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book reports notes Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is in Canada, not easy. A book report challenges students to think and write critically about what theyve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses. We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror! How to Write a Book Report. Before you write, read.

Theres no substitute for reading the book. Is The Best Workplace! Choose a book youll enjoyreading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and paper at Homelessness Essay, your side. Jotting down page numbers and notes about significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, dont write in Style Basilicas the book itself. Use a Book Report Outline. After reading the Essay book, you are ready to start the writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and telephone wireless paper, publishing. In the first step, prewriting, youll plan what you want to Homelessness in Canada Essay, say. An outline is a great prewriting tool for book reports. Essay Basilicas! Start your book report outline with the following five ideas.

Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Summary of Book. 3. Book Details: Characters. Homelessness Essay! 4. Fighting! Book Details: Plot. 5. Evaluation and Conclusion. In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for each of these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content.

Review your teachers instructions before you create your book report outline. Most book reports begin with the basic information about the book: the books title, author, genre, and publication information (publisher, number of pages, and in Canada, year published). The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to Mediation Is the Best Disputes, build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the Homelessness Essay author. Was the book a bestseller? Is the Essay author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so its perfectly acceptable to Essay, state why you chose to read it. In the body of the carson work book reportparagraphs two, three, and Essay, fouryoull describe what the Mediation Is the Best to Resolve Disputes book is about. This is your chance to show youve read and understood the book. Assuming youve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot. Specify who tells the story (point of view) and the tone or atmosphere of the book. Is it a creepy tale of in Canada Essay, suspense or a lighthearted adventure?

Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and computer wireless operator paper, identify the major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to solve. You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you dont need to tell every detail of the story. Instead, focus on the main sequence of events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to the books climax and conflict resolution. Homelessness In Canada Essay! Make sure you mention the on Baroque authors use of any literary devices youve been studying in class. Book Reports on Non-fiction. Homelessness In Canada! If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, youll want to devote the body of your book report to Mediation Is the Best Method Disputes, a description of the books subject and the authors points of view. In Canada! Use the chapter headings to help you present the authors ideas and arguments in an orderly manner.

As with a fictional plot, you dont have to cover every argument made by the author. Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to you. If you read a biography, write about some of the important events in the persons life. Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. Youll like writing the final paragraph because it is here that youll be able to offer your own critique of the book. What are the books strengths and weaknesses? Did the Review of the of The Butcher book hold your interest? What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the authors arguments? Try to be balanced in your opinions, and Homelessness in Canada, support your statements with examples from the book.

Give your honest opinion of the stone diaries book and whether or not you would recommend it to others. Homelessness In Canada Essay! Revising, Editing, and carson, Publishing. After youve drafted your book report, youre ready to Essay, follow the next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Stone Diaries! Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to a friend for feedback. Homelessness In Canada! As you edit, check your grammar and use of the correct guidelines for book quotes and Mediation Disputes Essay, writing the book title. Essay! Give enough time to revising and editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay. A book report is usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in other forms.

In some cases, a teacher will ask students to stone diaries, take a point of view when writing a book report. Here is an example: Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the best American kids novel of the last decade. Please use examples. This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, dont reveal the ending! Rely on Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students writing skills. Homelessness In Canada! When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in elementary, middle school, and Method to Resolve Essay, high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for personalized writing instruction.

Time4Writings eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and building confidence. Find out how Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes can make a real difference in in Canada Essay your childs writing.

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Master Degree Essays and Homelessness in Canada Essay, Research Papers. Why Pursuing a Master Degree ? Increasingly, the Master's degree is Mediation Is the Best Method to Resolve Essay, becoming part of the Homelessness in Canada educational experience as . more and more people acquire a Bachelor degree but find that they need something more to accomplish their goals. Pursuing a Master's degree can represent a significant commitment of time, finances, and emotional energy. When people are in stone diaries school, sacrifices often have to be made, and there can be a major impact on family, work, and social life. Despite the commitment that is required. Academic degree , Bachelor's degree , Degrees of the in Canada Essay University of computer operator, Oxford 1172 Words | 4 Pages. Decision to Pursue a Masters Degree.

Decision to Homelessness Pursue a Masters of Business Administration degree Bertheia Gary MGT/521 July 12, 2010 Thomas Kenfield . Abstract In this paper I will describe an argument on his Allies Essay, my decision to pursue an MBA degree to enhance better job opportunities, become a business owner and explore a more exciting career. Using the Jungian 16-Type Personality Assessment results the writer will support and prove why the decision to pursue an MBA was the right decision. It is in Canada Essay, thought that by computer telephone wireless operator paper, the time a senior. Business , Business school , Management 1077 Words | 3 Pages. I chose to pursue a master degree Mohamud A. Ahmed COM 515 Business Communications Walt Sienkiewicz Why I chose a graduate . degree has many reasons that are not enough to summarize them here in one or two pages. The time I decided to join UOP was the in Canada right moment I seized my luck or I may have never got another chance to take the advantage of it. Coming back to academic field was not an easy task. Computer Telephone Sample. It was an intrinsic party of Homelessness Essay, my goal. The decision to pursue a master degree took me almost fourteen.

Academic degree , Bachelor's degree , Doctorate 815 Words | 3 Pages. Master-Servant Relationships in Mediation Is the Best Workplace Disputes the Tempest. ENGL 2310.24 Master -Servant Relationships The theme of power is prevalent in The Tempest with the Homelessness help of the master -servant . relationship between many of the characters. The play is full of instances where the relationship is Mediation Is the Method Workplace Essay, disturbed. In the Homelessness Essay play the servant shows lack of regard to the masters authority or influences a choice that the master makes.

The servants actions are to show that they had control over something or that they wanted to have control over something and they end up giving. Brett J. Gladman , Caliban , Harold Pinter 944 Words | 3 Pages. be discussing the Odysseus Fighting with master -slave relationship. I will give you an understanding as to Essay how this union exists. Also I will brief you on on Baroque Style Basilicas, how . without this relationship a city would not exist. This paper will not only define the in Canada master -slave relationship but give quotations and examples that will help you the reader to fully understand this concept. In the david carson master -slave relationship, with this union, the master can not exist without the slave. In Canada Essay. The slave is there to Mediation Disputes assist the Homelessness in Canada master with the maintaining. Atlantic slave trade , Feminism , Master 1267 Words | 3 Pages. Statement of Purpose for Master Degree in Resources Management. for the diversity of our eco systems.

I chose to study Natural Resources Management as my bachelor degree to give substance to the issues that . are continually significant to me. Discovering the stone diaries pollution pandemic, alternative energy and many more aspects has fuelled me with a drive to make sustainable living not only more accessible, but globally more accepted. Further study of Homelessness, a related degree seems to be the only way forward for Fighting Essay me to achieve my dream. A desire to complement the Homelessness Essay broad spectrum. Academic degree , Ecology , Management 759 Words | 3 Pages. Motivation Document for Master Degree. | Dear committee, I strongly believe that education is the key to success and a tool for stone diaries societal . development. As someone who desires to be a source of inspiration, I believe that masters degree is the in Canada least qualification I should acquire irrespective of carson work, my financial disabilities. Homelessness Essay. I am applying for the Dannish institute scholarship for numerous reasons.

My first reason is related to the fact that I aimed of becoming one of the few female. Art , Arts , Epistemology 390 Words | 2 Pages. The poem One Art by Elizabeth Bishop has a conversational tone conveying an obvious particular notion--at first. The first refrain serves to declare . victoriously an opening statement that, The art of losing isn't hard to of The Butcher master (Bishop Line 1). As the Homelessness in Canada poem advances, repetitions of the first and second refrains reveal themselves as helpful incantations. At first, this villanelle appears as a no-nonsense tutorial equipped with literary imagery on how to get over losing things, places, opportunities. Emotion , Grief , Madrid Metro 1474 Words | 4 Pages. whether the computer telephone paper act from in Canada Professor Woland was an act of evil or really a good act that may have just come off as evil at first.

I still think that Professor . Woland has many great examples of both good and evil that are shown throughout the book. In The Master and Margarita, by Mikail Bulgakov there are many different examples of good and evil. With His Allies Essay. I think that an obvious example of good and evil throughout the whole novel is Professor Woland. Bulgakov makes it clearly known to in Canada Essay the reader that Professor Woland. Anna Karenina , Core issues in ethics , Evil 1541 Words | 4 Pages.

?Do you think it is with, necessary a university degree in order to become successful in life? It is Homelessness Essay, not possible to predict the Essay on Baroque Style future and Homelessness in Canada Essay, know . if it is possible to become successful in life. Most people try to follow the Odysseus Fighting way that society has established. Studying, getting a university degree , or even graduate degrees are the common ways that people use to reach their goals. However, those long years of study not always mean that this person is going to Homelessness be successful. In fact, a low percentage of businessmen. Academic degree , Bachelor's degree , Diplom 926 Words | 3 Pages.

Themes In Narrative of the Life of Odysseus his Allies Essay, Frederick Douglass ?The book Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, by Homelessness in Canada, Frederick Douglass, is a story about Frederick Douglasss life as a slave and how he goes on Fighting, his . quest to Homelessness in Canada Essay achieve freedom. Douglass was born into slavery and goes from master to master , and he finally sees the power of education when he reaches Baltimore to work for some new people. Here Douglass begins to learn how to read and write and Mediation Is the Method to Resolve, he uses this to Homelessness in Canada his advantage in hopes of becoming free one day. He manages to teach himself how to read. Abraham Lincoln , Frederick Douglass , Master 1379 Words | 4 Pages. his poems under the alias Bezdomny ( the name means Homeless).

His futile attempt to chase and stone diaries, capture the Homelessness in Canada Essay gang and warn of their evil . and mysterious nature lands Ivan in a lunatic asylum. Here, Ivan is later introduced to The Master , an embittered author, the petty-minded rejection of his Allies Essay, whose historical novel about Pontius Pilate and Christ led him to such despair that he burns his manuscript and turns his back on the real world, including his devoted lover, Margarita (). Jesus , Mikhail Bulgakov , Pontius Pilate 920 Words | 3 Pages. Slave Narrative Comparison (Douglass and Morrison) destruction of the Essay family, the Odysseus his Allies death of the master of the in Canada Essay plantation, and discipline and punishment are both illustrated strongly throughout . these novels. Computer Sample. The destruction of the family is the most significant point within Beloved. The entire novel discusses how their family has been torn apart and tormented due to slavery and other acts caused by slavery. Firstly, the grandmother, Baby Suggs, is in Canada, freed because her son buys her freedom from their master , but it will take him a lifetime to ever. Abraham Lincoln , Family , Frederick Douglass 1231 Words | 4 Pages. essay history fifty years of chain. a salve, and Is the Method to Resolve, he cope that situation by working very hard and obey.

When Charles was around twelve years old his master Jack Cox died, so he had . a new master . His new master was old man that was very severe with him. As I was always very obedient, and ready to execute all his orders, I did not receive much whipping, but suffered greatly for want of sufficient and proper food. My master allowed his slaves a peck of corn, each, per in Canada Essay, week, throughout the Fighting year; and this we had to grind into meal in a. African American , Black people , Master 1291 Words | 4 Pages. Being a Master of Ceremonies The Master of Ceremonies is the conductor of an event or meeting. The primary responsibility of . the Master of Ceremonies is to serve as a genial host. An ideal MC is a person who has poise, presence and who can command the Homelessness Essay attention of an audience.

The Master of Essay, Ceremonies is Homelessness, responsible for ensuring that the program/event runs smoothly, runs on time and Is the Method to Resolve Workplace Disputes Essay, that all important people at the event are introduced in a complimentary, professional manner. Being a successful. Audience , Ceremony , Entertainment 1628 Words | 6 Pages. history men have been taking advantage of the weaker sex and having their way with them without discrimination of black, white, young, or old. But it is sad . Homelessness. that women as slaves have to endure rape more openly and without help from anyone. White Masters seemed to believe that as the carson slaves are their property they are permitted to do whatever they please with them no matter how disturbing. Essay. Rape among the female slaves was widely known but not spoken off, many felt that it was not their business to. Domestic violence , Master , Plantation 1204 Words | 3 Pages. Honor has had a wide range of impact in history, whether it was shaping major dynasties and hierarchies, deciding an individuals role in society, or family . ties and marriages. This sense of stone diaries, worth, high esteem, or virtue was also manipulated by slave masters in Homelessness Essay order to control their slaves. The slave could have no honor because of the origin of Is the Disputes Essay, his status, the indignity and all-pervasiveness of his indebtedness, his absence of any independent social existence, but most of all because he was without. Atlantic slave trade , Master , Serfdom 2409 Words | 6 Pages.

Title: Physical and Mental Abuse on Homelessness in Canada Essay, Slaves. up from the hardships he had from his birth to become a internationally known writer and orator. Douglass was born in stone diaries Tuckahoe, Maryland and was thought to . be fathered by one of his masters . In Maryland he had a rather easy life for Homelessness a slave, he was an stone diaries, inside slave who cleaned and helped watched one of the masters children. This benefited him greatly both then and in the future because Thomas, the boy he attended too, helped Frederick read and write. From Tuckahoe, Frederick was moved to Baltimore. Abraham Lincoln , Frederick Douglass , Master 948 Words | 6 Pages. Why Purse a Masters Degree Due to the competitive marketing many are pursuing a higher education beyond their bachelors . degree . My decision to purse a masters degree has always been a personal goal, but with the Homelessness in Canada change in the market I realized my bachelors degree would no longer be sufficient or marketable in a couple of years.

Many would say that obtaining a masters degree is only as valuable as how your current or future employer measures advanced education. There are many rewarding benefits. Academic degree , Bachelor's degree , Higher education 1265 Words | 4 Pages. either verify or disprove Dr. Fausts thesis. Dr. Faust has used the journal writings of James Hammond as her main primary source for her essay. I will use . Dr. Essay On Baroque Style Basilicas. Fausts essay for my secondary and writings from former slaves (primary) for my sources.

As master of the plantation, Silver Bluff, James Hammond strived to gain complete control over every aspect of his slaves lives. It was a struggle that spanned decades, and one he never fully realized. Homelessness. Through his journal entries we see the Odysseus his Allies Essay daily struggle. Faust , Master , Plantation 1691 Words | 4 Pages. gain control of in Canada Essay, their own lives and as well as sabotaging the property of their masters . There were multiple ways in which the slaves could . Carson. stand up for themselves such as if the work loads increased, meager rations were provided, slaves were punished severely slaves showed their displeasure by Essay, working slowly, faking illness, destroying tools or sabotaging production. Computer Telephone Wireless Sample Paper. Those forms of Homelessness Essay, resistance aggravated the master , but they could take little or no action because this could risk widespread breaks. Colonialism , French people , French people in Madagascar 2375 Words | 7 Pages. Death and Nature in Musee Des Beaux Arts translated into English, is more about death and it's normal, spontaneous occurrence than it is about a museum.

The poem speaks of old . Masters and stone diaries, refers to artists: writers, poets, and Homelessness Essay, painters who understood the act of death as a necessary process instead of making excuses for it, using personification to cope with it, or sugar-coating it. Work. These old Masters did not see the need to justify death or find a way to make it easier through embellishment. In Canada. Although the poet uses a sort of free verse. Beaux-Arts architecture , Death , Gerontology 1267 Words | 3 Pages. till the masters face can be seen in Is the Best Method to Resolve Workplace Essay a certain item., if he or she was in a good mood they wouldnt hassle us, but if they were upset with each . other or worst of all drunk, they would spit or dirty the area we just cleaned up and would order us to Essay clean it up again. We were also told we must go outside and help the older workers pick cotton outside, this is where I would meet my mother and we would rush and talk about our important points of our days until we would get hassled by the master to go our. Aerosmith , Cotton , Family 1119 Words | 3 Pages. other to satisfy their masters desires, yet they did it without proper living conditions while trying to make the best out of every day with . their own cultural practices. While in Barbados, Richard Ligon compared the working life of a slave to the working life of carson, a servant and gathered information. Homelessness In Canada Essay. The slaves and their posterity, being subject to on Baroque Style their Masters forever, are kept preserved with greater care than the servants. This is because the Essay slaves are owned by telephone wireless sample, their master for their entire life.

Domestic worker , Longman , Master 1321 Words | 4 Pages. Art for Hearts Sake by R. Goldberg - Text Analysis. suggestions and an efficient way to contradict and annoy them all. The male nurse-Koppel-didnt appear much in Homelessness in Canada the story. This could be . explained by the fact that there was a relationship of mutual hate between the servant and his master . First of all, Koppel used the Review of the Adaptation Boy Essay personal pronoun he when referring to Mr. Homelessness Essay. Ellsworth- a rather strange way of speaking about ones employer. As for the protagonist, he called the servant old pineapple juice, demonstrating thus a mocking attitude. Of The Film Adaptation Of The Boy Essay. . Art , Doctor , Heart 1227 Words | 4 Pages. much wood would a woodchuck chuck If a woodchuck would chuck wood? A woodchuck would chuck all the wood he could chuck If a woodchuck would chuck wood. . How much Zen would a Zen master master If Zen master could master all the Homelessness Essay Zen? A Zen master would master all the Zen he could master If a Zen master should master all the Zen One smart fellow, he felt smart Two smart fellows, they felt smart Three smart fellows, they all felt smart A tutor who tooted the flute Tried to tutor two tooters.

Blood , Doctor , Doctor Who 1685 Words | 7 Pages. expect from Essay my future. To begin Ill start by introducing myself, goals, aspirations, education, and what life is Homelessness in Canada, like for me on a day to day basis. My . name is Loretta; this is my final semester at Mercy College. I will obtain my Bachelor of Science degree in Legal Studies with a specialization in computer telephone wireless operator paper Paralegal Studies. In addition, I have obtained my certification to practice as a Mediator in the state of Essay, New York. Presently, I am employed full time as a Paralegal; I also hold a certification as a Sports.

Doctor Who , Health , Master 1490 Words | 4 Pages. Differences in Competencies Between Nurses Prepared at the Associate's Degree Level Versus the Baccalaureate Degree Level. 7/7/2013 Differences In Competencies between Nurses Prepared at the Associates Degree Level Versus The Baccalaureate . Degree Level in Film Adaptation Boy Essay Nursing It is Homelessness, sometimes difficult to differentiate between the associates degree nurse and stone diaries, the baccalaureate degree nurse. After all both levels of learning require passing the exact same exam in order to practice. However, there are some differences of learning between them.

Two important differences. Degree , Florence Nightingale , Hospital 921 Words | 3 Pages. Nietzche's Master and Slave Morality. up. He saw the roots of Homelessness in Canada Essay, slave morality in oppression and Review of the Adaptation of The Butcher Boy Essay, slavery, and posits that it grew as a reaction to the morality of the Homelessness in Canada Essay masters of the david . time. What follows is a simplified account of Nietzsches master -slave dichotomy, and what he saw as the dire consequences for human progress should the in Canada pervasiveness of slave morality be allowed to Fighting his Allies remain at the expense of the master . I will argue that although religion and slave morality may have had significant influence in Nietzsches day, his fears about. Friedrich Nietzsche , Good and evil , Master 2209 Words | 6 Pages.

Master's Prepared Nurse Interview Interview This is an interview of a Masters- prepared nurse who has recently assumed an Assistant Director of Nursing . position. The intend of the interview is to show how a graduate of a Master of Science in Nursing would adequately prepare a nurse to in Canada Essay assume a higher role in the field of Adaptation of The Butcher, nursing practice, education or administration. This achievement offers the individual with many opportunities for in Canada Essay growth and Adaptation Butcher, opens the door to different career possibilities. Academic degree , Bachelor of in Canada Essay, Science in Nursing , Bachelor's degree 1478 Words | 4 Pages. Natalie Murcia How to do the Master Cleanse How many of you have been walking down the street and catch your reflection in a window? . then you see that extra pudge and wonder how it got there. what do you do next? you walk into the nearest bookstore or go online and research the newest diet. So after trying half of the Odysseus Fighting his Allies diets like Jenny Craig, The South Beach Diet, Atkins and many others you realize that they do not work. Well heres one that does work. when all else fails i have the perfect solution. Cayenne pepper , Lemon , Maple syrup 740 Words | 3 Pages. The Difference Between Associate Degree and Baccalaureate Degree in Nursing. The Difference Between Associate Degree and Baccalaureate Degree in Nursing Increasing clinical understanding and Essay, the rising . complexities in the health care technologies today requires that professional nurses be educated and Odysseus Fighting with his Allies Essay, competent to the baccalaureate level.

Nurses with their RN can be educated to the level of in Canada Essay, associates degree or to wireless operator sample baccalaureate degree . Homelessness. According to the Grand Canyon University Baccalaureate Curriculum Model, the associates degree level nurse differs from the baccalaureate. Academic degree , Associate's degree , College 1031 Words | 3 Pages. Associate Degree Versus Bachelor Degree. ?Associate Degree versus Baccalaureate Degree Florence Nightingale is the founder of modern nursing, there was no specific . nursing profession before her era. With Nightingale's great contribution and inspiration, the first three nurse training schools in the United States were founded in three hospitals located in New York City, New Haven, and david, Boston (Creasia Friberg, 2011, p.4). They provided the graduated nurses the basic knowledge and skills to in Canada get jobs. A woman who graduated from these training. Academic degree , Associate's degree , Bachelor of work, Science in Homelessness Nursing 1358 Words | 6 Pages. ? Associate Degree Nursing vs. Bachelors Science Nursing Healthcare systems and Review of The, the way safe, quality health care is delivered . Essay. are continually changing to better serve patients and Mediation Best Method Essay, communities.

Professional nursing practice is Homelessness, a large component in the healthcare system today. Computer Telephone Wireless Operator. Back in the 1960s, professional nursing leaders tried to adopt the in Canada Essay bachelor degree programs as the only educational track to become a registered nurse (Creasia Friberg, 2011). Due to nursing shortages and demands. Academic degree , Associate's degree , Bachelor of david carson, Science 865 Words | 3 Pages. Personal Responsibility and How to Become a Master Student. Personal Responsibility and How to Become a Master Student Robin Loafman-Bass GEN/200 August 21, 2012 Personal Responsibility and How . to Homelessness Essay Become a Master Student The phrase personal responsibility simply means taking care of Essay on Baroque Style Basilicas, ones own life in every aspect without succumbing to fears or to the distractions of the outside world. In order to become a master student and achieve the goals a person has set for himself or herself, he or she must first have an internally defined level of personal.

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Wiesner and H.F. York concluded that: Both sides in Homelessness in Canada, the arms race are#133;confronted by the dilemma of Review Adaptation Butcher steadily increasing military power and steadily decreasing national security. It is our considered professional judgment that this dilemma has no technical solution. If the great powers continue to Homelessness, look for solutions in the area of science and technology only, the computer operator sample, result will be to worsen the Homelessness in Canada Essay, situation.'' [1] I would like to focus your attention not on the subject of the article (national security in a nuclear world) but on the kind of Essay on Baroque Style Basilicas conclusion they reached, namely that there is no technical solution to the problem. An implicit and almost universal assumption of Homelessness discussions published in professional and semipopular scientific journals is Mediation Is the to Resolve Workplace Essay, that the problem under discussion has a technical solution. A technical solution may be defined as one that requires a change only in the techniques of the natural sciences, demanding little or nothing in the way of change in human values or ideas of in Canada Essay morality. In our day (though not in earlier times) technical solutions are always welcome. Carson? Because of Homelessness in Canada previous failures in prophecy, it takes courage to assert that a desired technical solution is not possible. Wiesner and York exhibited this courage; publishing in a science journal, they insisted that the solution to the problem was not to be found in the natural sciences.

They cautiously qualified their statement with the phrase, It is our considered professional judgment. Whether they were right or not is on Baroque, not the concern of the present article. In Canada Essay? Rather, the concern here is with the important concept of a class of human problems which can be called no technical solution problems, and stone diaries more specifically, with the identification and in Canada Essay discussion of one of computer wireless sample paper these. It is easy to show that the class is not a null class. Recall the game of tick-tack-toe. Homelessness Essay? Consider the problem, How can I win the game of tick-tack-toe? It is well known that I cannot, if I assume (in keeping with the conventions of game theory) that my opponent understands the game perfectly. Put another way, there is no technical solution to the problem. I can win only by giving a radical meaning to the word win.

I can hit my opponent over the head; or I can falsify the records. Every way in which I win involves, in Mediation Method to Resolve Disputes Essay, some sense, an Homelessness in Canada, abandonment of the game, as we intuitively understand it. (I can also, of course, openly abandon the game -- refuse to play it. This is Odysseus Fighting with his Allies, what most adults do.) The class of no technical solution problems has members. My thesis is that the population problem, as conventionally conceived, is a member of this class. How it is conventionally conceived needs some comment. It is Homelessness in Canada, fair to say that most people who anguish over the population problem are trying to find a way to computer wireless operator sample, avoid the Homelessness in Canada Essay, evils of overpopulation without relinquishing any of the privileges they now enjoy. They think that farming the seas or developing new strains of wheat will solve the problem -- technologically.

I try to show here that the solution they seek cannot be found. The population problem cannot be solved in a technical way, any more than can the problem of winning the game of tick-tack-toe. What Shall We Maximize? Population, as Malthus said, naturally tends to grow geometrically, or, as we would now say, exponentially. Computer Operator Sample? In a finite world this means that the per-capita share of the world's goods must decrease. Is ours a finite world? A fair defense can be put forward for the view that the world is infinite or that we do not know that it is not. But, in terms of the practical problems that we must face in the next few generations with the foreseeable technology, it is clear that we will greatly increase human misery if we do not, during the immediate future, assume that the world available to the terrestrial human population is finite. Space is no escape. [2] A finite world can support only a finite population; therefore, population growth must eventually equal zero. (The case of perpetual wide fluctuations above and below zero is Homelessness Essay, a trivial variant that need not be discussed.) When this condition is met, what will be the situation of mankind?

Specifically, can Bentham's goal of the Is the to Resolve Disputes Essay, greatest good for the greatest number be realized? No -- for two reasons, each sufficient by in Canada, itself. The first is a theoretical one. It is Odysseus his Allies Essay, not mathematically possible to maximize for in Canada Essay, two (or more) variables at the same time. This was clearly stated by von Neumann and Morgenstern, [3] but the principle is implicit in Essay on Baroque Style Basilicas, the theory of partial differential equations, dating back at least to D'Alembert (1717-1783). The second reason springs directly from biological facts. Homelessness In Canada? To live, any organism must have a source of energy (for example, food). This energy is utilized for two purposes: mere maintenance and work.

For man maintenance of life requires about 1600 kilocalories a day (maintenance calories). Anything that he does over and above merely staying alive will be defined as work, and is supported by work calories which he takes in. Work calories are used not only for david, what we call work in common speech; they are also required for all forms of enjoyment, from in Canada Essay swimming and automobile racing to playing music and writing poetry. If our goal is to maximize population it is obvious what we must do: We must make the work calories per person approach as close to zero as possible. No gourmet meals, no vacations, no sports, no music, no literature, no art#133;I think that everyone will grant, without argument or proof, that maximizing population does not maximize goods. Bentham's goal is impossible. In reaching this conclusion I have made the usual assumption that it is the acquisition of energy that is the problem. The appearance of atomic energy has led some to question this assumption. However, given an computer telephone sample, infinite source of energy, population growth still produces an inescapable problem.

The problem of the acquisition of Essay energy is replaced by the problem of its dissipation, as J. H. Essay Style Basilicas? Fremlin has so wittily shown. [4] The arithmetic signs in the analysis are, as it were, reversed; but Bentham's goal is unobtainable. The optimum population is, then, less than the maximum. The difficulty of defining the optimum is enormous; so far as I know, no one has seriously tackled this problem. Reaching an acceptable and stable solution will surely require more than one generation of hard analytical work -- and much persuasion. We want the maximum good per person; but what is good? To one person it is Homelessness, wilderness, to another it is ski lodges for thousands. To one it is estuaries to nourish ducks for hunters to shoot; to another it is factory land.

Comparing one good with another is, we usually say, impossible because goods are incommensurable. Incommensurables cannot be compared. Theoretically this may be true; but in real life incommensurables are commensurable. Only a criterion of judgment and a system of weighting are needed. In nature the criterion is survival.

Is it better for Mediation Is the Best Method to Resolve Workplace Disputes, a species to be small and hideable, or large and powerful? Natural selection commensurates the incommensurables. The compromise achieved depends on a natural weighting of the values of the variables. Man must imitate this process. There is no doubt that in fact he already does, but unconsciously. It is when the hidden decisions are made explicit that the arguments begin. The problem for the years ahead is to in Canada Essay, work out an acceptable theory of weighting. Synergistic effects, nonlinear variation, and difficulties in discounting the future make the Essay on Baroque Style, intellectual problem difficult, but not (in principle) insoluble. Has any cultural group solved this practical problem at Essay, the present time, even on an intuitive level?

One simple fact proves that none has: there is no prosperous population in the world today that has, and has had for some time, a growth rate of carson zero. Homelessness In Canada Essay? Any people that has intuitively identified its optimum point will soon reach it, after which its growth rate becomes and remains zero. Of course, a positive growth rate might be taken as evidence that a population is on Baroque, below its optimum. However, by any reasonable standards, the most rapidly growing populations on earth today are (in general) the most miserable. Homelessness In Canada Essay? This association (which need not be invariable) casts doubt on stone diaries, the optimistic assumption that the positive growth rate of a population is evidence that it has yet to reach its optimum. We can make little progress in Essay, working toward optimum population size until we explicitly exorcise the spirit of Adam Smith in the field of practical demography. In economic affairs, The Wealth of Nations (1776) popularized the invisible hand, the idea that an individual who intends only david, his own gain, is, as it were, led by an invisible hand to promote#133;the public interest. [5] Adam Smith did not assert that this was invariably true, and perhaps neither did any of his followers. But he contributed to a dominant tendency of thought that has ever since interfered with positive action based on rational analysis, namely, the tendency to assume that decisions reached individually will, in fact, be the best decisions for an entire society. If this assumption is correct it justifies the continuance of our present policy of laissez faire in reproduction.

If it is in Canada, correct we can assume that men will control their individual fecundity so as to produce the optimum population. If the assumption is not correct, we need to reexamine our individual freedoms to see which ones are defensible. Tragedy of Freedom in a Commons. The rebuttal to the invisible hand in population control is to be found in a scenario first sketched in a little-known Pamphlet in 1833 by a mathematical amateur named William Forster Lloyd (1794-1852). Stone Diaries? [6] We may well call it the tragedy of the commons, using the word tragedy as the Homelessness in Canada, philosopher Whitehead used it [7]: The essence of dramatic tragedy is not unhappiness. It resides in the solemnity of the Best Method to Resolve Workplace Essay, remorseless working of things. He then goes on to say, This inevitableness of destiny can only be illustrated in terms of human life by incidents which in fact involve unhappiness. For it is only by them that the futility of escape can be made evident in Homelessness in Canada, the drama. The tragedy of the commons develops in this way. Picture a pasture open to all. It is to be expected that each herdsman will try to keep as many cattle as possible on the commons.

Such an arrangement may work reasonably satisfactorily for centuries because tribal wars, poaching, and disease keep the numbers of both man and Odysseus Fighting his Allies Essay beast well below the carrying capacity of the land. Finally, however, comes the day of Essay reckoning, that is, the day when the long-desired goal of social stability becomes a reality. At this point, the inherent logic of the Mediation Is the Method Disputes Essay, commons remorselessly generates tragedy. As a rational being, each herdsman seeks to maximize his gain. Explicitly or implicitly, more or less consciously, he asks, What is the utility to Essay, me of adding one more animal to my herd? This utility has one negative and one positive component. 1. The positive component is computer wireless operator sample, a function of the increment of one animal. Since the herdsman receives all the proceeds from the sale of the additional animal, the positive utility is nearly + 1. 2. The negative component is a function of the additional overgrazing created by one more animal. Since, however, the effects of overgrazing are shared by all the herdsmen, the negative utility for any particular decisionmaking herdsman is only a fraction of - 1.

Adding together the component partial utilities, the rational herdsman concludes that the only sensible course for him to pursue is to in Canada Essay, add another animal to his herd. And another. But this is the conclusion reached by Fighting with, each and every rational herdsman sharing a commons. Therein is the tragedy. Each man is locked into a system that compels him to increase his herd without limit -- in in Canada Essay, a world that is limited. Ruin is the destination toward which all men rush, each pursuing his own best interest in stone diaries, a society that believes in the freedom of the commons.

Freedom in a commons brings ruin to all. Some would say that this is in Canada Essay, a platitude. Would that it were! In a sense, it was learned thousands of years ago, but natural selection favors the forces of psychological denial. [8] The individual benefits as an individual from his ability to deny the truth even though society as a whole, of which he is a part, suffers. Education can counteract the natural tendency to do the wrong thing, but the inexorable succession of carson work generations requires that the basis for this knowledge be constantly refreshed. A simple incident that occurred a few years ago in Leominster, Massachusetts shows how perishable the knowledge is.

During the Christmas shopping season the parking meters downtown were covered with plastic bags that bore tags reading: Do not open until after Christmas. Free parking courtesy of the mayor and city council. In other words, facing the prospect of an increased demand for already scarce space, the city fathers reinstituted the system of the commons. Homelessness In Canada? (Cynically, we suspect that they gained more votes than they lost by this retrogressive act.) In an approximate way, the logic of the commons has been understood for a long time, perhaps since the discovery of agriculture or the invention of private property in real estate. Review Of The Butcher Boy Essay? But it is understood mostly only in special cases which are not sufficiently generalized.

Even at in Canada, this late date, cattlemen leasing national land on the Western ranges demonstrate no more than an ambivalent understanding, in constantly pressuring federal authorities to increase the head count to the point where overgrazing produces erosion and weed-dominance. Likewise, the Review of the Film Adaptation Butcher Boy Essay, oceans of the world continue to suffer from the Homelessness in Canada, survival of the philosophy of the commons. David? Maritime nations still respond automatically to in Canada Essay, the shibboleth of the freedom of the seas. Professing to believe in computer operator sample, the inexhaustible resources of the oceans, they bring species after species of fish and whales closer to Homelessness in Canada Essay, extinction. [9] The National Parks present another instance of the working out of the tragedy of the commons.

At present, they are open to all, without limit. The parks themselves are limited in of the Film Adaptation Butcher, extent -- there is only one Yosemite Valley -- whereas population seems to grow without limit. The values that visitors seek in the parks are steadily eroded. Plainly, we must soon cease to treat the parks as commons or they will be of no value to Essay, anyone. What shall we do? We have several options. Operator Sample Paper? We might sell them off as private property. We might keep them as public property, but allocate the right to enter them. The allocation might be on the basis of wealth, by the use of an auction system.

It might be on the basis of merit, as defined by some agreedupon standards. It might be by lottery. Or it might be on a first-come, first-served basis, administered to long queues. These, I think, are all objectionable. But we must choose -- or acquiesce in the destruction of the commons that we call our National Parks. In a reverse way, the tragedy of the commons reappears in in Canada, problems of pollution. Here it is not a question of taking something out of the commons, but of putting something in -- sewage, or chemical, radioactive, and heat wastes into water; noxious and dangerous fumes into the air; and distracting and unpleasant advertising signs into the line of stone diaries sight. The calculations of utility are much the in Canada Essay, same as before.

The rational man finds that his share of the cost of the wastes he discharges into the commons is less than the Style, cost of purifying his wastes before releasing them. Since this is true for Homelessness in Canada, everyone, we are locked into a system of fouling our own nest, so long as we behave only as independent, rational, free enterprisers. The tragedy of the commons as a food basket is averted by private property, or something formally like it. But the air and waters surrounding us cannot readily be fenced, and so the tragedy of the stone diaries, commons as a cesspool must be prevented by different means, by coercive laws or taxing devices that make it cheaper for the polluter to treat his pollutants than to discharge them untreated. We have not progressed as far with the solution of this problem as we have with the first. Indeed, our particular concept of private property, which deters us from Homelessness Essay exhausting the positive resources of the earth, favors pollution.

The owner of a factory on the bank of a stream -- whose property extends to Essay on Baroque Basilicas, the middle of the stream -- often has difficulty seeing why it is not his natural right to muddy the in Canada Essay, waters flowing past his door. The law, always behind the times, requires elaborate stitching and fitting to computer paper, adapt it to this newly perceived aspect of the commons. The pollution problem is in Canada Essay, a consequence of population. It did not much matter how a lonely American frontiersman disposed of his waste. Style Basilicas? Flowing water purifies itself every ten miles, my grandfather used to say, and the myth was near enough to the truth when he was a boy, for Homelessness in Canada Essay, there were not too many people. But as population became denser, the natural chemical and operator biological recycling processes became overloaded, calling for a redefinition of property rights. How to Legislate Temperance? Analysis of the pollution problem as a function of population density uncovers a not generally recognized principle of morality, namely: the morality of an Homelessness in Canada Essay, act is a function of the state of the Best to Resolve Disputes, system at the time it is performed. In Canada Essay? [10] Using the commons as a cesspool does not harm the general public under frontier conditions, because there is no public; the same behavior in a metropolis is unbearable. A hundred and fifty years ago a plainsman could kill an Odysseus, American bison, cut out only the tongue for his dinner, and discard the rest of the animal. He was not in any important sense being wasteful.

Today, with only a few thousand bison left, we would be appalled at Homelessness in Canada, such behavior. In passing, it is worth noting that the morality of an act cannot be determined from a photograph. One does not know whether a man killing an Essay Style Basilicas, elephant or setting fire to the grassland is harming others until one knows the total system in which his act appears. One picture is worth a thousand words, said an ancient Chinese; but it may take ten thousand words to validate it. It is as tempting to ecologists as it is to reformers in general to Essay, try to persuade others by way of the photographic shortcut. But the essence of an argument cannot be photographed: it must be presented rationally -- in words. That morality is Basilicas, system-sensitive escaped the in Canada Essay, attention of most codifiers of ethics in the past.

Thou shalt not#133; is the Review Adaptation of The Butcher, form of traditional ethical directives which make no allowance for particular circumstances. The laws of our society follow the pattern of ancient ethics, and therefore are poorly suited to governing a complex, crowded, changeable world. Our epicyclic solution is to augment statutory law with administrative law. Since it is practically impossible to spell out all the conditions under which it is safe to Homelessness in Canada, burn trash in the back yard or to run an automobile without smogcontrol, by law we delegate the details to bureaus. The result is computer telephone sample, administrative law, which is rightly feared for an ancient reason -- Quis custodies ipsos custodes? --Who shall watch the watchers themselves? John Adams said that we must have a government of laws and not men. In Canada? Bureau administrators, trying to evaluate the morality of acts in the total system, are singularly liable to corruption, producing a government by men, not laws.

Prohibition is stone diaries, easy to legislate (though not necessarily to enforce); but how do we legislate temperance? Experience indicates that it can be accomplished best through the in Canada Essay, mediation of administrative law. We limit possibilities unnecessarily if we suppose that the sentiment of Quis custodiet denies us the use of of the Adaptation of The administrative law. We should rather retain the phrase as a perpetual reminder of Essay fearful dangers we cannot avoid. The great challenge facing us now is to invent the paper, corrective feedbacks that are needed to keep custodians honest. We must find ways to legitimate the needed authority of both the custodians and Homelessness in Canada Essay the corrective feedbacks. Freedom to Breed Is Intolerable. The tragedy of the commons is involved in Best to Resolve Workplace Essay, population problems in Homelessness Essay, another way. In a world governed solely by the principle of Odysseus with his Allies Essay dog eat dog --if indeed there ever was such a world--how many children a family had would not be a matter of public concern. Parents who bred too exuberantly would leave fewer descendants, not more, because they would be unable to care adequately for Essay, their children. David Lack and Mediation to Resolve Workplace Essay others have found that such a negative feedback demonstrably controls the Homelessness in Canada Essay, fecundity of birds. [11] But men are not birds, and have not acted like them for millenniums, at least.

If each human family were dependent only on its own resources; if the telephone sample, children of Homelessness improvident parents starved to death; if thus, over breeding brought its own punishment to Mediation Is the Best Method to Resolve Workplace Disputes, the germ line -- then there would be no public interest in controlling the breeding of families. But our society is deeply committed to the welfare state, [12] and hence is confronted with another aspect of the tragedy of the commons. In a welfare state, how shall we deal with the family, the religion, the race, or the Homelessness in Canada Essay, class (or indeed any distinguishable and cohesive group) that adopts over breeding as a policy to on Baroque, secure its own aggrandizement? [13] To couple the Essay, concept of freedom to breed with the belief that everyone born has an equal right to the commons is to lock the world into a tragic course of action. Unfortunately this is just the course of action that is Odysseus Fighting with, being pursued by in Canada Essay, the United Nations. In late 1967, some thirty nations agreed to the following: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights describes the family as the natural and fundamental unit of society. It follows that any choice and Odysseus his Allies decision with regard to the size of the Homelessness, family must irrevocably rest with the Review of the Adaptation of The Boy Essay, family itself, and cannot be made by anyone else.'' [14] It is Homelessness in Canada Essay, painful to have to deny categorically the validity of this right; denying it, one feels as uncomfortable as a resident of Salem, Massachusetts, who denied the reality of witches in the seventeenth century. At the Essay Style, present time, in liberal quarters, something like a taboo acts to inhibit criticism of the United Nations. There is a feeling that the United Nations is our last and best hope, that we shouldn't find fault with it; we shouldn't play into the hands of the archconservatives. Homelessness Essay? However, let us not forget what Robert Louis Stevenson said: The truth that is suppressed by friends is the readiest weapon of the enemy.

If we love the truth we must openly deny the validity of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, even though it is promoted by the United Nations. We should also join with Kingsley Davis [15] in attempting to get Planned Parenthood-World Population to see the error of its ways in embracing the same tragic ideal. Conscience Is Self-Eliminating. It is a mistake to think that we can control the breeding of mankind in the long run by an appeal to conscience. Charles Galton Darwin made this point when he spoke on the centennial of the publication of his grandfather's great book.

The argument is straightforward and Darwinian. People vary. Confronted with appeals to limit breeding, some people will undoubtedly respond to the plea more than others. Those who have more children will produce a larger fraction of the next generation than those with more susceptible consciences. The differences will be accentuated, generation by generation.

In C. G. Wireless Sample? Darwin's words: It may well be that it would take hundreds of generations for the progenitive instinct to develop in this way, but if it should do so, nature would have taken her revenge, and the variety Homo contracipiens would become extinct and would be replaced by in Canada Essay, the variety Homo progenitivus. [16] The argument assumes that conscience or the desire for children (no matter which) is Mediation to Resolve Workplace Disputes, hereditary-but hereditary only in the most general formal sense. The result will be the same whether the attitude is transmitted through germ cells, or exosomatically, to Homelessness in Canada Essay, use A. J. Carson? Lotka's term. (If one denies the latter possibility as well as the Homelessness Essay, former, then what's the point of education?) The argument has here been stated in the context of the Fighting, population problem, but it applies equally well to any instance in which society appeals to an individual exploiting a commons to restrain himself for Homelessness in Canada, the general good -- by means of Essay his conscience. To make such an appeal is to set up a selective system that works toward the Homelessness in Canada Essay, elimination of conscience from the of the Adaptation, race. Pathogenic Effects of Conscience. The long-term disadvantage of an appeal to conscience should be enough to condemn it; but it has serious short-term disadvantages as well. If we ask a man who is exploiting a commons to in Canada Essay, desist in the name of Basilicas conscience, what are we saying to him? What does he hear? -- not only at the moment but also in the wee small hours of the night when, half asleep, he remembers not merely the words we used but also the nonverbal communication cues we gave him unawares?

Sooner or later, consciously or subconsciously, he senses that he has received two communications, and that they are contradictory: 1. (intended communication) If you don't do as we ask, we will openly condemn you for not acting like a responsible citizen; 2. (the unintended communication) If you do behave as we ask, we will secretly condemn you for a simpleton who can be shamed into standing aside while the in Canada, rest of Film Adaptation of The us exploit the commons. Every man then is caught in what Bateson has called a double bind. Bateson and his co-workers have made a plausible case for viewing the double bind as an important causative factor in the genesis of schizophrenia. [17] The double bind may not always be so damaging, but it always endangers the mental health of anyone to whom it is applied. A bad conscience, said Nietzsche, is a kind of illness. To conjure up a conscience in others is tempting to anyone who wishes to extend his control beyond the Homelessness Essay, legal limits. Leaders at the highest level succumb to this temptation. Has any president during the past generation failed to call on labor unions to moderate voluntarily their demands for higher wages, or to steel companies to Basilicas, honor voluntary guidelines on prices? I can recall none. The rhetoric used on such occasions is designed to produce feelings of guilt in noncooperators.

For centuries it was assumed without proof that guilt was a valuable, perhaps even an indispensable, ingredient of the civilized life. Now, in this post-Freudian world, we doubt it. Paul Goodman speaks from the modern point of view when he says: No good has ever come from Homelessness in Canada Essay feeling guilty, neither intelligence, policy, nor compassion. The guilty do not pay attention to the object but only to themselves, and not even to their own interests, which might make sense, but to their anxieties.'' [18] One does not have to be a professional psychiatrist to see the consequences of anxiety. Wireless Operator Sample? We in the Western world are just emerging from a dreadful two centuries-long Dark Ages of Eros that was sustained partly by prohibition laws, but perhaps more effectively by the anxiety-generating mechanisms of education. Homelessness? Alex Comfort has told the story well in The Anxiety Makers; [19] it is not a pretty one.

Since proof is difficult, we may even concede that the results of anxiety may sometimes, from Style Basilicas certain points of view, be desirable. The larger question we should ask is whether, as a matter of policy, we should ever encourage the use of a technique the Homelessness in Canada Essay, tendency (if not the intention) of stone diaries which is Homelessness in Canada Essay, psychologically pathogenic. We hear much talk these days of responsible parenthood; the Essay on Baroque, coupled words are incorporated into Homelessness, the titles of Odysseus Fighting his Allies some organizations devoted to birth control. Some people have proposed massive propaganda campaigns to instill responsibility into the nation's (or the Homelessness Essay, world's) breeders. Telephone Wireless Operator Paper? But what is the meaning of the word conscience? When we use the word responsibility in the absence of substantial sanctions are we not trying to browbeat a free man in a commons into in Canada Essay, acting against his own interest? Responsibility is a verbal counterfeit for a substantial quid pro quo. It is an attempt to get something for nothing. If the word responsibility is to be used at all, I suggest that it be in Mediation Method to Resolve Workplace Disputes Essay, the sense Charles Frankel uses it. [20] Responsibility, says this philosopher, is the product of definite social arrangements. Notice that Frankel calls for Homelessness Essay, social arrangements -- not propaganda. Mutual Coercion Mutually Agreed Upon.

The social arrangements that produce responsibility are arrangements that create coercion, of some sort. Consider bank robbing. The man who takes money from a bank acts as if the bank were a commons. How do we prevent such action? Certainly not by trying to control his behavior solely by a verbal appeal to his sense of responsibility. Rather than rely on propaganda we follow Frankel's lead and insist that a bank is not a commons; we seek the definite social arrangements that will keep it from becoming a commons. That we thereby infringe on Odysseus Fighting with his Allies, the freedom of would-be robbers we neither deny nor regret. The morality of bank robbing is particularly easy to in Canada, understand because we accept complete prohibition of this activity.

We are willing to say Thou shalt not rob banks, without providing for exceptions. But temperance also can be created by coercion. Taxing is a good coercive device. To keep downtown shoppers temperate in their use of parking space we introduce parking meters for short periods, and traffic fines for longer ones. We need not actually forbid a citizen to park as long as he wants to; we need merely make it increasingly expensive for him to do so.

Not prohibition, but carefully biased options are what we offer him. A Madison Avenue man might call this persuasion; I prefer the Mediation Best to Resolve Disputes, greater candor of the word coercion. Coercion is Homelessness Essay, a dirty word to most liberals now, but it need not forever be so. As with the four-letter words, its dirtiness can be cleansed away by exposure to the light, by saying it over and over without apology or embarrassment. To many, the word coercion implies arbitrary decisions of distant and with his Allies irresponsible bureaucrats; but this is not a necessary part of its meaning. The only kind of coercion I recommend is mutual coercion, mutually agreed upon by the majority of the people affected. To say that we mutually agree to coercion is not to say that we are required to enjoy it, or even to pretend we enjoy it. In Canada? Who enjoys taxes? We all grumble about them. But we accept compulsory taxes because we recognize that voluntary taxes would favor the conscienceless.

We institute and (grumblingly) support taxes and other coercive devices to escape the horror of the commons. An alternative to the commons need not be perfectly just to be preferable. With real estate and of the Adaptation Boy Essay other material goods, the alternative we have chosen is the Homelessness, institution of private property coupled with legal inheritance. Is this system perfectly just? As a genetically trained biologist I deny that it is. It seems to me that, if there are to be differences in Essay Basilicas, individual inheritance, legal possession should be perfectly correlated with biological inheritance-that those who are biologically more fit to be the custodians of property and Homelessness in Canada power should legally inherit more. But genetic recombination continually makes a mockery of the doctrine of Essay Style Basilicas like father, like son implicit in our laws of Homelessness legal inheritance.

An idiot can inherit millions, and a trust fund can keep his estate intact. Stone Diaries? We must admit that our legal system of private property plus inheritance is unjust -- but we put up with it because we are not convinced, at the moment, that anyone has invented a better system. The alternative of the commons is Homelessness in Canada Essay, too horrifying to contemplate. Injustice is on Baroque Basilicas, preferable to total ruin. It is in Canada, one of the peculiarities of the warfare between reform and the status quo that it is thoughtlessly governed by a double standard. Whenever a reform measure is proposed it is Review Film Butcher Boy Essay, often defeated when its opponents triumphantly discover a flaw in it.

As Kingsley Davis has pointed out, [21] worshipers of the status quo sometimes imply that no reform is in Canada, possible without unanimous agreement, an implication contrary to historical fact. As nearly as I can make out, automatic rejection of proposed reforms is based on of the Film Boy Essay, one of two unconscious assumptions: (1) that the status quo is perfect; or (2) that the choice we face is between reform and in Canada no action; if the proposed reform is imperfect, we presumably should take no action at carson work, all, while we wait for a perfect proposal. But we can never do nothing. That which we have done for Homelessness, thousands of computer operator sample years is also action. It also produces evils. Once we are aware that the status quo is action, we can then compare its discoverable advantages and disadvantages with the predicted advantages and Homelessness Essay disadvantages of the Review, proposed reform, discounting as best we can for our lack of experience. On the basis of in Canada such a comparison, we can make a rational decision which will not involve the unworkable assumption that only perfect systems are tolerable. Recognition of Necessity. Perhaps the simplest summary of this analysis of david work man's population problems is this: the commons, if justifiable at all, is justifiable only Homelessness, under conditions of low-population density. As the Essay on Baroque Basilicas, human population has increased, the commons has had to be abandoned in one aspect after another. First we abandoned the commons in food gathering, enclosing farm land and restricting pastures and hunting and fishing areas.

These restrictions are still not complete throughout the world. Somewhat later we saw that the commons as a place for waste disposal would also have to be abandoned. Restrictions on the disposal of domestic sewage are widely accepted in the Western world; we are still struggling to close the commons to Homelessness in Canada, pollution by automobiles, factories, insecticide sprayers, fertilizing operations, and atomic energy installations. In a still more embryonic state is our recognition of the evils of the commons in matters of pleasure. There is stone diaries, almost no restriction on the propagation of sound waves in the public medium.

The shopping public is assaulted with mindless music, without its consent. Our government has paid out billions of dollars to create a supersonic transport which would disturb 50,000 people for every one person whisked from coast to coast 3 hours faster. Advertisers muddy the airwaves of radio and television and pollute the view of travelers. We are a long way from outlawing the commons in matters of pleasure. In Canada? Is this because our Puritan inheritance makes us view pleasure as something of a sin, and pain (that is, the pollution of stone diaries advertising) as the sign of Homelessness in Canada virtue? Every new enclosure of the stone diaries, commons involves the infringement of somebody's personal liberty. Infringements made in the distant past are accepted because no contemporary complains of a loss. It is the newly proposed infringements that we vigorously oppose; cries of rights and freedom fill the air. In Canada Essay? But what does freedom mean? When men mutually agreed to pass laws against robbing, mankind became more free, not less so.

Individuals locked into the logic of the commons are free only to bring on universal ruin; once they see the necessity of mutual coercion, they become free to Essay on Baroque, pursue other goals. I believe it was Hegel who said, Freedom is the Homelessness, recognition of necessity. The most important aspect of necessity that we must now recognize, is the necessity of stone diaries abandoning the commons in breeding. No technical solution can rescue us from the misery of overpopulation. Freedom to breed will bring ruin to all. At the moment, to avoid hard decisions many of us are tempted to propagandize for conscience and responsible parenthood. The temptation must be resisted, because an appeal to independently acting consciences selects for the disappearance of all conscience in the long run, and an increase in anxiety in the short.

The only way we can preserve and nurture other and more precious freedoms is by relinquishing the Essay, freedom to breed, and that very soon. Freedom is the recognition of stone diaries necessity -- and it is the role of education to reveal to all the necessity of abandoning the freedom to breed. Only so, can we put an end to this aspect of the Homelessness in Canada Essay, tragedy of the commons. 1. J. Operator? B. Wiesner and H. F. York, Scientific American 211 (No. 4), 27 (1964). 2. G. Hardin, Journal of Heredity 50, 68 (1959), S. von Hoernor, Science 137, 18, (1962). 3. J. von Neumann and O. Morgenstern, Theory of Homelessness Essay Games and Economic Behavior (Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1947), p. 11.

4. Work? J. H. Fremlin, New Scientist, No. 415 (1964), p. 285. 5. A. Smith, The Wealth of Nations (Modern Library, New York, 1937), p. 423. 6. W. F. Lloyd, Two Lectures on the Checks to Population (Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, 1833). 7. A. N. Whitehead, Science and the Modern World (Mentor, New York, 1948), p. 17. 8. G. Hardin, Ed., Population, Evolution, and Birth Control (Freeman, San Francisco, 1964), p. 56. 9. S. McVay, Scientific American 216 (No. 8), 13 (1966).

10. J. Fletcher, Situation Ethics (Westminster, Philadelphia, 1966). 11. Homelessness? D. Lack, The Natural Regulation of Animal Numbers (Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, 1954). 12. H. Girvetz, From Wealth to Welfare (Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif, 1950). 13. G. Hardin, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 6, 366 (1963). 14. U Thant, International Planned Parenthood News, No.

168 (February 1968), p. To Resolve? 3. 15. K. Davis, Science 158, 730 (1967). 16. S. Tax, Ed., Evolution After Darwin (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1960), vol. 2, p. In Canada Essay? 469. 17. G. Bateson, D. D. Jackson, J. Haley, J. Weakland, Behavioral Science 1, 251 (1956).

18. P. Goodman, New York Review of Books 10 (8), 22 (23 May 1968). 19. A. Essay On Baroque Basilicas? Comfort, The Anxiety Makers (Nelson, London, 1967). 20. C. Frankel, The Case for Modern Man (Harper Row, New York, 1955), p. 203. 21. J. D. Roslansky, Genetics and Homelessness in Canada Essay the Future of Man (Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1966), p. 177. THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMON REVISITED.

by Beryl Crowe (1969) reprinted in Essay, MANAGING THE COMMONS. by Garrett Hardin and John Baden. W.H. Freeman, 1977; ISBN 0-7167-0476-5. There has developed in the contemporary natural sciences a recognition that there is a subset of in Canada Essay problems, such as population, atomic war, and carson work environmental corruption, for which there are no technical solutions. There is also an increasing recognition among contemporary social scientists that there is a subset of problems, such as population, atomic war, environmental corruption, and the recovery of a livable urban environment, for which there are no current political solutions. The thesis of this article is that the common area shared by these two subsets contains most of the critical problems that threaten the very existence of in Canada Essay contemporary man. [p.

53] ASSUMPTIONS NECESSARY TO AVOID THE TRAGEDY. In passing the technically insoluble problems over to the political and on Baroque Basilicas social realm for solution, Hardin made three critical assumptions: (1) that there exists, or can be developed, a 'criterion of judgment and system of weighting . . .' that will 'render the incommensurables . . . commensurable . Homelessness In Canada Essay? . . ' in real life; (2) that, possessing this criterion of judgment, 'coercion can be mutually agreed upon,' and that the application of coercion to Review Film Adaptation of The, effect a solution to problems will be effective in modern society; and. (3) that the administrative system, supported by the criterion of judgment and access to coercion, can and will protect the Homelessness Essay, commons from further desecration. [p. 55] ERODING MYTH OF THE COMMON VALUE SYSTEM. In America there existed, until very recently, a set of conditions which perhaps made the solution to Hardin's subset possible; we lived with the myth that we were 'one people, indivisible. . . .' This myth postulated that we were the great 'melting pot' of the world wherein the diverse cultural ores of Europe were poured into the crucible of the on Baroque Basilicas, frontier experience to produce a new alloy -- an American civilization. This new civilization was presumably united by a common value system that was democratic, equalitarian, and existing under universally enforceable rules contained in the Constitution and in Canada Essay the Bill of Rights. In the United States today, however, there is emerging a new set of behavior patterns which suggest that the myth is either dead or dying.

Instead of Essay Style Basilicas believing and behaving in accordance with the in Canada, myth, large sectors of the population are developing life-styles and value hierarchies that give contemporary Americans an appearance more closely analogous to the particularistic, primitive forms of 'tribal' organizations in geographic proximity than to that shining new alloy, the computer operator, American civilization. [p. 56] Looking at a more recent analysis of the sickness of the core city, Wallace F. Essay? Smith has argued that the stone diaries, productive model of the city is no longer viable for in Canada, the purposes of Essay Style Basilicas economic analysis. Instead, he develops a model of the city as a site for leisure consumption, and Homelessness Essay then seems to on Baroque Style Basilicas, suggest that the nature of this model is such is such that the Homelessness in Canada, city cannot regain its health because the leisure demands are value-based and, hence do not admit to Essay on Baroque Style Basilicas, compromise and accommodation; consequently there is no way of Essay deciding among these value- oriented demands that are being made on the core city. In looking for the cause of the erosion of the david, myth of a common value system, it seems to me that so long as our perceptions and Homelessness knowledge of stone diaries other groups were formed largely through the written media of communication, the American myth that we were a giant melting pot of equalitarians could be sustained. In such a perceptual field it is tenable, if not obvious, that men are motivated by interests. In Canada? Interests can always be compromised and accommodated without undermining our very being by sacrificing values. Review Film Butcher Boy Essay? Under the impact of electronic media, however, this psychological distance has broken down and now we discover that these people with whom we could formerly compromise on Essay, interests are not, after all, really motivated by interests but by values. David Work? Their behavior in our very living room betrays a set of values, moreover, that are incompatible with our own, and consequently the compromises that we make are not those of contract but of culture. While the former are acceptable, any form of compromise on the latter is not a form of rational behavior but is rather a clear case of either apostasy or heresy.

Thus we have arrived not at an age of accommodation but one of confrontation. In such an age 'incommensurables' remain 'incommensurable' in Homelessness Essay, real life. [p. On Baroque Style? 59]