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Blood: Composition, Functions and Other Details (with diagram) William Harvey (1578-1657) was discoverer of process of the blood circulation in Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, 1628. The blood is oliver twist story thick and bright red fluid. It is alkaline (pH 7.3 7.45), salty viscous and heavier than water (sp. gravity 1.03-1.05). Essay On Therapeutic Cardiomyopathy? An average adult person contains 5 to 6 liters of blood in his body. Caliban Tempest? William was an English medical doctor, born in 1578, in Essay to Hypertrophic, Kent, England. He was voracious student earning bachelors degree from Cambridge University in 1597. He proposed that blood flows through the heart in the separate systems, one system is pulmonary circulation, connects circulatory system to the lungs, and the second system is systemic circulation through which blood flows to the vital body organs and tissues.

Harvey also observed that blood flows through the veins towards the heart, but not in opposite direction. Harvey eventually developed an accurate theory of air asia ask how the heart and Essay on Therapeutic Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, circulatory system operated. He published his theories in 1628 in his famous book #8220;On the motion of the Overcrowding Heart and blood in Animals#8221;. Blood is bright coloured, fluid connective tissue, which consists of two main parts. 2. Corpuscles (40%). (Liquid part). It is straw coloured alkaline fluid which contains 90 to 92% water, proteins 7 to 8%, inorganic salts 1%, glucose 0.1% and other substances in Essay, negligible amount. Glucose, amino acids, hormones, fibrinogen and urea are other substances, while sodium chloride, potassium hydroxide, calcium sulphate and sodium-bi-carbonate are inorganic salts present in plasma.

When fibrinogen protein is removed from plasma it is called serum. (Cellular part) Corpuscles form living part of blood. Twist? There are following types of corpuscles (Fig. 1.16). Essay Cardiomyopathy? Erythrocytes (Red Blood Corpuscles) are minute, biconcave circular structure, flat in Prison in California, the centre, thick at the periphery. They are with a diameter of 7 microns and thickness of 1-2 micron. Mature erythrocyte has no nucleus, no mitochondria and Essay to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, no ribosome. The life span is of only 120 days. Number of erythrocytes in air asia ask, male is 5.5 million/mm 3 , in female is 4.8 million/mm 3 . These corpuscles contain haemoglobin. The erythrocytes are produced in marrow of long bone such as ribs and breast bone, but in embryo, liver and spleen also. The process of their formation is called haemopoiesis. Erythrocytes disintegrate in spleen, liver and bone marrow, this process is called haemolysis.

A Red coloured substance is present in Essay Approaches, Erythrocytes, it is called haemoglobin. It is Conjugated chromoprotein. Cartoon Interpretation? Haemoglobin forms 95% of the solids present in the RBCs. Haemoglobin has two main parts, globin and Haem. Haem in turn; is composed of Iron and porphyrin. Each molecule of Haemoglobin has four ferrous atoms. Porphyrin is a pigment of four pyrrol groups, it is a protein. It is water soluble and insoluble in alcohol.

The main function of haemoglobin is Essay on Therapeutic oxygen carriage from lungs to body tissues and carbon dioxide transport in blood. On breakdown it forms important bile pigments Blood gets its colour from trillions of Erythrocytes in plasma. The blood of lobsters and other large crustaceans is blue due to the presence of Prison Overcrowding in California Essay oxygen carrying pigment known as hemocyanin, as contain copper molecules rather than iron molecules. On Therapeutic Approaches? The main function of erythrocytes is to deliver oxygen, as they lack mitochondria they cannot use oxygen and transport full absorbed oxygen to change cartoon interpretation the tissues. These are produced in red bone marrow, lymph nodes average life is about two weeks.

These are large irregular or oval colourless nucleated structures. These corpuscles do not contain haemoglobin. Number of leucocytes are 7000/mm 3 in an adult. When number of leucocytes increase, it is on Therapeutic Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy called leukaemia. There are two types of Leucocytes: (a) Granulocytes and. Basophils, acidophils and neutrophils are the types of granulocytes. Lymphocytes and monocytes are the types of agranulocytes.

Production of anti toxins, formation of Overcrowding in California antibodies, help in fat metabolism, phagocytic action against infecting organisms, help in tissue repair and help to maintain plasma concentration are the main functions of leucocytes. Monocyte is the largest WBC and smallest WBC is lymphocyte. (c) Thrombocytes (Blood Platelets): These are oval, round or rod like cytoplasmic structures with granules but no nucleus. Number of platelets is 2, 50,000/mm 3 . These are formed in red bone marrow. Their life span is 3 to 5 days and are destroyed mainly in the spleen. Protection of inner lining of blood vessels due to adhesive property and initiates the process of blood clotting are the main functions of thrombocytes. 1. Blood transports digested food materials such as glucose, amino acids and fatty acids to various body parts. 2. Blood regulates body temperature. 3. Blood transports oxygen from lungs to the tissues, oxygen is carried in two ways 98 per cent travels as oxy-haemoglobin and remaining two per cent is dissolved in plasma.

4. Leucocytes of blood protect the body from diseases. 5. Blood helps in on Therapeutic to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, wound healing. 6. Eleanor Essay? It transports excretory materials from the tissues to the respective organs. 7. Blood transports various hormones and other chemicals from one region to another to keep chemical co-ordination. Dr. James Blundell (1791-1878) Dr.

James Blundell was an English (British) physician. First of all in 1818 James blundell determined that a blood transfusion would be appropriate to Cardiomyopathy treat a severe hemorrhage. He also discovered the importance of letting all the air out of a syringe prior to the transfusion. When patients undergo surgical operations they need blood, then it becomes necessary to inject blood into Eleanor Roosevelt, the body of patient. This is called blood transfusion. [Fig. 1.17 (a)]. For this process, blood is introduced into the body of patient from a healthy person called donor. It is necessary for this that the Cardiomyopathy blood of both acceptor and donor should match. The blood of donor may not always match the blood of the patient who receives it, as a result, the blood of the patient clumps or agglutinates, proving fatal to the life of the patient.

Mismatching of blood takes places due to the reaction between antigens present in the RBCs cells of donor and antibodies present in the plasma of the which of these best describes absolute rulers? receiver. Karl Landsteiner was born on June 14, 1868 in Vienna, Austria. In 1891 he received his medical degree. Essay? In 1901-1903 Landsteiner discovered that during a blood transfusion from human to climate cartoon human, different foreign bloods tends to clump and cause shock or jaundice. In 1909, Landsteiner categorized the modern system for human blood into A, B, AB and O groups. To Hypertrophic? Landsteiner, along with A.S. Weiner, identified the Rh factor on 1940. In 1930, Landsteiner received the Nobel Prize for medicine for his work on differentiating the blood groups. The human blood is divided into four types of blood groups. A, B, AB and O according to which, RBC antigens they have [Fig. Caliban Tempest? 1.17 (b)].

O type blood can be given to persons of all types of blood groups, such as O, A, B and AB. The person having blood group O, is called universal donor. The person of blood group AB can receive the blood from all type of blood groups AB, A, B and O, and is therefore called universal acceptor. Essay Approaches To Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy? Besides the regular antigens, there is cartoon one antigen called Rh factor that determines the compatibility of blood transfusion. Depending upon the presence or absence of Rh factor a person is called Rh positive or Rh-negative.

Rh-negative persons do not have an antibody in the plasma against Rh factor. Blood is fluid connective tissue, when the blood comes out Essay on Therapeutic to Hypertrophic, through injury, the twist story platelets come in contact with the air, due to this thromboplastin (an enzyme) is on Therapeutic to Hypertrophic released and it combines with calcium ions present in plasma and converts pro-thrombin into in California Essay, thrombin. On Therapeutic Approaches? Now thrombin acts on fibrinogen present in blood plasma and converts it into insoluble fibrin. Fibrins is solid substance and form a fine network around the wound. Essay? Blood cells are unable to go through this network. Through the network of fibrin, when it contracts, a light yellow fluid comes out called serum. Essay On Therapeutic Cardiomyopathy? Blood does not clot in vessels due to some factors such as: (1) Constant flow of blood in vessels if velocity of Essay circulation decreases it leads to clotting. (2) Smooth endothelial lining of blood vessels prevent clotting. (3) Presence of natural anticoagulants in on Therapeutic Approaches to Hypertrophic, the blood such as #8216;heparin#8217; and protein #8216;C#8217; (Fig. 1.18a 1.18b).

Blood pressure is pressure which is air asia ask exerted by the blood on the walls of on Therapeutic to Hypertrophic blood vessels. Upper limit of blood pressure is called systolic pressure and responsible for movement of fresh blood in the arteries. Normal blood pressure (for upper limit) in adult is 100-140 (systolic) and the lower limit 60-80 (diastolic) when a person is having 140 mm systolic and above 90 mm diastolic pressure, the person is said to be a case of hypertension. Blood pressure is measured by an instrument known as Sphygmomanometer (Fig. 1.19). Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! Our mission is to air asia ask provide an online platform to help students to share notes in Biology.

This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages:

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The Social Significance of Plays you Study. As historical circumstances and cultural developments influence the writing, production and reception of plays and Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, performances, the Roosevelt Essay social significance of any play is essential to interrogate if you wish to understand all the features of plays you are studying. This type of study may require you to research a range of social and historical concepts, events, developments and Essay Approaches Cardiomyopathy, phenomena that appear to be extraneous or external to the play itself. Roosevelt Essay! For example, You may be asked to investigate the political systems and conflicts during an era in which plays were written and to consider how they impacted upon Essay on Therapeutic Approaches to Hypertrophic, the creation of describes absolute rulers? a particular style of play. Eg. What major political events were occurring when Roman comedy was at its zenith? You may be asked to investigate the economic changes in various eras and to Essay on Therapeutic to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy consider how economic changes influenced the plays that were published.

Eg. Change Cartoon Interpretation! Why were some of Shakespeare’s plays edited in Victorian England and Approaches, how might such approaches be linked to the development of Britain’s economy? You may be asked to investigate the era in which plays were produced and to caliban tempest compare material conditions of audiences today to Essay Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy those of audiences in the era in which a play was written. Eg. Would contemporary audiences be concerned about catching the plague if they attended the theatre and would they understand text that subtly referred to physical symptoms of the plague? The Performance Significance of Plays you Study.

Written forms of which statements best describes plays are often recognised as the permanent records of dramas while performances of plays are recognised as ephemeral activities that are difficult to record. While the on Therapeutic to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy construction of plays and performances are two separate crafts, the performance of a play is ultimately the only way to test whether or not a play actually works for an audience and the elements of a performance that support a production of a play are essential to consider and oliver, distinguish from the play. While practical activities in Essay on Therapeutic Approaches, tutorials enable you to experiment with performance possibilities, the plays you will study have usually already been produced. Finding information about various productions will enable you to consider more possibilities and may draw your attention to difficulties you may need to address when producing plays. This kind of information also prompts you to consider the technical limitations and developments that have influenced the evolution of theatrical performances and air asia ask, why so many differences are evident in productions of the same play in Approaches, different eras or cultures.

Such study may require you to analyse the choices accompanying the production of elements such as acting styles, theatre spaces, set design, lighting, sound, directing and costuming. Change Cartoon! This kind of study may also require in depth analysis of Essay reviews of performances or consideration of any particular edits or translations of texts used for statements best absolute a production. For example, You may be asked to investigate the Essay to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy influence of electricity on lighting designs for theatres. Eg. How did the invention of harnessed electricity impact upon the production of plays in theatres? You may be asked to investigate how different theatre spaces influenced the development of different acting styles. Eg. Why were oratorical skills and athleticism so important for the plays performed in interpretation, the Ancient Greek festivals? You may be asked to Essay on Therapeutic to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy evaluate a production’s decision to get rid of detailed staging instructions outlined in a play. Eg.

How would the Prison Overcrowding in California total departure from the staging instructions in Ibsen’s play The Doll’s House influence the meanings generated in a production of this play? Essay assignments give you opportunities to explore a range of topics and written styles and to formulate your own original and innovative approaches to different subjects. For example, if your essay question gives you scope to look at a number of different plays, try to Essay on Therapeutic to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy avoid common or popular choices and look for ways of offering a view or analysis that is Overcrowding in California Essay, insightful or unusual. Your lecturer has probably read a million essays on Shakespearean comedies or analyses of well-known Australian plays like The Removalist or Blackrock so they will appreciate and respond to original ideas and innovative arguments you are able to Essay Approaches Cardiomyopathy develop and defend. While we hope you will explore the many different components in drama and that you will have brilliant ideas to communicate, you must remember that there are different types of essays that offer you various ways to construct and communicate the ideas you are developing.

So, before you begin writing, consider which type of statements describes rulers? essay you are being asked to on Therapeutic Approaches Cardiomyopathy write (see outline of caliban tempest essays below). Basic Guide to Essay Writing: members.tripod.com/ Anderson, Jonathan and Millicent Poole. Thesis and Assignment Writing . Brisbane: John Wiley Sons, 1994. Bate, Douglas and Peter Sharpe. Harcourt Brace Writer’s Handbook: For University Students . Essay Approaches To Hypertrophic! Sydney: Harcourt Brace, 1996. Clanchy , John and Brigid Ballard.

Essay Writing For Students: A Practical Guide . Melbourne: Longman Cheshire, 1991. There is caliban tempest, always some degree of analysis involved in essay writing and most assignments develop your abilities to analyse and research. However, when you are asked to provide an analysis of a set play or topic, you are being asked for a particular type of essay . Analysis involved more than a description of a field of study and more than a list of your observations or a survey of observations made by others. Analysis requires you to examine your own responses and ideas about the subject you are investigating. Approaches To Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy! To offer an insightful analysis of a subject, you must consider a variety of claims that have been made about your subject. To find the variety of claims, you MUST conduct research.

Research is oliver twist story, important because you will only be in a position to on Therapeutic Approaches to Hypertrophic consider the strengths and weaknesses of the twist subject you are investigating when you have located a variety of information and opinions. As it is easy to be overwhelmed by the amount of material and the range of resources available for research, students need to remember that they are researching a particular topic that is on Therapeutic Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, part of a large field of story knowledge. To avoid becoming sidetracked, it is useful to consider what information you need to understand and assess the topic you are researching. When you have conducted thorough research of a topic, you will be able to offer an analysis of a subject that is supported by well-informed arguments and sound evidence (see section on research below). An analytical essay offers your view. While your research identifies other people’s views, their arguments and evidence are included to support your central claim.

An analytical essay can often include the following sections in various orders: A summary or outline of the subject you are analysing Your claim about the subject (a position that you have formed in response to your research and reading) An analysis of assumptions that have been or could be made about the subject you are analysing An analysis of any hidden or implied arguments associated with the subject you are analysing An analysis of any contradictions conflicting statements about the subject you are studying that are different to each other or to the responses you have had An analysis of on Therapeutic Cardiomyopathy evidence that supports your claim A summary that explains why your claim is more appealing than others. A sample assignment topic for an analytical essay: The Medieval Play Everyman is described as a morality play. In a well-argued essay, identify at least three moral virtues included in the play and which of these statements, consider whether these virtues were likely to be developed by people in the era and culture in which the play was produced. Essay On Therapeutic Approaches To Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy! Your essay should include references to the text and a detailed analysis of Overcrowding Essay relevant social discourses and material conditions evident at the time of the play’s production. Traditionally, a dramaturgical essay differs from an analytical essay in that it approaches the script as a script for performance as well as a piece of literature. That is, this type of essay takes into account the performative elements of a play. A person writing a dramaturgical essay therefore has to Essay Cardiomyopathy be able to imagine and caliban tempest, analyse elements that are used in a production of the play. Essay Approaches! A dramaturgical essay is still likely to analyse literary features (things like the rhythms of the written language, poetic images and structures). However, the climate change interpretation interpretations and Approaches to Hypertrophic, analysis of air asia ask plays offered by a dramaturg will include references that are relevant for particular performances and productions.

When you are asked to write a ‘dramaturgical’ essay you will also need to consider what task you are being asked to perform. Since there are many jobs and many types of analysis conducted in a theatre production, you will need to understand the Essay Approaches Cardiomyopathy specific aspect of air asia ask a production you are expected to research, analyse or develop. To do this, you need to understand what is involved in dramaturgy. Dramaturgy is a word used to Cardiomyopathy collectively describe the caliban tempest arts and Essay to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, techniques used to analyse and produce theatre. Eleanor Roosevelt! Dramaturgs or, in some spellings, dramaturges are individuals employed by theatre companies for their knowledge and understanding of theatre arts, techniques and functions. While dramaturgs are most commonly employed to help research and develop productions, the tasks they perform are varied and often negotiated by theatre companies. Tasks can include:

Developing a ‘dramaturgical protocol’ which is a package of information for a production that offers relevant historical, social, performative, political or literary information Providing literary advice to theatrical productions and playwrights (and sometimes film corporations) Analysing, editing, adapting, translating or choosing translations of texts, Offering support and feedback for new work Collaborating with directors, designers and actors Reading and evaluating scripts Researching performance histories Conducting close textual analyses of plays Developing ‘concepts’ for a production Researching, writing and designing theatre programmes Locating promotional material for productions. As dramaturgy is an evolving field, it is also a good idea to research the various roles and organizations that are associated with this activity before writing your essays (or accepting a contract with a theatre company!) A sample topic for an assignment that requires a dramaturgical essay: Queensland Theatre Company is mounting a production of Sophocles’ Oedipus the Essay on Therapeutic to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy King . You have been appointed as a dramaturg on this production and the director has asked you to do research for two different tasks. Find material that discusses the social and Eleanor Essay, historical significance of blind prophets presented in Ancient Greek plays and then write an essay for the production’s programme notes. Your essay is to explain the historical significance of blind prophets and explain how these ideas may be related to contemporary Australian views of clairvoyants and fortune-tellers. On Therapeutic! Your second task is to find some images of blind prophets that have been staged in caliban tempest, other productions of Ancient Greek plays.

You are to write a brief annotation on each of the productions that will be distributed to all members of the productions design team. The annotations must therefore accurately describe any significant details of the set, lighting and Essay on Therapeutic to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, costume designs used in Eleanor Essay, other productions and briefly explain why such designs would or would not work in the space being used at QTC. The Dramaturg’s Network. Cardullo, Bert. What is Dramaturgy ? New York: P. Lang, 1995. Meagher, John C. Pursuing Shakespeare’s Dramaturgy: Some Contexts, Resources, and Strategies in His Playmaking . Madison, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 2003.

A theatre review evaluates the on Therapeutic to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy impact of a production as a whole rather than focusing on one element such as the choice of play, the script, the playwright or any other component involved in mounting a production. Unlike an analysis of literary components of a play, a review offers your evaluation of twist all the components in a performance and discusses whether the Approaches components were used to successfully (or unsuccessfully) convey meaning in a production. Your evaluation will need to consider the oliver story successes, failures or tensions within the production and will demonstrate your ability to identify and Essay on Therapeutic to Hypertrophic, analyse a number of elements involved in a performance. Oliver Twist! Some of the Approaches to Hypertrophic components that may be contained in Roosevelt, a review include: A brief synopsis of the plot or aims of the production An analysis of how the script was supported or interpreted throughout the production An analysis of the mood or atmosphere established An analysis of the acting styles used by to Hypertrophic, performers and an analysis of any significant performances explaining why they were good, mediocre or bad An analysis of the directorial choices evident An analysis of the set, lighting, sound, costumes and other effects Your personal opinion supported by reasons to justify your opinion. A sample question for a theatre review:

Write a 1000 word review of Queensland Theatre Company’s production of Edward Albee’s play The Goat: Or Who is Sylvia? Essay writing skills common to all styles of essays. A good place to start is to imagine a PICTURE of your essay structure. A common structure found in most academic essays is the one below. While getting an overall picture of oliver your argument helps you organise your material, your essay must demonstrate your ability to research appropriately and demonstrate your ability to use and understand a number of Approaches analytical and literary skills. Eleanor Roosevelt Essay! You demonstrate these skills when you communicate your ideas effectively through a clear structure, a persuasive argument, a good range of evidence to Essay to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy support your argument (research and referencing) and appropriate expression of your argument and evidence (the language and style you select to in California Essay convey the ideas being outlined). Essay Approaches Cardiomyopathy! The criteria used to assess your essay account for each of these areas so you must carefully consider how you are using these elements when you are writing your essay (see criteria sheets below). Clive. Manual of Style for Essay Writing . St Lucia, Qld: Dept. of air asia ask History, The University of Queensland, 1999. Examples of criteria used to assess your essays:

1. Criteria for assessing essay Structure. Imprecise and vague focus on to Hypertrophic, the problem. Vague focus on air asia ask, the. The problem is defined. The problem is clearly defined. Concise and accurate statement of.

No clear statement. Statement of method presented. Statement of method presented using appropriate terminology. Clear and systematic statement of. method using appropriate terminology. Essay shows little. relevance to on Therapeutic to Hypertrophic topic. Essay relates to.

discusses the topic. Essay discusses the topic in an informative way. Essay discusses the topic in an insightful way. Much of the evidence inaccurate or. Limited amount of supporting evidence. The evidence is of these absolute, reliable.

Accurate presentation of evidence. Accurate presentation of appropriate evidence. Essay rambles and lacks continuity. The focus of the essay is Essay on Therapeutic Approaches Cardiomyopathy, weak. Material presented in. a logical order. Material presented in. a logical order which helps to build an argument. Logical argument that makes solid statements about the topic. Little evidence of which absolute originality. Essay covers material on a general level.

Essay covers material on a general level and Essay to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, extends this by wider research. Essay presents some new ideas which were not covered in class. Original creative work which shows an air asia ask, active engagement with other scholarly thought. 3. Criteria for assessing essay Research Referencing. Inadequate acknowledgement of sources.

Refers to Essay on Therapeutic Cardiomyopathy general sources. Adequate acknowledgement of academic sources. Good acknowledgement of academic sources. Excellent acknowledgement of scholarly sources. No evidence of Research. Evidence of Prison in California small.

amount of general research. Evidence of on Therapeutic Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy research that is relevant to the topic. Evidence of wide research. Evidence of wide scholarly research. Essay has used a small number of sources. Adequate consultation of which describes sources. Essay relies on a broad range of on Therapeutic Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy sources. Excellent choice of scholarly sources. Some inaccuracies in.

Correct referencing using an accepted citation method. Correct referencing using an accepted citation method. 4. Criteria for assessing essay Language Style. Clumsily written with. much incorrect punctuation.

Awkward use of expression. Fluent piece of Eleanor Essay writing. Fluent piece of on Therapeutic Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy writing which uses sophisticated language. Much inaccurate usage. Several ungrammatical sentences. Accurate usage of grammar. Grammar used with stylistic flair. Much incorrect spelling. Mostly correct spelling throughout. Correct spelling throughout. Correct spelling throughout.

Several errors in. in the Bibliography. Bibliography correctly set out using MLA Style. *For good advice on how to change cartoon interpretation improve sentence or paragraph construction have a look at: Durham, Marsha and Approaches Cardiomyopathy, Roslyn Petelin. The Professional Writing Guide: Writing Well and Knowing Why . Warriewood, NSW: Business and Professional Publishing, 2001.

The follow graphic will help to visualise the process that is required when you write an essay: The biggest pitfall for students writing Tertiary Level essays is being under-prepared for the topic. Researching your area thoroughly is an important elementary task. Change Cartoon! All essays must demonstrate a high level of research and comprehension of primary and secondary sources. You can assume that researching your topic at University is the norm unless otherwise advised by your lecturer. The types of research material that will be most useful to students in the Humanities include books, journal articles, book reviews, newspapers, encyclopaedias, dictionaries, etc.

The internet can be a useful tool although you need to be sure that the material comes from a repudable academic site. Over-reliance on internet sources is Essay Approaches to Hypertrophic, not acceptable. The ACU Library has many tools to help you find material that will be useful to your studies. ACU subscribes to many useful databases. However, you need to Overcrowding in California Essay be aware that many of the journals that are cited in the database are not held on campus.

The Library provides students with helpful guidelines for finding resources on campus. There are Library 'finders' for many disciplines including Drama. All essays need to Essay on Therapeutic Approaches to Hypertrophic follow a standard model of referencing. Of These Describes! The ACU Study Guide provides clear examples of on Therapeutic to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy how you should incorporate references into your writing. Caliban Tempest! This is essential reading for all subject areas offered at ACU. If the ACU Study Guide does not cover the specific item that you are wanting to include in your essay you can refer to the comprehensive manuals that are located in the Reference Section of the Library.

For Drama essays students should use the MLA method of referencing. You will also find Simon Ryan and Delyse Ryan's Essay Writing Guide useful. Make a habit of reading journal articles very carefully to learn how academic discourse is presented in essays. This will usually demonstrate an Cardiomyopathy, acceptable style for the inclusion of which of these describes absolute quotations and other citations. Look carefully at the way writers discuss the material.

If you want to enter into the academic discussion you need to Approaches to Hypertrophic be familiar with the Eleanor appropriate discourse. Presenting a workable structure for your argument is one of the Essay Approaches Cardiomyopathy most difficult skills that you will be required to demonstrate in essays. Which Statements Describes Rulers?! You must order your material in a coherent and Essay on Therapeutic Approaches, logical manner. In California! Make sure that everything you say is directly relevant to your topic. While you are writing continually refer back to the question to check that you are not going off on a tangent. Be wary of making grandiose statements which are not supported by your evidence. A favourite starting line for essays is Shakespeare was the greatest writer in the history of Literature. On Therapeutic Approaches To Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy! This is completely unable to be proven in a 2000 word essay and climate change cartoon interpretation, it is unlikely that lecturers would ask you a question that would require such a response.

To help temper your use of sweeping statements ask yourself can I back this up with a citation?if you can't then leave it out. Forgetting to Cite Your Sources: You must always cite your sources. All of your information has to have come from somewhere. Therefore, it is to Hypertrophic, extremely important that you say whose ideas and information you are referring to. Caliban Tempest! You are allowed to express your own ideas but make sure you do not take credit for Essay Cardiomyopathy someone else's work. Copying someone else's exact words or ideas: Students should familiarise themselves with ACU's rules regarding plagiarism.

For information regarding the University's policy refer to the ACU's Academic Regulations ( Regulation 6.4) and the Academic Honesty Policy (Item 7). Poorly presented work: Presentation is an important part of assignment writing. Hand-written work is change interpretation, not acceptable. Student access to computers is available on campus. All work should be typed and Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, include a Cover Sheet. You cannot hope to be convincing in your argument if spelling, typographical or grammatical errors appear in your work. Word processing packages have spell checking facilities although these should not be relied upon solely. For example, a computer spell check will not pick up that you have typed from instead of form because both words are spelt correctly. There is no substitute for Prison Overcrowding Essay proof-reading your work. Reading your work aloud is an excellent way of making sure that your writing makes sense as well as giving you an opportunity to Essay spot pesky errors.

The worst spelt word in University essays only consists of three letters. Students misspelling this particularly word is a pet-hate of most academics. Example: The dog's bone is buried could be written as Its bone is buried it's = a contraction of it is Example: The dog is asleep could be written as It's asleep If you are having trouble with your tertiary studies ACU has staff who are here to Prison Overcrowding in California help you.

Ann Majkut runs Study Skills Courses and it is strongly recommended that you attend these as they will help you in all of your subjects.

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Add or change sources, citations, and bibliographies. Essay Approaches Cardiomyopathy. Before you can add a citation, a works cited list, or a bibliography, you must add a source to your document. A works cited list is a list of sources, usually placed at the end of a document, that you referred to (or cited) in the document. A works cited list is different from a bibliography, which is a list of sources that you consulted when you created the document. Caliban Tempest. After you add sources, you can automatically generate a works cited list or a bibliography based on that source information. Each time that you create a new source, the source information is Cardiomyopathy, saved on your computer. You can use the Source Manager to oliver twist, find and on Therapeutic Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, reuse any source that you have created, even sources in which statements describes rulers? other documents. Citations are parenthetical references that are placed inline with the text. Citations are different from footnotes and endnotes, which are placed at the bottom of the page or end of the document. The source information stored in the Citations tool or Source Manager can be used to create citations, a works cited list, or a bibliography. However, you cannot use the information in the Citations tool or the Source Manager to create footnotes or endnotes.

For more information about templates for various styles, such as APA style, visit the Office for Mac templates web site. Essay On Therapeutic Approaches. Step 1. Add, edit, or remove a source. To add a citation, a works cited list, or a bibliography to your document, you first add a list of the sources that you used. Caliban Tempest. Add a source by using the Source Manager. The Source Manager lists every source ever entered on your computer so that you can reuse them in any other document. This is useful, for example, if you write research papers that use many of the same sources. If you open a document that includes citations, the sources for Essay on Therapeutic those citations appear under Current list . All the sources that you have cited, either in previous documents or in the current document, appear under Master list . On the Document Elements tab, under References , click Manage . At the bottom of the Citations tool, click , and caliban tempest, then click Citation Source Manager . On the Type of Source pop-up menu, select a source type. Complete as many of the fields as you want. The required fields are marked with an asterisk (*).

These fields provide the minimum information that you must have for a citation. Note: You can insert citations even when you do not have all the publishing details. If publishing details are omitted, citations are inserted as numbered placeholders. Then you can edit the on Therapeutic Approaches, sources later. Prison Overcrowding. You must enter all the required information for a source before you can create a bibliography. When you are finished, click OK . Approaches To Hypertrophic. The source information that you entered appears in the Current list and Master list of the Overcrowding in California, Source Manager.

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essays intercourse Sex and Sexuality in on Therapeutic Approaches to Hypertrophic, Islam. by Muslim Women's League. Even though it comprises only part of our identities, the sexuality of women represents so much more; such that women's sexuality has been viewed as something to be controlled, hidden, or mastered, most often by twist, men. Through the ages, sexuality has an impact on one's identity, self-esteem, relationships with others, societal mores, legal codes and so on.

If sexual behavior simply existed to allow for procreation, so much controversy and fascination would have no reason to exist. Unfortunately, in many societies and for Essay on Therapeutic many years women have been principally defined by their roles as sexual beings whose chief purpose is to satisfy men's sexual needs; this perception contributed to maintaining women in positions of inferiority and often subservience to men. Even today, women are singled out which statements describes, as sex objects, either as victims of rape or willing participants in industries such as advertising or pornography, that exploit women's sexuality. The purpose of this chapter is to explore important issues of sexuality from an Islamic point of view in an effort to expose demeaning cultural habits which have no basis in Islam, and to offer alternative understandings of these issues based on the primary sources of Qur'an and Hadith. The view of sexuality as taboo and on Therapeutic Approaches Cardiomyopathy shameful is by no means unique to any particular religious or ethnic group.

The Victorian era in England and caliban tempest the US(late 19th century) was characterized by such a strong inhibition of sexuality that was subsequently blamed for psychological problems seen in women by psychiatrists such as Sigmund Freud. Breaking free from the oppressiveness of that era was an important goal for women through most of the 20th century since the Essay Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy prevailing attitudes were not confined to sexual issues as women were denied many other essential human rights. Laila Ahmed addresses some of the misogynistic conditions and beliefs that preceded Islam in the Mediterranean area, heavily influenced by Jewish and Christian thinking at that time(6th and 7th centuries). She points out the church's attitude on abortion and contraception . formed part of a broader negative ethos concerning the air asia ask body and sexuality -- a sense of these as sinful and shameful and of sexuality as legitimate only for procreation. Essay On Therapeutic To Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy? women were evidently perceived as innately more implicated in physicality and sexuality than men. Twist? (Women and Gender in Islam, p.35) Unfortunately, a similar view of women has been adopted by some Muslims and may actually be rooted in the cultural values which existed when Islam was introduced. Human sexual development goes through several well-defined stages. Throughout growth, opportunities exist to teach children about Essay on Therapeutic their bodies, to inculcate values and attitudes, and Overcrowding in California most importantly to foster self-esteem. The success or failure (as determined by a woman's overall understanding and value of herself as well as her ability to maintain a satisfying relationship) can be determined by prevailing attitudes of the family and surrounding culture. Sexual development occurs throughout the life-cycle, beginning in infancy and childhood. The healthy progression from one stage of development to the next is dependent upon fulfillment of basic requirements at each stage.

For example, an infant must develop trust that the caregiver will consistently respond to Approaches to Hypertrophic, her cries before she can safely venture into the world and test the budding independence of toddlerhood. Change? The ultimate achievement is the development of an intact, secure adult with a high sense of self-esteem and self-worth. If a girl is constantly being told that she is naughty, shameful, stupid or ugly, she will come to believe it and obviously have low self-esteem which will interfere with relationships, school, work and so on. This illustration in general terms introduces the argument that cultural habits which teach girls excessive shame breed guilt and reinforce a negative self-image contributing to low self-esteem and Essay on Therapeutic to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy even dysfunctional sexual lives. This stage of development has been referred to as the climate change latent stage in Freudian terms. It was felt that between early childhood and Essay on Therapeutic to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy puberty children had no interest in their or others sexuality; they are essentially dormant in twist, this regard until hormonal changes signal the onset of puberty. However, this argument has been challenged by other experts in the field. Regardless of psychological theories, certain facts must be considered about children at this age. They are developing mentally and as such are often extremely curious about themselves, others, animals and so on. On Therapeutic Approaches? This is a good time to reinforce concepts of cleanliness, privacy and self-respect and to begin to teach them about sexuality and reproduction in Prison Overcrowding, an age appropriate manner.

Some girls will start menstruating as early as age nine and should be prepared ahead of time by frank and open discussions with their parents. For many girls, the most significant thing to happen during this time is the onset of menstruation. If a girl has not been prepared for Cardiomyopathy this event, the sight of the first few drops of blood can be terribly frightening. The signs that a girl is entering this stage of development include breast development, growth of hair under the Eleanor arms and in the pubic area, increase in height and finally onset of menses. At this time, cultural and familial attitudes about menstruation are critical in impacting a girl's acceptance or rejection of this milestone in her life. Because of the rapid rate of Essay Approaches change and accompanying sense of awkwardness, adolescents are often insecure and preoccupied with appearances, with a strong desire to be accepted by their peers. This stage is characterized by a heightened interest in and awareness of members of the opposite sex. In the United States and in many other countries, young people begin to develop relationships during the in California teenage years. Over half of the students graduating from high school have been sexually active. Many communities are working hard to teach abstinence before marriage but they are working against difficult odds especially when dating is viewed as normal, age-appropriate behavior. Yet, a primary task at this stage is to achieve a healthy, intimate relationship, which, for on Therapeutic Approaches to Hypertrophic Muslims, can only oliver story exist in the context of marriage.

Once women become sexually active, they then must deal with issues related to Essay Approaches Cardiomyopathy, pregnancy, such as attitudes toward child-bearing, timing and spacing of children, and contraception. Caliban Tempest? Ideally, decisions are made within a mutually supportive monogamous relationship. Also, during this time, sexual satisfaction as well as sexual dysfunction or incompatibility become important issues as part of an overall relationship and can contribute to its well being or be a source of on Therapeutic tension and caliban tempest stress. Historically, older women and men were considered asexual as aging and sexuality seemed incompatible. Especially today, as women and Essay Cardiomyopathy men live well into their eighties, sexuality is still an important part of many people's lives. While some may experience a decreased sex drive, others do not notice any change at all.

Early in life, children become aware of their sexuality even to the point that infants can experience sexual pleasure (see Your Baby and Child, P. Leach, p. 212). Infants develop awareness of the air asia ask function and form of on Therapeutic Cardiomyopathy all body parts as they grow. To a child, the penis or vagina is just another part of the body, like arms and legs. The focus on the genitals is particularly evident during the toilet training years. If a child is taught that her genitals are dirty and shameful , but she wants to explore them just the same, naturally she will feel ashamed and naughty if she does so. Caliban Tempest? Therefore, early on she sees part of herself as negative. Most child development experts encourage parents to remain neutral about a child's interest in her genitals to to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, avoid preoccupation with that body part and to enhance the development of a positive sexual identity. Climate Cartoon Interpretation? As the child grows, it becomes important to Essay to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, teach her about oliver twist story privacy and appropriate behavior when around others. Oftentimes, parents fear that by not discouraging their children from touching themselves, they are encouraging them to explore sexuality at an early age.

But teaching children to respect and understand their bodies will more positively impact their self image compared to emphasizing the sense of Essay on Therapeutic Cardiomyopathy shame ('ayb) that many children are taught. Air Asia Ask? Such a sense of shame can be taken to extremes; for example, a mother refuses to apply necessary medication to her three year old daughter's vagina because to touch her there is Approaches, 'ayb. Other girls are afraid to cleanse their genitals properly because to touch themselves is 'ayb. The concept of shame or disgust regarding one's body has no basis in Islam. During adolescence, sexuality becomes of climate cartoon interpretation interest to young people as their bodies experience hormonal upheavals which result in on Therapeutic, physical and emotional changes. Again, a girl's experience through childhood will influence her passage through this difficult time. If she is taught that the onset of menstruation is a curse, then her experience and coping mechanisms will be affected negatively. A positive attitude will enable a young woman to view it as a milestone, not a hindrance. Unfortunately, much folklore and negative cultural beliefs abound regarding a woman's menses. Indeed, for some women menstruation is a physically difficult, unwelcome disruption every month.

But it is a simple biological process that can be managed like any other physical condition, and needn't impair a woman's ability to function. Several hadith exist regarding menstruation. The only Qur'anic reference is found in Surah 2, verse 222 where Muslims are told to avoid sexual intercourse during a woman's menses: And they will ask thee about (woman's) monthly courses. Change Interpretation? Say, 'It is a vulnerable condition. Keep, therefore, aloof from women during their monthly courses, and do not draw near unto them until they are cleansed; and when they are cleansed, go in unto them as God has bidden you to do.' In a hadith found in Muslim (No. 592, also reported in Sunan Abu Dawud, No, 258), a discussion occurs whereby the Prophet emphasizes that the Essay Islamic view of menstruation differs significantly from the Jewish attitude during his time, which strongly restricted women from several arenas while they were menstruating. In this hadith he says, Associate with them in the houses and do everything except sexual intercourse.

Aisha and the other wives of the Prophet were instrumental in pointing out his attitude of tolerance; for example, Maimuna recalled an occasion when she was sitting near him while he was praying. She happened to be menstruating and during his prayers he knelt on her garment but did not displace it, meaning that being in the presence of a menstruating woman had no impact on his prayers ( Mishkat ul Masabih, No. 550; for other hadith along similar lines see Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 212-213, 267-273; Muslim, Nos. 269, 577-588 and Bukhari, Vol. 1, Nos. Climate Change Interpretation? 293-300) Also, the Essay on Therapeutic Cardiomyopathy Prophet commanded menstruating women and of these statements best those observing purdah to participate in Eid festivities. They sat behind those who prayed but joined in takbir ( Muslim, Nos. 1932-34; Bukhari, Vol.1, No.

321). Exemptions from Rituals. Today, as in the time of the Prophet, women do not pray or fast while on their menses. The Qur'an does not address this practice at all; several hadith exist which expressly forbid women to pray while on their period. Essay Approaches To Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy? (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 271-287, Bukhari, Vol.1., No.327). Several traditions show that menstruating women were not supposed to perform tawaf (circumambulation) around the Kaaba during Hajj while they were menstruating (Bukhari, Vol. Of These Best Describes? 1, Nos. 302,321,325; al-Muwatta, 20.16) The menses were viewed as a temporary illness such that days not fasted had to be made up as any ill person would do after Ramadan. The Qur'an states that those who are ill or on Essay Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, a journey can desist from fasting and make the caliban tempest days up later (2:184).

There are no hadith which expressly forbid women from fasting while menstruating, but based on the text from the following, one concludes that menstruating women did not fast: Aisha is reported to have said that during menstruation in the time of the Prophet, the women were commanded to complete the Essay Approaches Cardiomyopathy fast (abandoned during menses) but were not commanded to complete the (abandoned) prayer (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 262-3, Muslim, Nos. 660-662). Overcrowding? Women who have prolonged menses because of an underlying medical problem can resume prayers , fasting, and intercourse after a certain number of days (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 274-306, Bukhari, Vol. 1, Nos. 303,306,322,324).

In view of the Essay Approaches to Hypertrophic verse mentioned above which admonishes against sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman in order to avoid causing her harm, the exemptions from the which of these best above-mentioned rituals could be viewed as an extension of God's consideration of women. Perhaps abstention from prayer and fasting during one's menses is a divine acknowledgement of women's increased difficulty during that period. God gave them permission not to pray or fast as a sign of Approaches to Hypertrophic mercy, just as He allows travelers to shorten their prayers to ease their burden. Many Muslims believe that menstruating women are not allowed to enter the mosque or touch the Qur'an. This relates to the view of the menstruating woman as unclean. Since she cannot be purified with ablution until after her menses stop, she is not in the proper state to enter a mosque or recite Qur'an. Conflicting hadith exist regarding these habits. When looking at the whole body of hadith regarding the subject of menstruation, it appears that many of the injunctions were made because of the physical problems associated with active bleeding. Women at that time did not have access to modern amenities which protect a woman and her garments from the interpretation blood flow. One hadith points out that one of the Prophet's wives (Um Salamah, who was having irregular bleeding) needed a dish underneath her to Essay on Therapeutic Approaches to Hypertrophic, catch the menstrual blood while she was observing I'tikaf in the mosque during Ramadan (Bukhari No.

306, Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 2470, Muslim, No. 2470). Therefore, practically speaking , women might have been restricted in which of these describes absolute rulers?, their activities if they did not have the means to Essay on Therapeutic to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, deal with a heavy period, for example. Today, women have so many options so that there are rarely fears of such difficulties.

In addition, the Prophet once asked Aisha to fetch his mat which was in the mosque. She said, But I am menstruating to which he replied Your menstruation is not in your hand. (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 261) However, another hadith exists which states that menstruating women should not enter the mosque: The Prophet is reported to have said, I do not make the mosque lawful for story a menstruating woman and for a person who is junub. To Hypertrophic? (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 232) The act of not touching the Qur'an while menstruating is based on the hadith that the Prophet wrote a letter in which he said that no one should touch the Qur'an but one who is twist story, pure. (Mishkat-ul-Masabih, No. 465;). Also, in Surah 56, verses 77-79 we find: That this indeed is a Qur'an most honorable, in a Book well-guarded, which none shall touch but those who are clean (tahir). In Mishkat-ul Masabih a hadith from Tirmidhi states that the Prophet said that the menstruating woman and Essay Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy one who is junub should not recite anything from the Qur'an (No. 461). In general, since, in either of these states, women or men are not yet physically purified (tahir) they cannot touch or formally recite the Qur'an until that state comes to an end.

By performing ghusl (complete ablution) after the menses are over, one achieves the prerequisite physical state which allows for the resumption of prayers, fasting, reciting Qur'an and caliban tempest sexual relations. This does not imply impurity of spirit nor does it necessarily have to mean that a menstruating woman is unclean or dirty. On Therapeutic To Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy? The Prophet was known to perform ghusl after intercourse before reciting Qur'an, and Eleanor Roosevelt Essay he also would recite Qur'an while resting his head in Aisha's lap and she happened to be menstruating. (Mishkat, No. 460, Muslim, Nos. 260, 591) It is possible to Essay Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, understand why Muslims might view menses as a negative aspect of the female identity. Statements Best? A well known and oft-quoted hadith which leads to the conclusion that menstruating women neither prayed nor fasted is found in Bukhari with several versions: The Prophet is reported to Essay on Therapeutic Cardiomyopathy, have said, Isn't it true that a woman does not pray and does not fast on menstruating? And that is the defect in statements, her religion (Vol. 3, No.

172, see also Vol. 1, No. Essay On Therapeutic To Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy? 301). The conclusion usually derived from Eleanor, this hadith is that women can never achieve the same level of faith or spirituality as men because they cannot fulfill their religious duties all the time. On Therapeutic? The weakness in caliban tempest, this argument and therefore in the hadith is that it contradicts the Essay on Therapeutic Cardiomyopathy undisputed image expressed in the Qur'an of twist story women and men as equal in terms of their duties and expectations as Muslims, servants of Essay Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy God. To say that one's faith is determined only by the extent to which she can carry out the rituals negates all of the other aspects of faithfulness and observance that cannot be quantified.

God rewards or punishes according to in California, deeds and intentions; how, then, can something that is biologically determined, not chosen or willed by the individual, serve as a measure of faith? Would God punish women for something that He created? Because this hadith is found in Bukhari, it is rarely questioned or reinterpreted and unfortunately reinforces a negative view of women in Islam. The large volume of hadith regarding menstruation reflects the need for practical guidance on the part of the Muslim community at the time of the Prophet. After reviewing all of the texts, one can't help but feel the burden of Approaches Cardiomyopathy menstruation for the Muslim woman. Caliban Tempest? Regardless of the Essay on Therapeutic Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy deficiency hadith and in view of modern advances, Muslim women today can view menstruation as a simple fact of life that has no negative bearing on her value as a human being. Air Asia Ask? Modern medicine has enabled us to manipulate the menstrual cycle in a myriad of Essay on Therapeutic Approaches ways so that women can continue to carry out their activities without being disabled once a month. Indeed, many women take advantage of air asia ask medical technology to avoid menstruating during Hajj which, for many, is truly a once in a lifetime event not to be missed because of bad timing.

Virginity and the Hymen: The Double Standard. Throughout childhood and adolescence, girls are sometimes prohibited by their parents from engaging in any activities that might interfere with the integrity of the hymen which is a small circular membrane at the opening of the vagina which allows the passage of menstrual flow. The opening is very narrow and Essay Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy is torn when penetration occurs (as in sexual intercourse). This is occasionally accompanied by bleeding. Such blood loss has been required in some cultures to prove that the woman is a virgin at marriage so a blood stained cloth would be given to the groom's family on the wedding night to Roosevelt Essay, verify the bride's pure state.

If a woman did not bleed, the Approaches to Hypertrophic repercussions could be severe. Air Asia Ask? So it became vitally important that the hymen remain intact as a sign of Essay on Therapeutic to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy virginity with the family's honor at stake. While many of the cultural traditions involving proof of a woman's virginity are less prevalent than in the past, one can still find a persistent concern about the hymen as a marker for virginity today throughout many parts of the Muslim world. (It should be noted that the concern about the hymen is not limited only to air asia ask, Muslims.) As a result, any activity that might cause tearing of the hymen would be forbidden, such as bicycle riding, horseback riding, gymnastics, etc. Unfortunately, the prohibitions against these activities are rarely accompanied by an explanation (most likely due to shyness on the part of the parents); thus, the young girl learns that because she is a girl she cannot participate in activities enjoyed by Essay on Therapeutic Approaches to Hypertrophic, other children. Again, such an attitude promotes a negative self-image. Cartoon? These attitudes are culturally entrenched and Essay Cardiomyopathy not based on Prison in California, Islam.

While virginity of both men and women is Essay to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, emphasized in Islam, there is no text in Qur'an or Hadith which specifically addresses the intactness of any part of caliban tempest a woman's anatomy as a marker for virginity. As will be discussed in detail later, the Islamic position on sexual behavior is explicit. Both men and women are required to be chaste and to to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, seek fulfilling relationships in air asia ask, marriage. Consequently, pre- and extra-marital relations are prohibited (Qur'an, 17:32, 24:26, 25:68; Bukhari, Vol. 8, Nos. 798-802).

Of course, then, there is no debate that Muslims, male and female, must be virgins before they enter into their first marriage. Each individual is responsible and Essay to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy accountable to God for maintaining a state of purity prior to matrimony. Cartoon? Why should a woman have to prove that she is a virgin with physical evidence, when the man is taken on his word? Naturally, a woman who marries for the second or third time cannot give the same proof, meaning the status of the hymen is Approaches, truly irrelevant for determining sexual purity. The hymen exists as a remnant of embryological development which serves no purpose physiologically speaking (K.

L. Moore, The Developing Human). If it tears because a girl goes bike riding or uses a tampon or even has a pelvic exam by a physician as part of an evaluation of a medical condition, must it then follow that she is Eleanor Roosevelt Essay, no longer a virgin? The restriction against vaginal penetration applies to premarital sexual behavior with a member of the opposite Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, sex. The prohibition against premarital sex exists because of multiple negative social, psychological and oliver story physical consequences that do not apply if the hymen is torn by an act that does not involve sexual intercourse. An unfortunate consequence of focusing on Essay on Therapeutic Cardiomyopathy, the shamefulness of sexuality is the inability of many women to enjoy a fulfilling sexual life once married.

If a woman is taught from childhood that her genitals are unclean, untouchable, and basically an area off limits, and if inadequate discussion takes place to prepare her for her first sexual experience, then naturally she would be horrified to which best describes absolute rulers?, imagine the penetration of Essay on Therapeutic to Hypertrophic that area by change cartoon, another person such as her husband. And if the first encounter is painful, the stage is set for inhibition and fear so that a fulfilling sexual relationship is practically impossible. Problems that ensue include the on Therapeutic Approaches inability to Prison Overcrowding in California, consummate a marriage, vaginismus (spasm of the vaginal muscles which causes pain and prevents penile penetration), dyspareunia (painful intercourse), and the emotional and psychological consequences for Essay on Therapeutic to Hypertrophic the individuals involved in the relationship. Also, the strong sense of fear and shame often prevents adequate medical evaluation during pelvic examinations because some women are unable to sufficiently relax even if they are married and have already borne children. While our religion stresses the importance of mutual sexual satisfaction between marriage partners, negative cultural factors can prevent such an outcome. By educating children and young adults properly about sexuality, and by eliminating the features or habits which contribute to Prison in California Essay, a negative self-image, and by focusing on the positive language found regarding these issues in Islamic literature women and Essay on Therapeutic Approaches men will be able to enjoy a fulfilling sexual relationship in marriage that is each person's right. Sexuality in which best rulers?, Qur'an and Hadith. The references to sexuality found in Qur'an and hadith will now be discussed. Essay Approaches To Hypertrophic? In the following verse, men and climate women are referred to as the garments of one another, implying a sense of balance and mutual nurturance from on Therapeutic Approaches to Hypertrophic, one to the other. It is lawful for you to go in unto your wives during the night preceding the (day's) fast: they are as a garment for you, and you are as a garment for of these best describes absolute them. God is aware that you would have deprived yourselves of this right, and so He has turned unto you in His mercy and removed this hardship from you.

Now, then, you may lie with them skin to skin, and avail yourselves to that which God has ordained for you.(2:187) Also, by reviewing this and the verses below one appreciates the fact that sexual relations are sanctioned by God and are viewed as part of the on Therapeutic Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy spiritual relationship that exists between a husband and wife. As mentioned earlier, the Qur'an specifically prohibits intercourse during a woman's period (2:222) to avoid causing her discomfort. In verse 223 of the same Surah, the Qur'an says: Your wives are your tilth; go, then, unto your tilth as you may desire, but first provide something for your souls, and remain conscious of God, and know that you are destined to meet Him. And give glad tidings unto those who believe. Based on these verses and caliban tempest some hadith, Muslim couples are encouraged to enjoy sexual relations in any manner the two prefer. The only prohibitions involve avoiding intercourse while a woman is menstruating, and avoiding anal penetration (Muslim, No.3365); this explains the text in the verse mentioned above since it was revealed when one of the Essay on Therapeutic Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Sahaba was concerned about having sexual intercourse from behind.

He was worried that he committed a sin. So the Prophet said that any position was lawful as long as anal penetration did not occur. Therefore, if the couple is caliban tempest, mutually agreeable, no other restrictions apply. Other verses that address sexuality focus on Essay on Therapeutic Approaches, the unlawfulness of caliban tempest extra-marital sexual relationships which will be discussed later. Sexual Rights of the Wife.

Several hadith also address the issue of sexual satisfaction with reference to the wife's rights in this matter. Essay Approaches To Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy? The Prophet advised Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-As (who spent all day fasting and all night in prayer) to fast sometimes and not at other times; to pray at night and to sleep at oliver twist night. Your body has a right over you, your eyes have a right over you and on Therapeutic Approaches your wife has a right over you. (Bukhari, Vol.7, No. 127) The wife's rights include a right to companionship from her husband and oliver story fulfillment of her sexual needs. A woman's satisfaction is particularly referred to Essay on Therapeutic Approaches Cardiomyopathy, in the interpretation of the hadiths which discuss penile withdrawal as a method of contraception. One stipulation is that the woman must consent because such a practice could interfere with her sexual fulfillment to which she is entitled. Also, if she desires to bear children, coitus interruptus practiced by her husband would violate that right as well. Caliban Tempest? This viewpoint is based on a hadith transmitted by Umar ibn-al-Khattab who said that the Prophet forbade the practice of on Therapeutic Approaches Cardiomyopathy coitus interruptus with a woman except with her permission This reference is oliver, found in Essay on Therapeutic Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, Sex and Society in Islam, by B. F. Musallam who also points out that this hadith was considered weak by some Medieval jurists (see also al-Muwatta, 29.34, No.

100). Prison Overcrowding? Nevertheless, the position regarding the Approaches woman's right to orgasm was developed over time by several Muslim jurists during the same period (Busallam, Chapter 2 and Eleanor footnotes). Also, one undisputed justification for divorce on behalf of the wife is her sexual dissatisfaction. The most explicit discussions of on Therapeutic Approaches Cardiomyopathy sexual relations with respect to fulfilling the wife's needs are found in the Book on the Etiquette of Marriage, part of Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali's larger work, Revival of the Roosevelt Essay Religious Sciences (Ihya Ulum al-Din), written in the eleventh century. In spite of some of Essay on Therapeutic Approaches to Hypertrophic his comments that are generally disparaging of women, he argues forcefully regarding the wife's right to story, sexual fulfillment. On Therapeutic Cardiomyopathy? He quotes the Prophet as saying, Let none of you come upon his wife like an animal, let there be an emissary between them. When asked what is the story emissary, he replied, The kiss and sweet words. In another hadith, the Prophet points out that one of the deficiencies of a man is that he should approach his wife and have sexual contact with her before exchanging words and on Therapeutic Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy caresses, consequently, he sleeps with her and fulfills his needs (i.e. orgasm) before she fulfills hers. Which Best Describes? Al-Ghazali further elaborates on the importance of to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy a woman achieving orgasm by stating, Congruence in attaining a climax is more gratifying to her because the man is not preoccupied with his own pleasure, but rather with hers. Rights of the Husband.

The sexual rights of the husband are also elucidated in the traditions, but the language is such that it appears that his rights supersede those of his wife. Change? For example, in Bukhari, AbuHuraira reports that the Prophet said, If a man invites his wife to sleep with him and Essay on Therapeutic Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy she refuses, then the air asia ask angels send their curses on her till morning. (Vol. 7, No. 121-2; in Essay Approaches to Hypertrophic, Muslim, the text reads that God is change cartoon, displeased with her until the husband is pleased with her Nos. 3366-68). In Riyadh-us-Salaheen, a hadith attributed to Tirmidhi and Nisai states that the Prophet said, When a man sends for his wife for the satisfaction of his need, she should go to him even if she may be occupied in baking bread. (No. 284) Similarly, Muslim women are advised not to fast without the permission of their husbands since fasting would interfere with sexual relations (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. On Therapeutic Approaches Cardiomyopathy? 2452-3; Muslim, Nos.

3366-68; Bukhari, Vol.7, No. 120). Clearly, Islamic literature stresses the importance of the sexual relationship between a husband and wife, but the above traditions seem to climate change interpretation, show that the husband's right to have sex is Essay Approaches Cardiomyopathy, more important than the wife's right of refusal if she is not willing for climate interpretation whatever reason. The only time she can refuse intercourse, then, is during menstruation. The verse (2:222) commands Muslims to Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, avoid sex during that time because it may be associated with discomfort on the part of the woman. A logical conclusion would be that sexual relations are better avoided for any circumstances (physical or otherwise) that would lead to discomfort. A common view of air asia ask sex is that the stronger sexual urges of men (compared to women) can be controlled only to a certain extent; according to some, this justifies the Essay Approaches Cardiomyopathy practice of polygamy even though the Qur'an makes no mention of sexual desires in Overcrowding Essay, the verses on polygamy (4:3-5). Also, the same argument is made to justify forcing women to have sex against their will, as they are forbidden to refuse to have sexual relations. Since the husband's urges are so strong, and to prevent him from acting out on them illicitly, a wife's duty therefore is to submit in order to preserve the on Therapeutic marriage.

Yet, human beings are endowed with self control not seen in any other species, such that we do not act on every instinctual impulse because of some uncontrollable force. This is what distinguishes humankind since God gave us the ability to think and make choices. Therefore, there is no justification for forcing women to have sex against their will, even in marriage. One does not find any traditions that show the Prophet as an air asia ask, aggressive or coercive husband. Similarly, behavior involving coercion and force goes against the philosophy of mutual satisfaction outlined in on Therapeutic to Hypertrophic, the Qur'an (see verses above) and against the hadith which states that the Roosevelt best among Muslims are those who are best towards their wives (Riyadh-us-Salaheen, No. 278). Essay Approaches? Also, the Prophet expressed his strong disapproval of those who physically beat their wives and then had sexual relations that night (Bukhari, Vol. 7, No. 132, Vol.9, 81-82; see also Riyadh us-Salaheen, No. 274).

The example of the caliban tempest Prophet clearly reveals that he and his wives enjoyed physical affection not necessarily related to intercourse thus reflecting an attitude of loving behavior in a variety of circumstances. Based on the hadith transmitted by his wives (particularly regarding physical intimacy while they were menstruating), this behavior included kissing, caressing, embracing and bathing together. Essay? (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 267-273, 2376-2379; Muslim, Nos. 577-586, 629) Husbands and wives should strive to satisfy one another's sexual needs as much as possible. This can be achieved by of these statements best describes absolute rulers?, honest, open discussions; care, kindness and on Therapeutic Approaches Cardiomyopathy a desire to please one another. Viewing sexual intimacy as an caliban tempest, important part of the to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy relationship will enable a couple to achieve mutual satisfaction that enhances the overall success of the marriage. Clearly, coercion and lack of consideration for one's spouses feelings will result in tension that can have negative effects on the rest of the relationship.

Unfortunately, if a Muslim woman is raised to abhor and fear any matters related to story, sex, then in most instances of sexual contact she would be a passive and perhaps unwilling participant, and definitely not one who derives pleasure from sex. Also, the on Therapeutic to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy general view of sex as a shameful and dirty act contributes to Overcrowding in California Essay, inhibitions of both men and Essay on Therapeutic women, preventing them from enjoying an act sanctioned by God. The following hadith highlights the oliver twist importance of privacy in sexual relationships: the Prophet is reported to have said, The most wicked among the people in the sight of on Therapeutic God on the Day of Judgement is the story man who goes to on Therapeutic Approaches Cardiomyopathy, his wife and air asia ask she comes to to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, him, and then he divulges her secret. (Muslim, Nos. 3369-70). Consequently, Muslims would be very unlikely to Overcrowding Essay, discuss matters of their sexual lives outside of the home. By keeping sexual issues private, the couple ensures mutual respect and Essay Approaches avoids the chances of violating trust by divulging personal tastes and practices to others.

However, this attitude would also prevent couples from seeking necessary help, thus diminishing opportunities for alleviating any problems related to sexual dysfunction. Consultations with professionals, such as physicians, would not violate the code of privacy, and could help the individual or couple in matters that significantly impact the marriage. Sex Outside of Marraige. As mentioned earlier, the air asia ask Qur'an specifically prohibits sexual acts outside of marriage (zina). Interestingly, the text does not go into detail to explain why such behavior is sinful. The verses which mention illicit sexual relations do so while admonishing Muslims to avoid other grave sinful deeds such as murder and stealing (Qur'an 25:68, 60:12). Muslims acknowledge and believe in Divine wisdom which is understood, to some extent, by the application of common sense and an exploration of the ramifications of fornication and adultery which include but are not limited to unwanted pregnancy, transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, negative emotional and psychological consequences, and on Therapeutic physical intimacy without emotional commitment. In addition to Qur'an, numerous hadith exist which point out of these describes, that zina is considered a major sin (Bukhari, Vol.7, No. Essay To Hypertrophic? 148; Vol. Eleanor Essay? 8, Nos.

798-802). The issue of extramarital sexual relations takes on even more profound importance because laws exist in Islamic jurisprudence which outline the punishment (hadd) for this behavior which is Essay, considered a sex crime. Twist? Clearly, the threat of Essay on Therapeutic to Hypertrophic punishment authorized by God serves as a very effective deterrent for air asia ask illicit sexual behavior which results in negative social consequences beyond those experienced by to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, the couple in question. Even though the text is clear regarding the unlawfulness of zina, the Prison Overcrowding in California following references point out how difficult it is to Essay on Therapeutic, accuse someone of such a crime. According to the Qur'an, those who accuse another of zina are required to produce four eyewitnesses of the which of these statements describes rulers? act of to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy genital penetration (meaning the caliban tempest act of intercourse would practically have to be committed in public view). According to on Therapeutic Approaches to Hypertrophic, hadith, other incriminating evidence include confession and air asia ask pregnancy (Bukhari, Vol. 8, No. 816; Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 4518; Muslim, No. 4194).

While the on Therapeutic seriousness of the crime is not in question, the Prophet himself demonstrated reluctance in Prison, reacting to accusations and even confessions without giving individuals the opportunity to avoid punishment and repent to God, with the hopes of avoiding punishment in the hereafter as well. In addition, the Essay on Therapeutic Cardiomyopathy Prophet himself advised the believers not to make public their misbehaviors. When a man came to confess that he had been with a woman and did everything except sexual intercourse, Omar ibn al Khattab said, Allah has concealed your fault; it would have been better if you had concealed it yourself. The Prophet then quoted the best verse, And be constant in praying at the beginning and the end of the day. for, verily, good deeds drive away evil deeds: this is a reminder to all who bear (God) in mind. (11:114). In addition, the Approaches Qur'an elsewhere clearly stresses the importance of sincerely repenting as God is ever merciful (4:15-16). Several hadith refer to an instance in which the Prophet tried to give a man the opportunity to avoid punishment. Maiz ibn Malik came to the Prophet insisting on confessing his sin of fornication with a slavegirl.

The Prophet responded by turning away from him, then insisted that the couple must have just looked at each other, or only embraced or kissed; but Maiz persisted with his confession of actual intercourse. Eleanor Roosevelt? The Prophet gave him ample opportunity to conceal his sin, and repent privately with the hopes of receiving God's forgiveness. Yet, Maiz also knew that punishment in this life would replace the possible punishment awaiting in the Hereafter. So upon acknowledgement and confession of Essay on Therapeutic Cardiomyopathy fornication, the Prophet ordered the punishment. (Bukhari, Vol. 8, Nos. 806, 810, 812-14; Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 4413). A similar story involves a pregnant woman who also wanted to confess and receive punishment.

Again, the Prophet first told her to Go back to her tribe, but she returned again wishing to confess. The Prophet told her to go back until the child was born. She returned again with the infant and he told her to suckle him until you wean him. She returned when the boy was weaned, again confessing fully, resulting in the prescribed punishment. Prison Essay? (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 4428). For a couple (or individual) convicted of zina, the punishment would be harsh. According to the Qur'an , 100 lashes for each (24:2). In several hadith collections, the punishment of stoning to death is on Therapeutic Cardiomyopathy, described for those guilty of adultery. This divergence is significant because stoning resulted in death while flogging did not..

The Qur'an does not distinguish between fornication and adultery but uses one word to describe both, zina. Belief in the Qur'an as the final word would argue that the use of stoning to death instead of Eleanor Roosevelt Essay flogging is inappropriate; indeed a hadith in Bukhari states that a transmitter of Essay Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy one of the stoning hadiths did not know if stoning was practiced before or after the revelation of the above Qur'anic verse (Vol. .8, No. Twist? 804). Interestingly, both Bukhari and Muslim report a hadith transmitted by Ibn Abbas who narrated that Umar ibn al-Khattab feared that in future times Muslims would not use stoning as punishment because it is not mentioned in the Qur'an. But he spoke to confirm the on Therapeutic to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy obligation of its use as punishment for proven cases of adultery. (Bukhari, Vol.8, No. 816; Muslim, No. 4194). All of these issues dealing with punishment must be reviewed by modern Islamic jurists to air asia ask, develop laws (in those countries where Islamic law is applied) that incorporate the Islamic principles of justice, due process and compassion. Essay On Therapeutic Approaches To Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy? In countries where Muslims live as minorities (where Islamic law does not prevail), these punishments cannot be carried out by zealous individuals or communities who may feel that they are required to carry out God's law in caliban tempest, spite of the prevailing legal system. Yet, the system of Essay Approaches Islamic jurisprudence must guarantee basic rights of individuals accused of serious crimes: these rights cannot possibly be upheld without a court system with checks and balances to Roosevelt Essay, ensure enforcement of the law while respecting the Essay on Therapeutic rights of individuals. The main point is that, while the punishment for zina is severe and extreme, the requirements for proof of guilt are so strict that the chances of one actually being convicted and then punished are very small.

Thus the individual Muslim who commits such acts in private, without fear of retribution should pay heed to the following verses: Verily, God's acceptance of repentance relates only to those who do evil out of ignorance and then repent before their time runs out. And it is they unto whom God will turn again in His mercy - for God is all-knowing, wise; whereas repentance shall not be accepted from those who do evil deeds until their dying hour and then say, Behold I now repent; nor from those who die as deniers of truth; it is these for whom We have readied grievous suffering.(4:17-18) While it may seem obvious to some, the definition of zina is not without controversy. Prison In California? Again, using the hadith mentioned above(Bukhari, Vol. 8, No. 806, etc.), the Prophet did not consider Maiz ibn Malek of a crime until he confessed of actual sexual intercourse involving penile penetration. This does not mean that other behaviors such as kissing, heavy petting, oral sex are not prohibited but that the requirements needed to justify a harsh punishment are strict.

Obviously, many couples can engage in Essay Cardiomyopathy, all of these activities without being exposed to witnesses and thus avoid punishment in this life. But they still must answer to God who, in no uncertain terms, admonishes against any sexual contact outside of marriage. False Accusations and Honor. If a husband accuses his wife of adultery by swearing four times and she denies any wrongdoing under oath, then she is which statements best, vindicated (Qur'an 24:6-9). According to Essay on Therapeutic Approaches, Muhammad Asad (footnote 10, Surah 24) the same applies if a woman accuses her husband. If the accusation is found to be false the punishment of the accuser is Prison Essay, severe: And as for Essay Approaches Cardiomyopathy those who accuse chaste women (of adultery), and then are unable to produce four witnesses (in support of thier accusation), flog them with eighty s stripes; an ever after refuse to accept from climate, them any testimony- since it is they, they that are truly depraved!- excepting only those who afterwards repent and made amends for, behold, God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace. Essay On Therapeutic To Hypertrophic? And as for those who accuse their own wives, but have no witnesses except themselves, let each of these (accusers) call God four times to witness that he is indeed telling the truth, and the fifth time, that God's curse be upon him if he is telling a lie. (As for the wife, all) chastisement shall be averted from her by her calling God four times to witness that he is indeed telling a lie, and air asia ask the fifth (time), that God's curse be upon Essay, her if she is telling the truth . Essay? (24:4-8) These verses were revealed in to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, response to accusations against Aisha, the Prophet's wife, who was left behind the of these describes absolute caravan when she went looking for a lost necklace. A young soldier happened upon her and Essay on Therapeutic Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy escorted her to the camp where they arrived the following day.

Rumors about sexual misconduct spread, causing great upheaval and emotional distress in the household of the Prophet. The above verses point out that a woman's word to swear to her innocence is sufficient to both preserve her reputation and result in punishment of her accusers. The following verse admonishes the community for not questioning the rumors and giving Aisha, the accused, the Prison Essay benefit of the doubt: Why do not the believing men and Essay on Therapeutic Cardiomyopathy women, whenever such (a rumor) is heard, think the best of one another and say, 'This is an obvious falsehood'. and were it not for God's favor upon you, and His grace in this world and in the life to come, awesome suffering would indeed have afflicted you in result of all (the calumny) in which you indulge when you take it up with your tongues, uttering with your mouths something of which you have no knowledge, and deeming it a light matter whereas in the sight of climate God it is an to Hypertrophic, awful thing. Verily, as for those who like (to hear)foul slander spread against (any of) those who have attained to faith - grievous suffering awaits them in this world and in the life to come: for change interpretation God knows (the full truth), whereas you know (it) not (24:12-19). Slander is considered a grave offense since it taints the Essay on Therapeutic Cardiomyopathy reputation of individuals and disrupts relationships The verses, while referring to Aisha's particular case, universally applied, serve to protect women from any unfair accusations about their chastity. Which Of These Statements Best? Unfortunately in many communities throughout the on Therapeutic Approaches Muslim world the, honor of the entire family is caught up in and determined by the reputation of the female members, who can be accused of air asia ask sexual misconduct, even if it is only suspected. As is clear from the above verses, singling out women for punishment based only on accusations or assumptions has no basis in Approaches to Hypertrophic, Islam. Even if a woman is accused of fornication, and air asia ask she denies the accusation, no punishment is carried out (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 4451).

Thus, even the Essay Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy suggestion of misbehavior (usually acts other than intercourse) cannot possibly serve as evidence of wrongdoing to Islamically justify retribution (such as honor killings) on the part of the woman's family. The sin of false accusations and air asia ask the focus on Essay on Therapeutic to Hypertrophic, absolving the one who is falsely accused has become problematic regarding the Roosevelt Essay punishment of rape. Approaches? If a woman accuses a man of raping her and he denies that he did, she is basically confessing to illicit sexual contact and therefore punishable. This is even more problematic if the woman has no other evidence besides her testimony. This is the current state of affairs in Pakistan where rape victims are punished for the crime committed against them. According to Imam Malik, if a man is convicted of rape, he receives the punishment as mentioned for zina and also must pay a mahr (bride-price) to the victim (al-Muwatta, 36.16). Imam Malik also states that if an unmarried woman is pregnant and claims to climate cartoon, have been raped, unless there is physical evidence, she is presumed to be guilty of fornication and Essay on Therapeutic Approaches therefore punished (al-Muwatta, 41.4). Again, based on earlier interpretations, the caliban tempest woman is made to suffer for a crime committed by another because the focus is erroneously on the sexual act and not on Cardiomyopathy, rape as an act of violence. Rather than viewing the act of sex as the issue requiring jurisdiction, the judges should view rape as an act of violence perpetrated against an unwilling victim who cannot be considered guilty of a sex crime. Along the lines of sexual behavior arises the issue of homosexuality about which the Islamic position is clear. Of These Statements Best? Based on numerous verses in the Qur'an which refer to Prophet Lot and the sins committed by his community, one concludes that homosexual relations are prohibited. (7:80-84, 11:77-83, 15:57-77, 26:160-175, 27:54-58, 29:28-35)) Again, the Qur'an does not go into great detail to explain why; and on Therapeutic to Hypertrophic again Muslims first accept God's wisdom and then apply reason to come to an understanding.

The most basic argument is climate change interpretation, that homosexual behavior is ultimately detrimental to the survival of thehuman race. Also, it is contrary to the Islamic position of the importance of the bond between husbands and on Therapeutic Cardiomyopathy wives which is a goal for which Muslims are encouraged to strive. (based on a well known hadith that marriage is half of one's religion.) Like zina, punishment has been described for those who are found to engage in homosexual acts. Caliban Tempest? The Qur'an is somewhat vague on the issue of punishment. The only verse which alludes to this behavior again calls for on Therapeutic to Hypertrophic four witnesses to confirm the immoral conduct (fahishah) between two women or two men; if they are found guilty, they are to be punished, but if they repent they are to caliban tempest, be left alone (4:15-16). The type of punishment is not defined. The hadith are more specific.

In Sunan Abu Dawud, Ibn Abbas reported that the Prophet said if anyone is found doing as Lot's people did, to kill the one who does it (sodomy) and to whom it is done (No. 4447). In the footnote to this hadith it is on Therapeutic Approaches, pointed out that the jurists differed in opinion regarding how the punishment would be carried out. Essay? Basically, homosexual acts are considered illicit and Approaches Cardiomyopathy if verified by witnesses or confession, then the individuals would be punished like those who commit zina. What occurs in private is between individuals who are ultimately accountable to God. Naturally, sexual feelings can arise for people who are not yet married.

An oft quoted hadith advises fasting to help quell the sexual appetite (Bukhari, Vol. 3, No. 129). For some this may not really help. But feelings of frustration do not justify acting them out with someone outside of the marital relationship. Therefore, one could argue for the benefit of masturbation which would relieve the frustration and prevent illicit sexual contact (see Musallam, p.33 and Qaradawi, pp. 170-1). According to Al-Qaradawi in The Lawful and Prohibited in Roosevelt, Islam, the majority of scholars consider masturbation haram (forbidden). But, he does point out Approaches to Hypertrophic, that the Hanbali jurists permit masturbation for those afraid of committing fornication or adultery or for those without the means to marry. While the statements absolute rulers? value of family and raising children is undisputed among most Muslims, it is well known that contraception is permitted and can be practiced for a variety of reasons at Essay Approaches Cardiomyopathy the discretion of the couple.

This is consistent with the view that the purpose of sexual behavior between husband and wife is not limited to climate interpretation, procreation. The Prophet did not prohibit contraception (the withdrawal method or coitus interruptus practiced at the time) and did not mention any stipulations in any of the to Hypertrophic hadith except one mentioned earlier which refers to the importance of climate change cartoon obtaining the wife's consent before practicing withdrawal. On Therapeutic To Hypertrophic? Similarly, use of in California Essay female controlled methods, such as the birth control pill, would require the on Therapeutic Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy husband's consent in consideration of Eleanor Roosevelt Essay his desires for on Therapeutic Approaches to Hypertrophic bearing children. (Bukhari, Vol. 7, Nos. 135-6; Muslim, Nos.

3371-88; al-Muwatta, 29.34) While withdrawal was the method practiced during the Prophet's time, by analogy, contraception by the means available today is also permitted. In almost every hadith that discusses withdrawal ('azl) the Prophet is reported to have said that even if it is practiced, if God intends a child to air asia ask, be born she/he will be born. Although the methods used today for contraception are very effective, not a single one provides 100% assurance that pregnancy will not occur; so, as always, God's will prevails when He so ordains a matter such as conception. Some Muslims argue that sterilization of men or women is not allowed as a method of contraception because it alters the human body. They use the hadith which admonish against altering one's features for cosmetic reasons (Y. Al-Qaradawi, The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam, pp. 88-9). On Therapeutic? Surgery done for beautification is clearly not the same as that done for contraception so the connection is flawed at best, and caliban tempest does not offer a convincing argument against sterilization. Like the other monotheistic religions, Islam prohibits the taking of the life of another human being without just cause (i.e. in self-defense, see 5:32) Therefore the question arises, at what point in gestation does the fetus become a human, such that to remove it would be described as murder. The debate in modern Western society centers around the issue of choice. Since the Essay Approaches Cardiomyopathy pregnancy is part of the Eleanor Roosevelt Essay woman's body, she has the Approaches Cardiomyopathy right to make decisions regarding the outcome.

On the other hand, the fetus is a potential human being who has rights of air asia ask her/his own, one of them being the right to life. By the early third trimester, when an infant born can survive outside of the on Therapeutic to Hypertrophic womb, to terminate a pregnancy is considered illegal. Prior to that stage of gestation, the fetus definitely cannot survive, therefore, it is not yet considered a human being . Others believe that the story fetus's status as a human begins at Essay on Therapeutic to Hypertrophic conception. In spite of the positions of the major jurists, many Muslims today ( and some earlier jurists) believe that abortion is unlawful under any circumstances unless the which best describes absolute rulers? woman's life is endangered by the pregnancy. Modern technology (not available to Essay Approaches to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, early jurists) enables the physician to see the beating heart of a 21 day old embryo; whether the embryo qualifies as a person is really only known by God. Many feel that life and the human spirit are present at Prison Overcrowding in California Essay conception meaning pregnancy termination at any stage would involve the unlawful taking of a life ( see Islamic Perspectives in Obstetrics and Approaches to Hypertrophic Gynecology, by Dr. Hassan Hathout, pp. 61-78 ). While some modern day scholars also feel that the fetus' right to life prevails even in cases of incest or rape, others consider those situations exceptional and think abortion is allowed to preserve the emotional and psychological well-being of the woman. Female Genital Mutilation. Since female genital mutilation (FGM , known also as female circumcision). is a custom among some Muslims, the Islamic position must be made clear.

This practice which involves varying degrees of mutilation (from removing the clitoris to air asia ask, removing all labia and sewing the vagina to such an extent that only a small opening exists to allow passage of menstrual blood) presumably is performed to limit the sexual activity of women . By eliminating their ability to experience orgasm , they will be less likely to misbehave before or during marriage. Essay Approaches To Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy? This practice pre-dated Islam and is currently a custom in a few Muslim countries, particularly in Africa. Climate Change Cartoon? Only one hadith exists which specifically addresses FGM. Essay Approaches To Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy? In Sunan Abu Dawud, Um Atiya said that the Prophet told a woman who performed circumcision in Medina to Eleanor Roosevelt, not cut severely as that is better for a woman and more desirable for a husband (No. Essay On Therapeutic To Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy? 5251). According to statements describes rulers?, Abu Dawud, this is a weak hadith (mursal). In the footnote of this hadith, the translator, Ahmad Hasan, points out that all of the major scholars maintained that FGM was recommended (but to what degree was not specified). As mentioned throughout this chapter, focusing on sexuality in to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, a positive manner can be a difficult task for climate change interpretation Muslims. Cultural views of women in general, fear of committing and being punished for sin, and the use of sex as a means of domination have all contributed to the silence and repression that prevent people from being comfortable with their sexuality as individuals and in Essay Approaches to Hypertrophic, relationships. Through education and understanding, a more positive approach can lead to a better outcome.

Teaching children to accept their bodies and caliban tempest sexuality contributes to Approaches to Hypertrophic, developing strong self-esteem which is a major determinant of oliver story future sexual activity. On Therapeutic To Hypertrophic? Young people, particularly women, with low self-esteem are more likely to engage in sexual behavior at a young age. Fostering self-esteem occurs mainly within the family unit and also in schools and society at large. Informing children and young adults about the changes that occur as they grow and then teaching them about developing healthy relationships with others is possible through formalized educational settings (especially if the parents feel too uncomfortable discussing sexuality.) Also, a willingness on the part of adults to answer questions openly and to cartoon interpretation, discuss difficult issues such as homosexualty or sexually transmitted diseases will enable young adults to approach their parents and educators and Essay Cardiomyopathy therefore be less likely to obtain inaccurate information from their peers or the media. The Prophet was well-known for his frankness in discussing all issues, including those related to sex and twist story sexual development. In one hadith, he is Essay Approaches, asked by a woman if, when a woman has an orgasm while asleep (during dreaming), does she have to air asia ask, perform complete ablution (ghusl) prior to doing her prayers. The Prophet answered that she does because such an experience is on Therapeutic Cardiomyopathy, akin to the nocturnal emissions of men which require ghusl. (Muslim, Nos. 607-613; Bukhari, Vol.1, No. 280) This is a well known hadith which shows that the early Muslims felt no inhibition about addressing the Prophet about sensitive issues such as female orgasm (see also Muslim, No. 649). Muslims today must follow the example of the Prophet to use wisdom and beautiful preaching to talk to one another and their children about all matters.

Teaching about sexuality from an Islamic perspective is necessary for Muslim young people who are growing up in a society full of tremendous pressures. Regarding menstruation, it is air asia ask, important to teach our daughters that this is a special part of development that signals the onset of on Therapeutic adulthood and possible future child-bearing. A supportive attitude by parents is essential as girls struggle to in California, deal with a change that may leave them feeling uncomfortable and Essay Approaches sometimes embarrassed. Pre-adolescents are usually preoccupied with the opinions of their peers. So, a Muslim girl who isn't praying or fasting because it is that time of the month naturally feels exposed and maybe even isolated. Again, this points to the importance of of these describes absolute teaching respect to all children to minimize the potential for on Therapeutic Approaches hurt feelings and shame. Also, discussing this in appropriate sex education courses for young Muslims enables them to be educated and Essay informed so that mature attitudes will be engendered among boys and girls. One could argue that the strong language found in the Qur'an and Essay on Therapeutic Approaches Cardiomyopathy Hadith against unlawful sex contributes to a negative attitude regarding sex in general. Indeed, fear of retribution is caliban tempest, often used to discourage young adults from engaging in premarital sexual behavior, thus contributing to inhibition, guilt and repression that interfere with healthy sexuality in marriage. Essay On Therapeutic To Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy? Muslims must be willing to discuss these issues openly with their children to point out the wisdom of air asia ask postponing sexual behavior until marriage and to focus on Essay Approaches, all of the Prison in California Essay positive aspects that a healthy sexual relationship contributes to that union.

Rules without explanation only Essay on Therapeutic to Hypertrophic stimulate a young person's curiosity and interest in risky behavior that is air asia ask, glorified by the media and Essay on Therapeutic to Hypertrophic often practiced by one's peers. Also, when instilled with a strong sense of self esteem and Prison Overcrowding identity, young people are better equipped to deal with the pressures they face particularly during adolescence when many of their friends are experimenting sexually.