pp.

47-72; Katz, 1988, pp. 164-236; Wright and Decker, 1997, p. 94). Such behavioral intelligence enables cheaters to impose predictability and control in an otherwise anxiety-ridden situation. In this narrative the student notes the teacher's favored reading materials, and brings a stopwatch to Essay and the of the English Language, calculate the window of opportunity that he has to cheat. By knowing the professor's habits and routines, the student is able to delineate the situational, normative, and temporal boundaries of illicit action; moreover, such systematic observations reveal the victim's vulnerabilities and weaknesses. In other words, the student knows what he can get away with and how long he can look at his cheat sheet. The second noteworthy point is that the student actually cultivates the professor, meaning that the student manipulates the professor through a pattern of psychological dependence (see Leo 1996, p. 271). For most teachers, I would presume, a student's desire to learn and do well in class, through expression of interest and class participation, is a gratifying experience and an enduring source of Adapting to the within, motivation.

The aforementioned student displays a sound understanding of these qualities that cultivate a professor; and it is precisely this occupational foible that the student usurps by and the Language, establishing intimate rapport, feigning interest and participation. Like a good confidence man or a car salesman, an experienced cheater exploits the weaknesses of professors and betrays his/her trust for a chance to improve his/her grade. Once students have sized up their professors, and humans hearing, have decided to cheat (or not), then they must decide if they are going to cheat alone or do so in collusion with others. Sometimes, the opportunity to cheat presents itself spontaneously (Ferrell and Daniel 1995); for some, however, cheating is meticulously planned, rationally calculated, and painstakingly premeditated. It is erroneous to believe, however, that all students cheat with sophistication, their ingenuity being used to outwit unsuspecting professors. Bluntly put, some tactics do not take much creativity at all, and only require minimal vigilance from English Language instructors to deterand catchstudents from cheating. Some cheating methods are just uncouth and unimaginative: students sit in the back of the room and blatantly whisper answers back and forth to one another. In this section, some of the recurring, yet not so obvious, methods that students use to cheat in conjunction with their peers are discussed. Tactical deployment refers to the strategic ways that students position themselves in relation to on The Gaming, others; this method requires students to Essay of the English Language, be situated in a zone of humans hearing, maximal surveillance in the proximity of someone who has studied for the exam, one who may or may not be an accomplice. Usually, this person is considered the smart one in the class, and Essay and the English, those who seek his/her assistance simply peek at their answers unbeknownst to their victims: When I cheated myself some buddies would position ourselves around the smartest one in the class the ethnic relation in malaysia, one closest would copy we would copy off of him.

Cheat sheets are to risky you can get caught real easy. Sometimes, the smart ones are confederates in the collusion: I found method relying on several parties in and the Downfall Language, an auditorium setting. I call this method the flying ducks formation of test taking. Gaming. You need a few people in order to make this procedure work. A person who studies or is a scholar is needed for Essay Downfall of the English Language, this procedure. Of Dependence In Safekeeping, Hesse. What happens is the scholar sits in front of the Downfall Language, pack of students and takes the test as though nothing is happening. Two people sit in front of the relation in malaysia, pack of students and takes the test as though nothing is Essay on Technology of the English, happening.

Two people sit in the next row over of Dependence in Safekeeping, by Karen Essay, his shoulder in a formation and compare or copy the test from Essay and the of the him. Then in the next row, two people sit to the left over and the right over and copy the test. History Of Reproductive In America. When looked from above the on Technology and the of the English, students sit in a V-formation as though they are a flock of ducks migrating to Reflection and Negative of the Unit, the south. This procedure works best in auditorium classes that has a slope in it, because it is easier to on Technology of the, look at someone else's paper. Collaborative cheating requires a willing (active) or an unwitting (passive) participant, and is intricately related to environmental and social influences. To cheat successfully with others, a smart confederateone who actually studies for the examis necessary (see Cizek, 1999). Moreover, the confederate must be willing to participate in the scheme. The person who allows his/her work to Essay and Negative Sides of the Unit, be copied can be conceptualized as a passive-social cheater since his/her role is minimally active (see Hetherington and Feldman, 1964). The role of large classes, auditoriums, and English Language, format of examinations has been demonstrated to be linked to student cheating in prior research (Houston, 1976).

In the second narrative, environmental factors such as class size, setting, and the slope of the room facilitate cheating. That is, through tactical and strategic body placement, several students are able to cheat successfully without detection. But what is noteworthy here is the incremental and ethnic, sequential nature of collaborative cheating: no one individual bears an unfair load of the dishonest work; each participant's role in the scheme is compartmentalized, thus diminishing the likelihood of group detection and mitigating the Essay and the of the English, culpability of the involved parties. The next innovative method of collaborative cheating involves more than spatial positioning; it entails communicative participation. A sign encompasses everything that can substitute for anothersomething standing for something else (Eco, 1976). Consequently, any sign system is World, inter alia communicative; and similar to and the Downfall of the Language, any communicative system, the relationship between the signifier (e.g., word, object) and The Benefits of Dependence in Safekeeping, Hesse Essay, the signified (e.g., meaning) is Essay on Technology of the English Language, arbitrary; that relationship is in Safekeeping, Essay, established through usage and convention, sometimes by on Technology and the Downfall of the, collusion. Humans Hearing. A notorious case of and the of the, this type of cheating involved contestants on a popular television game show (Who Wants to be a Millionaire?), where an audience member supplied the Essay on the Positive and Negative, contestant with correct answers through a series of coded coughs. Language. Students rely on similar methods to signal answers to Hesse, one another. Consider the following two narratives: Another method of cheating that was successful on on Technology and the Language multiple choice tests for a while was using signs. This would work in the classes that had students facing each other.

For example, I would watch a student and he or she would signal me the answer by touch the nose for A, touch the chin for B, the ear for C, and finally touch the top of the head for answer D. This method was harder so we had to pay attention and stay on the same question. I had a huge exam in physics coming up and Reflection Positive and Negative Sides Plan, had no time to study. So I devised a plan with a friend in that class. Essay On Technology Of The Language. The plan was to humans hearing, cheat on the exam through silent communication. Essay Of The English. The way we decided to humans hearing, do this was to give each object on our desk a certain letter meaning. Essay Language. A would be a pencil, B would be a pen, C would be a calculator, and D would be the actual test. When either one of us didn't know the answer to one of the questions we would knock the Digital Rethinking and Compensation, number of the Essay on Technology and the of the English Language, question out lightly on Reflection on the Positive and Negative Sides of the Unit Plan the desk and wait for the other to pick up the object with the letter of the on Technology and the English, right answer assigned to it.

It worked beautifully and the teacher never knew what happened. We both passed the test and were never caught. Coughing once for A, twice for B and so on, or varying the pitch, duration, and intensity of coughscoded coughsto signal answers runs into Adapting Rethinking Rights and Compensation Industry, an obvious problem: it is English, likely to on The World – Harmful, engender suspicion from professors and proctors since repeated occurrences will be noticeably audible; furthermore, a pattern of Language, such coughs might be inductively deduced by History of Reproductive in America Essay, an astute observer, as evidenced by the cheating scandal on the television game show. Successful cheating then requires minimally intrusive communication systems, ones that do not raise the professor's suspicion. Essay On Technology Downfall Of The English. One respondent in the data reported that she and her cousin used the American Sign Language during a test to convey answers to one another from across the room. In the two preceding narratives, students rely on non-verbal communication methods of cheating so as to not draw attention to themselves; this is accomplished by using banal objectsobjects that have no inherent meaningto assign a letter value. This semiotic cheating is facilitated by the seating arrangement; since students are facing one another, ordinaryharmlessbehaviors such as rubbing and scratching one's nose, chin, ear, and head are mutually ratified to stand for corresponding answers. Should the teacher suspect something and Adapting to the the Music, confront a student about Essay on Technology of the Language, repeated rubbing and scratching, this tactic gives the student a readily available explanation: a really bad itch. The latter excerpt highlights another advantage and Essay, a disadvantage of Essay and the of the Language, this type of cheating; the cheaters rely on already available academic accoutrements to on The Gaming World – Harmful or Helpful?, establish a coded meaning.

Pencils, pens, calculators, erasers, and the actual exam are items that do not have to be smuggled into the examination room since they are requisites for school work in general; thus, this method is advantageous in that it eliminates from the outset the leaving behind of potentially incriminating evidence (e.g., crib notes). The only possible shortcoming of this technique is and the of the English Language, that the questions themselves must also be communicated to the accomplices; as a result, this tactic also faces a similar problem as with coughing: audibility and repetition have the potential of raising a professor's suspicions. If semiotic methods of cheating are chosen so as to deflect attention from test-takers, as in the next method, it is precisely this dilemma that students negotiate through a carefully orchestrated academic conspiracy. Cheating, similar to committing a crime, is a function of opportunity. Research indicates that the threat of relation, severe punishment is an effective deterrent to student cheating (Houston, 1983), as is on Technology and the Downfall Language, arranging seats far apart, and the presence of highly vigilant instructors (Genereaux and McCleod, 1995). Reflection Essay On The And Negative Of The Unit. However, when other methods of cheating are delimited as a function of aforementioned environmental factors, students resort to a differentinnovativemethod of collaborative cheating: Every time we would took a test somehow we find a way to cheat. The most frequent cheating method we would use was the distraction method. One of us would go to the front and distract the on Technology English, teacher, while the others would get the notes out of humans hearing, their booksacks. Essay On Technology And The Of The. Each one of us would go up to distract the teacher, to make sure everybody had the right answers. Colluding with one's peers has a clear advantage over Reflection Sides of the Unit, solitary cheating in that by distracting the professor, a student has ample time and opportunity to retrieve and place the crib notes in a strategic location without the fear of surveillance and detection.

By distraction, we refer to cases where students walk up to the professor during an exam and ask questions about the on Technology and the Language, questions, seeking clarification on a ridiculously obvious point, and feigning confusion about the wording of questions/answers etc. A group of conspirators who do this is humans hearing, less likely to raise suspicion since each students' role is Downfall of the, compartmentalized; should the professor suspect conspiracy to commit academic misconduct, the burden of proof is placed squarely on Essay Gaming World or Helpful? the teacher. Of The English Language. By distracting the professor, collaborative cheaters temporarily suspend one of the most effective deterrents to academic misconduct during in-class examinations. Not all students, however, have the wherewithal to Essay World, get involved in such complicities because they lack the deviant social capital in the first place; those who face the monetary and cultural pull of academic achievement without bosom friends, and decide to and the Downfall of the English Language, adopt illegitimate methods, must manage the nuances of cheating in humans hearing, a solitary manner. The data collection instruments used by Essay on Technology and the Downfall, prior researchers demonstrate a firm grasp of the way students cheat during in-class examinations (Aiken, 1991; Baird, 1980; Drake, 1941; Franklyn-Stokes, 1995). For instance, using crib notes (cheat sheets) is Adapting to the Digital Culture: within the Music, mentioned in virtually all of them, as is peeking at someone else's answer sheet; writing the answers on the bottom of one's shoes, on top of desks, and Essay Downfall English, hands are part of The Benefits of Dependence in Safekeeping, Essay, academic folklore. In this section, I delineate the resourceful ways that students cheat alone. Collaborative cheaters deploy themselves in Essay and the Downfall of the English, strategic ways in relation to smart confederates; if the relation in malaysia, smart person is not an English accomplice, then the one whose work is surreptitiously copied is not a passive cheater but a victima victim of theft (see Bunn et al., 1992).

Consider the following narrative: I tried my hardest studying but I just cannot get it. Maybe I can get away with looking off that smart girl that sits next to me. I used to do it before I started studying so maybe I can get away with it again tomorrow. Essay Gaming World € Harmful Or Helpful?. I hope I do not get caught. All I have to do is scoot my desk a little to the side when I get into class and nobody will ever know. Well I guess I better get a good nights sleep; after all I have a huge test tomorrow. Good I am here early and nobody is in Essay on Technology and the English, class yet. This is where she sits so I am going to sit right here one over and one behind. I really hope I do not get caught, I am so scared. Adapting To The Within. Yes she sat there, it's all over now, I'm going to make at Downfall English Language, least a B now but I'll hope for a A.

This is great I can see right under that little hole under her arm when she writes. Essay On The € Harmful Or Helpful?. First answer is D. One down and ninety-nine to go. This is too easy its like taking candy from a baby. Inability to comprehend course content and its level of difficulty has been well noted as a reason why students cheat; in the narrative above, a similar justification is used. The decision to cheat in Language, this case, however, is neither opportunistic nor spontaneous; it is premeditated the night before, the plan of illicit action well rehearsed in of Dependence by Karen, the cheater's mind. The student admits that she has cheated before, and relies on on Technology and the her prior deviant knowledge to almost justify herself into cheating. She already knows what she will do to cheat in the first place. Not only that, her premeditated plan to cheat is executed almost immediately after her decision to A Short of Reproductive Politics in America Essay, do so: she gets a good nights [sic] sleep, and as a result, she is the first one in class. By arriving early, she secures a seat near the smart girl. And rather than looking over another student's shoulder or glancing sideways, as we normally conceptualize cheating, she looks under the Essay and the of the English Language, crook of the smart girl's arm.

This student cheater chooses as victim the person who possesses the valued commodity, and Reflection Essay on the of the Unit Plan, situates herself to the immediate left/right and on Technology and the Downfall of the, rear. Adapting Digital Culture: Rethinking Rights Within The Music Industry. In other words, to and the Downfall Language, know who the cheaters are, instructors must know where the good students sit. This runs contradictory to what we as teachers normally assume about the nature of cheating and practice in the classroom since there is a professorial tendency to direct surveillance to the corner and in Adapting to the Digital and Compensation within the Music, the backwhere the bad students dwell and congregate, while leaving good students alone; but in actuality, cheaters are not far from the good students. Consider again a previously discussed narrative: Oh, another things, remember that group or people you learned your professor likes or is his favorites. You want to be one of them. Why? Because someone who pretends to pay attention or participates will be most unlikely to on Technology and the Downfall English Language, cheat right? Well, that's what your professor thinks.

So you need to participate and ask questions you know only on The World – Harmful your professor would know so he thinks your trying to learn. This is very effective. This student cultivates the on Technology and the, professor into thinking that he is a good student and for good reason. Being considered one of the good students not only reaps rewards when on the borderline of a higher grade, but it also averts the suspicious gaze of professors. It must be stated that relying on this tactic requires a certain amount of faiththat the smart ones will in fact be smart on test day, and will in fact show up, or sit in the same spot. Ethnic Relation. That is, this method of cheating leaves too many variables to chance; for students who seek to on Technology Downfall of the English Language, impose order and predictability in an otherwise anxiety producing situation, they do it themselves.

Creative smuggling refers to the innovative and illicit means that students use to import unauthorized notes to the examination site, with the intention of defrauding an educational institution out of academic credit for personal gain (Smith, 2000, p. 99). These smuggling methods share identifiable, thematic features, but are also delimited by parameters of A Short Politics in America Essay, feasibility (Cizek, 1999). In this section I classify the on Technology and the English Language, innovative smuggling techniques students use to cheat on in-class examinations into four thematic categories: 1) body parts 2) articles of clothing 3) technological gizmos 4) ordinary objects. Using one's body as a temporary repository of on the Sides Unit, illegal goods has been well noted in criminological works. For instance, drug dealers routinely swallow their supplies and regurgitate them upon sale to avoid police detection (Jacobs 1999). Female crack dealers stash their supplies in their body cavities, knowing that male police officers cannot conduct timely searches, thus giving them ample time and opportunity to dispose of the drugs while being transported to Essay Downfall of the Language, the police station (Jacobs and humans hearing, Miller, 1998).

When these types of strategies are applied to academic dishonesty, my data suggest that students also utilize their body parts as illegitimatesometimes untouchablerepositories of Essay on Technology and the, illegal goods. Consider the following narrative: Instead of writing the Reflection and Negative Sides of the Plan, answers in my hand, I would write them on the side of Language, my fingers. On The. If I were asked to present my hands for inspection, there would be no visible evidence of the crime. When the teacher would scan for cheating students, I would put my hand on my forehead in frustration and read the answers from Essay and the Language between my fingers. This was a sure way to conceal the evidence and I had no extra cheat sheets or roaming eyes to bring suspicion to me. Although this student relies on a rather elementary method of cheating, she adds a slight variation to the method. Instead of writing on the most visible parts of her hand (palms), she writes the answers on Essay Gaming World – Harmful the sides of her fingers where they are not readily visible. Furthermore, she acts like she is frustrated, placing her hands across her facestaged performancein order to get a glimpse of the notes during the exam.

Even in a seemingly unsophisticated plan like writing between one's fingers, there is an intricate web of contingently planned actions. This student has already calculated the possibility of preventive patrol by a vigilant teacher, and has found a way to work around it. Furthermore, by using her body part as a resource, she removes the evidence of the crime as she exits the room, thereby eliminating another step in the cheating process that may be a liability. This is one of the primary advantages of writing the answers on one's body. Consider a similar tactic: Another common technique was, writing words on your hand and Essay on Technology, arms. That way it want be so obvious that you are cheating. Most people just lie their arm straight down across the desk.

Many people find that it is a lot easier to hide also. For example, if a professor was to walk around class looking to see if someone was cheating, it would be so much easier for you to put your arm down than trying to hide your cheat sheet. This student cheats by writing on his arm; this student also feigns normalcy through a projected self image (Jacobs and Miller, 1998). That is, students are aware of behaviors that are normatively associated with test taking, and they are used to on The Gaming – Harmful or Helpful?, project a normal appearance during the course of their illicit action. Thus, a student who is frustrated, and in exasperation, puts her hands to her heada rather common sightto dupe the professor into thinking she is Essay on Technology Downfall of the Language, dazed and confused when in actuality she is sneaking a peek at her crib notes; a student who has written the answers on the underside of his forearm straightens it out and puts his head on ethnic relation it to cover his fraudulent method as the proctor strolls by. Thus far, students who adopt illegitimate methods have been shown to take meticulous care to import and disguise their plans while feigning normalcy. Moreover, they prepare their notes, mentally rehearse their plans, and execute them with a vigilant proctor already configured into the plan. There is, however, a way to cheat that precludes a proctor from taking action against the cheaters even if illegitimate tactics are detected; and should the professormale or femaledecide to investigate the misconduct, it may end up being a liability for them. Consider the following narrative: It was a long skirt that came down to my ankles with a slit on both sides.

Before every test I would write all the answers on Essay and the Downfall of the my thiegh. When I stood up you could not see because that slit was not that high, but it was high enough when I sat down. When I sat down to World – Harmful or Helpful?, take my test, my skirt came up a little. I then crossed my legs and I could see all the answers that I had written on my leg. If he passed by my desk I would uncross my legs and I was good to go. This female student uses her body as an unauthorized cheat sheet, but instead of writing the answers on her hands and Essay of the English Language, arms, she writes them on her legs; and by Karen Hesse Essay, similar to the meticulous planning we have seen in prior tactics, she has also rehearsed the plan well: she wears a skirt that is of a particular length and style so that the answers become accessible and under her complete controlwhen she crosses her legs; should she encounter a proctor while looking at the answers on her thighs, she can uncross her legs to hide evidence of her illicit actions. The obvious benefit of this method is that it utilizes a body part that is unlikely to generate suspicion; that is, teachers do not normally expect students to write things in sexually suggestive places; but more significantly, by writing the cheat sheet near a precarious place, it insulates the Essay Downfall of the, cheater from on The Gaming – Harmful or Helpful? trenchant surveillance and detection. The reality of the academy inhibitsor ought to and the English Language, inhibitconfrontation by male professors (especially) who witness a female student sliding up her skirt to sneak a peek at her upper thighs for answers; should a professor be courageous (reckless?) enough to accuse such a student of academic dishonesty, the cheater has at Positive and Negative of the Unit, her disposal a trump card of her own. That is, she is able to counter his accusation with an and the accusation of her own: What are you doing looking at my legs in the first place? By countering an accusation with another accusation, she is able to realign the footing of the encounter in a way that now puts the professor on the defensive; that is, he must now deal with her accusationan accusation that emanates the pungency of sexual harassment. In this ploy, gender is a valuable resource that is Essay Gaming World – Harmful, employed as an innovative tactic for the sake of a passing grade, a tactic that is uniquely and culturally available primarily to female students. [3]

An obvious advantage of using one's body parts as a cheat sheet is that the Essay and the of the English, evidence of misconduct is removed with a student's departure from the examination site; in other words, students who cheat in this manner do not have to concern themselves with the disposal of incriminating evidence. A similar point can be made of clothing. In my data, students regularly admitted taping crib notes onto articles of clothing on the day of the exam. For instance, sweaters, jackets, shirts, and hats were frequently used as illegitimate resources during in-class exams. Consider the following narrative: Now cheating in basic classes isn't that hard either best way is a hat just pull it low. The teacher can see the in Safekeeping, by Karen Hesse, top of the head but has no clue where the eyes are going, hats give the perfect angles for viewing neighbors tests. In a prior section, I noted that unwitting smart students became victims of intellectual theft. To this end, hats provide a literal cover for cheaters whose eyes cannot stay on their own papers; they provide a perfect angle for on Technology Downfall of the, peeking at a neighbor's answers, as this example demonstrates.

A female student in the sample noted that she periodically wore hats to class; when she was instructed to remove her hat she complained to the professor that she was embarrassed to expose her hair due to a bad hair day. As a result, she was able to keep her cover and peek at humans hearing, others' answers. Sometimes, the crib notes are pasted onto the brim of hats so that students who cheat in this manner only have to glance up to of the English, view the answers. Others in the sample noted turning the Rethinking within Industry, answer-laden hat backwards so that it would be accessible for the person sitting behind. As a countermeasure and deterrence against this type of cheating, having the on Technology of the Language, studentsmale and femaleremove their hats is all that would be required. Consider another common garb that is Adapting to the within Industry, used as a way to cheat: I would tape a cheat sheet upside down on the inside bottom of my shirt. While taking the test I could turn the Essay on Technology and the Downfall of the, bottom of my shirt up and ethnic, get the formula, answer, etc. In this narrative a plain shirt that is not tucked in is used in a resourceful way.

The cheat sheet is taped upside down, thus facilitating his unauthorized viewing. Technological advancements have not been immune to being used as deviant resources for students. Consider the following typical narrative that involves the use of a calculator: This does not sound like much but we all had HP48 GX calculators. The brilliant thing about these calculators is and the Downfall of the English Language, that they can send information back and on The – Harmful or Helpful?, forth using an infared light. We never got caught but now in chemistry classes you are not allowed to use these calculators. While scientific calculators have made academic life easier for students, they have also become the on Technology Language, scourge of the sciences during exams (see Schab, 1991). In this study, virtually all of the students enrolled in ethnic relation, the sciences (biology, chemistry, physics) and mathematics admitted to cheating using a calculator. They would do so by programming formulas and equations into the calculators themselves. In addition to calculators, students also made extensive use of the latest communication devices such as cellular phones and pagers.

Students confessed to transmitting answers to and from a confederate using text messaging; some even admitted to snapping photographs of the and the Language, exam with a camera phone, and forwarding it to their colleagues for storage in fraternity/sorority test banks. This would indicate that professors have one more reason to banish communication devices from classrooms in addition to their usual annoyance. In this study, some of the most innovative methods of academic dishonesty involved students who usurped ordinary objects as illegitimate resources. For instance, one student related that he had a friend who wrote the cheat sheet for a chemistry exam in the corner of the frame of his glasses, and A Short of Reproductive Politics, peeked at on Technology and the of the Language, it during the humans hearing, exam, a tactic that is and the Downfall of the, difficult to envision, but not impossible to humans hearing, undertake. Consider the following narrative of a student who cheats by Essay on Technology and the of the, using a rubber band: Basically, the night before the test, you can take the rubberband, preferably a thicker one, and stretch it.

While stretched, write the answers on the rubberband as small as you can see from about a foot away. Write the answers as close together as you can. When the rubberband is unstretched it will just appear to History of Reproductive Politics in America, be colored solid black, but stretched it will reveal the answers. I haven't met a teacher that was suspicious of a rubberband. When the test starts, just start playing with the rubberband. If you keep stretching and unstretching it, the teacher won't think anything of it when you stretch it to look for an answer.

The trick is that you need to Essay on Technology and the Downfall English Language, keep a steady pace of stretching + unstretching the rubberband, and you can't break that pace when you look for humans hearing, an answer. Writing the answers on a rubber band, so that it reveals the answers upon stretching, exemplifies the innovative ways that students cheat on in-class examinations. There are other features of on Technology and the of the, this technique that make it noteworthy. First, note the level of calculation that is involved: the student approximates the optimal distance of viewing the stretched rubber band (12 inches away from face), and he writes the answers close together so that it appears to be one solid color. Second, a normal appearance is projected through a rhythmic elongation prior to the test so as to feign normalcy. By engaging in such behaviors prior to to the Culture: Rethinking, the exam, the student cultivates the professor as a victim since the student manipulates a harmless and ordinary object in innovative ways to dupe the professor into a false sense of normalcy.

Another highly creative method of Essay on Technology and the of the, cheating involves using an ordinary academic accoutrement as a resource: I noticed that someone was preparing a cheat sheet. I asked myself what is in Safekeeping, by Karen Hesse Essay, he doing? He wrote his answers on two small pieces of paper with very small print. Essay Of The. The thing that was amazing was how he hid it. Essay Gaming € Harmful Or Helpful?. He has one of those Bic pens.

You know the ones you can see through. Well what he did is he took off the on Technology Language, cap of the pen and actually put the cheat sheet in the pen. Several of the respondents in this study reported that they had witnessed or had used this technique themselves. These miniaturized cheat sheets were used with clear plastic mechanical pencils, as well as pens. Again, the value of using such ordinary academic tools in innovative ways is that the possibility of suspicious attention is diminished. While cheating has been conceptualized as being related to Adapting to the Digital Rethinking and Compensation Industry, social and environmental factors, this study demonstrates that students tailor their illegitimate methods to Essay and the Downfall of the Language, adapt to their personal, social, and situational contexts. That is, students use what is already available to theman unwitting smart student who happens to relation in malaysia, be close by, deviant peers, academic accoutrements, ordinary objects, and body parts as innovative resources to Essay and the Downfall of the, successfully cheat. For some students, a rift between the culturally prescribed symbols of success (i.e. Adapting To The Digital Rethinking And Compensation The Music Industry. a college degree) and the absence of legitimate opportunities for their attainment translates into adopting innovative methods of adaptation (Merton, 1938). Thus, why students cheat has been the topic of extensive research, but how they cheat has been largely neglected (but see Cizek, 1999). On Technology And The English. This paper supplements the established findings on academic dishonesty by delineating the innovative techniques that students use to respond to perceived strains and frustrations encountered within the context of pursuing a college degree.

Numerous prior studies have found that inattentive proctoring facilitates student cheating. Reflection On The Positive Sides Of The Unit Plan. As I have shown here, however, determined cheaters find ways to circumvent the surveillance of vigilant proctors. Thus, students take painstaking measures qualifying their professors as a candidate, a potential sucker, distracting them at opportune moments, and devising idiosyncratic communication systems (semiotic methods). This means that students' decisions to cheat are significantly dictated by the victimization potential of their professors, not necessarily by the relative strengths of and the Downfall English Language, their strains and humans hearing, frustrations. Previous studies of on Technology and the Downfall Language, academic dishonesty have systematically identified the psychological and social variables correlated to cheating, based primarily on subjects' responses to surveys. For instance, prior researchers have adamantly maintained that students' propensity to cheat is influenced by the attitudes of their peers. The Benefits In Safekeeping, By Karen Hesse Essay. However, my analysis indicates that peers are integral and collusive agents in the cheating processes, in and the Downfall Language, the way academic dishonesty is manifested. Moreover, the variety of Adapting to the Digital Culture: Rethinking Rights and Compensation, tactics used to Essay on Technology Downfall of the English, cheat illustrates the The Benefits of Dependence by Karen Hesse Essay, creativity and ingenuity of students today (that is, the ones who decide to Essay on Technology Downfall of the English Language, cheat).

Even a macro-level variable such as gender has been observed to humans hearing, be adapted as a micro-level situational tactic in cheating scenarios. This paper also offers practical suggestions to deter academic dishonesty and on Technology and the Downfall English, enforce academic integrity during in-class exams. Traditional criminological thought suggests that the severity and swiftness of sanctions would serve as adequate deterrents (Gottfredson and Hirschi, 1990). Some institutions have adopted honor codes to deter cheating while maintaining academic integrity, a tactic that has generally been regarded as successful (McCabe and Trevino, 1993). My data, however, suggest a more routine activities approach to crime prevention strategies (Cohen and Reflection on the Sides, Felson, 1979); the Essay on Technology Downfall English Language, first step in formulating and implementing such policies involves knowing how rule-breaking behavior is conducted (see Wright and Decker, 1994). My data suggest that cheating is either done solitarily or collusively. In the latter instance, paying attention to in-class group dynamics (i.e., individuals who sit and congregate together) may serve as invaluable intelligence in spotting cheaters. Teachers may want to be especially alert to recurring patterns of behavior (touching one's nose, head etc.) from students during in-class examinations. In the former instance, it may be prudent for professors to know who the good students are and where they sit in order to cast a vigilant eye on Adapting Digital Rethinking and Compensation within the students who sit near them (see Cisek, 1999, p. 40-43). [4] As my data indicate, cheaters are never far from the good students. And The English Language. It may also be practical to Digital Culture: Rethinking Rights within the Music Industry, inspect ordinary items (e.g., drinks and drink containers, rubber bands) and other academic accoutrements (e.g., pens, calculators), along with non-trouble-rousing body parts (e.g., hands, arms) since they may be used as cheat sheets. Of course, certain body parts cannotfor obvious reasonsbe visually inspected.

It is impossible to implement dress codes without offending the social, cultural, and perhaps, religious, sensibilities of some students. Enforcing academic integrity by limiting the opportunity for and the Downfall Language, academic fraud in the first place is no small task, but it is Culture: Rights and Compensation, one that is manageable: professors can do simple things such as making sure that desks are free of Essay on Technology of the Language, scribbled notes, that book bags are closed, that hats are removed. Further, they can look for The Benefits of Dependence by Karen Hesse Essay, gazes that repeatedly veer off into areas other than the Essay on Technology and the of the Language, test; multiple versions of exams can be administered in small classrooms rather than auditoriums; instructors can also employ additional proctors during exams, adopting wide and fixed space seating. While fixed seating flies in the face of student autonomy, and reeks of professorial despotism, it functions as a protector of meritocratic ideology since it reduces situational opportunities for unprepared students to cheat from the beginning; that is, it hinders students from strategically placing themselves around a smart student. Adapting Digital Culture: Rethinking And Compensation Within The Music. [5] It robs potential cheaters from victimizing an unwitting student, a student who hasideally diligently toiled for the grade. Finally, I speculate as to why cheating may be so attractive to college students. Cheating, like criminal behavior in general, represents the adoption of illegitimate means of responding to a perceived frustration in Essay and the Downfall English Language, the pursuit of a valued goal. As critics of strain theory have noted, however, explaining the The Benefits of Dependence by Karen Essay, prevalence of cheating as a function of materialistic motives ascribes an overly instrumental view of on Technology of the English Language, human behavior, and neglects the moral and emotional dimensions of rule breaking (Katz, 1988). So what non-material gain does cheating provide? We can begin by noting that the origins of students' strains and frustrations are irrelevant to Reflection on the Positive and Negative Sides, the psychological and social reality of the on Technology and the Downfall of the English, consequences which may result. The result of having an overly active social life, numerous extracurricular activities, a demanding work schedule, and consequently being unable to devote the necessary study time, is to the Rights and Compensation within the Music Industry, a highly stressful and anxiety producing condition.

Individuals who face such stress have at their means two alternative responses: effectuate changes in the self or the environment (Halleck, 1967). Cheating represents an adaptation to that stress. The most effective way to reduce tension and stress in one's condition, according to Halleck, is through motoric activity/physical action; and if we apply this conceptual framework to student cheating, we can begin to and the Downfall of the, see the non-material allure of cheating. As outlined in this paper and evident from my data, cheating involves a significant investment of one's time, energy, and resources; moreover, it involves a considerable amount of physical action prior to and during the exam. That is, students have to sift through their assigned readings and notes and determine which ones they will place in the cheat sheet; not only on The Gaming World – Harmful or Helpful? that, they must expend great care and cunning while cramming such information into their cheat sheets; next they have to and the Downfall Language, devise where and how they will store their unauthorized notes and how they will retrieve them. For a standard fifty minute exam, it is possible to spend three to four times that much time thinking, writing, and humans hearing, preparing to cheat. And during this process they activelyphysically and mentallybecome engrossed in the task at hand. That is, frustration, a highly noxious and tension producing state, is incrementally transformed into physical action; it is precisely during this corporeal metamorphosis that an individual senses the tingling sensations of on Technology of the English Language, hope (obtaining a high/passing grade), along with a non-negligible heaping of excitement and the possibility of danger (O'Malley and Mugford, 1995). But most significantly, these actions provide creative outlets for students to transform their impotent and History of Reproductive in America Essay, frustrated existential situation into an autonomous mode of on Technology Downfall Language, being in the planning, preparing, and execution of Essay on the Positive and Negative Sides Plan, their deviant plans (see Halleck 1967, p. 77). Students who are caught cheating face embarrassment, shame, and Essay on Technology of the English, possibly, expulsion.

Thus, the risks associated with cheating are very real. Yet, despite such formal and in Safekeeping, by Karen Essay, informal sanctions, research indicates that an astounding 60-70% of college students admit to cheating. I am almost certain that most (if not all) instructors have wondered why students spend their time planning, rehearsing, and executing illegitimate plans when they could spend that same time devoting themselves to and the English Language, their studies. A simple answer would be to of Dependence in Safekeeping,, say that they are lazy; that cheating constitutes an easy and immediate gratification to an otherwise pressing need. However, to view cheating as an impulsively conceived and executed form of academic dishonesty, and conceptualizing cheaters as persons lacking self control as a result of poor parenting and deficient moral training, overlooks a socio-structural fact (Gottfredson and Hirschi, 1990): cheating persists across class, race, gender, and national boundaries (Cizek, 1999). On Technology English. The cheating act itself is suffused with an on The World unmistakable tinge of existential boundary crossings that are manifested in the corporeal, emotional, and moral experiences of cheaters (Katz, 1999). Thus, a more troublingand theoretically titillatinganswer would be to explore how cheating presents a set of morally fun challenges that students attempt to work through, that somehow, the possibility of outwitting authority figures provides an unfathomable moral and sensual delight for those who commit such acts (Forsyth and Marckese, 1993). On Technology Downfall English Language. As I have shown in this paper, students are capable of using highly innovative methods to Adapting Digital Culture: Rethinking Rights the Music, respond to the perceived frustrations of in-class examinations, tailoring their illicit methods to their personal, social, and Essay Downfall Language, situational appurtenances, relying on their wits, peers, and even their sexuality. It is perhaps the allure of these moral and emotional challenges and in malaysia, gains through illegitimate means that is perhaps even more worthy of further investigation than the allure represented by the more material challenges and gains so often represented as underlying students' motivations to cheat. Acknowledgments: Thanks to Steve Doblin, Marilyn Hudson, Marina Klich, John LaVelle, John P. Lesko and the Plagiary referees, James Lindgren, Ralph Luker, Brenda Nichols, Leah Sims, Kevin Smith, Russell Thornton, and Kevin Vaughan.

The author also wishes to Downfall English Language, thank Shannon Barton, Jim Cassell, Amy Craddock, Lori Guevara, Dragan Milovanovic, and Jeff Schrink for their insightful comments on earlier drafts. The author alone is A Short of Reproductive Politics in America, responsible for any errors. Agnew, R. (1985). A revised strain theory of delinquency. Social Forces, 64, 151-167. Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a general strain theory of crime and delinquency.

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Robbing Drug Dealers: Violence Beyond the Law . Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press. Jacobs, B. and humans hearing, J. Miller. (1998). Crack Dealing, Gender, and Arrest Avoidance. Social Problems, 45, 550-566. Johnson, R. E. and M. S. Klores. (1968).

Attitudes toward cheating as function of classroom dissatisfaction and peer norms. The Journal of Educational Research, 62 , 60-64. Karlins, M., C. Michaels and Downfall English, S. Podlogar. (1988). An empirical investigation of actual cheating in History of Reproductive in America, a large sample of undergraduates. Research in Higher Education, 29 , 359-364. Katz, J. On Technology Downfall Of The English Language. (1988). Seductions of Crime . Of Dependence In Safekeeping, By Karen. New York: Basic Books.

Katz, J. (1999). How Emotions Work . Chicago: University of on Technology Downfall of the English, Chicago Press. Kelly, J. Humans Hearing. A. and L. Worrell. (1978). Personality characteristics, parent's behaviors, and sex of subject in relation to cheating. Journal of Research in Personality, 12, 179-188. LaBeff, E. E., R. E. English. Clark, V. J. Haines, and G. M. Diekhoff. (1990). On The Gaming € Harmful. Situational ethics and college student cheating. Sociological Inquiry, 60 , 190-198. Leo, R. A. (1996).

Miranda's revenge: Police interrogation as a confidence game. Essay On Technology And The Downfall English. Law and Reflection Essay on the Positive Unit, Society Review, 30 (2), 259-288. McCabe, D. On Technology Downfall English Language. L. 1992. The influence of situational ethics on cheating among college students. Sociological Inquiry, 62, 365-374. McCabe, D. L. and W. J. Bowers. (1994).

Academic dishonesty among males in college: A thirty year perspective. To The Digital Rights. Journal of Downfall of the English Language, College Student Development, 35 , 5-10. McCabe, D. L. and L. K. Trevino. (1993). The Benefits. Academic dishonesty: Honor codes and Essay, other contextual influences. Journal of Higher Education, 64 , 522-538. McCabe, D. L. and L. K. Trevino. (1996). What we know about cheating in college: Longitudinal trends and recent developments. Change, 28 , 28-33. Merton, R. Essay On The Positive Sides Of The. K. (1938). Social structure and anomie.

American Sociological Review, 3 , 672-682. Michaels, J. W. and T. On Technology Downfall Of The Language. D. Miethe. Ethnic In Malaysia. (1989). Applying theories of deviance to on Technology and the Downfall English, academic cheating. Social Science Quarterly, 70, 870-885. Newstead, S. E., A. Franklyn-Stokes and P. Armstead. (1996). Ethnic Relation In Malaysia. Individual differences in Essay Downfall English, student cheating. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88 , 229-241. O'Malley, P. and S. History Politics In America. Mugford. (1995). Crime, excitement, and modernity. In Varieties of Downfall, Criminology (pp. 189-211).

Westport, CN: Praeger. Schab, F. (1991). Schooling without learning: Thirty years of cheating in high school. Adolescence, 26, 61-69. Smith, T. (2000). Challenging Academe's Mystique: Applying Criminological Theories to College Student Cheating.

Ph.D. Dissertation. University at Reflection Essay Plan, Albany, State University of New York: School of Criminal Justice. Spillar, S. and D. H. Crown. (1995). Changes over time in academic dishonesty at the collegiate level. Psychological Reports, 76 , 763-768. Ward, D. A. and W. L. Beck. (1990). Gender and dishonesty.

The Journal of Essay of the, Social Psychology, 130, 333-339. Whitley, B. E. Jr., A. B. Ethnic Relation In Malaysia. Jones and C. J. Jones. (1999). Gender differences in cheating attitudes and classroom cheating behavior: A meta analysis. On Technology Of The English. Sex Roles 41 (9/10), 657-680. Wright, R. and S. Decker. (1997).

Armed Robbers in Action: Stickups and The Benefits of Dependence in Safekeeping, by Karen Hesse Essay, Street Culture . Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press. Wright, R. and Essay on Technology and the Downfall of the Language, S. Politics. Decker. (1994). Burglars on the Job: Streetlife and Residential Break-ins . Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press. Wright, J. C. and R. Kelly. (1974). Cheating: Student/faculty views and responsibility. Improving College and University Teaching, 22 , 31-34.

1. Smith (2000: 160) concludes: Among all variables examined low self-control possessed the and the of the, greatest predictive power. Essay On The Gaming World. This study finds encouraging support for Essay Downfall Language, the theory's ability to explain another form of misconduct among the many that have already been investigated. In Safekeeping, By Karen Essay. Thus, the predictive breadth and scope of self-control lends further credence to its claims of theoretical generality. 2. The respondents were asked to identify only their gender to examine if tactical differences existed between the two sexes. 3. And The Downfall English. When I initially mentioned this technique to colleagues, they seemed to Essay Sides Unit Plan, be genuinely impressed. In fact, some female colleagues expressed chagrin that they had not thought of it when they were in school. But more importantly, when they were askedboth male and Downfall of the, femalewhat they would do if they witnessed such behavior in their classes, most replied that they would do nothing. And for Positive and Negative Sides Unit, good reason: they stated that gathering evidence to support their accusations (e.g., asking them to lift up their skirt to check for answers) would be nothing short of Essay and the Downfall of the English Language, sexual harassment. By Karen Hesse Essay. Practically, I am not sure what can be done to prevent such cheating except to institute a dress code on exam days, forbidding females from wearing skirts; but such a code would encounter obvious legal problems. Theoretically, male students could do the same to female professors; but in my data, I encountered no such creativity on the part of the male students. One female colleague stated that she would confront male students who wrote cheat sheets near their sensitive areas.

4. I am aware that this recommendation leads to on Technology and the Downfall of the English Language, another theoretical quagmire, one that now merely adds a label as a function of spatial proximity, not necessarily independent behavior. 5. Of course, this suggestion is based on the assumption that the exams will not be administered in Essay World or Helpful?, a large auditorium that seat 500 plus students; moreover, it assumes that students who are forced to sit in a certain order will not form alliances and collusions of sorts. Phillip C. And The Of The Language. H. Adapting To The Culture: Rights And Compensation Within Industry. Shon is an Assistant Professor of Criminology at Indiana State University.

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A Brief #038; Basic History of on Technology and the Downfall English Language, Parkour. In 1902, a catastrophic volcanic eruption obliterated the Essay on the Sides of the Plan, town of St. Pierre on the Caribbean island of Martinique, killing some 28,000 individuals in a flash. A young, French naval lieutenant, George Hebert valiantly coordinated the evacuation of over 700 people, both indigenous and on Technology and the Downfall of the European, from the outskirts of the town. Ethnic In Malaysia! The experience had a profound effect on him. For as he watched people move in those crucial first moments, it seemed that the indigenous people overcame the obstacles in on Technology and the Downfall of the English their path with grace and creativity, while the Europeans moved badly, searching for familiar pathways, which now no longer existed. It was clear to him that modern man had lost the ability to move efficiently and effectively in all but the most routine environments.

In addition, the heroism and tragedy he witnessed on that day reinforced his belief that, to be of real value, athletic skill and physical conditioning must be joined with courage and altruism, an epiphany which gave rise to the original motto of parkour, #8220;Etre fort pour etre utile#8221; #8220;Be strong to in Safekeeping, be useful. Traveling extensively, Hebert continued to be impressed by the physical development and movement skills of indigenous peoples in Africa and elsewhere. Based on these observations, Hebert formulated a physical training discipline that he called the natural method using climbing, running, swimming and man-made obstacle courses to recreate the natural environment. Heberts Natural Method soon became the basis for all French military training, and the first organized obstacle course training in the modern era. Inspired by Downfall of the English, his work, units of the French Special Forces in the 1950s further developed Heberts work into what came to be known as, parcours du combattant., or the path of the warrior. Years later, Raymond Belle, a fireman and veteran of the A Short History of Reproductive Politics Essay, French Special Forces, returned to his hometown of Lisses on the outskirts of Paris, where he introduced the English, discipline of parcours du combattant and History in America Essay the teachings of Hebert to his young son David and a group of Downfall of the, Davids close friends, who then set out to adapt Raymonds teachings to their natural setting, giving birth to The Benefits of Dependence by Karen Hesse what we now know as Parkour.#8221; Belle and then best friend, Sebastian Foucan along with other childhood friends and family members established a group of traceurs (the original term for parkour practitioners), which they named the Yamikazi, after a tribe of warriors in Africa. As the on Technology Downfall English Language, first organized group of traceurs, the Yamikazi began to develop a following in France that included filmmaker Luc Besson. The Yamikazi, Bessons film about the group accelerated the growth of Parkour. It was around this time that a personal split began to develop between Belle and Foucan, with Foucan ultimately going his own way.

Proficient in English, Foucan brought the discipline to Reflection Sides of the Unit Plan the UK where he chose to call it Freerunning rather than Parkour. This became a source of both confusion and of the English Language conflict as people came to define Belles Parkour as the most efficient way from point A to point B (no flips or acrobatics), and Foucans Freerunning as the most creative way from to the within the Music A to B, embracing influences from other movement disciplines such as break dancing, martial arts tricking and capoeira. This controversy continues to this day amongst a small community of purists, although Belle himself is known to have used flips in his own practice. David Belle and Essay on Technology English Language his former close associates among the Adapting Digital Rethinking and Compensation within the Music Industry, Yamasaki have always been against competition. This is also true of other groups of Parkour purists as well, such as Parkour Generations, Parkour UK, and FIADD who have maintained that Parkour is strictly a training discipline, NOT a #8220;sport#8221;, and have taken a stance against and the English, competition. From the late 90s onward, the underground movement continued to spread worldwide with Belle dropping out of any leadership role to Reflection Essay on the Positive and Negative Sides pursue his movie stunt career and other interests. Foucan, as well, appeared in commercials and mainstream films.

WFPF INTRODUCES PARKOUR AS A COMPETITIVE SPORT AND UNITES THE THE NEXT GENERATION OF PARKOUR LEADERS. In the years following, new leaders and pioneers emerged who did not necessarily identify with Belle or Foucan, who were actively pursuing their own individual careers. In 2008 WFPF was formed to unite these new leaders and introduce Parkour as a sport. Essay And The Downfall English Language! WFPF is the first organization to have created a competitive format using the name of to the Rights within Industry, Parkour. The result of this was WFPF#8217;s groundbreaking series MTV#8217;s #8220;Ultimate Parkour Challenge#8221; which aired in 2009 and 2010 to a viewing audience of 3.5 million people. The series still holds the on Technology and the Language, record as largest viewership ever of a Parkour event or competition. Ultimate Parkour Challenge was developed in full partnership with the new generation of Parkour leaders who partnered with WFPF because of what they saw as a lack of leadership in the world Parkour community. The WFPF original founding athletes and include Ryan Doyle, Oleg Vorslav, Tim #8220;Livewire#8221; Shieff, Daniel Ilabaca, Daniel Arroyo,, Phil Doyle, and Ben Jenkin. Because of WFPF#8217;s consistent message and The Benefits of Dependence in Safekeeping, by Karen Hesse philosophy of inclusion of all points of on Technology Downfall Language, view regarding Parkour, rather than a purist exclusivity and disdain for competition, WFPF quickly developed a global following and began the humans hearing, hard work of creating a true infrastructure that could support the long term growth of the sport. In answer to calls from around the world for Essay on Technology English instructor certification, guidance and mentorship, insurance, and competition and event sanctioning, WFPF matured into a nascent world governing body for A Short of Reproductive Politics in America the sport of Parkour. IPF- INTERNATIONAL PARKOUR FEDERATION.

From 2012, WFPF has focused its efforts on assisting in the spread of Essay on Technology and the English Language, indoor parkour programs in gyms and other facilities as a safer supplement to ethnic in malaysia outdoor training for the next generation of Essay on Technology and the Downfall of the English, parkour athletes, starting at age 5 or younger, throughout the US, Canada, and soon the U.K., Europe, and Essay and Negative Sides Plan China. And The Of The Language! WFPFs Teaching Certification Program, created by a team of top athletes led by Robbie Corbett, WFPF Master Trainer, has certified nearly 800 parkour instructors in Essay Gaming World or Helpful? the US and on Technology and the of the Language Canada. WFPF, through its partner organization USA Parkour (USAP), has provided insurance coverage to nearly 70 gym and college programs across the United States. WFPF/IPF certification has recently been adopted by British Columbia Gymnastics as a prerequisite of insurance coverage for ethnic in malaysia Parkour programs at and the, their 70 gyms throughout British Columbia, Canada. In 2014, the WFPF founders launched the International Parkour Federation (IPF), a US non-profit dedicated to the advancement of parkour worldwide, assisting in the formation of national and continental governing bodies around the world. Most recently, IPF helped in the creation of the Asia Freerunning Parkour Union, headquartered in Antalya, Turkey.

In 2014, IPF applied to Sport Accord to begin the process of formal recognition of Parkour as a sport with IPF as its international governing body. IPF, in partnership with IPTC (International Professional Training Certification), is bringing the WFPF teaching certification to Thailand, the UK, Morocco, and China, with other certifications in Essay – Harmful or Helpful? other countries also in the planning stages. In partnership with WFPF, IPF has continued to sanction competitions big and small around the US and across the globe, including the Urban Runners Challenge in Mexico City, Mexico, Vigo Street Stunts event in Vigo, Spain, WFPF #8220;Jump Off#8221; Parkour Championship Mandalay Bay- Las Vegas 2016 and 2017, to Essay of the name a few. In 2017, under IPF guidance, WFPF #8220;Jump Off#8221; Las Vegas held the first ever all female Parkour competition division with an all female judging panel. In September 2015, WFPF sanctioned the Adapting Digital Culture: and Compensation within the Music Industry, first-ever University competition at and the Language, USAP College affiliated school, U.W. Adapting Culture: Rethinking The Music! Plattville, Wisconsin, USA. The USAP College division continues to grow under the direction of of the, its founders and directors, Matt and Greg Milano. Parkour continues to grow exponentially among practitioners and fans alike. Reflection Positive And Negative Of The Unit! In March of 2014, parkour passed skateboarding in Google trends and has continued to and the Downfall of the English ascendance in the years since.

IPF continues to carry forward internationally with WFPF#8217;s mission of inclusion and cooperation with all Parkour groups worldwide with the goal of advancing this dynamic new sport to humans hearing its proper place alongside other recognized sports and Essay Language disciplines. A Short History Of Reproductive In America Essay! RED ROOF INN- The Official Hotel Sponsor of WFPF. FOR YOU TRAVELERS OUT THERE!! The WFPF can now offer you a 20% discount at on Technology and the of the English Language, any RED ROOF INN. We met with them, discussed, they wanted to be our hotel sponsor, and well. here ya go!!

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What is contrast? To compare means to point out similarities and to contrast means to . point our differences. When you compare or contrast, you need to come to some conclusion. Its not enough to say These two things are similar or They are different. Your reader will be asking So what? Whats your point? Hints for writing a compare/contrast essay : 1. Limit your topic. Humans Hearing? When you write a comparison or contrast essay , you might think that the.

Difference , Essay , Sentence 609 Words | 3 Pages. ?A Quick Note Before You Begin Argumentative essays are also commonly known as persuasive essays . However, there are some . differences between the on Technology two even if theyre commonly considered to be the same. Persuasive essays are short, around five to six paragraphs. They usually focus on your side with occasionally one paragraph devoted to by Karen Hesse the opposing side. Persuasive essays focus more on the emotions of the on Technology English reader.

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my essays were about summarizing a chapter from a book or writing a short story. There was no set length it had to be and A Short Politics Essay, there were not any . specifics to of the English Language focus on such as to focus on a strong introduction or to The Benefits of Dependence by Karen Essay focus on being organized when writing. The essays that I wrote in high school were just for a quick grade or to help out our grade. I did not really have that much experience in writing essays . In the past semester I have grown more as a writer than I have in the past years. My essays have.

Better , Essay , Essays 1419 Words | 4 Pages. An Essay is a piece of writing which is on Technology English often written from an author's personal point of view. Essays can consist of a number of A Short Politics in America Essay, . elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the Essay on Technology Downfall Language author. The definition of an essay is vague, overlapping with those of an article and a short story. The Benefits Of Dependence Hesse Essay? Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in Essay, verse have been dubbed essays (e.g.

Alexander Pope's An Essay on. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 746 Words | 3 Pages. 1113/Comp. 1 February 12, 2015 I H8 Txt Msgs: How Texting Is Wrecking Our Language Analysis They are destroying it: pillaging our punctuation; savaging . our sentences; raping our vocabulary. And they must be stopped. This quote from John Humphrys' essay I H8 Txt Msgs: How Texting Is Wrecking Our Language clearly shows where he stands on the subject of how texters are ruining our English language by abbreviating a lot of our words.

How people, more specifically the young ones are being lazy with. Dictionary , English language , Essay 1270 Words | 4 Pages. Portfolio Reflection Essay The beginning of high school I was a seed in English class. I was not particularly good at English and had doubts . on whether I should ask the teacher to move me down to the college prep class. Of Dependence By Karen Essay? Just like a seed, I was a plain little student sitting in an honors class. Maybe from last years English class, I was fully aware my writing was not anything special. Essay On Technology Downfall? That was what I thought because I compared myself to ethnic my friends, but for sure, one thing I was positive was that. Better , Essay , Essays 1086 Words | 3 Pages. ? Email Writing Essay Writing Professional Email Writing Effective Professional Emails are the result of Essay and the Downfall of the English Language, good thinking and of Reproductive, careful . planning. Steps: o Planning o Typing o Revising o Editing Important features Rules of Effective Professional Email Writing *Direct-The reader should be able to English Language understand the message in the first reading.Meaning should be clear and straight. *. Courtesy- Be respectful,polite,reasonable and use decent words.Courtesy creates goodwill,helps in Adapting to the Culture: Rethinking Rights within, making good relations. Essay , Maxima and Essay and the English Language, minima , The Farewell 1746 Words | 22 Pages.

Argument Analysis Essay ENG 215 October 18, 2010 4.5 points I enjoyed reading this paper very much. Of Dependence In Safekeeping, By Karen Hesse? It made excellent points about . opinion and fear. However, it experienced some problems as noted in the text. Also, it did not use any outside research to support the position presented in the essay and depended solely on personal opinion and quotes taken directly from the essays . Essay On Technology Of The English Language? Nice job! Argument Analysis Essay Expressing your opinion is the foundation of an excellent essay . Your opinion. Anxiety , Audience , Belief 835 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Development Learning Team B COM/172 September 10, 2010 The ultimate success or failure of a paper may often be traced back to . the planning stages. What might you do to provide yourself with the best opportunity to succeed when writing our college papers?

Planning is the most important tool we can use to create an effective essay . When we plan accordingly, we are setting the right expectation for The Benefits of Dependence in Safekeeping, Hesse Essay completing our assignment. We take the time to on Technology and the of the Language create an effective outline and History Politics Essay, use. Begin , Essay , Pop music 1304 Words | 4 Pages. I need in order to Essay on Technology and the English Language present the message I need to on The convey to my audience in my essays , I did not know how to Essay and the Downfall of the English have sentence variety, and last but . not least I thought it was not an important thing to back up my statements with real examples. History Politics In America? My first writing assignment grade proves that I had a lot to learn my freshman semester at Georgia State University. My first writing assignment for English 1101 was to write an on Technology Language essay about a personal characteristic that made me unique.

It sounded like an easy. Creative writing , Essay , Grammar 1197 Words | 3 Pages. GRADUATE SCHOOL ADMISSIONS ESSAYS Preparation Before applying, understand why attending graduate school makes sense to you. To clarify why . Ethnic Relation? you want to on Technology Downfall English attend graduate school at this point in your life, try answering questions such as: What will this degree enable you to achieve? What do you plan to do with your advanced degree? Be able to express what about you and your experiences will help you to succeed in the program: Make lists of ethnic relation in malaysia, professors, courses, research projects. Bachelor's degree , College , Essay 675 Words | 2 Pages. A Word About Words Havel Evaluation Havel's essay entitled A Word About Words, Havel came to on Technology and the of the the conclusion. On The Gaming World € Harmful Or Helpful?? We have an ethical duty . to always be suspicious of words. The three arguments Havel makes to support this claim are that we've always believed in the power of words to on Technology Downfall English Language change history, and Reflection on the Positive Unit, all events in and the Downfall of the Language, the real world always have their prologue in the realm of words.

This conclusion needs a lot of support and humans hearing, strong examples that are relevant, reasonable, and Essay on Technology and the of the Language, sufficient. Essay? Havel's. 2002 albums , Argument , Czechoslovakia 910 Words | 3 Pages. ENG 102 WP-1 - Evaluation Essay Write an essay that evaluates the value or effectiveness of something according to criteria . And The Downfall English? you establish or identify in the essay . The Genre: Youre familiar with the book and movie reviews that appear in newspapers, magazines, and websites. They are just one kind of evaluative writing, but from A Short of Reproductive Essay them we can identify the key components of the genre. First, there is the object to be evaluated. Downfall Of The English Language? Often this is a single thinga music CD, a scholarly study, a corporationbut. Academia , Academic publishing , Essay 768 Words | 3 Pages. ?WRITING AN ESSAY (See simplified example at or Helpful? the end) Intro: Actually state the question or title that you are going to answer Say what you . are going to do: State that you will define the Essay on Technology Downfall of the English key words and concepts That you will discuss the background to the key concepts and major, relvant, opposing theories That you will weigh up the pros and Digital Culture: Rethinking and Compensation, cons, strengths and weaknesses, arguments for on Technology English Language and against And state that you will then summarise the question, i.e in order to summarise and amswer.

Debate , Emotion , Essay 644 Words | 2 Pages. writing essays BASIC OUTLINE OF AN ESSAY ? Essays will have different purposes but most follow the same . In Malaysia? basic outline, that is: 1. Introduction 2. Essay And The Language? Body 3. Conclusion BASICS OF ESSAY WRITING INTRODUCTION ? Introduction introduce the topic in an interesting way, attract the The Benefits of Dependence in Safekeeping, by Karen Hesse Essay reader somehow. Essay And The English Language? You can try to catch the reader?s attention by for example presenting som interesting/shocking facts or by telling a personal story. ? Thesis statement present what your essay is about. Essay , Essays , Formal system 544 Words | 6 Pages. Writing a Research Essay in Economics You've been given an economic research essay topic for Reflection Sides Unit Plan your assessment task and completed . your research. Your textbook and syllabus outline should be the starting points for the research. Make sure you read the criteria on which you will be assessed. Essay And The Downfall Of The English Language? You are now ready to organise your ideas and the information you've collected into ethnic relation in malaysia, a logical sequence. Essay On Technology And The Of The? But where do you start?

It is useful to begin with an essay outline. The Structure of the Essay Outline The. Consumption function , Debut albums , Economics 1577 Words | 5 Pages. writers gave bold imagine about how environment looked like twenty years ago. From our perspective that environment is better in old days so; however did . anyone concern about environment twenty years ago? Lets take look at two authors essays to Essay World discuss. On Technology And The Of The Language? The first essay is A Fable for Tomorrow, written by Rachel Carson (1907-1964), another one is But a Watch in the Night: A Scientific Fable, written by James C. Humans Hearing? Rettie (1904-1969). To begin with I will provide a brief background about two authors. Earth , Essay , Essays 1804 Words | 5 Pages. 12/05/12 Critique of Essay Whos going to hell?

That is the Essay on Technology Downfall Language question. Well, it is at least for Bernard Lewis, Author of The Benefits, Im right, youre . Essay On Technology Of The English Language? wrong, Go to hellReligions and the Meetings of Civilizations. A Short Of Reproductive? In the Essay on Technology Downfall of the English essay Lewis discusses the to the Digital Culture: Rethinking and Compensation the Music different views of Downfall of the Language, religions and The Benefits by Karen Hesse Essay, how the subdivisions of those religions affect it as a whole. It is and the Downfall English apparent to see that this topic arouses the author, as he exudes much passion and noticeable knowledge of the subject matter. The point of the Gaming World – Harmful or Helpful? essay is not very detailed. Argument , Christianity , Civilization 958 Words | 3 Pages.

Persuasive Essay on Recycling Coursework, Essay and Homework Help from Marked By Teachers.com HOW MBT WORKS part of the and the . student room group HOME GCSE essays AS AND A LEVEL essays MEET THE TEAM PRICING Log in Sign up my account | my saved essays INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE essays UNIVERSITY DEGREE essays Search Advanced search Home GCSE English English Language Writing to Argue, Persuade and Advise Persuasive Essay on – Harmful or Helpful?, Recycling Persuasive Essay on Recycling . Elizabeth Barrett Browning , Essay , Homework 1076 Words | 5 Pages. ? Science Essay Evaluation Rubric assignment # __11________ Student Name:Julia Score:100 This analytic rubric is Essay of the English used to verify . The Benefits In Safekeeping, By Karen Hesse? specific tasks performed when producing an essay . On Technology And The English Language? If the task has been successfully completed, all points are awarded. No points are awarded if the task is Reflection Essay on the of the Unit Plan not complete. Category Scoring Criteria Points Student Evaluation Self Peer Teacher Evaluation Introduction 20 points A thesis statement makes the purpose of the essay clear. (Thesis.