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Best Sample Essays, Free Research Papers, Dissertation Samples. Satire is a literary way in which human vice or folly is attacked through irony, derision, wit and winston churchill speech fight them beaches sarcasm. The purpose of Essay about Christopher A Hero satire is to bring about the improvement of churchill we shall fight on the beaches humanity and human society. Satire is found in many different places. Satire is found in places such as drama, films, plays, music, art and most of all novels. Lord of the Flies, by William Golding, Brave New World, by Aldous Huxley, and Animal Farm, by George Orwell are wonderful examples of Evolution Gangster novels that include satire in them. In all three of these novels the speech fight authors make use of satirical devices to bring human flaw into focus. Lord of the Flies satirizes many things in it. Good and evil concerning society is a major issue satirized in the book.
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During the time of the Russian Revolution, Stalin was the bettering education one and only person in charge. Orwell does this in Animal Farm by having Napoleon gain all the power. By doing this he becomes dictator of the farm. All of the animals are supposed to listen to him and speech we shall fight them on the follow his orders. Orthogonal. Orwell also satirizes role in society in this book. “7. All animals are equal.” (Orwell, 33) While part of the commandments state that everyone should be treated equal, that’s not what actually occurs. Winston Churchill Them Beaches. Napoleon is treated as leader and the pigs are treated better than the rest of the. animals.
During the bamboo chopsticks Russian Revolution when people were also supposed to be treated equally, they weren’t. Orwell shows that power can be abused through satirizing the events of the Russian Revolution. In conclusion, Lord of the Flies, Brave New World, and Animal Farm are wonderful novels that use satire to prove many important points. These satirical novels ridicule all the things that actually make us humans. Golding, Huxley, and Orwell all make good use of satirical devices to bring human flaw into speech fight them on the, our focus. From reading these novels you get to chopsticks find out the flaws of human and society. All three of winston churchill speech we shall them on the these authors were able to use satire to prove a significant point.
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Sequential Effects in Essay Ratings: Evidence of Assimilation Effects Using Cross-Classified Models. Writing assessments are an indispensable part of most language competency tests. In our research, we used cross-classified models to study rater effects in we shall fight them beaches the real essay rating process of a large-scale, high-stakes educational examination administered in China in Christopher Is Not 2011. Generally, four cross-classified models are suggested for investigation of rater effects: (1) the existence of sequential effects, (2) the direction of the sequential effects, and (3) differences in raters by their individual characteristics. We applied these models to churchill fight them the data to account for possible cluster effects caused by array, the application of speech fight them on the, multiple rating strategies.
The results of our research showed that raters demonstrated sequential effects during the rating process. In contrast to many other studies on bettering education rater effects, our study found that raters exhibited assimilation effects. The more experienced, lenient, and churchill speech we shall them on the beaches, qualified raters were less susceptible to assimilation effects. In addition, our research demonstrated the feasibility and appropriateness of using cross-classified models in assessing rater effects for bettering education such data structures. This paper also discusses the implications for educators and practitioners who are interested in reducing sequential effects in the rating process, and suggests directions for future research. The ability to write has long been regarded as one of the most important skills marking proficiency in a language. Therefore, writing assessments are an indispensable part of speech them on the, most language tests. Commonly, writing assessments request examinees to bettering education write essays 1 according to a set of instructions. Winston Speech Them On The? Then the essays are scored by human raters based on established rating scales.
In an ideal, but over-simplified, view of the rating process, raters first internalize a set of stable and uniform standards, and then execute them consistently. Bettering? Although they may be lenient or severe in speech we shall them on the how they enforce standards, raters should treat all responses impartially. Scores would not be affected by construct-irrelevant characteristics such as the location of an chopsticks, essay in a sequence of responses or the preference of raters. However, research has shown that substantial construct-irrelevant variance is introduced into essay scores as a consequence of the rating process alone (Congdon and McQueen, 2000). Even if the rating rubric has been constructed carefully, the reliability and validity of the churchill speech we shall, rating process still depends mainly on the implementation of the rating activities (Overall and Magee, 1992). Because of variations in both the characteristics and education, status of raters, together with fluctuations between various rating environments, individual raters struggle to winston speech fight them on the remain consistent across multiple rating processes, and different raters may assess the same samples differently.
These intra-rater and inter-rater discrepancies can have a negative impact on both the reliability and validity of the resulting scores. Orthogonal Array? Collectively, these discrepancies are called rater effects (Wolfe, 2004). Rater Effects and Sequential Effects. Rater effects comprise a broad scope of effects, including severity/leniency, halo, central tendency, and restriction of range. While these four types of rater effects have attracted the churchill speech fight them beaches, most attention from researchers (e.g., Saal et al., 1980; Myford and Wolfe, 2003; Wolfe, 2004), sequential effects are no less important. In the essay rating process, raters allocate scores to samples of responses in a certain sequence. It is likely that the orthogonal array, scores could be impacted by their location in the rating sequences as well as by their quality. Sequential effects are said to be present if the score of an essay is affected by previous ratings from the same rater (Jones et al., 2006; Attali, 2011). Sequential effects may manifest themselves in two ways. On the one hand, previous responses of speech on the beaches, lower quality can make the Essay about of the, current response appear better, and vice versa (Attali, 2011). As a result, raters may give higher or lower scores than warranted because they are referring to the quality of the previous responses.
This phenomenon is known as contrast effects (Aiken, 1996). On the other hand, previous low quality responses may cause raters to winston churchill speech fight on the beaches give lower ratings to current high quality samples, and previous high quality responses may cause raters to give higher ratings to current low quality samples. This phenomenon is known as assimilation effects (Attali, 2011). The existence of sequential effects highlights a serious problem: raters do not evaluate essays solely according to the given rubric. Rather, they continuously modify their inner criteria as a result of fatigue or practice. Just like all the other well-known rater effects, the harm of sequential effects is serious enough that researchers and practitioners must pay attention to them. Sequential Effects in Psychophysics and orthogonal array, Essay Ratings. Researchers in the areas of psychophysics and social judgments were the first to investigate sequential effects quantitatively. Churchill Speech Fight On The Beaches? Most studies in these areas revealed the existence of bettering education, contrast effects, such as the studies concerning visual perception (Helson, 1964), square sizes (Parducci et al., 1969), attractiveness (Brown et al., 1992; Thornton and Moore, 1993), and fairness (Mellers, 1986), among others. In comparison, there were some studies that showed the existence of assimilation effects (Parducci and Marshall, 1962) or the coexistence of contrast and assimilation effects (Sherif et al., 1958). Sequential effects were also found in studies of how essays are rated.
In the early studies, sequential effects manifested themselves as contrast effects (Hales and Tokar, 1975; Hughes et al., 1980a,b, 1983; Daly and Dickson-Markman, 1982; Hughes and Keeling, 1984; Spear, 1997). For instance, Hales and Tokar (1975) put the same mediocre essays in sequence behind good and poor essays, and then asked college students to score each sequence. The results showed that the essays in the latter arrangement received significantly higher scores. Churchill We Shall Fight Them? Hughes et al. Essay On Solving The Foreclosure Crisis? (1980a,b, 1983) used a set of them, essays of moderate quality as a reference, and they arrived at similar conclusions. The arrangements in these studies were very similar to those conducted in Essay about and America psychophysics and social judgments, insofar as most of the winston speech we shall them on the, studies were conducted under experimental conditions where raters were usually inexperienced and bettering, untrained, and a limited number of ratings were made. When it came to the case of essay ratings for large-scale examinations, differences were observed. Attali (2011) believed that the judgments of professional raters rendered during real essay rating processes are often performed in a manner that is unconscious and automatic or semi-automatic, with the result that assimilation effects may appear naturally. While studying the essay rating process for winston churchill speech fight beaches a large-scale standardized test, Attali (2011) found that professional raters tended to rate essays toward the same level as previous scores. Interestingly, longer intervals between adjacent ratings were associated with smaller assimilation effects. Assimilation effects also have been found in sports competitions where the process of performance judging has strong similarities to rating essays. The Foreclosure Crisis? In a study conducted by we shall on the beaches, Damisch et al. (2006) of gymnastics competitions in the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens, the partial correlation between scores of present and previous athletes was 0.31.
In other words, high scores of previous athletes implied high scores for present ones, and vice versa, indicating the descriptive of writing a beach, existence of churchill them, assimilation effects. About Christopher Is Not? In that study, the appearance order was used as a control variable since the order was correlated with abilities, i.e., the order was not random. Existing Methods for Exploring Sequential Effects. In the existing literature, several methods have been proposed to investigate sequential effects in ratings. In an experimental setting, one commonly used approach has been to place a target stimulus behind a sample of criterion stimuli of different quality. Winston Churchill We Shall Fight Them Beaches? Then the ratings under the various settings were compared.
The statistical method used in this approach was an analysis of variance or covariance (e.g., Hughes et al., 1980a,b, 1983; Daly and Dickson-Markman, 1982; Hughes and Keeling, 1984; Spear, 1997). For real rating procedures, most often it is not feasible to conduct studies in experimental settings. Instead, studies of essay ratings can use a variety of methods to collect and analyze operational data during real world rating processes. One such method computes the correlation or partial correlation between present scores and scores made previously by piece about a beach, the same raters. A significant positive correlation would indicate the existence of assimilation effects, whereas a significant negative correlation would indicate the occurrence of contrast effects (Damisch et al., 2006; Attali, 2011). However, the drawback for use of the correlation method is that it is unable to churchill beaches examine the joint influence of multiple previous scores on the present score. The data structure also complicates the analysis when using the correlation method.
During the rating process of most large-scale examinations, typically a multiple rating strategy is employed. For this approach, raters and essays are partially crossed, which violates the independence requirement for correlation coefficient estimation. If the data structure is not taken into bettering account, the resulting standard errors of the winston we shall fight beaches, parameter estimates will be underestimated, which will lead to inflated type I error rates (Barcikowski, 1981; Scariano and chopsticks, Davenport, 1987; Raudenbush and Bryk, 2002). Because it is so common for winston we shall them on the raters and essays to be partially crossed, models are needed that can identify both rater and essay effects. Cross-classified models (Raudenbush, 1993; Rasbash and Goldstein, 1994; Browne et al., 2001) have been proposed to handle such structures.
In their applied work, Leckie and Baird (2011) fit cross-classified models to detect rater effects during the rating process of a large-scale examination. In another example, Ramineni (2008) estimated cross-classified models to the rating data of the United States Medical Licensure Examination, and revealed the existence of contrast effects. The exploration of sequential effects can prove useful for revealing the hidden cognitive processes behind rating behaviors. These investigations have theoretical and array, practical significance for essay ratings. However, large-scale educational examinations present many obstacles for research in this area, and the data collected often do not satisfy the requirements of many commonly used statistical models. Recognizing the significance of investigating sequential effects in essay ratings and nature of the data structures found in large-scale examinations, our study aimed to explore potential sequential effects in essay ratings by using cross-classified models. The goal of this research was to explore sequential effects in essay ratings in winston churchill we shall fight them on the large-scale, high-stakes educational examinations. The study was designed to illustrate the feasibility and appropriateness of cross-classified models in assessing rater effects for such data structures. The operational data used in this study were collected from a real rating process (described later in this paper) that employed a multiple rating strategy. The following research questions were addressed: (1) Were the sequential effects of Essay Christopher Clombus Is Not A Hero, previous scores on subsequent scores positive or negative?
(2) Did raters differ in the sequential effects they demonstrated? (3) Were sequential effects of raters associated with their experience and rating quality? The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In the next section, we introduce a data structure that occurs commonly in large-scale essay ratings, along with details of the winston we shall beaches, cross-classified models for handling such a structure. Then we describe our empirical study and present specific details of the Essay about Evolution of the, models considered. Winston Churchill Speech On The? Last, we provide a discussion of the bamboo, results. The paper closes with our conclusions and suggestions for future work. Often the data structure in large-scale essay ratings is not perfectly hierarchical.
If there exists a perfect or simple hierarchical structure, the lower level units are completely nested within higher level units. As an illustration, we can consider a simple two-level nested structure in churchill we shall them on the essay ratings. Such data may be found in descriptive a beach low stakes examinations where each essay is churchill speech them on the beaches, scored by only one rater. The relationship between essays and raters in such a case is illustrated in Figure 1A. Of The Gangster? In Figure 1, the units of different levels are represented by boxes, and the classification between units of churchill speech we shall them beaches, different levels is represented by arrows from the lowest level units to the classification units. FIGURE 1. Classification diagrams for bettering education (A) simple 2-level nested structure and (B) cross-classified structure. In many situations, the winston speech we shall fight on the beaches, relationship between different units is not purely hierarchical. For example, students may be nested within classes, and orthogonal, classes may be nested within schools. However, students may also belong to more than one type of churchill on the, unit at a given level of a hierarchy, as when a student belongs sequentially to a particular primary school and secondary school.
In this case, the classifications in the structure are not completely nested. Such a structure is known as a cross-classified structure. Essay Evolution? For essay rating, a cross-classified structure is common. As illustrated in Figure 1B, scores are cross-classified within essays and raters. Each score, the lower level unit, is simultaneously classified by two groups at the higher level, essay and rater, while essays and raters do not strictly nest within each other. For data with a cross-classified structure, the application of cross-classified models has been recommended in order to adjust for the data non-independence, improve the quality of them on the beaches, estimates of explanatory variable effects, and identify components of Essay Clombus Is Not, variance in the outcomes more accurately (Raudenbush, 1993; Rasbash and Goldstein, 1994; Browne et al., 2001; Fielding and churchill we shall, Goldstein, 2005). We proposed the following model for the essay ratings to account for the complex hierarchical structure with random cross-classifications: where score ijk represents the i -th score for Essay the Foreclosure the j -th essay given by rater k. X is the vector of explanatory variables, and #x03B2; is the vector of slope parameters. The random part of the model consists of two level-2 error terms, one for churchill we shall them beaches the essay ( u e s s a y ( j ) ( 2 ) ) and one for the rater ( u r a t e r ( k ) ( 3 ) ) , along with the usual level-1 error term for each score ( e ijk ). As the structure of the Is Not, model grows more complex, the random part can be composed of more components, such as the variance of the slopes and the covariance of slope and intercept. Moreover, the variance in level-1 can have a complex pattern, e.g., it could change as a function of predictors or adjacent errors could be dependent to winston on the some extent. Methods for Essay about Christopher Is Not A Hero Estimation and Model Comparison. To estimate the parameters of cross-classified models, both frequentist and churchill speech fight on the beaches, Bayesian methods can be used.
Rasbash and Goldstein (1994) proposed a likelihood-based approach that transformed the cross-classified model into a constrained nested model, and then used an orthogonal array, iterative generalized least squares algorithm (IGLS) to estimate. Other frequentist approaches included the churchill speech them, alternating imputation prediction method (Clayton and Rasbash, 1999), Gauss#x2013;Hermite quadrature within penalized quasi-likelihood (PQL) estimation (Pan and descriptive piece, Thompson, 2000), and the HGLM framework (Lee and Nelder, 2000). Speech Fight Them On The? However, all the frequentist methods proposed have had computational limitations. This makes them impractical for bamboo chopsticks data with large numbers of units in each classification (Browne et al., 2001), which is the case for large-scale essay ratings. However, these limitations can be overcome by using Bayesian methods. Bayesian estimation can be implemented for cross-classified models using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique, in which each classification is treated as a random additive term. This approach avoids the need to construct the global block diagonal matrix V used in the IGLS algorithm (Browne et al., 2001). Moreover, the MCMC method can produce estimates of all the posterior distributions of the unknown parameters, instead of point estimates and standard errors. Churchill Speech We Shall Fight Them Beaches? These advantages make Bayesian methods ideal for estimating cross-classified models, and these methods can be applied readily using available software implementations (Rasbash et al., 2015b).
When estimating models with the MCMC algorithm, the deviance information criterion (DIC) is Essay Christopher Clombus, recommended for churchill we shall them model comparisons (Spiegelhalter et al., 2002). The DIC is descriptive, a generalization of Akaike#x2019;s information criterion (Akaike, 1974) that can be used to winston churchill fight on the beaches compare both non-nested models and models that have the same response but different structures. With the DIC, a lower value corresponds to a better model fit. For this study, we collected our operational data during the rating process of Evolution Gangster, one writing item that was part of an English test administered in a province of China. The English test was one of four subjects in a national large-scale, high-stakes educational examination. Winston Churchill Speech Fight Beaches? A student#x2019;s total raw score on the four tests as a whole served as the sole criterion for whether the student would be allowed to enter a college or university. The writing section of the English test was designed to measure the comprehensive language competence of high school graduates who learned English as a second language. The writing section was composed of two items. Chopsticks? Our study focused on the first item, which was scored on a 20-point scale. This item provided a series of winston churchill them, pictures describing an event, based on which students were instructed to write an essay of no less than 60 words with a time limit of 30 min. The present study was carried out in array accordance with the Helsinki Convention and the Norwegian Health Research Act.
The original data was collected by the official organization that administered the rating process, and each rater was asked to give written informed consent before participating in the process. The protocol was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of churchill we shall them, Beijing Normal University. The rating process was commissioned by chopsticks, the same official organization that administered the test. All raters involved were recruited by the organization, and were highly qualified. Winston Churchill Speech We Shall Fight Them On The Beaches? The eligibility requirements for potential raters included a bachelor#x2019;s degree in English, no less than 1 year teaching experience, and district level rating experience. There were 88 raters in Essay about Is Not A Hero the rater group. To ensure the effective administration of the ratings, the raters were divided into seven teams, and each team was assigned a team leader. Speech We Shall Fight Beaches? In allocating raters to teams, the age, gender, and educational districts were taken into account to ensure the chopsticks, homogeneity of the teams. The rating process in the study was intensive and lasted for five successive days. The start time and end time of each rating were recorded in fight addition to bettering education the rating itself.
The rating process was computer-based, with the essays scanned into electronic files which were then distributed randomly across the churchill them beaches, whole rater group. The rating rubric divided the 20 points allotted to the writing item into five classes. Scores in the range of 16 to 20 points were defined as #x201C;high,#x201D; and constituted the first (top level) class. First, all essays were scored independently by two raters working holistically on the 20-point scale. If an essay was scored twice without issue, the average of the two scores served as the final score. Of The Gangster? However, if the difference between the two scores given by the original raters was equal to or greater than four points 2 , the essay would be scored a third time by another rater chosen at random.
When an essay was rated three times, the final recorded score was the average of the two scores that were within four points of one another. In this situation, the proportion of essays that would be rated a third time depended mostly on the difference threshold. The rating authority believed that a smaller threshold indicated greater consistency of scores for the same essay. Therefore, the threshold was set at four points, which is a strict standard for the full range of churchill them beaches, 20 points. In the present rating process, 17% of the essays were rated a third time. Note that this does not mean that 17% of all scores were contributed by a third rater.
In total, 67,500 valid essays, written by 67,500 students and rated by the 88 raters, were included in the analysis. Among those essays, 55,733 essays were scored by two raters, and 11,727 essays were scored by bettering education, three raters. Consequently, 146,727 scores were generated. For this research, cross-classified models were utilized to take the complex hierarchical structure of the data into account. In this way, it was possible to explore rater effects in essay scoring while still accounting for both essay-rater cross-classification and speech fight on the, non-independence of multiple ratings for array the same essays. The scores of each essay were used as the response variable, and the proportion of high scores in the nine previous ratings were used as predictors of sequential effects. The descriptions of all variables included in the analysis are detailed in Table 1. Winston Churchill Speech Beaches? To address the three research questions stated above, four increasingly complex cross-classified models were offered. TABLE 1. Description of variables included in the cross-classified models. Model 1 was an intercept-only model intended to chopsticks examine score variance due to essays and raters, based on winston churchill speech which Model 2 was built and compared. In this phase, we also examined whether level-1 variance was dependent on the rating sequence.
Model 2 was designed to bamboo chopsticks clarify whether sequential effects were present during the rating process, and whether the possible sequential effects were assimilation or contrast effects. This model included three predictors: verbal, writing , and highpro_9 . The variable verbal denoted raw scores in the verbal section of the same English test, which represented general language competence. Churchill Speech Them Beaches? The variable writing stood for raw scores given on the other essay item of the same test, which served as an indicator of writing competence. The variable highpro_9 represented the proportion of high scores (i.e., scores in the range of 16 to bettering education 20 points) in the nine scores preceding the present score in the rating sequence of the same raters. Churchill We Shall Fight Them? This variable was added to Model 2 to clarify the existence of sequential effects. The adoption of highpro_9 as the predictor for bettering sequential effects was inspired by winston churchill speech them beaches, the research of Attali (2011), in which nine previous scores were correlated with the present one, and the work of Ramineni (2008), in which the Essay, proportions of extreme scores were used as predictors. Furthermore, the adoption was also based on the following three considerations.
First, the winston churchill we shall them on the beaches, proportions of high scores represented the joint influence of several previous scores, and their use also avoided the potential problem of Essay on Solving the Foreclosure, collinearity when nine individual scores were added simultaneously to the model. Second, the adoption conformed to the nature of the rating process. During the winston fight them on the, present rating process, all raters were asked to follow three steps before achieving a final score: read an essay, allocate it to bettering one of five classes, and calibrate a final score within the class. Winston Speech Them On The? During the intensive and about Christopher Clombus A Hero, exhausting rating process, it was easier for raters to have an overall impression of the winston speech fight on the, several previous scores they gave. Finally, in a high stakes educational examination like the present test, a difference of Essay Crisis, one or two points within the higher class could decide whether a student would be allowed to enter a college or university. In contrast, score differences within the lower classes did not have such critical influence on final decisions concerning enrollment. As a result, high scores could cause a deeper impression on raters than low scores. In Model 2, the slopes for all three predictors were set to be fixed.
The slope of the predictor highpro_9 indicated the existence or non-existence of sequential effects. If the credible interval for the slope did not include zero, then the proportion of high scores among the previous nine scores were associated with the winston speech on the, present scores. In other words, a positive slope for highpro_9 indicated that higher proportions of high scores were directly associated with higher present scores, suggesting the presence of assimilation effects. Conversely, a negative slope for highpro_9 suggested the presence of contrast effects. In Model 3, the slope of highpro_9 was allowed to vary across raters in about Evolution Gangster and America order to explore whether or not there were individual differences with respect to sequential effects. If the winston churchill we shall fight them on the beaches, credible interval for the resulting variance of slopes did not include zero, that result provided evidence that raters differed in sequential effects expressed by the association between the proportions of high scores and the present scores. Model 4 included three rater variables in order to Essay Gangster and America examine which factors could have an influence on sequential effects. The first variable was experience , defined as the number of churchill speech we shall fight them, times the rater had participated in rating high stakes educational examinations at the provincial level at least. The second variable was scoremeans , an indicator of Crisis, severity, defined as the mean score of all essays scored by a rater. The last variable was trirate , and operationalized as the proportion of essays rated by a third rater out of all the essays marked by a specific rater.
In addition to considering these variables in the cross-classified models, interaction terms between the rater variables and highpro_9 were considered. All models in this study were estimated using the MLwiN (2.34) MCMC procedure at its default setting (Rasbash et al., 2015a). In all models, default flat priors were used for the fixed effects parameters. Standard diffuse priors (inverse gamma or wishart) were assumed for the variance parameters. Both the burn-in length and the sample chain length were set as 50,000. Speech Them? Convergence was monitored and descriptive piece of writing about, explored for each model by checking information on MCMC trajectory plots, such as the autocorrelation function (ACF), the partial autocorrelation function (PACF), the Raftery#x2013;Lewis diagnostic, the Brooks#x2013;Draper diagnostic, and the effective sample size measure (ESS) (Rasbash et al., 2015b). The DIC (Spiegelhalter et al., 2002) for each model was presented and used to compare model fit between models. Model 1 included only a constant term in the fixed part. As shown in Table 2, significant variance existed between both the winston speech, raters [ #x03c3; u ( 3 ) 2 = 0.309 , 95% credible interval (CrI): (0.227, 0.420)] and orthogonal array, the essays [ #x03c3; u ( 2 ) 2 = 9.983 , 95% CrI: (9.779, 10.181)]. Considerable residual variance was also present [ #x03c3; e 2 = 8.962 , 95% CrI: (8.887, 9.038)]. The between-rater variance was much smaller than the between-essay variance, indicating that the influence of churchill we shall fight on the, raters on scores was much smaller than the influence of essays themselves.
The former accounted for only 1.6% of the total variance, while the latter accounted for 51.9%. To some extent, this finding provided evidence for the validity of the resulting scores. Additional analyses showed that level-1 variance did not depend on piece a beach the rating sequence, and that adjacent errors in level-1 could be assumed to winston we shall fight them beaches be independent. TABLE 2. Parameter estimates (SE) for model 1 and model 2. Model 2 added three fixed covariates: verbal , writing , and highpro_9 . The DIC of Model 2 decreased dramatically, indicating a substantial improvement in model fit. As seen in Table 2, all three covariates had a positive association with the response variable. The effect predictor highpro_9 had a positive influence [#x03B2; 3 = 1.788, 95% CrI: (1.716, 1.863)]. This finding meant that higher proportions of high scores in the previous nine essays were associated with an increased score on the rating of an essay, suggesting the existence of assimilation effects. Specifically, if an essay had nine previous essays with a high score, all else being equal, its score was expected to be 1.788 points higher than if none of the nine previous essays had received a high score.
On the whole scale of the present essay item, the estimated effect (1.788 points) amounted to 40% of one standard deviation for the scores analyzed. The case of an essay having nine high previous scores in a row was rather extreme, and accounted for only 0.2% of the total cases. The cases with four or more high previous scores accounted for 18.6% of total cases, while the the Foreclosure, cases with no or a single previous high score were very common, accounting for nearly half of the total cases. Hence, comparing the more common setting of four previous high scores to the case of one previous high score, the winston we shall on the, score of the target essay was expected to be 1.788 #x00D7; (0.44-0.11) = 0.590 higher, about 13% of one standard deviation for the present scale. Evidence of Individual Differences in Assimilation Effects. The results of Model 2 showed that raters demonstrated assimilation effects during the Essay the Foreclosure Crisis, rating process. However, we also needed to consider whether the winston speech we shall fight on the beaches, raters differed in the demonstrated effects. To investigate this issue, the slope of the predictor highpro_9 was set to vary across raters, and array, Model 3 was developed. The fit of Model 3 was improved compared to Model 2, with a substantially lower DIC.
The slope of highpro_9 was still positive [#x03B2; 3 = 1.740, 95% CrI: (1.522, 1.949)], and the results from fitting Model 3 indicated that not only speech we shall on the, were sequential effects present in terms of assimilation effects, but the strength of orthogonal array, these effects also varied between the raters [ #x03c3; u ( 3 ) ( 3 , 3 ) 2 = 0.857 , 95% CrI : (0.608, 1.199)]. Winston Churchill Speech On The Beaches? To facilitate the interpretation of the results from Crisis Model 3, the individual rater slopes were calculated and plotted in Figure 2. In the figure, the slopes were ranked and plotted with the corresponding 95% credible interval (vertical thin lines). As seen in winston fight them on the beaches Figure 2, the results suggested that the slopes varied substantially across raters, ranging from 4.516 [95% CrI (3.954, 5.079)] to 0.061 [95% CrI (-0.433, 0.536)]. Among the 88 raters, seven had 95% credible intervals for bettering education the slope of highpro_9 that included zero, indicating that these seven raters did not demonstrate sequential effects. FIGURE 2. Slopes of Highpro_9 for winston them on the beaches individual raters (black triangle) plotted in ascending rank. Each slope is presented with a 95% credible interval (vertical thin line). The Influence of Experience and Rating Quality on Sequential Effects. During the rating process, information about the raters was collected. The variable experience denoted the number of times a rater had served as a rater on piece of writing similar tasks.
The variable trirate denoted the proportion of essays that was rated by a third rater, and the variable scoremeans denoted the average score awarded by a rater. In essence, trirate indicated rating consistency with the other raters, and scoremeans indicated the severity or leniency of each rater. In order to explore whether rater characteristics had an effect on the estimated sequential effects, the main effect term of the three rater variables was included in churchill on the beaches Model 4, along with the interaction terms between the rater variables and highpro_9 . All slopes of the newly added terms were set to of writing about be fixed. The results are given in Table 3. Winston Churchill Speech Fight Them On The Beaches? Compared to Model 3, Model 4 had an improved model fit, indicated by a lower DIC. Model 4 was the best-fitting model among all those considered. Compared to Model 3, the of writing, between-rater variance was reduced by 80.2%, and the variance of the highpro_9 slopes decreased by 48.3%. We Shall Fight On The Beaches? Hence, the inclusion of the rater variables successfully explained the individual differences of sequential effects among raters. TABLE 3. Parameter estimates (SE) for model 3 and model 4.
As shown in Table 3, the slope of highpro_9 was still positive [#x03B2; 3 = 1.692, 95% CrI: (1.527, 1.849)] and still varied among the raters [ #x03c3; u ( 3 ) ( 3 , 3 ) 2 = 0.443 , 95% CrI : (0.291, 0.646)] when the Essay on Solving, new variables were included in winston churchill fight beaches the model. Furthermore, the results provided evidence that the newly added variables had an influence on the estimated assimilation effects. First, although experience had no significant main effect on the response variable [#x03B2; 4 = 0.017, 95% CrI: (-0.017, 0.050)], it could moderate the influence of highpro_9 , i.e., a unit increase in experience would reduce the effect of bamboo, highpro_9 by 0.117 [#x03B2; 5 = -0.117, 95% CrI: (-0.209, -0.028)]. These results suggested that even if raters with various levels of experience did not differ in terms of winston we shall them, severity or leniency, the bettering, raters did differ in their inclination to winston churchill we shall fight them beaches give scores that were influenced by of the Gangster and America, previous scores they had given. The more experienced raters were less susceptible to sequential effects. Second, scoremeans had a positive effect on the response variable [#x03B2; 6 = 0.773, 95% CrI: (0.665, 0.879)], indicating that the more lenient the raters were, the higher the scores they gave, which was consistent with the operationalized definition of the variable. The results also implied that scoremeans had a negative impact on speech we shall fight them assimilation effects since an increase in scoremeans by one point was associated with a decrease in the slope of highpro_9 by 0.355 [95% CrI: (-0.640, -0.062)]. The variable scoremeans had a range of Essay about Christopher Clombus, 7.71 to 10.22, which meant that the difference between the most lenient and most severe raters would have a difference in churchill the slope of highpro_9 of 0.89, nearly half of the effect estimated for the rater group as a whole. About Christopher Is Not? These results suggested that even if lenient raters as a whole gave higher scores, they were prone to giving lower scores once they had just given several high scores. Finally, the winston fight them, variable trirate was negatively associated with scores [#x03B2; 8 = -5.358, 95% CrI: (-7.144, -3.602)], indicating that raters less consistent from others were prone to giving lower scores.
In addition, trirate had a positive influence on orthogonal the slope of highpro_9 , which indicated that less qualified raters were more susceptible to sequential effects. When trirate increased by we shall them beaches, 0.01 ( trirate was expressed as a percentage and ranged between 0.11 and 0.26, with a mean of 0.17), the slope of about Gangster and America, highpro_9 increased by churchill speech them, 0.162 [#x03B2; 3 = 16.235, 95% CrI: (11.441, 20.878)]. More specifically, there would be a difference of 2.43 in the slope of highpro_9 between the most qualified rater and the least qualified rater, if evaluated only with trirate . The results of this study strongly suggested that cross-classified models have an advantage over other methods for investigating rater effects in real essay rating processes for large-scale, high-stakes educational examinations. Cross-classified models can take into account the complex structure of the data in large-scale essay ratings. Similar to the work of about Evolution of the Gangster, Attali (2011), our results turned out to be distinct from most previous studies (e.g., Hales and Tokar, 1975; Hughes et al., 1980a,b, 1983; Daly and Dickson-Markman, 1982; Hughes and churchill speech we shall fight, Keeling, 1984; Spear, 1997). During the rating process used in our study, raters displayed a tendency to give scores that tended toward the chopsticks, previous scores they just gave. In other words, raters demonstrated assimilation rather than contrast effects when scoring the essays. The results also were contrary to those obtained by Ramineni (2008), who found contrast effects with a similar method and similar predictors. The results of the present study were consistent with a few earlier studies, but inconsistent with others, indicating that the occurrence of assimilation or contrast effects may depend on the situation. Several existing studies suggested that assimilation effects tended to take place in situations when perceived similarities existed between target and reference stimuli (Mussweiler, 2003), when judges were confident and winston we shall fight them beaches, certain about chopsticks their judgments (Pelham and Wachsmuth, 1995), and when judges lacked motivation or cognitive resources to compare targets with references (Martin et al., 1990). The present rating task shared similarities with all of the churchill speech them on the beaches, above three situations.
The essays being scored possessed the about, same topic and we shall on the beaches, similar content, so it was difficult to discriminate between essays of bettering education, different quality. All raters had direct experience and were skilled in scoring essays. Furthermore, rating tasks under the present situation were, to winston churchill we shall fight on the beaches some extent, intensive and exhausting, so raters were likely to lack motivation or cognitive resources to prevent fatigue or boredom. In short, when this kind of real, high-pressure rating task is performed automatically or semi-automatically by a beach, professional or semi-professional raters, assimilation effects occur more commonly than contrast effects (Attali, 2011). Apart from most previous studies, this study went further to explore the individual differences that could exist for winston speech we shall fight beaches sequential effects. The results showed that individual differences for sequential effects existed based on bamboo three rater characteristics variables: rating experience, scoremeans , and trirate . #x2022; Raters with different levels of winston churchill we shall them on the, experience differed from each other. Rating experience is a domain-specific experience that has an influence on bamboo chopsticks both the long-term competence and the short-term behavior of raters (Weigle, 1998; Lumley, 2005). That experience had a negative influence on assimilation effects suggested that more experienced raters were less likely to refer to limited samples in their short memory unnecessarily, and could conform to the rating rubric consistently. #x2022; The negative influence of churchill we shall fight them beaches, scoremeans indicated that lenient raters were less susceptible to assimilation effects, which was not in line with the observation that lenient raters usually gave higher scores. Education? The finding that there was a high proportion of winston churchill speech we shall them on the beaches, high scores did not necessarily mean that average scores were high. #x2022; The variable trirate was included in the model to represent the degree of Essay of the Gangster, consistency of the present rater with all the other raters as a group.
This variable#x2019;s positive influence on assimilation effects revealed the relationship between assimilation effects and rating quality. Inferior rating quality resulted from the fact that raters did not apply the rating rubric strictly and consistently, and assimilation effects were just the tip of an iceberg. Differed in the sequential effects they demonstrated, the churchill speech fight beaches, more experienced, lenient, and qualified raters were less susceptible to assimilation effects. These results had the following implications for the rating practice of educational examinations. Essay? First, experience should serve as one criterion for the selection of potential raters. Second, sequential effects may act as one indicator of rating quality as they have a close association with rating quality.
Third, severe raters should be given more attention during the monitoring process because they demonstrate the severity effect, and also have greater inclination to show sequential effects. Fourth, because sequential effects resulted from the tension and anxiety of the rating process to some extent, changing the raters#x2019; working pace might help to reduce the winston we shall fight on the beaches, effects. For example, extending the intervals between essays or lowering the workload of raters should be considered. Finally, sequential effects, together with all the other rater effects, were present partially because raters did not understand and reinforce the rubric properly. In this respect, improving the quality and efficiency of training may be a desirable choice.
Constructive items, including essay items, are indispensable components of modern examinations. The scoring of constructive items requires the labor of human raters, which inevitably introduces rater effects. To maintain the descriptive piece, reliability and validity of examinations, it is vital to detect rater effects in the rating process and adjust the resulting scores when necessary. Among various rater effects, sequential effects are somewhat special, since their existence reflects the we shall, subtle cognitive processes underlying rating procedures. As human beings, the memory of raters cannot be erased, so it is inevitably that their ratings might fluctuate. Sequential effects in the rating process directly imply that raters do not fully comply with the about Gangster, pre-established rating standards, and the effects constitute an winston we shall fight them, obvious source of construct-irrelevant variation. Furthermore, the rating process of large-scale, high-stakes educational examinations commonly employs a multiple rating strategy to ensure fairness, which results in a sparse cross-classified data structure. Bamboo? To accommodate this structure, specialized statistical models must be used, and cross-classified models are a feasible solution.
In this paper, in addition to detecting sequential effects in essay ratings, we have also sought to winston churchill speech we shall demonstrate to researchers and practitioners specializing in essay rating and other subjectively evaluated performance tasks that cross-classified models are appropriate and feasible to apply when the data have this type of structure. An advantage of multilevel modeling is bamboo chopsticks, that predictors of various levels can be added. Winston Churchill Speech We Shall Fight Them? In fact, if cross-classified models can be applied successfully to such data structures, we can imagine that other rater effects such as severity, accuracy, and central tendency can also be explored directly via fixed and random terms in the model. In addition, the fluctuation of rater effects over about Evolution Gangster time can also be modeled by choosing relevant time predictors. Such extensions are of great interest for future research. In this study, we explored sequential effects with cross-classified models in a real essay rating process for a large-scale, high-stakes educational examination in China. Winston Churchill Speech Fight Them? The scores given by Crisis, raters to an essay item were used as the response variable. The proportion of high scores among the nine previous scores made by the same rater was used as the predictor of sequential effects. The results demonstrated the feasibility and appropriateness of using cross-classified models in winston we shall fight on the beaches assessing rater effects for such data structures.
While this research contributed information about rater performance that can be applied to Essay about Gangster improve the overall rating process, our study did have some limitations. In the present study, the proportion of high scores among previous scores was used as the effect predictor. Churchill We Shall On The? Nevertheless, this did not mean that low scores were meaningless to raters. They were not included in our models partly because of the limited capacity of the study. Another limitation of the present study was that the rater characteristics included were far from comprehensive.
Times of Essay Christopher Is Not, rating similar tasks could provide only one aspect of rating experience. The variables scoremeans and trirate could only give a rough indication of winston churchill speech we shall fight them, rating quality. Finally, the present study was based on data collected during a real rating process, which set too many constraints for piece of writing a beach experimental manipulation. Future research might be designed and winston churchill speech we shall beaches, conducted under more controlled experimental conditions in which different patterns of essays calibrated previously would be allocated to raters to ascertain the net impact of sequential effects. In summary, more information must be collected, and in-depth analysis should be carried out to explore the mechanism behind sequential effects. All authors listed, have made substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication. The manuscript is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31371047). The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of about Is Not A Hero, interest.
We thank LetPub (www.letpub.com) for winston churchill them on the its linguistic assistance during the preparation of this manuscript. ^ In the present study, the term #x2018;essays#x2019; denotes the responses of orthogonal array, examinees to a writing assessment task or a writing item. ^ The difference threshold was set according to official guidelines issued by the National Educational Examination Authority of China. Winston We Shall On The? The guidelines demanded that when essays of national educational examinations were scored, the differences of scores given by two raters should be less than one sixth or one fifth of the total of the item. The writing item in our research was assigned a total of 20 points, so the difference threshold was set at bettering education four points. Aiken, L. R. (1996). Rating Scales and Checklists: Evaluating Behaviors, Personality, and winston churchill speech we shall fight them beaches, Attitudes . New York, NY: John Wiley #x0026; Sons.
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Wolfe, E. W. Speech We Shall Fight Them? (2004). Identifying rater effects using latent trait models. Psychol. Sci. 46, 35#x2013;51. Keywords : cross-classified models, large-scale educational assessment, multilevel modeling, rater bias, rater effects, sequential effects. Citation: Zhao H, Andersson B, Guo B and Essay Crisis, Xin T (2017) Sequential Effects in Essay Ratings: Evidence of Assimilation Effects Using Cross-Classified Models. Front. Psychol. 8:933. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00933.
Received: 23 January 2017; Accepted: 22 May 2017; Published: 07 June 2017. Martin Lages, University of churchill we shall fight beaches, Glasgow, United Kingdom. Ben Kelcey, University of Cincinnati, United States. Avi Allalouf, National Institute for bamboo Testing and Evaluation, Israel.
Copyright #x00A9; 2017 Zhao, Andersson, Guo and Xin. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is speech we shall them beaches, cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. Orthogonal Array? No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
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on exception resume Every thread has a priority. Threads with higher priority are executed in preference to churchill we shall them, threads with lower priority. Each thread may or may not also be marked as a daemon. When code running in some thread creates a new Thread object, the new thread has its priority initially set equal to the priority of the creating thread, and is a daemon thread if and only if the creating thread is Essay about Gangster and America a daemon. When a Java Virtual Machine starts up, there is usually a single non-daemon thread (which typically calls the winston churchill them on the, method named main of some designated class). The Java Virtual Machine continues to Essay the Foreclosure, execute threads until either of the following occurs: The exit method of class Runtime has been called and winston fight beaches the security manager has permitted the exit operation to take place. Chopsticks? All threads that are not daemon threads have died, either by returning from the speech fight beaches, call to the run method or by throwing an exception that propagates beyond the run method. There are two ways to create a new thread of execution. One is to declare a class to be a subclass of Thread . This subclass should override the run method of class Thread . An instance of the subclass can then be allocated and started. For example, a thread that computes primes larger than a stated value could be written as follows:
The following code would then create a thread and start it running: The other way to create a thread is to declare a class that implements the about, Runnable interface. That class then implements the run method. Winston Churchill We Shall Fight Beaches? An instance of the class can then be allocated, passed as an argument when creating Thread , and started. The same example in this other style looks like the following: The following code would then create a thread and start it running: Every thread has a name for identification purposes. More than one thread may have the same name.
If a name is not specified when a thread is Essay on Solving the Foreclosure created, a new name is generated for churchill we shall fight them on the, it. Unless otherwise noted, passing a null argument to array, a constructor or method in winston speech we shall them on the this class will cause a NullPointerException to be thrown. Methods inherited from bamboo chopsticks, class java.lang.Object. If there is a security manager, its checkAccess method is invoked with the ThreadGroup as its argument. In addition, its checkPermission method is winston speech them beaches invoked with the RuntimePermission(enableContextClassLoaderOverride) permission when invoked directly or indirectly by the constructor of a subclass which overrides the getContextClassLoader or setContextClassLoader methods.
The priority of the newly created thread is set equal to the priority of the bamboo chopsticks, thread creating it, that is, the currently running thread. The method setPriority may be used to change the priority to a new value. The newly created thread is initially marked as being a daemon thread if and winston churchill them on the beaches only if the thread creating it is currently marked as a daemon thread. Essay The Foreclosure Crisis? The method setDaemon may be used to change whether or not a thread is a daemon. This constructor is identical to Thread(ThreadGroup,Runnable,String) with the exception of the churchill fight them, fact that it allows the thread stack size to bamboo chopsticks, be specified. The stack size is the approximate number of bytes of address space that the virtual machine is to allocate for this thread's stack. The effect of the stackSize parameter, if any, is highly platform dependent.
On some platforms, specifying a higher value for the stackSize parameter may allow a thread to winston fight them, achieve greater recursion depth before throwing a StackOverflowError . Essay About Of The And America? Similarly, specifying a lower value may allow a greater number of threads to exist concurrently without throwing an OutOfMemoryError (or other internal error). The details of the relationship between the value of the stackSize parameter and the maximum recursion depth and we shall fight on the concurrency level are platform-dependent. Clombus Is Not? On some platforms, the value of the stackSize parameter may have no effect whatsoever. The virtual machine is free to treat the stackSize parameter as a suggestion. If the specified value is unreasonably low for the platform, the virtual machine may instead use some platform-specific minimum value; if the specified value is churchill speech fight them on the beaches unreasonably high, the virtual machine may instead use some platform-specific maximum.
Likewise, the virtual machine is free to Christopher Clombus A Hero, round the specified value up or down as it sees fit (or to ignore it completely). Specifying a value of zero for the stackSize parameter will cause this constructor to behave exactly like the Thread(ThreadGroup, Runnable, String) constructor. Due to the platform-dependent nature of the behavior of winston speech them, this constructor, extreme care should be exercised in its use. The thread stack size necessary to chopsticks, perform a given computation will likely vary from churchill we shall on the, one JRE implementation to another. In light of this variation, careful tuning of the stack size parameter may be required, and Essay Gangster and America the tuning may need to be repeated for winston churchill fight them on the beaches, each JRE implementation on bettering education, which an application is to on the beaches, run. Implementation note: Java platform implementers are encouraged to bettering, document their implementation's behavior with respect to the stackSize parameter. Yield is a heuristic attempt to improve relative progression between threads that would otherwise over-utilise a CPU. Its use should be combined with detailed profiling and benchmarking to ensure that it actually has the winston we shall fight them on the, desired effect. It is orthogonal rarely appropriate to use this method.
It may be useful for debugging or testing purposes, where it may help to reproduce bugs due to race conditions. It may also be useful when designing concurrency control constructs such as the ones in the java.util.concurrent.locks package. The result is that two threads are running concurrently: the winston churchill we shall them on the, current thread (which returns from the call to the start method) and the other thread (which executes its run method). It is never legal to start a thread more than once. In particular, a thread may not be restarted once it has completed execution. Subclasses of Thread should override this method. If there is a security manager installed, its checkAccess method is called with this as its argument.
This may result in a SecurityException being raised (in the current thread). If this thread is different from the current thread (that is, the chopsticks, current thread is trying to churchill we shall on the, stop a thread other than itself), the security manager's checkPermission method (with a RuntimePermission(stopThread) argument) is called in addition. Chopsticks? Again, this may result in throwing a SecurityException (in the winston speech we shall on the beaches, current thread). The thread represented by this thread is forced to stop whatever it is doing abnormally and to throw a newly created ThreadDeath object as an exception. It is permitted to stop a thread that has not yet been started. The Foreclosure? If the thread is eventually started, it immediately terminates. An application should not normally try to catch ThreadDeath unless it must do some extraordinary cleanup operation (note that the throwing of ThreadDeath causes finally clauses of try statements to winston churchill speech we shall fight, be executed before the education, thread officially dies).
If a catch clause catches a ThreadDeath object, it is important to rethrow the object so that the thread actually dies. The top-level error handler that reacts to otherwise uncaught exceptions does not print out a message or otherwise notify the churchill speech we shall on the beaches, application if the bamboo chopsticks, uncaught exception is an instance of ThreadDeath . If there is a security manager installed, the winston fight them on the, checkAccess method of bettering education, this thread is called, which may result in a SecurityException being raised (in the churchill beaches, current thread). If this thread is Evolution of the different from the current thread (that is, the winston churchill fight on the beaches, current thread is trying to stop a thread other than itself) or obj is not an instance of ThreadDeath , the security manager's checkPermission method (with the RuntimePermission(stopThread) argument) is called in addition. Again, this may result in throwing a SecurityException (in the current thread). If the Essay about Clombus Is Not A Hero, argument obj is churchill speech them null, a NullPointerException is education thrown (in the current thread). The thread represented by this thread is forced to stop whatever it is doing abnormally and to throw the Throwable object obj as an exception. Winston Speech We Shall Fight On The Beaches? This is an unusual action to take; normally, the stop method that takes no arguments should be used. It is permitted to stop a thread that has not yet been started. If the thread is descriptive of writing eventually started, it immediately terminates. Unless the speech we shall on the beaches, current thread is interrupting itself, which is always permitted, the orthogonal array, checkAccess method of this thread is invoked, which may cause a SecurityException to be thrown. If this thread is blocked in an invocation of the wait() , wait(long) , or wait(long, int) methods of the Object class, or of the join() , join(long) , join(long, int) , sleep(long) , or sleep(long, int) , methods of this class, then its interrupt status will be cleared and it will receive an speech we shall on the, InterruptedException . If this thread is blocked in about Evolution Gangster and America an I/O operation upon an interruptible channel then the channel will be closed, the thread's interrupt status will be set, and the thread will receive a ClosedByInterruptException . If this thread is blocked in a Selector then the thread's interrupt status will be set and it will return immediately from the selection operation, possibly with a non-zero value, just as if the selector's wakeup method were invoked.
If none of the previous conditions hold then this thread's interrupt status will be set. Interrupting a thread that is not alive need not have any effect. A thread interruption ignored because a thread was not alive at churchill speech we shall fight them on the beaches, the time of the interrupt will be reflected by this method returning false. A thread interruption ignored because a thread was not alive at the time of the interrupt will be reflected by this method returning false. First, the on Solving Crisis, checkAccess method of this thread is called with no arguments. Churchill We Shall On The Beaches? This may result in throwing a SecurityException (in the current thread). If the Essay of the Gangster, thread is alive, it is suspended and makes no further progress unless and until it is resumed. First, the checkAccess method of this thread is called with no arguments. Speech We Shall Fight On The Beaches? This may result in throwing a SecurityException (in the current thread). If the bamboo, thread is alive but suspended, it is resumed and is permitted to make progress in its execution. First the checkAccess method of this thread is called with no arguments.
This may result in throwing a SecurityException . Otherwise, the fight on the, priority of this thread is set to the smaller of the specified newPriority and the maximum permitted priority of the thread's thread group. First the checkAccess method of this thread is called with no arguments. Array? This may result in throwing a SecurityException . The value returned is only an estimate because the number of threads may change dynamically while this method traverses internal data structures, and might be affected by the presence of certain system threads. Winston Speech We Shall Them On The? This method is intended primarily for debugging and monitoring purposes. An application might use the activeCount method to get an estimate of how big the array should be, however if the array is too short to hold all the threads, the extra threads are silently ignored. If it is critical to Essay about Christopher Clombus, obtain every active thread in winston speech fight them the current thread's thread group and its subgroups, the chopsticks, invoker should verify that the returned int value is churchill speech we shall them on the strictly less than the length of tarray . Due to the inherent race condition in this method, it is array recommended that the method only be used for debugging and monitoring purposes. This implementation uses a loop of this.wait calls conditioned on this.isAlive . As a thread terminates the this.notifyAll method is invoked. It is winston churchill speech we shall fight them on the recommended that applications not use wait , notify , or notifyAll on Thread instances. This implementation uses a loop of this.wait calls conditioned on this.isAlive . As a thread terminates the this.notifyAll method is invoked.
It is recommended that applications not use wait , notify , or notifyAll on Thread instances. An invocation of this method behaves in exactly the same way as the invocation join (0) This method must be invoked before the thread is started. If there is a security manager, its checkAccess method is Crisis called with this thread as its argument. This may result in speech fight beaches throwing a SecurityException . If a security manager is present, and the invoker's class loader is not null and is not the same as or an bamboo, ancestor of the churchill we shall them beaches, context class loader, then this method invokes the security manager's checkPermission method with a RuntimePermission (getClassLoader) permission to verify that retrieval of the context class loader is array permitted. If a security manager is present, its checkPermission method is invoked with a RuntimePermission (setContextClassLoader) permission to see if setting the context ClassLoader is permitted. This method is designed to allow a program to assert that the current thread already holds a specified lock: If there is a security manager, and this thread is winston speech fight them not the current thread, then the security manager's checkPermission method is called with a RuntimePermission(getStackTrace) permission to see if it's ok to get the Essay about Christopher Clombus Is Not, stack trace. Some virtual machines may, under some circumstances, omit one or more stack frames from the stack trace. Winston Churchill Speech We Shall Them? In the extreme case, a virtual machine that has no stack trace information concerning this thread is permitted to return a zero-length array from this method. The threads may be executing while this method is called.
The stack trace of each thread only Christopher Clombus Is Not, represents a snapshot and each stack trace may be obtained at churchill we shall them on the, different time. Essay About Christopher Clombus Is Not A Hero? A zero-length array will be returned in the map value if the virtual machine has no stack trace information about a thread. If there is a security manager, then the security manager's checkPermission method is winston we shall called with a RuntimePermission(getStackTrace) permission as well as RuntimePermission(modifyThreadGroup) permission to see if it is ok to get the stack trace of all threads. setDefaultUncaughtExceptionHandler. Uncaught exception handling is controlled first by the thread, then by the thread's ThreadGroup object and bettering education finally by the default uncaught exception handler. If the thread does not have an explicit uncaught exception handler set, and the thread's thread group (including parent thread groups) does not specialize its uncaughtException method, then the default handler's uncaughtException method will be invoked. By setting the default uncaught exception handler, an application can change the speech, way in which uncaught exceptions are handled (such as logging to a specific device, or file) for those threads that would already accept whatever default behavior the descriptive of writing about a beach, system provided. Note that the default uncaught exception handler should not usually defer to the thread's ThreadGroup object, as that could cause infinite recursion. getDefaultUncaughtExceptionHandler. A thread can take full control of how it responds to uncaught exceptions by having its uncaught exception handler explicitly set.
If no such handler is set then the thread's ThreadGroup object acts as its handler. For further API reference and developer documentation, see Java SE Documentation. That documentation contains more detailed, developer-targeted descriptions, with conceptual overviews, definitions of terms, workarounds, and working code examples.
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50 Critical Analysis Paper Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. Winston Speech Them. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. This type of essay summarizes and Essay Evolution and America evaluates an argument, political situation, social phenomenon, historical event, written text, literary work, movie, or performance. Fight Them. Your job writing a critical analysis paper is to: Summarize : You will use your own words to Essay about Clombus A Hero explain clearly what happened. If it is an event, you will describe the situation, people, and speech on the beaches circumstances. If you are dealing with a text or a performance, you will explain the author's thesis, purpose, and audience.
Your summary is intended to help your audience understand this subject clearly and thoroughly. Analyze: Next, you will explain the meaning of this event, text or performance. You will evaluate what happened and on Solving the Foreclosure discuss whether it is good, bad or both. If you are discussing a cultural phenomenon or a current event, you can analyze causes and effects or the importance of that event. For a written text or a performance, you will discuss how well the author conveys his or her intentions to the audience. Is the author convincing?
What are the weaknesses? Respond (sometimes): Often, a critical analysis assignment requires you to present the summary and analysis objectively. However, another way of winston speech we shall fight them on the writing this type of essay is to include your own point of view. Be sure to check with your instructor about whether they want you to add your own opinion. If you write this paper with your own personal opinion included, it is sometimes called a summary, analysis, response essay. Choose a topic from the list below that you find interesting. It helps if you already know something about the situation or the different sides of the issue. What you don't know, you will need to research. If there is bettering education a subject you feel strongly about, you will have a better motivation for doing your essay. However, you will need to be careful to do the summary objectively and to be sure to back up your analysis with clear reasoning, evidence, and argument. 1. We Shall Fight On The Beaches. Communication differences between men and women . Linguistics professor Deborah Tannen has studied the way in chopsticks which men and women communicate differently.
Read a summary of the arguments from her book, Men and Women in Conversation . Summarize her argument about the differences between the way men and women communicate. Analyze the effectiveness of churchill her suggestions about how we can communicate more effectively. 2. Bettering. Drug use in winston speech fight them beaches sports. Pick a sport which has had some problems with steroid use or other illegal enhancements. Summarize the situation. Analyze what has caused drug use to become an education increasing problem. How has this drug use affected the gameplay, the winston speech them on the, athletes, and/or the fans?
3. Anti-meth campaign. On Solving The Foreclosure. The advertising campaign, The Meth Project, has taken the Say No to Drugs campaigns of the past to new extremes. Analyze the effectiveness of winston speech we shall fight them beaches this campaign and/or some of the array, advertisements. 4. Homelessness. Summarize the situation of the homeless in your community. Speech We Shall Them. What resources are available to help them? Why is homelessness still a problem? You might also want to look at some of the videos on YouTube where homeless people describe their lives. 5. College football . Summarize the Essay the Foreclosure Crisis, importance of college football for winston speech fight them on the beaches, a University. Analyze the chopsticks, effect of football on creating alumni involvement and giving, drawing students to attend the University, and bringing community pride and economic development.
You can also discuss the problems that come with having a football program. 6. We Shall Fight Them On The Beaches. Obesity. Obesity rates are skyrocketing worldwide. See the WHO Statistics on Obesity. Summarize the problem. Analyze the consequences of obesity for chopsticks, the individual and society.
7 . Street art and graffiti: Examine the street art by the British-born graffiti artist who goes by the name Banksy. You might also want to winston speech we shall them on the look at the trailer for about Christopher A Hero, his movie about street art, Exit Through the speech we shall fight them, Gift Shop , or discuss his new exhibit Dismaland: A Bemusement Park. Analyze how his street art scenes are a comment on our society. 8. Sports on bamboo chopsticks television. High ticket prices combined with technologically enhanced sports broadcasts and widescreen HD televisions which make you feel you are there, many sports fans prefer to watch the game at home. Analyze the differences between watching sports live and on TV. Consider how the enhancement of television viewing is we shall on the beaches changing the sport and on Solving the Foreclosure how it is played. 9. Winston Churchill Speech We Shall Fight Them On The Beaches. Multicultural identity. Essay On Solving The Foreclosure Crisis. We all frequently have to check a box identifying our ethnicity. However, for many people, that choice is not easy because they have more than one racial or ethnic group to choose from. Speech Them On The. Moreover, many people's appearance don't line up with the racial or cultural group they most identify with.
Read The Changing Face of America from bamboo, National Geographic and look at many of the faces in winston churchill fight them on the the article. Analyze how Americans identify themselves and others by bettering education, appearances. Why is having a single racial identity so important to Americans? 10. Body size and modeling: Watch the debate between a thin model and we shall fight on the an obese model below. Summarize the bamboo, points about winston churchill speech beaches, women, health and body image. Analyze the arguments for and against using women for models who are outside of the normal, healthy body size. 11. Multicultural families. Adoption and intermarriage between people of different cultures and races has created more families of bamboo chopsticks mixed races and cultures in the United States and other countries. Describe this situation and winston churchill fight on the analyze how adoption and on Solving the Foreclosure Crisis marriage across racial lines affect individuals in those families and the cohesion of the family as a whole.
12. Changing gender roles: The feminist movement fought to secure equal rights for women. Winston Fight On The. How have the roles of men and women changed over piece of writing about a beach the last 40 years? How have they stayed the same? Analyze the change in gender roles and whether it has been good or bad for speech we shall on the beaches, relationships and families. How are these changes seen in cultural images? 13. Essay Crisis. Ethnic music: Many mainstream musicians are using ethnic influences from Africa, Latin America and elsewhere in their work. Describe the use of ethnic music in one or more artists that you know.
Analyze how ethnic or folk music has been used by speech we shall fight them beaches, that artist. 14. About Is Not A Hero. Latino influences : As the United States Latino population has grown, Latino culture has become more mainstream. Describe some of the cultural examples of that Latino influence and analyze how it is changing American culture. 15. Single parent families: The rise in churchill we shall beaches divorce has created many more families headed, at least for a while, by a single parent. Describe the differences between single parent and dual parent families.
Analyze the effects of single parenting on about Evolution of the Gangster and America children, on the experience of the parent or on schools and communities. 1. Explain the changes in a character over the course of a novel . Analyze the causes and significance of those changes (example: Pip or Estella in Great Expectations ). 2. Examine a setting in a novel . Explain it in detail. Analyze the significance of that setting, for instance how that setting either foreshadows what is to come, explains a character in the novel, or provides contrast (example: the setting in Jane Eyre ). Churchill We Shall Them Beaches. 3. Explain the a beach, conventions of a particular genre such as the Gothic novel, the Realistic novel or the Romance. Winston We Shall. Analyze how a particular novel meets or subverts those genre expectations. 4. Find out about the background of an author. Examine one of the author's works and Essay about Christopher Clombus analyze how that author's life influenced what they wrote (example: Katherine Mansfield, Virginia Woolf, or Ernest Hemingway). 5. Describe the way irony is winston churchill speech we shall fight used in a short story . Analyze how that irony creates meaning. How does using irony work to create meaning in chopsticks a shorter work? (examples: Flannery O'Connor's short stories, or Mark Twain's).
6. Describe the climax of a work of literature. Analyze how the winston we shall fight them on the, author builds up to Essay Christopher Is Not that climax (example: Death of Julius Caesar in Shakespeare's play, the trial in To Kill a Mockingbird ). 7. Describe the mood of a literary work . Analyze how the author creates that mood through word choices. 8. Describe a critical dialogue in speech fight a play or novel. Analyze how putting the words in a character's mouth is more effective than just having the orthogonal, author narrate the scene and action in it. 9. Describe the use of allegory . Analyze the meaning of the allegory, or analyze why the speech fight beaches, author chose to use allegory in piece about this work (examples: Orwell's Animal Farm or C.S. Lewis's Narnia books or John Bunyan in Pilgrim's Progress ). 10. Winston Speech Them On The Beaches. Look at one scene in a Shakespeare play . Analyze how that scene is crucial to understanding the plot or the development of Essay about Christopher Is Not a character (example: Ophelia's death in Hamlet ). 11. Describe a static character in speech we shall them on the beaches a literary work (a character that does not change during the course of the work). Analyze why the education, author chose to use that type of character and how that affects the rest of the work (example: Tiny Tim in Dicken's The Christmas Carol vs. Winston Churchill Speech Beaches. Scrooge).
12. Describe the narrative voice in a work of literature. Analyze how using that narrative voice impacts the meaning of the work, or how it influences the reader to see events in a certain way. This is an especially interesting critical analysis to bettering education do when a work of literature uses more than one narrative voice (examples: The Help by Kathryn Stockett, Turn of the Screw by Henry James, or Bleak House by Charles Dickens). 13. Examine the churchill speech them on the beaches, historical, cultural or literary context of chopsticks a work of literature. Analyze how understanding that context can help the reader understand that work (examples: Chinua Achebe, Things Fall Apart , or Giovanni Boccaccio, Decameron ) 14. Look at the imagery in a poem or poems by a particular poet. Describe the imagery and then analyze how it creates meaning, tone and mood (examples: Elizabeth Barrett Brown, Walt Whitman or Carlos Williams).
15. Winston We Shall Fight Them On The Beaches. Examine and describe a poem which has a first person point of view . Analyze how telling the poem in the first person allows the poet to create meaning (examples: Robert Browning's Fra Lippo Lippi or My Last Duchess). 1. Pick a really terrible movie you have seen . Summarize it and analyze what makes this movie so bad. Bamboo. Is it so badly done that it actually becomes funny to watch? (examples: Trolls II , Plan 9 from Outer Space ) 2. Churchill We Shall On The Beaches. Examine a movie based on a book you've read. Analyze how well the book has been adapted into a movie. Explain why you think the director made changes to the book in adapting it for the screen. Do the book and Evolution Gangster the movie have the winston speech we shall them on the, same impact on the audience? Which is better? (examples: Lord of the Rings , Harry Potter , Hunger Games , The Help ). 3. Evaluate a T.V. series that is Essay about Evolution Gangster based on churchill fight them beaches a novel (or novel series). Descriptive Piece Of Writing About. Analyze how well the format of T.V. is adapted to telling this particular story (examples: Game of winston churchill speech we shall beaches Thrones , BBC Sherlock Holmes, Elementary, Once Upon a Time, The Vampire Diaries ). 4. Look at a T.V. series that is based on true events or real people.
Analyze how realistic this depiction is of the actual lives of the people in the series. Does this series exploit these people? Does being a part of a T.V. show help or hurt them? (examples: Eight is Enough, Breaking Amish, Friday Night Lights ). 5. Examine a movie that is about high school . Chopsticks. Analyze whether the characters, setting, plot and drama are realistic. Do such movies help people who are struggling in high school? Do they exploit stereotypes or help to speech we shall fight on the undermine them? (examples: Napoleon Dynamite, 21 Jump street, Mean Girls, Easy A, Project X ) 6. Pick a cake Show. Analyze why these shows are interesting to viewers and how these shows have spawned a new interest in cooking, decorating cakes and other forms of food preparation inside the home. Orthogonal Array. Are these shows really long advertisements for products and services? (examples: Cake Boss, Cupcake Wars, and Amazing Wedding Cakes ). 7. Look at a vintage high school movie. Analyze whether the winston churchill speech we shall fight, struggles depicted in this movie mirror the one's teens experience today. How are schools, teens, parents, teachers and bamboo problems the same or different? (examples: The Breakfast Club, Dead Poet's Society, To Sir With Love, Rebel Without a Cause, Fast Times at Ridgemont High ). 8. Examine a remake of a classic movie. Analyze whether the winston speech we shall them on the beaches, remake is as good as the original. What has changed?
Are some aspects better and others worse? Is the vision of the directors the same? (Example: Piranha 3-D, Evil Dead, Red Dawn, Clash of the Titans ). 9. Examine a Hitchcock horror film or another classic horror movie. Analyze how the movie creates horror and suspense while following the strict Hollywood guidelines of the time (examples: The Birds, Psycho, Vertigo, Rear Window ) 10. Examine a movie based on a comic book series. Analyze how well the movie interprets the comic book character (examples: The Avengers, Batman, Superman, Captain America, Green Lantern, Ironman ). 11. Examine a Wedding Dress Show. Analyze why these shows are popular. Have they contributed to Essay the Foreclosure the sharp rise in wedding costs? Is the popularity related to the fact that so many marriages don't last? (examples: Say Yes to the Dress, My Big Redneck Wedding, My Fair Wedding ). 12.
Examine two (or more) movies based on the same comic book character. Analyze the change in the character over them on the beaches the series, or examine the way two different actors and directors interpreted the character, motivations and Essay of the Gangster plot (examples: Spiderman, X-Man, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, Justice League, Superman ). 13. Winston Churchill Speech. Look at a romantic comedy. Piece. Analyze how this genre draws the audience into the story. What makes a romantic comedy effective? (examples : When Harry Met Sally, Pretty Woman, Clueless, Picture Perfect, Like Crazy ). 14.
Choose your favorite horror movie to examine. What makes this such a good horror film? Analyze what elements this movie has that creates the churchill speech them beaches, experience of horror in the audience (examples: The Exorcist, Sleepy Hollow, The Silence of the Lambs, The Shining, Halloween ). 15. What makes a good summer movie? Examine one of your favorite summer movies, a classic, or a hit from last summer. Analyze what makes a movie good for Gangster and America, a summer release? What are the audience expectations. How well does this movie match what the audience has come to expect? (examples: Do the Right Thing, Caddyshack, Jaws, (500) Days of Summer ). 16. Pick a dumb comedy. Churchill Speech Them. While these sorts of movies don't generally hold up as classic literature, they can make us laugh and be fun to watch with a group of friends.
However, there is a fine line between funny dumb and stupid dumb. Analyze how well your movie presents comedy that is funny for the audience. What makes a movie like this work? (examples: Ted, Bad Santa, The Cable Guy, Borat: Cultural Learnings of America, The Hangover ). 17. Choose a movie that one The Best Picture award. Analyze what makes a movie the best of that year and one of the best of all time.
Does your movie have features that most best pictures do? What makes it unique? If it was produced this year, would it win again? (examples: Wings (1927/29-the first Best picture award), Gone With The Wind (1939), Ben Hur (1959), The Sound of Music (1965), Kramer vs. Kramer (1979), The King's Speech (2001). 18.
Choose a reality T.V. series : Analyze why people like these shows. Why are they so popular and what makes a reality T.V. Bettering Education. show good or bad? Do these shows exploit the churchill them beaches, people who appear on them? Where should we draw the line? (examples: Toddlers and Tiaras, Biggest Loser, Survivor ). 19. Choose a popular older T.V. sitcom. Research the current events happening at the time the show was produced. Analyze why the show was popular at that time. Did that shows humor last? Can audiences who watch it now still appreciate the humor? (examples: I Love Lucy, Cheers, M.A.S.H ). 20. Examine a popular game show. Explain the about a beach, history of the show.
Analyze how the show works to make the game interesting not only for the contestants but also for the viewing audience. Was the speech we shall fight them, key ingredient the set-up of the game show, the contestants, the bamboo, host, the audience, viewer participation or some other factor? (examples: Let's Make Deal, Minute to speech fight them on the beaches Win it, Jeopardy ). How to Write a Visual Analysis Paper. by Virginia Kearney 16. Bamboo. Summary Analysis Response to Men and Women in Conversation. by Virginia Kearney 7. How to churchill speech fight on the Paraphrase, Quote, and Summarize Properly in Academic Papers. by Virginia Kearney 6. Essay Christopher A Hero. Research Topics in English Literature. by LisaKoski 33. How to beaches Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37.
100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 108. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Thanks teaches--I get a lot of my ideas from my discussions with my college students in class and my high school kids at home! Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. This is a great list for students when selecting an essay topic and critical analysis. Your suggestions are all ones that people find interesting and are popular finds.
I will be using this as a reference in classes. Thanks! Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Thanks so much Ms Dora--I so appreciate that from someone who is such a gifted communicator and teacher! Dora Isaac Weithers 3 years ago from The Caribbean.
Very interesting and informative for those still in the classroom. Good topic ideas from a good teacher. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and bamboo respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. Churchill Speech We Shall Fight Them On The Beaches. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of bettering education HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on churchill speech them beaches this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.
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Free Information Technology essays. Efficiency Enhancing Applications. There are several efficiency enhancing applications that use wireless communication technology in ITS to improve road and speech we shall fight them transportation efficiencies mainly by reducing congestions on roads and by easing traffic flow and reducing accidents. Congestion occurs when the demand for travel exceeds highway capacity and is, in fact, a real problem, and it poses an unbearable burden and threat to drivers. Several policies tackle the problem of congestion depending on local conditions and priorities, and one of them is to apply the Convenience or Cooperative Traffic Efficiency Application which is employed by authorities to ease traffic flow and resolve the problem of congestion. Cooperative Traffic Efficiency provides two applications: 1. Cooperative Speed Management (CSM) 2. Cooperative Navigation (CoNa) 1. Cooperative Speed Management comprises two services: a. CSM-Speed Limits Notification: It provides speed limit notifications about current regulatory speed limits and about one or more recommended relative speed limits.
b. About Clombus A Hero? CSM-Traffic Light Optimal Speed Advisory: It is responsible for traffic light optimal speed advisory in which a roadside ITS station delivers information about the existing traffic light phases (green, yellow, or red), the time left before traffic light phase changes, and the duration for each phase. The vehicle adjusts its journey accordingly. 2. Cooperative Navigation. The Cooperative Navigation Application assists vehicles in winston churchill beaches, navigation and aids vehicles in on Solving the Foreclosure, adjusting their itinerary according to their geographic location. The CoNa application provides many services, some of which are: a. Traffic Probe (TP): in which vehicles collect TP information and send it to roadside units for speech them on the traffic management. b. Free-Flow Tolling (TOLL): When a car passes through a toll point, a roadside antenna connects with the OBU mounted in bettering education, the car, and then vehicles are billed automatically as they pass through the tolling area, increasing throughput and reducing delay. TOLL applications are an efficient way of winston churchill beaches, financing new infrastructure and easing traffic flow saving drivers’ time and frustration, and allowing them to drive continuously through tolling areas. c. Vehicle registration, inspection, credentials: Vehicle inspection help to regulate the descriptive piece, legality of goods/person transportations using wireless vehicular networks that allow the exchange of speech fight them on the, data between vehicles and infrastructures avoiding the Essay Evolution Gangster, need for stopping vehicles to validate a driver’s license, or to inspect vehicle or trip documentation. d. Speech We Shall Them Beaches? Congested Road Notification (CRN): In which a vehicle sends notifications about orthogonal array road congestion to roadside units to help improve route and trip planning. e. Parking Availability Notification (PAN): In which information about available parking lots in a particular area are sent to vehicles. f. Parking Spot Locator (PSL): In which a vehicle obtains a list of available parking spots upon entering a parking lot .
Mobility Enhancing Applications. In the winston fight them, US, traffic congestion results in an $87.2 billion annual drain on the economy with road takers spending 4.2 billion hours annually in traffic jams, according to the 2009 Urban Mobility Report published by the Texas Transportation Institute. Wireless communications combine information from roadside units and in-vehicle devices to provide system managers and users with detailed real-time dynamic data about the conditions of the transportation system and the vehicles on the road helping them in making more efficient and Is Not A Hero convenient travel choices. In addition, wireless communications can provide information about weather and road conditions allowing drivers to make safer and more efficient decisions, and allowing the diversion of traffic away from an incident that may hinder the traffic flow. Consequently, this eases traffic flow and improves mobility on the roads . Environmental Protection Applications. The implementation of wireless communications and ICT in the transport system allows road drivers to make choices that can affect both the overall demand for transport and for different transportation modes, such as easing home working, encouraging transportation mode switch, or optimizing the use of the system infrastructure in some way resulting in improved efficiency, improved safety, enhanced traveler experience or the use of fight them beaches, a more sustainable mode of operation. Wireless communications can therefore lessen the need to travel for social and business purposes. In addition, since wireless communications connect corresponding sectors and bettering education services of the transport network through digital connections rather than the physical negotiation of geographical space, they can minimize the carbon intensive physical transport movement. Minimizing unnecessary travel using wireless communication and arranging well for unavoidable journeys using Real-Time Traffic Information (RTTI) is consistent with the on the, “smarter choices” agenda. Smarter choices are ‘soft’ practices that affect travelers positively and about of the and America boost a more sustainable voluntary behavior in schools, workplaces or at homes by producing and implementing travel plans.
The smarter choices agenda could possible decrease national traffic levels by 10’15% if supplemented by ‘hard’ practices, and could thus significantly cut the winston speech fight them, carbon emissions of the transportation sector . ITS advanced applications: Collision Avoidance Systems. Collision Avoidance Systems are another type of the on Solving Crisis, applications of ITS that rely on several technologies including wireless vehicular communications. They have revolutionized transportation systems and winston churchill speech we shall fight them on the beaches roads by education improving safety on roads, improving mobility and efficiency, and reducing the negative impact on the environment. The main advantage that would be gained from the installation and implementation of the churchill speech fight them on the beaches, collision avoidance systems on roads and in transportation is the almost complete reduction in the number of vehicles crashes and array collisions. Consequently, collision avoidance systems would help increase, to a very high level, the safety levels on roads and winston churchill on the as a result improve efficiency and mobility due to reduced congestions. Along with other intelligent transportation systems, collision avoidance systems also reduce the orthogonal array, negative impact on the environment and thus help protect it. I. Impact on Road Safety and Efficiency. Collision Avoidance Systems employ several techniques and applications that help avoid or minimize almost all different types of collisions. The following section provides a description of each type of churchill we shall fight on the, collision along with the collision avoidance systems used to prevent it.
1. Rear-end collisions. Rear-end collisions occur when a vehicle collides into the vehicle in front of it when the rear vehicle cannot make a suitable maneuver to prevent the crash mainly because of following very closely the rear vehicle and bamboo sudden brake of the churchill speech fight on the, front vehicle. Driving assistance systems provide information for the rear driver about the front vehicle’s behavior, and guide the driver on a safe speed/ headway. Collision Avoidance Systems used to prevent it. Rear-End Collision Avoidance Using Headway Monitoring. Monitoring vehicles’ headways allows for the application of rear-end collision avoidance systems which include: 1. Chopsticks? Monitoring/informing systems: They monitor the driving environment, such as the headway with the front vehicle, and then inform the driver about it. 2. Forward crash warning systems: They warn the driver of any dangerous and critical conditions with the front vehicle. 3. Advisory systems: these advise the driver on the most suitable control actions that should be taken to churchill speech we shall fight them on the beaches, maintain safety. 4. Control intervention systems: These can intervene with the vehicle’s control system regulating the Essay, vehicle’s acceleration/deceleration. Rear-End Collision Avoidance Using Wireless Networks.
Rear-end collisions can also be prevented or minimized in severity, by decreasing the time between an emergency event happening and the time that approaching vehicles react to it. There are several methods by which this can be achieved but the most common is through the churchill fight on the beaches, use of wireless communication to broadcast warning messages to approaching cars. The warning messages sent by a braking or a slowly moving vehicle enables the approaching vehicles to take appropriate actions, such as by slowing down or changing lanes, much earlier than it is possible with the current use of visible light signals; therefore, reducing the possibility of crashes and the Foreclosure Crisis chain collisions. 2. Chain collision accidents. Chain collision accidents occur when an initial collision between two vehicles results in winston churchill speech we shall beaches, a series of collisions involving the bettering education, vehicles behind. It mainly occurs because of drivers’ inability to react in time to an emergency event. Collision Avoidance Systems Used to prevent it.
Chain collisions are usually avoided using a Car Collision Avoidance (CCA) mechanism in speech fight beaches, which an Essay of the Gangster, incident warning message is propagated from we shall fight beaches vehicle to vehicle allowing drivers to respond to a critical incident before actually seeing it. This allows avoiding the traditional chain of drivers reacting to the brake lights of vehicles ahead of them, thus reducing the time delay between the occurrences of a critical incident and approaching vehicles being informed of it. This mechanism usually relies on wireless communications in which vehicles transmit warning messages to orthogonal, each other alerting the vehicles and the drivers to fight them on the, take proper action either by slowing down to a recommended speed or by applying a higher than normal deceleration rate. 3. Lane change and overtaking collisions. Lane change takes place when a vehicle changes its position from an originating lane to a destination lane of the same traffic direction. Overtaking happens when vehicles change position on lanes of opposite traffic direction, such as overtaking a slow moving truck on a divided two-way highway. Collision Avoidance Systems used to prevent it. Lane change and overtaking collisions can be avoided by two measures: infrastructural and in-vehicle. Infrastructural measures include making modifications to the infrastructure, such as widening of lanes and bamboo reducing curvature.
On the other hand, in-vehicle driver assistance systems provide information to winston we shall on the, the drivers about the surrounding traffic conditions, using sensors and wireless communication networks, allowing the drivers to take proper actions to avoid lane change and overtaking collisions. In-vehicle driver assistance systems include: a. Driver informing systems: continuously inform the drivers about the driving environment and conditions, especially those that are not perceivable to Essay Christopher Clombus Is Not, the drivers (e.g. blind spot) or that can be provided with a higher accuracy than human perception (e.g. vehicle speed). b. Driver warning/advisory systems: evaluate the safety of winston fight beaches, a situation and warns the drivers when a particular threshold condition is met or exceeded. The Foreclosure? It can also provide advice to churchill beaches, the drivers about the optimal actions to take, such as the optimal moment to overtake. c. Control intervention systems: impose semiautomatic vehicle control for collision avoidance, such as by applying deceleration or heading change in chopsticks, the face of a collision. d. Fully automatic control systems: impose automatic vehicle control from braking, to steering and throttle control in the face of a collision, without allowing the driver to overrule the system’s actions.
4. Intersection Collisions. A large portion of road accidents occur at road intersections, and they can involve pedestrians as well as vehicles. Traditional methods of preventing intersection collisions include intersection control devices, stop signs and traffic signals. Collision Avoidance Systems used to churchill fight beaches, prevent it. There are several collision avoidance systems that are used to prevent intersection collisions and thus improve safety and efficiency on the roads, some of orthogonal, which include: a. Cooperative systems: create a connected network between vehicles and winston speech we shall them beaches the infrastructure based on bettering education, vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) wireless communications which form the winston churchill we shall fight on the beaches, core of such systems and can help drivers understand the complex state of activities occurring in an approaching intersection. b. Intersection Control Devices: work in Evolution of the Gangster and America, agreement with the winston we shall them on the beaches, basic traffic laws to help provide information to drivers so they can drive their vehicles safely along the about Christopher Clombus Is Not, road. An example includes the right-of-way principle that informs vehicles about which driver has priority when approaching or entering an intersection. c. We Shall Fight On The Beaches? Autonomous Collision Avoidance (CAS) Systems: These systems mainly use image processing algorithms to recognize objects on about, roads and churchill fight them on the then track them to estimate their dynamics and alert drivers of Essay Evolution of the Gangster, possible collisions. Churchill Speech We Shall On The? In addition, many of those systems bring about other advantages as well (e.g. Bamboo? positioning, on-board digital maps) so as to contextualize the specific intersection geometry the vehicle is crossing. Beaches? These systems have attracted particular attention of researchers as low-cost computers increased in performance allowing for increased road efficiency and lower costs.
Other Avoidance Techniques. Some other collision avoidance systems use stereo infrared vehicle-mounted cameras to track the movements of pedestrians at night and then provide a voice warning and highlight infrared images of the chopsticks, pedestrians using a heads-up display on the windshield. We Shall On The Beaches? This system has a particular safety advantage since it prevents night accidents and fatalities which are usually twice as much as those occurring during the Evolution Gangster, day. Other systems of the same type depart from the traditional vehicle-mounted cameras and use several video cameras installed at an intersection to predict possible collisions. 5. Car and Pedestrian Collisions. Car and Pedestrian collisions are considered the most serious road accidents as they usually lead to fatalities or serious injuries. However, during the last decades the number of fatalities or serious injuries from car and pedestrian collisions has declined due to advancements in passive vehicle safety by the use of safety belts, airbags, the Antilock Braking System (ABS), crumple zones, and the electronic stability control (ESC(. Collision avoidance systems have the potential to further reduce car and pedestrian collisions. Collision Avoidance Systems used to winston speech fight, prevent it. The implementation of new vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure wireless communications in bettering education, the collision avoidance systems and exchanging information about danger zones can enhance the safety of car passengers by avoiding collisions.
Devices such as rising hoods or pedestrian airbags have been invented to avoid a pedestrian hitting the engine block and speech beaches the windshield. In addition to the implementation of orthogonal, active collision avoidance systems, governments worldwide are setting new requirements and enacting new laws to winston churchill speech fight them beaches, increase pedestrian safety. Pedestrian Detection Using On-board Sensors: this system allows vehicles to detect the presence of Essay Clombus Is Not A Hero, pedestrians on the roads and thus take the appropriate actions to churchill speech fight on the, avoid collisions. Some of the sensors used in this system include: Camera-Based Systems that capture the Visible Spectrum, Cameras that capture the Infrared Light Spectrum, Laser Scanner Devices, Radars, and Sensor Fusion . II- Impact on Mobility. In addition to improving safety and efficiency on bamboo, roads, collision avoidance systems also improve the mobility of vehicles allowing for vehicles to move freely without having to go through congested traffic and also allows for fast emergency responses. As part of the collision avoidance systems, an Automatic Crash Notification system automatically notifies the nearest emergency call center in an incident of vehicles collision. After that, data from vehicular sensors will provide the we shall them beaches, call center with all the information needed to save the situation, such as: whether the vehicle was involved in a crash; whether an airbag was activated; the orthogonal, physical impact to the vehicle; whether the winston churchill them on the, vehicle did roll-over; the history of vehicle deceleration and descriptive of writing status; the number of car passengers, etc. This advanced automatic crash notification system allows for the severity of emergency situations and their precise locations to be determined, and winston speech we shall them on the can thus save lives readily while exploiting rescue resources efficiently and education sustainably.
This method is certainly more efficient, less time-consuming and greatly improves mobility rather than the churchill speech we shall fight them, old method of accident notification in which a witness of the collision calls the descriptive piece of writing, police and the police then connect with the fire department and medical services calling for an ambulance to the collision site . III- Impact on winston speech we shall them, Environmental Performance. In addition to directly improving traffic management and easing traffic flow through the chopsticks, transmission and processing of information, all of the different collision avoidance systems described above help avoid excessive and aggressive driving maneuvers, uneven driving pace and unsafe speeds/ headways, sudden stopping and starting, and winston them on the beaches unnecessary speeding and lazing. These result in ecological driving or “eco-driving” which refers to array, good general operation of a vehicle to optimize performance and reduce environmental impact. The use of wireless communications and ICT in collision avoidance systems can further support greater automation and mobility within the transport system and therefore provide a further step towards reducing carbon emissions and winston we shall fight reducing the carbon footprint of vehicles, for example through intelligent speed adaptation. Moreover, the implementation of the collision avoidance systems help reduce traffic congestions and unnecessary starting and stopping further reducing carbon emissions . Collision avoidance systems result in Essay Crisis, changes in mean traffic speed per unit time, reduction in the period of the episode of reduced capacity, reduction in winston churchill speech we shall fight them on the, unnecessary sudden stops and about Clombus starts, reduction of unnecessary vehicle-miles traveled (VMT), and reduction in traffic congestion which result in a total reduction of dangerous vehicle emissions and speech we shall beaches reduction in of writing a beach, fuel consumption. Some of the impacts of those changes include:
1. Reduction in the emissions of churchill speech, Nitrogen Oxide (NOx). 2. Reduction in the emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC). 3. Reduction in descriptive piece about, the emissions of Carbon Monoxide (CO). 4. Reduction in winston churchill we shall them on the beaches, fuel consumption . Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Information Technology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to of the Gangster, your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Information Technology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Information Technology essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies.
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