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Essay about History of Smallpox

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Literature/The Role of Trees in Beloved term paper 1429. Nature often times represent a unique calmness. About History. Toni Morrison doesn't make any exceptions to this idea. In her novel Beloved, Toni Morrison uses trees to symbolize comfort, protection and Imaging and Their Corresponding Essay example, peace. Morrison uses trees throughout Beloved to Essay History of Smallpox, emphasize the serenity that the natural world offers. Many black characters, and some white and is formative, Native American characters, refer to trees as offering calm, healing and escape, thus conveying Morrison's message that trees bring peace. Besides using the novel's characters to convey her message, Morrison herself displays and shows the good and calmness that trees represent in the tree imagery in her narration. Perhaps Toni Morrison uses trees and characters' responses to them to History of Smallpox, show that when one lives through an ordeal as horrible as slavery, one will naturally find comfort in the simple or seemingly harmless aspects of life, such as nature and especially trees.

With the what is formative tree's symbolism of escape and peace, Morrison uses her characters' references to their serenity and soothing nature as messages that only in Essay about of Smallpox nature could these oppressed people find comfort and escape from unwanted thoughts. Almost every one of Morrison's characters find refuge in trees and nature, especially the vs. Scientology main characters such as Sethe and about History of Smallpox, Paul D. During Sethe's time in slavery, she has witnessed many gruesome and Wicca vs. Scientology, horrible events that blacks endure such as whippings and lynchings. About Of Smallpox. However, Sethe seemingly chooses to remember the sight of sycamore trees over the sight of lynched boys, thus revealing her comfort in a tree's presence: Boys hanging from the what is formative assessment most beautiful sycamores in the world. It shamed her- remembering the History wonderful soughing trees rather than the boys. Try as she might to make it otherwise, the sycamores beat out the children every time and she could not forgive her memory for that (6). Although Sethe wishes she would've remembered the boys instead, she probably rationalized this thought because when she asks Paul D about news of Halle, she pictures the Sonographic, Imaging and Their example sycamores instead of the possibility that Halle has been lynched: 'I wouldn't have to History, ask about him would I? You'd tell me if there was anything to tell, wouldn't you?' Sethe looked down at her feet and saw again the sycamores (8). When Schoolteacher whips Sethe, leaving her back leathery with scars, she refers to the scar as a chokecherry tree to soothe and to lessen the physically and monica hughes books, emotional pain that the scar represents: But that's what she said it looked like, A chokecherry tree. Trunk, branches and even leaves. Tiny little chokecherry leaves (16).

While Sethe thinks of Essay about History, trees to heal and calm her pain and suffering, Paul D directly looks for physically real trees as his escape from monica hughes everyday slave life. During Paul D's time in slavery, he chose to about History of Smallpox, love trees for their comfort and calm qualities: . trees were inviting; things you could trust and be near; talk to if you wanted to as he frequently did since way back when he took the midday meal in the fields of Sweet Home (21). Because of these qualities, Paul D chose one particular tree, larger and more inviting than other trees, to always return to. A tree which he named Brother and a tree that listened and comforted and books, was always there. Essay History. But most importantly, Brother represents the comforting escape from slavery which Paul D didn't and doesn't have: His choice he called Brother, and what, sat under it, alone sometimes. Sometimes with Halle or the Essay History other Pauls. (21). Dual. After a long day working in the fields, Paul D would rest, often times under the towering but comforting presence of Brother with Halle, the Essay about History of Smallpox Pauls and Sixo: He, Sixo and both of the Pauls sat under Brother pouring water from a gourd over what is formative assessment their heads. (27). History. Not only do trees represent comfort, they also represent a place of security, a place for escape from slave life. When Sixo visits the Thirty-Mile Woman, he escapes into the secure woods before her master could catch him: But Sixo had already melted into the woods before the lash could unfurl itself on his indigo behind (25). While Paul D sits under Brother to find comfort, Sixo enters the woods at Essay vs. Scientology, night to dance, escape slave life and to keep his culture: Sixo went among the Essay trees at night.

For dancing, he said, to keep his bloodlines open, he said (25). Even Beloved, the strange human apparition of the Crawling Already Baby, seemingly finds comfort with trees when she appears in the real world: She barely gained the hughes dry bank of the stream before she sat down and leaned against a mulberry tree (50). Morrison's characters refer to trees for comfort, escape and safety, thus conveying Morrison's message. While the main significant characters refer to the trees' serenity and comfort, characters' with lesser significance or lesser prominence in Beloved also refer to Essay History of Smallpox, trees, not to themselves though, to convey the message that nature helps provide comfort and escape. Amy Denver, the whitewoman who had helped Sethe through labor only appears once in the book during Denver's story. Although she only appears once, her tree reference to Sethe's scarred back helps soothe Sethe's physical and mental pain: It's a tree Lu.

See, here's the trunk- it's red and split open, full of sap, and Pressure Essay, this here's the parting for the branches. You got a mighty a lot of branches. History Of Smallpox. Leaves, too, look like, and dern if these ain't blossoms. Groups Essay. Tiny little cherry tree blossoms, just as white. Your back got a whole tree on it. In bloom (79). About. Amy Denver uses a euphemism for Sethe's scar, calling it a chokecherry tree to ease the pain and memory that the scar brings.

The image of a chokecherry tree brings spring, bloom and hughes books, peaceful nature instead of the shame, pain and sadness that the scar truly represents. Trying to ease Sethe's pain some more, Amy Denver searches for spiderwebs, another product of mother nature, to drape over Sethe's tree to cool the pain and to then refer to the scar as a Christmas tree to conjure images of peace and happiness to take Sethe's mind off her pain and suffering: Amy returned with two palmfuls of Essay about History, web, which she cleaned of prey and then draped on is formative assessment, Sethe's back, saying it was like stringing a tree for Christmas (80). While the whitewoman Amy Denver aided Sethe, a group of Essay, Cherokee Indians helped Paul D to his freedom. When Paul D escapes from Alfred, Georgia, the Cherokees tell him to follow cherry blossoms to freedom and escape from Alfred, Georgia: 'That way,' he said, pointing. 'Follow the tree flowers,' he said. Is Formative. 'Only the tree flowers. As they go, you go. You will be where you want to be when they are gone' (112).

Nature brings a certain calmness to life and the characters' references to trees support this idea. While Morrison relies on her characters' references to trees to convey her message, she herself indirectly reiterates her point by using symbolic tree imagery in her narration. Essay. In her description of the path to The Negative of the Guatemalan Civil, the Clearing, Morrison describes drooping trees as if they represented towering guards seemingly bringing serenity and security to a once sacred place: The old path was a track now, but still arched over with trees drooping buckeyes onto the grass below (89). Essay History Of Smallpox. The mere image of draping branches over the path to Essay Wicca vs. Scientology, the Clearing implies the protectiveness that trees bring. And to further her point, Morrison subtlely implies the sin of cutting down soothing, calming trees by about describing the lumberyard's surroundings and the old sawyer: Up and down the The Negative Consequences US Intervention Civil old lumberyard fence old roses were dying. Essay About. The sawyer who had planted them twelve years ago to give his workplace a friendly feel- something to take the sin out of slicing trees for a living. (47). Besides representing protection, security and comfort, Morrison also implies that trees bring good things.

To Sethe and Denver, Beloved represents the best things in the world, a daughter and a sister. When Sethe and Denver first discover their best thing, Beloved is slumped over a tree stump, Morrison's subtle message that trees bring good things: Just as she thought it might happen, it has. Easy as walking into a room. Pressure Groups Essay. A magical appearance on a stump, the face wiped out by sunlight. Essay. (123). Morrison also uses this implication when various townspeople leave food for Essay about vs. Scientology, Denver and Sethe on a tree stump: Two days later Denver stood on the porch and Essay about History of Smallpox, noticed something lying on the tree stump at the edge of the yard. She went to look and found a sack of white beans. Another time a plate of cold rabbit meat.

One morning a basket of eggs sat there (250). Not only can trees bring good things, trees can also bring people into Sonographic, Imaging Essay example good situations. When Paul D. leaves the woods, he finds himself in Wilmington with food and a temporary home as if Morrison implies that the woods lead him to comfort: Crawling out of the woods, cross-eyed with hunger and loneliness, he knocked at the first back door he came to about History of Smallpox, in the colored section of Wilmington (131). Dual Relationship. Paul D has also followed the History of Smallpox tree blossoms to Sonographic, Imaging Corresponding Difficulties example, Sethe, another sign that trees help bring good and calmness. Morrison's indirect implications of about, tree's soothing nature has strong symbolism, representing the comfort and calmness to readers. While Toni Morrison mainly uses tree imagery as a message of serenity and what is formative, comfort, she uses her characters' responses to Essay History of Smallpox, trees to monica, show that perhaps when one lives through a horrific ordeal like slavery, people find comfort in the natural world for its calmness and seemingly harmless characteristics. For Paul D, loving small things represents survival. When forced into Alfred, Georgia, Paul D encounters the most evil that he has ever encountered before, but despite tasting the iron bit, watching Sixo burn, losing Halle and the Pauls, and facing Schoolteacher's slavery, Paul D finds comfort in a young tree in the prison camp: Loving small and in secret. His little love was a tree of course, but not like Brother- old, wide and beckoning. In Alfred, Georgia, there was an aspen too young to call a sapling. Just a shoot no taller than his waist.

The kind of thing a man would cut to whip his horse (221). For Stamp Paid, an History, established savior, he feels the most comfortable when he helps and aids others. Stamp Paid's picking berries for Sethe and Denver symbolizes his comfort towards helping people with the goodness of nature: . went off with two buckets to a place near the river's edge that only he knew about is formative assessment where blackberries grew, tasting so good and happy that to History of Smallpox, eat them was like being in church (136). A similar figure to monica hughes books, Stamp Paid, Baby Suggs holy also finds the most comfort in helping others, giving advice, passing messages, healing the sick, hiding fugitives, loving and loving some more. She became a holy presence in town and about History of Smallpox, preached from a rock in the Clearing surrounded by trees, doing what she finds comfort in, helping and dual, preaching to others: In the History Clearing, Sethe found Baby's old preaching rock and remembered the of the in the Guatemalan Civil War smell of leaves simmering in the sun, thunderous feet and the shouts that ripped pods off the limbs of chestnuts. With Baby Suggs' heart in charge, the Essay History people let go (94). Even Sixo, the wild man went among the trees at night to keep his bloodlines open. Each one of these characters has endured the monica hughes horrors of slavery and faced this ordeal in different ways, but they all deal with slavery with the comforting and harmless aspect of nature, trees.

Although people today don't have to live through slavery, people still have to face their own tough personal situations. Instead of having nature to soothe one's problems, people today drown their sorrows in Essay about of Smallpox material possessions and controlled substances, unfortunately a problem plaguing society. In The. Readers can only Essay remember a time not too long ago when the what little secret hiding place in Essay about History of Smallpox the woods or one's special thinking rock meant a great deal more than material items, a simple healthy escape from life and it's problems. Imaging. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Every paper is written from scratch based on your instructions and there is no plagiarism of any kind.

Plus, we guarantee free unlimited revisions. You will enjoy direct contact with the writer throughout the entire process and will receive the paper by e-mail/download. Essay. The projects are never resold and will remain your unique property for a lifetime. The service is totally confidential and dual, all client information is kept private. We guarantee that the paper will adequately meet your guidelines and be done by the deadline, otherwise we will give you your money back, if we fail (terms of service apply).

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1 Computing with Language: Texts and Words. We're all very familiar with text, since we read and about of Smallpox write it every day. Here we will treat text as raw data for Pressure Essay the programs we write, programs that manipulate and analyze it in a variety of interesting ways. But before we can do this, we have to History of Smallpox get started with the Python interpreter. One of the friendly things about Python is that it allows you to type directly into the interactive interpreter — the program that will be running your Python programs. You can access the vs. Scientology, Python interpreter using a simple graphical interface called the Interactive DeveLopment Environment (IDLE). About. On a Mac you can find this under Applications > MacPython , and on Windows under All Programs > Python . Under Unix you can run Python from the shell by typing idle (if this is Pressure not installed, try typing python ). The interpreter will print a blurb about your Python version; simply check that you are running Python 3.2 or later (here it is for 3.4.2): If you are unable to run the Python interpreter, you probably don't have Python installed correctly. Please visit for detailed instructions. NLTK 3.0 works for Python 2.6 and 2.7.

If you are using one of these older versions, note that the / operator rounds fractional results downwards (so 1/3 will give you 0 ). In order to Essay get the expected behavior of division you need to type: from __future__ import division. The prompt indicates that the Python interpreter is now waiting for input. When copying examples from this book, don't type the yourself. Now, let's begin by using Python as a calculator: Once the interpreter has finished calculating the answer and displaying it, the prompt reappears. This means the Python interpreter is waiting for another instruction. Your Turn: Enter a few more expressions of your own. Essay About Wicca Vs. Scientology. You can use asterisk ( * ) for multiplication and slash ( / ) for division, and parentheses for bracketing expressions. The preceding examples demonstrate how you can work interactively with the Python interpreter, experimenting with various expressions in the language to see what they do. Of Smallpox. Now let's try a nonsensical expression to see how the interpreter handles it:

This produced a syntax error . In Python, it doesn't make sense to end an instruction with a plus sign. The Python interpreter indicates the line where the problem occurred (line 1 of groups Essay stdin , which stands for standard input). Now that we can use the History, Python interpreter, we're ready to start working with language data. Before going further you should install NLTK 3.0, downloadable for free from . Follow the instructions there to what assessment download the version required for your platform. Once you've installed NLTK, start up the Python interpreter as before, and install the data required for the book by typing the Essay of Smallpox, following two commands at the Python prompt, then selecting the book collection as shown in 1.1. Figure 1.1 : Downloading the NLTK Book Collection: browse the available packages using . The Collections tab on the downloader shows how the is formative, packages are grouped into sets, and you should select the line labeled book to obtain all data required for the examples and exercises in Essay about, this book.

It consists of about 30 compressed files requiring about 100Mb disk space. Sonographic, Modalities Corresponding Essay. The full collection of data (i.e., all in the downloader) is nearly ten times this size (at the Essay about History, time of writing) and continues to expand. Once the Sonographic, Imaging Modalities and Their Corresponding example, data is History downloaded to and Their Corresponding example your machine, you can load some of it using the Python interpreter. The first step is to type a special command at the Python prompt which tells the interpreter to load some texts for us to explore: from import * . This says from NLTK's book module, load all items. The book module contains all the data you will need as you read this chapter. Essay About. After printing a welcome message, it loads the text of several books (this will take a few seconds).

Here's the command again, together with the output that you will see. Dual. Take care to of Smallpox get spelling and punctuation right, and remember that you don't type the . Any time we want to find out about these texts, we just have to is formative enter their names at the Python prompt: Now that we can use the Python interpreter, and have some data to work with, we're ready to get started. There are many ways to examine the context of a text apart from simply reading it. A concordance view shows us every occurrence of about of Smallpox a given word, together with some context.

Here we look up the monica hughes, word monstrous in about History, Moby Dick by Consequences of the US Intervention in the entering text1 followed by a period, then the term concordance , and then placing monstrous in parentheses: The first time you use a concordance on a particular text, it takes a few extra seconds to Essay about History of Smallpox build an index so that subsequent searches are fast. Your Turn: Try searching for other words; to what is formative assessment save re-typing, you might be able to about History of Smallpox use up-arrow, Ctrl-up-arrow or Alt-p to The Negative of the in the Civil War access the previous command and modify the word being searched. Essay History Of Smallpox. You can also try searches on some of the other texts we have included. About Wicca. For example, search Sense and Sensibility for the word affection , using text2.concordance( affection ) . Search the book of Genesis to Essay about find out how long some people lived, using text3.concordance( lived ) . You could look at text4 , the Inaugural Address Corpus , to see examples of English going back to 1789, and search for words like nation , terror , god to see how these words have been used differently over Essay about vs. Scientology, time. Essay About. We've also included text5 , the NPS Chat Corpus : search this for unconventional words like im , ur , lol . (Note that this corpus is uncensored!) Once you've spent a little while examining these texts, we hope you have a new sense of the richness and diversity of language. In the next chapter you will learn how to access a broader range of text, including text in Sonographic, Modalities and Their Corresponding Difficulties Essay, languages other than English. A concordance permits us to Essay about History of Smallpox see words in context. For example, we saw that monstrous occurred in contexts such as the ___ pictures and Imaging and Their Essay a ___ size . What other words appear in about of Smallpox, a similar range of contexts?

We can find out by appending the term similar to the name of the text in question, then inserting the relevant word in parentheses: Observe that we get different results for different texts. Austen uses this word quite differently from Essay vs. Scientology Melville; for her, monstrous has positive connotations, and sometimes functions as an intensifier like the word very . The term common_contexts allows us to examine just the contexts that are shared by two or more words, such as monstrous and very . We have to enclose these words by square brackets as well as parentheses, and Essay History separate them with a comma: Your Turn: Pick another pair of words and compare their usage in two different texts, using the similar() and common_contexts() functions. It is one thing to automatically detect that a particular word occurs in relationship, a text, and to display some words that appear in Essay, the same context. Monica Hughes Books. However, we can also determine the location of a word in the text: how many words from the beginning it appears. This positional information can be displayed using a dispersion plot . Each stripe represents an instance of a word, and each row represents the entire text. Essay About. In 1.2 we see some striking patterns of monica word usage over the last 220 years (in an artificial text constructed by joining the texts of the Inaugural Address Corpus end-to-end).

You can produce this plot as shown below. You might like to try more words (e.g., liberty , constitution ), and of Smallpox different texts. Can you predict the dispersion of a word before you view it? As before, take care to The Negative of the in the War get the quotes, commas, brackets and parentheses exactly right. Figure 1.2 : Lexical Dispersion Plot for Words in U.S.

Presidential Inaugural Addresses: This can be used to Essay about of Smallpox investigate changes in language use over time. Important: You need to have Python's NumPy and Matplotlib packages installed in order to produce the graphical plots used in The Negative Consequences of the in the, this book. Please see for installation instructions. You can also plot the frequency of word usage through time using Now, just for fun, let's try generating some random text in the various styles we have just seen. To do this, we type the Essay History, name of the text followed by the term generate . (We need to include the parentheses, but there's nothing that goes between them.) The generate() method is not available in NLTK 3.0 but will be reinstated in what assessment, a subsequent version. The most obvious fact about texts that emerges from the preceding examples is that they differ in the vocabulary they use. In this section we will see how to use the computer to count the words in a text in about of Smallpox, a variety of what assessment useful ways. As before, you will jump right in and experiment with the Python interpreter, even though you may not have studied Python systematically yet.

Test your understanding by Essay about History modifying the Essay vs. Scientology, examples, and trying the exercises at Essay History, the end of the chapter. Let's begin by finding out the length of a text from Essay about vs. Scientology start to finish, in terms of the words and punctuation symbols that appear. We use the term len to about of Smallpox get the The Negative Consequences Civil, length of something, which we'll apply here to the book of Genesis: So Genesis has 44,764 words and punctuation symbols, or tokens. A token is the technical name for a sequence of characters — such as hairy , his , or :) — that we want to treat as a group. When we count the number of tokens in a text, say, the phrase to Essay about History of Smallpox be or not to be , we are counting occurrences of these sequences. Thus, in our example phrase there are two occurrences of to , two of be , and dual relationship one each of History or and not . But there are only four distinct vocabulary items in this phrase. How many distinct words does the book of Genesis contain? To work this out in Python, we have to pose the question slightly differently. About Vs. Scientology. The vocabulary of a text is just the set of about of Smallpox tokens that it uses, since in a set, all duplicates are collapsed together.

In Python we can obtain the vocabulary items of text3 with the command: set(text3) . When you do this, many screens of monica words will fly past. Now try the following: By wrapping sorted() around the Python expression set(text3) , we obtain a sorted list of vocabulary items, beginning with various punctuation symbols and continuing with words starting with A . All capitalized words precede lowercase words. We discover the about, size of the vocabulary indirectly, by asking for the number of items in the set, and again we can use len to about obtain this number . Although it has 44,764 tokens, this book has only 2,789 distinct words, or word types. A word type is the form or spelling of the word independently of about its specific occurrences in a text — that is, the word considered as a unique item of vocabulary. Our count of what is formative 2,789 items will include punctuation symbols, so we will generally call these unique items types instead of word types.

Now, let's calculate a measure of the lexical richness of the text. History Of Smallpox. The next example shows us that the number of distinct words is just 6% of the total number of words, or equivalently that each word is used 16 times on average (remember if you're using Python 2, to dual relationship start with from __future__ import division ). Next, let's focus on about History, particular words. We can count how often a word occurs in a text, and compute what percentage of the Essay, text is taken up by a specific word: Your Turn: How many times does the word lol appear in text5 ? How much is this as a percentage of the total number of words in this text?

You may want to repeat such calculations on several texts, but it is tedious to keep retyping the formula. Essay History. Instead, you can come up with your own name for a task, like lexical_diversity or percentage, and associate it with a block of code. Now you only have to type a short name instead of one or more complete lines of Python code, and vs. Scientology you can re-use it as often as you like. The block of about of Smallpox code that does a task for us is called a function , and we define a short name for our function with the keyword def . The next example shows how to define two new functions, lexical_diversity() and percentage() : The Python interpreter changes the prompt from to . after encountering the colon at the end of the first line. The . Pressure Groups Essay. prompt indicates that Python expects an indented code block to History appear next. It is up to Pressure groups Essay you to about do the indentation, by typing four spaces or hitting the tab key. To finish the indented block just enter a blank line.

In the The Negative in the Civil War, definition of lexical_diversity() , we specify a parameter named text . This parameter is a placeholder for the actual text whose lexical diversity we want to compute, and reoccurs in the block of code that will run when the function is Essay about of Smallpox used . Similarly, percentage() is defined to take two parameters, named count and total . Once Python knows that lexical_diversity() and percentage() are the names for specific blocks of code, we can go ahead and use these functions: To recap, we use or call a function such as lexical_diversity() by typing its name, followed by an open parenthesis, the name of the text, and then a close parenthesis. These parentheses will show up often; their role is to The Negative Consequences in the Guatemalan Civil separate the name of a task — such as lexical_diversity() — from the History of Smallpox, data that the task is to be performed on — such as text3 . The data value that we place in the parentheses when we call a function is an argument to the function. You have already encountered several functions in Sonographic, Imaging and Their Difficulties Essay example, this chapter, such as len() , set() , and about History sorted() . By convention, we will always add an empty pair of parentheses after a function name, as in len() , just to make clear that what we are talking about is a function rather than some other kind of Python expression. Functions are an important concept in programming, and we only mention them at the outset to give newcomers a sense of the power and creativity of programming. Don't worry if you find it a bit confusing right now. Later we'll see how to use functions when tabulating data, as in 1.1. Each row of the table will involve the same computation but with different data, and we'll do this repetitive work using a function. Lexical Diversity of Various Genres in the Brown Corpus.

2 A Closer Look at Python: Texts as Lists of Essay Words. You've seen some important elements of the about History of Smallpox, Python programming language. The Negative Consequences Of The In The Guatemalan Civil War. Let's take a few moments to Essay review them systematically. What is a text? At one level, it is a sequence of symbols on a page such as this one. At another level, it is a sequence of chapters, made up of a sequence of sections, where each section is a sequence of paragraphs, and so on. Essay. However, for our purposes, we will think of a text as nothing more than a sequence of Essay about History words and assessment punctuation. Here's how we represent text in Python, in this case the opening sentence of Moby Dick : After the prompt we've given a name we made up, sent1 , followed by the equals sign, and then some quoted words, separated with commas, and surrounded with brackets. This bracketed material is known as a list in History of Smallpox, Python: it is how we store a text. We can inspect it by typing the name . We can ask for its length . We can even apply our own lexical_diversity() function to it . Some more lists have been defined for you, one for the opening sentence of each of our texts, sent2 … sent9 . We inspect two of them here; you can see the rest for yourself using the Python interpreter (if you get an Imaging Modalities Corresponding, error which says that sent2 is not defined, you need to first type from import * ). Your Turn: Make up a few sentences of your own, by typing a name, equals sign, and a list of words, like this: ex1 = [ 'Monty' , 'Python' , 'and' , 'the' , 'Holy' , 'Grail' ] . Repeat some of the other Python operations we saw earlier in 1, e.g., sorted(ex1) , len(set(ex1)) , ex1.count( 'the' ) . A pleasant surprise is that we can use Python's addition operator on lists.

Adding two lists creates a new list with everything from the first list, followed by about History everything from the second list: This special use of the addition operation is called concatenation ; it combines the lists together into a single list. We can concatenate sentences to relationship build up a text. We don't have to literally type the lists either; we can use short names that refer to pre-defined lists. What if we want to History of Smallpox add a single item to a list? This is known as appending . When we append() to a list, the list itself is updated as a result of the operation. As we have seen, a text in Python is Sonographic, Imaging and Their Corresponding Essay example a list of words, represented using a combination of brackets and History quotes. Just as with an ordinary page of text, we can count up the Essay Wicca, total number of words in text1 with len(text1) , and count the occurrences in Essay about, a text of a particular word — say, 'heaven' — using text1.count( 'heaven' ) . With some patience, we can pick out the 1st, 173rd, or even 14,278th word in a printed text. Analogously, we can identify the elements of a Python list by their order of occurrence in Pressure Essay, the list.

The number that represents this position is the item's index . We instruct Python to show us the about History of Smallpox, item that occurs at an index such as 173 in a text by writing the name of the text followed by the index inside square brackets: We can do the converse; given a word, find the index of when it first occurs: Indexes are a common way to access the words of a text, or, more generally, the elements of any list. Dual. Python permits us to access sublists as well, extracting manageable pieces of language from large texts, a technique known as slicing . Indexes have some subtleties, and we'll explore these with the help of an artificial sentence: Notice that our indexes start from zero: sent element zero, written sent[0] , is the first word, 'word1' , whereas sent element 9 is 'word10' . The reason is simple: the moment Python accesses the content of about a list from the computer's memory, it is Pressure groups Essay already at about History of Smallpox, the first element; we have to tell it how many elements forward to go. Thus, zero steps forward leaves it at the first element. This practice of what is formative counting from zero is initially confusing, but typical of modern programming languages. You'll quickly get the hang of it if you've mastered the system of counting centuries where 19XY is a year in the 20th century, or if you live in a country where the floors of a building are numbered from 1, and so walking up n-1 flights of stairs takes you to level n . Now, if we accidentally use an index that is too large, we get an error: This time it is not a syntax error, because the program fragment is syntactically correct.

Instead, it is a runtime error , and it produces a Traceback message that shows the Essay, context of the error, followed by the name of the error, IndexError , and a brief explanation. Let's take a closer look at slicing, using our artificial sentence again. Here we verify that the slice 5:8 includes sent elements at indexes 5, 6, and 7: By convention, m:n means elements m … n-1 . As the next example shows, we can omit the first number if the slice begins at the start of the list , and Pressure groups Essay we can omit the Essay History of Smallpox, second number if the slice goes to the end : We can modify an Essay Wicca vs. Scientology, element of a list by assigning to one of its index values. In the next example, we put sent[0] on the left of the equals sign . About History Of Smallpox. We can also replace an entire slice with new material . Essay About Wicca Vs. Scientology. A consequence of this last change is of Smallpox that the list only has four elements, and The Negative of the in the Guatemalan War accessing a later value generates an error . Your Turn: Take a few minutes to Essay define a sentence of your own and modify individual words and groups of words (slices) using the same methods used earlier.

Check your understanding by The Negative Consequences of the US Intervention in the Guatemalan Civil War trying the Essay about History of Smallpox, exercises on The Negative of the in the, lists at Essay about History, the end of this chapter. From the start of 1, you have had access to texts called text1 , text2 , and so on. It saved a lot of typing to be able to refer to a 250,000-word book with a short name like this! In general, we can make up names for anything we care to calculate. We did this ourselves in the previous sections, e.g., defining a variable sent1 , as follows: Such lines have the form: variable = expression . Python will evaluate the expression, and save its result to the variable. This process is called assignment . It does not generate any output; you have to type the variable on monica, a line of its own to inspect its contents. The equals sign is slightly misleading, since information is moving from the right side to about History of Smallpox the left. It might help to think of it as a left-arrow. The name of the variable can be anything you like, e.g., my_sent , sentence , xyzzy . It must start with a letter, and can include numbers and underscores.

Here are some examples of variables and assignments: Remember that capitalized words appear before lowercase words in sorted lists. Notice in the previous example that we split the definition of my_sent over vs. Scientology, two lines. About. Python expressions can be split across multiple lines, so long as this happens within any kind of brackets. Hughes Books. Python uses the . prompt to indicate that more input is expected. It doesn't matter how much indentation is History of Smallpox used in these continuation lines, but some indentation usually makes them easier to read. It is good to choose meaningful variable names to remind you — and to help anyone else who reads your Python code — what your code is relationship meant to do. Python does not try to make sense of the names; it blindly follows your instructions, and does not object if you do something confusing, such as one = 'two' or two = 3 . The only about History of Smallpox, restriction is that a variable name cannot be any of The Negative of the US Intervention War Python's reserved words, such as def , if , not , and import . If you use a reserved word, Python will produce a syntax error: We will often use variables to about hold intermediate steps of a computation, especially when this makes the code easier to follow. The Negative Consequences Guatemalan War. Thus len(set(text1)) could also be written:

Take care with your choice of names (or identifiers ) for Python variables. First, you should start the Essay about History, name with a letter, optionally followed by digits ( 0 to 9 ) or letters. Relationship. Thus, abc23 is fine, but 23abc will cause a syntax error. Names are case-sensitive, which means that myVar and myvar are distinct variables. Variable names cannot contain whitespace, but you can separate words using an underscore, e.g., my_var . Be careful not to about of Smallpox insert a hyphen instead of an underscore: my-var is wrong, since Python interprets the - as a minus sign. Some of the methods we used to Corresponding Essay example access the elements of a list also work with individual words, or strings . For example, we can assign a string to a variable , index a string , and Essay about slice a string : We can also perform multiplication and addition with strings: We can join the words of a list to make a single string, or split a string into a list, as follows: We will come back to the topic of strings in 3. For the time being, we have two important building blocks — lists and Imaging Difficulties Essay example strings — and are ready to get back to some language analysis. 3 Computing with Language: Simple Statistics. Let's return to our exploration of the ways we can bring our computational resources to bear on large quantities of text. We began this discussion in 1, and Essay History saw how to search for about words in context, how to compile the vocabulary of a text, how to generate random text in the same style, and so on.

In this section we pick up the question of what makes a text distinct, and use automatic methods to find characteristic words and expressions of a text. As in 1, you can try new features of the Python language by copying them into Essay about, the interpreter, and you'll learn about these features systematically in the following section. Before continuing further, you might like to check your understanding of the The Negative Consequences of the US Intervention in the Guatemalan Civil War, last section by predicting the output of the following code. You can use the interpreter to Essay about check whether you got it right. If you're not sure how to do this task, it would be a good idea to review the previous section before continuing further. How can we automatically identify the words of a text that are most informative about the topic and genre of the text? Imagine how you might go about finding the 50 most frequent words of a book. One method would be to keep a tally for each vocabulary item, like that shown in 3.1. The tally would need thousands of rows, and it would be an exceedingly laborious process — so laborious that we would rather assign the task to a machine. Figure 3.1 : Counting Words Appearing in a Text (a frequency distribution)

The table in 3.1 is known as a frequency distribution , and it tells us the frequency of Modalities and Their Difficulties Essay example each vocabulary item in the text. (In general, it could count any kind of Essay of Smallpox observable event.) It is a distribution because it tells us how the total number of word tokens in the text are distributed across the vocabulary items. Since we often need frequency distributions in language processing, NLTK provides built-in support for them. Pressure Essay. Let's use a FreqDist to find the 50 most frequent words of Moby Dick : When we first invoke FreqDist , we pass the name of the Essay about History of Smallpox, text as an argument . We can inspect the total number of monica hughes words (outcomes) that have been counted up — 260,819 in the case of Moby Dick . The expression most_common(50) gives us a list of the 50 most frequently occurring types in the text . Your Turn: Try the Essay about History of Smallpox, preceding frequency distribution example for yourself, for text2 . Be careful to use the US Intervention Guatemalan Civil, correct parentheses and uppercase letters. If you get an History of Smallpox, error message NameError: name 'FreqDist' is not defined , you need to start your work with from import * Do any words produced in the last example help us grasp the topic or genre of this text? Only one word, whale , is slightly informative! It occurs over 900 times. Consequences Of The. The rest of the words tell us nothing about the text; they're just English plumbing. What proportion of the text is taken up with such words?

We can generate a cumulative frequency plot for these words, using fdist1.plot(50, cumulative=True) , to about produce the graph in 3.2. These 50 words account for nearly half the dual relationship, book! Figure 3.2 : Cumulative Frequency Plot for 50 Most Frequently Words in Moby Dick : these account for nearly half of the tokens. If the frequent words don't help us, how about the words that occur once only, the so-called hapaxes ? View them by Essay typing fdist1.hapaxes() . Essay Wicca Vs. Scientology. This list contains lexicographer , cetological , contraband , expostulations , and about 9,000 others. It seems that there are too many rare words, and without seeing the context we probably can't guess what half of the Essay about, hapaxes mean in any case! Since neither frequent nor infrequent words help, we need to try something else. 3.2 Fine-grained Selection of Words. Next, let's look at monica hughes books, the long words of a text; perhaps these will be more characteristic and informative. For this we adapt some notation from set theory. We would like to find the words from the vocabulary of the Essay History, text that are more than 15 characters long.

Let's call this property P , so that P(w) is true if and only if w is relationship more than 15 characters long. Now we can express the words of about interest using mathematical set notation as shown in (1a). This means the set of all w such that w is an element of V (the vocabulary) and w has property P . The corresponding Python expression is given in (1b). (Note that it produces a list, not a set, which means that duplicates are possible.) Observe how similar the two notations are. Let's go one more step and write executable Python code: For each word w in the vocabulary V , we check whether len(w) is greater than 15; all other words will be ignored.

We will discuss this syntax more carefully later. Your Turn: Try out the previous statements in the Python interpreter, and Modalities Essay example experiment with changing the text and about History changing the length condition. Does it make a difference to your results if you change the variable names, e.g., using [word for word in vocab if . ] ? Let's return to our task of finding words that characterize a text. Notice that the long words in text4 reflect its national focus — constitutionally , transcontinental — whereas those in text5 reflect its informal content: boooooooooooglyyyyyy and yuuuuuuuuuuuummmmmmmmmmmm . Have we succeeded in automatically extracting words that typify a text? Well, these very long words are often hapaxes (i.e., unique) and perhaps it would be better to Wicca find frequently occurring long words. Essay Of Smallpox. This seems promising since it eliminates frequent short words (e.g., the ) and infrequent long words (e.g. antiphilosophists ). Here are all words from the chat corpus that are longer than seven characters, that occur more than seven times: Notice how we have used two conditions: len(w) 7 ensures that the relationship, words are longer than seven letters, and fdist5[w] 7 ensures that these words occur more than seven times. Essay Of Smallpox. At last we have managed to automatically identify the frequently-occurring content-bearing words of the text.

It is Essay vs. Scientology a modest but important milestone: a tiny piece of code, processing tens of thousands of Essay about History words, produces some informative output. A collocation is a sequence of words that occur together unusually often. US Intervention In The. Thus red wine is a collocation, whereas the wine is not. A characteristic of collocations is Essay that they are resistant to substitution with words that have similar senses; for example, maroon wine sounds definitely odd. To get a handle on collocations, we start off by extracting from a text a list of word pairs, also known as bigrams . This is easily accomplished with the function bigrams() : If you omitted list() above, and just typed bigrams([ 'more' , . ]) , you would have seen output of the form generator object bigrams at 0x10fb8b3a8 . This is Python's way of Sonographic, and Their Difficulties saying that it is ready to about History of Smallpox compute a sequence of items, in this case, bigrams. Imaging Corresponding Essay Example. For now, you just need to know to tell Python to convert it into a list, using list() . Here we see that the pair of words than-done is a bigram, and we write it in Python as ( 'than' , 'done' ) . History. Now, collocations are essentially just frequent bigrams, except that we want to pay more attention to the cases that involve rare words. In particular, we want to find bigrams that occur more often than we would expect based on the frequency of the individual words. The collocations() function does this for us.

We will see how it works later. The collocations that emerge are very specific to the genre of the texts. In order to Sonographic, Corresponding Essay example find red wine as a collocation, we would need to process a much larger body of text. Counting words is useful, but we can count other things too. For example, we can look at the distribution of word lengths in a text, by creating a FreqDist out of a long list of numbers, where each number is the length of the corresponding word in the text: We start by deriving a list of the lengths of words in text1 , and Essay about History of Smallpox the FreqDist then counts the number of times each of these occurs . The result is a distribution containing a quarter of a million items, each of which is a number corresponding to what is formative a word token in the text. But there are at most only 20 distinct items being counted, the about History, numbers 1 through 20, because there are only 20 different word lengths. I.e., there are words consisting of just one character, two characters, . twenty characters, but none with twenty one or more characters.

One might wonder how frequent the Essay Wicca, different lengths of word are (e.g., how many words of length four appear in Essay about History, the text, are there more words of The Negative Consequences of the US Intervention War length five than length four, etc). We can do this as follows: From this we see that the most frequent word length is 3, and that words of length 3 account for roughly 50,000 (or 20%) of the words making up the book. Although we will not pursue it here, further analysis of History of Smallpox word length might help us understand differences between authors, genres, or languages. 3.1 summarizes the Pressure groups Essay, functions defined in frequency distributions. Functions Defined for NLTK's Frequency Distributions. Our discussion of frequency distributions has introduced some important Python concepts, and we will look at them systematically in 4. 4 Back to Python: Making Decisions and Taking Control. So far, our little programs have had some interesting qualities: the ability to work with language, and the potential to save human effort through automation.

A key feature of Essay History of Smallpox programming is the ability of relationship machines to make decisions on our behalf, executing instructions when certain conditions are met, or repeatedly looping through text data until some condition is satisfied. This feature is known as control , and is the focus of this section. Python supports a wide range of operators, such as and = , for testing the relationship between values. The full set of Essay about of Smallpox these relational operators is shown in 4.1. Numerical Comparison Operators. We can use these to select different words from a sentence of news text.

Here are some examples — only the operator is changed from one line to the next. They all use sent7 , the first sentence from Consequences War text7 ( Wall Street Journal ). As before, if you get an error saying that sent7 is about of Smallpox undefined, you need to first type: from groups Essay import * There is a common pattern to of Smallpox all of these examples: [w for w in text if condition ] , where condition is a Python test that yields either true or false. In the cases shown in the previous code example, the condition is Pressure groups Essay always a numerical comparison. History Of Smallpox. However, we can also test various properties of words, using the functions listed in 4.2. Some Word Comparison Operators. Here are some examples of these operators being used to select words from assessment our texts: words ending with -ableness ; words containing gnt ; words having an about History, initial capital; and words consisting entirely of digits. We can also create more complex conditions. If c is a condition, then not c is also a condition. If we have two conditions c 1 and c 2 , then we can combine them to form a new condition using conjunction and disjunction: c 1 and c 2 , c 1 or c 2 . Your Turn: Run the The Negative Consequences in the Guatemalan, following examples and try to explain what is going on in each one.

Next, try to make up some conditions of your own. In 3, we saw some examples of counting items other than words. Essay History. Let's take a closer look at the notation we used: These expressions have the The Negative US Intervention in the Civil War, form [f(w) for . ] or [w.f() for . ] , where f is a function that operates on a word to Essay about of Smallpox compute its length, or to convert it to uppercase. For now, you don't need to understand the difference between the notations f(w) and w.f() . Instead, simply learn this Python idiom which performs the same operation on every element of Pressure a list.

In the preceding examples, it goes through each word in text1 , assigning each one in turn to the variable w and performing the specified operation on Essay, the variable. The notation just described is called a list comprehension. About Vs. Scientology. This is our first example of a Python idiom, a fixed notation that we use habitually without bothering to analyze each time. Mastering such idioms is an important part of becoming a fluent Python programmer. Let's return to the question of vocabulary size, and apply the same idiom here: Now that we are not double-counting words like This and this , which differ only in capitalization, we've wiped 2,000 off the vocabulary count! We can go a step further and Essay of Smallpox eliminate numbers and punctuation from the vocabulary count by what is formative assessment filtering out any non-alphabetic items: This example is slightly complicated: it lowercases all the purely alphabetic items. Perhaps it would have been simpler just to count the History of Smallpox, lowercase-only items, but this gives the wrong answer (why?). Don't worry if you don't feel confident with list comprehensions yet, since you'll see many more examples along with explanations in the following chapters. Most programming languages permit us to execute a block of code when a conditional expression , or if statement, is satisfied.

We already saw examples of dual conditional tests in code like [w for about History w in sent7 if len(w) 4] . In the following program, we have created a variable called word containing the string value 'cat' . The if statement checks whether the test len(word) 5 is true. It is, so the body of the if statement is invoked and the print statement is relationship executed, displaying a message to the user. Remember to indent the Essay about History, print statement by in the Civil typing four spaces. When we use the Essay about History, Python interpreter we have to add an relationship, extra blank line in order for it to detect that the nested block is Essay History of Smallpox complete. If you are using Python 2.6 or 2.7, you need to include the following line in order for the above print function to be recognized: If we change the conditional test to len(word) = 5 , to check that the length of word is greater than or equal to 5 , then the Consequences in the Guatemalan Civil, test will no longer be true. This time, the about, body of the and Their example, if statement will not be executed, and Essay about of Smallpox no message is shown to the user: An if statement is known as a control structure because it controls whether the relationship, code in the indented block will be run.

Another control structure is Essay about the for loop. Try the following, and remember to include the colon and dual relationship the four spaces: This is called a loop because Python executes the code in circular fashion. It starts by performing the assignment word = 'Call' , effectively using the word variable to History of Smallpox name the first item of the list. Then, it displays the value of word to the user. The Negative Consequences In The. Next, it goes back to the for statement, and performs the assignment word = 'me' , before displaying this new value to the user, and so on. Essay History. It continues in this fashion until every item of the groups Essay, list has been processed. Now we can combine the if and for statements. We will loop over every item of the list, and print the item only Essay History, if it ends with the letter l . What Assessment. We'll pick another name for the variable to demonstrate that Python doesn't try to make sense of variable names. You will notice that if and for statements have a colon at the end of the line, before the indentation begins.

In fact, all Python control structures end with a colon. Essay About History. The colon indicates that the current statement relates to the indented block that follows. We can also specify an The Negative US Intervention Guatemalan Civil War, action to of Smallpox be taken if the Consequences US Intervention in the, condition of the if statement is not met. About History. Here we see the elif (else if) statement, and the else statement. Hughes Books. Notice that these also have colons before the indented code. As you can see, even with this small amount of Python knowledge, you can start to build multiline Python programs. It's important to develop such programs in Essay about, pieces, testing that each piece does what you expect before combining them into a program. Of The US Intervention In The War. This is why the Python interactive interpreter is so invaluable, and why you should get comfortable using it.

Finally, let's combine the idioms we've been exploring. First, we create a list of cie and cei words, then we loop over each item and print it. History Of Smallpox. Notice the extra information given in the print statement: end=' ' . Sonographic, And Their Essay. This tells Python to print a space (not the default newline) after each word. 5 Automatic Natural Language Understanding. We have been exploring language bottom-up, with the help of texts and about History the Python programming language. However, we're also interested in exploiting our knowledge of language and what is formative computation by building useful language technologies. We'll take the opportunity now to step back from the nitty-gritty of code in Essay, order to relationship paint a bigger picture of about of Smallpox natural language processing. At a purely practical level, we all need help to navigate the universe of information locked up in text on groups, the Web. Search engines have been crucial to the growth and popularity of the Web, but have some shortcomings. It takes skill, knowledge, and some luck, to extract answers to Essay about such questions as: What tourist sites can I visit between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh on a limited budget? What do experts say about digital SLR cameras?

What predictions about the steel market were made by credible commentators in about Wicca vs. Scientology, the past week? Getting a computer to Essay answer them automatically involves a range of language processing tasks, including information extraction, inference, and summarization, and would need to be carried out on what is formative, a scale and History with a level of about vs. Scientology robustness that is still beyond our current capabilities. On a more philosophical level, a long-standing challenge within artificial intelligence has been to build intelligent machines, and a major part of intelligent behaviour is understanding language. For many years this goal has been seen as too difficult. However, as NLP technologies become more mature, and robust methods for analyzing unrestricted text become more widespread, the prospect of natural language understanding has re-emerged as a plausible goal. In this section we describe some language understanding technologies, to Essay give you a sense of the Consequences of the US Intervention Civil, interesting challenges that are waiting for you. In word sense disambiguation we want to work out which sense of a word was intended in a given context. Essay Of Smallpox. Consider the ambiguous words serve and dish : In a sentence containing the phrase: he served the dish , you can detect that both serve and Sonographic, Modalities and Their Corresponding Difficulties dish are being used with their food meanings. It's unlikely that the topic of discussion shifted from sports to crockery in the space of three words.

This would force you to invent bizarre images, like a tennis pro about, taking out his or her frustrations on a china tea-set laid out beside the court. In other words, we automatically disambiguate words using context, exploiting the monica hughes books, simple fact that nearby words have closely related meanings. As another example of about History this contextual effect, consider the word by , which has several meanings, e.g.: the Pressure, book by Chesterton (agentive — Chesterton was the author of the book); the cup by the stove (locative — the stove is Essay about of Smallpox where the what is formative, cup is); and submit by Friday (temporal — Friday is the time of the submitting). Essay About History. Observe in (3c) that the meaning of the italicized word helps us interpret the meaning of by . A deeper kind of language understanding is to work out who did what to whom — i.e., to detect the subjects and objects of verbs. You learnt to do this in Imaging and Their Corresponding Difficulties, elementary school, but it's harder than you might think. In the sentence the thieves stole the paintings it is easy to tell who performed the stealing action. Consider three possible following sentences in (4c), and try to determine what was sold, caught, and found (one case is ambiguous). Answering this question involves finding the antecedent of the pronoun they , either thieves or paintings. Computational techniques for tackling this problem include anaphora resolution — identifying what a pronoun or noun phrase refers to — and about History semantic role labeling — identifying how a noun phrase relates to the verb (as agent, patient, instrument, and so on). If we can automatically solve such problems of language understanding, we will be able to move on to tasks that involve generating language output, such as question answering and machine translation . In the first case, a machine should be able to The Negative Guatemalan answer a user's questions relating to collection of History texts:

The machine's answer demonstrates that it has correctly worked out hughes books, that they refers to paintings and not to thieves. In the Essay about, second case, the machine should be able to translate the and Their Difficulties Essay example, text into another language, accurately conveying the meaning of the original text. In translating the example text into French, we are forced to choose the gender of the pronoun in the second sentence: ils (masculine) if the thieves are found, and elles (feminine) if the paintings are found. Correct translation actually depends on History, correct understanding of the pronoun. In all of dual relationship these examples, working out the sense of a word, the subject of Essay of Smallpox a verb, and the antecedent of a pronoun are steps in establishing the Essay, meaning of a sentence, things we would expect a language understanding system to be able to do. For a long time now, machine translation (MT) has been the holy grail of language understanding, ultimately seeking to provide high-quality, idiomatic translation between any pair of Essay languages. Its roots go back to dual the early days of the Cold War, when the about of Smallpox, promise of automatic translation led to substantial government sponsorship, and vs. Scientology with it, the genesis of NLP itself. Today, practical translation systems exist for History of Smallpox particular pairs of languages, and some are integrated into web search engines. However, these systems have some serious shortcomings, which are starkly revealed by Sonographic, Imaging Modalities Difficulties Essay translating a sentence back and Essay about of Smallpox forth between a pair of languages until equilibrium is reached, e.g.:

Observe that the system correctly translates Alice Springs from English to German (in the line starting 1 ), but on the way back to English, this ends up as Alice jump (line 2 ). The preposition before is initially translated into the corresponding German preposition vor , but later into the conjunction bevor (line 5). Dual Relationship. After line 5 the about History, sentences become nonsensical (but notice the various phrasings indicated by the commas, and the change from jump to Pressure Essay leap ). The translation system did not recognize when a word was part of a proper name, and it misinterpreted the grammatical structure. Your Turn: Try this yourself using Machine translation is Essay about History difficult because a given word could have several possible translations (depending on assessment, its meaning), and because word order must be changed in keeping with the grammatical structure of the target language. Today these difficulties are being faced by collecting massive quantities of parallel texts from news and government websites that publish documents in two or more languages. Given a document in History, German and English, and possibly a bilingual dictionary, we can automatically pair up the sentences, a process called text alignment . Once we have a million or more sentence pairs, we can detect corresponding words and phrases, and build a model that can be used for translating new text.

In the history of artificial intelligence, the chief measure of intelligence has been a linguistic one, namely the Turing Test : can a dialogue system, responding to a user's text input, perform so naturally that we cannot distinguish it from a human-generated response? In contrast, today's commercial dialogue systems are very limited, but still perform useful functions in dual relationship, narrowly-defined domains, as we see here: You could not ask this system to provide driving instructions or details of nearby restaurants unless the required information had already been stored and suitable question-answer pairs had been incorporated into History of Smallpox, the language processing system. Observe that this system seems to understand the monica, user's goals: the Essay about History, user asks when a movie is showing and the system correctly determines from what this that the user wants to see the movie. This inference seems so obvious that you probably didn't notice it was made, yet a natural language system needs to be endowed with this capability in of Smallpox, order to interact naturally. Essay. Without it, when asked Do you know when Saving Private Ryan is playing? , a system might unhelpfully respond with a cold Yes . However, the developers of commercial dialogue systems use contextual assumptions and business logic to ensure that the Essay, different ways in which a user might express requests or provide information are handled in a way that makes sense for the particular application. So, if you type When is . , or I want to know when . , or Can you tell me when . , simple rules will always yield screening times. This is enough for the system to Sonographic, Imaging and Their Corresponding Difficulties Essay example provide a useful service. Figure 5.1 : Simple Pipeline Architecture for a Spoken Dialogue System: Spoken input (top left) is analyzed, words are recognized, sentences are parsed and interpreted in about History of Smallpox, context, application-specific actions take place (top right); a response is planned, realized as a syntactic structure, then to suitably inflected words, and finally to Imaging and Their Difficulties spoken output; different types of Essay of Smallpox linguistic knowledge inform each stage of the process.

Dialogue systems give us an opportunity to mention the commonly assumed pipeline for NLP. 5.1 shows the architecture of a simple dialogue system. Along the top of the diagram, moving from left to right, is a pipeline of some language understanding components . These map from speech input via syntactic parsing to some kind of meaning representation. Along the middle, moving from right to left, is the reverse pipeline of components for dual relationship converting concepts to speech. These components make up the dynamic aspects of the system.

At the bottom of the about of Smallpox, diagram are some representative bodies of static information: the repositories of language-related data that the processing components draw on to do their work. Your Turn: For an Pressure groups Essay, example of History a primitive dialogue system, try having a conversation with an NLTK chatbot. To see the available chatbots, run . What Assessment. (Remember to Essay about import nltk first.) The challenge of language understanding has been brought into focus in what is formative assessment, recent years by a public shared task called Recognizing Textual Entailment (RTE). The basic scenario is simple.

Suppose you want to find evidence to support the hypothesis: Sandra Goudie was defeated by Max Purnell , and that you have another short text that seems to be relevant, for Essay about History of Smallpox example, Sandra Goudie was first elected to Parliament in the 2002 elections, narrowly winning the seat of Coromandel by defeating Labour candidate Max Purnell and Imaging Modalities Essay pushing incumbent Green MP Jeanette Fitzsimons into about of Smallpox, third place . Does the text provide enough evidence for you to accept the hypothesis? In this particular case, the answer will be No. You can draw this conclusion easily, but it is very hard to come up with automated methods for making the what, right decision. The RTE Challenges provide data that allow competitors to develop their systems, but not enough data for Essay of Smallpox brute force machine learning techniques (a topic we will cover in chap-data-intensive). Consequently, some linguistic analysis is dual crucial. Essay About. In the Pressure groups Essay, previous example, it is important for the system to note that Sandra Goudie names the person being defeated in about History, the hypothesis, not the person doing the Pressure groups, defeating in the text. As another illustration of the Essay about, difficulty of the task, consider the following text-hypothesis pair: In order to determine whether the groups Essay, hypothesis is supported by the text, the system needs the following background knowledge: (i) if someone is an author of History a book, then he/she has written that book; (ii) if someone is an editor of a book, then he/she has not written (all of) that book; (iii) if someone is editor or author of eighteen books, then one cannot conclude that he/she is author of eighteen books. Despite the research-led advances in tasks like RTE, natural language systems that have been deployed for real-world applications still cannot perform common-sense reasoning or draw on world knowledge in assessment, a general and robust manner. We can wait for these difficult artificial intelligence problems to be solved, but in the meantime it is necessary to live with some severe limitations on the reasoning and knowledge capabilities of Essay of Smallpox natural language systems. Accordingly, right from the beginning, an important goal of NLP research has been to make progress on the difficult task of building technologies that understand language, using superficial yet powerful techniques instead of unrestricted knowledge and reasoning capabilities.

Indeed, this is one of the goals of this book, and we hope to equip you with the knowledge and skills to build useful NLP systems, and to contribute to the long-term aspiration of building intelligent machines. Texts are represented in Python using lists: [ 'Monty' , 'Python' ] . Monica Hughes. We can use indexing, slicing, and the len() function on lists. Essay History Of Smallpox. A word token is a particular appearance of about vs. Scientology a given word in a text; a word type is the unique form of the word as a particular sequence of Essay History of Smallpox letters. We count word tokens using len(text) and word types using len(set(text)) . We obtain the Difficulties, vocabulary of of Smallpox a text t using sorted(set(t)) . We operate on each item of a text using [f(x) for x in text] . To derive the vocabulary, collapsing case distinctions and ignoring punctuation, we can write set(w.lower() for w in text if w.isalpha()) . We process each word in a text using a for statement, such as for w in t: or for word in text: . Books. This must be followed by the colon character and an indented block of code, to be executed each time through the loop. We test a condition using an if statement: if len(word) 5: . This must be followed by the colon character and an indented block of code, to Essay about History be executed only if the condition is true. A frequency distribution is The Negative of the in the Civil a collection of items along with their frequency counts (e.g., the words of a text and their frequency of appearance). History Of Smallpox. A function is a block of code that has been assigned a name and Sonographic, Imaging Modalities and Their Corresponding can be reused. Functions are defined using the def keyword, as in def mult (x, y) ; x and y are parameters of the function, and act as placeholders for actual data values. A function is called by Essay about specifying its name followed by zero or more arguments inside parentheses, like this: texts() , mult(3, 4) , len(text1) . This chapter has introduced new concepts in programming, natural language processing, and linguistics, all mixed in together. About Wicca Vs. Scientology. Many of them are consolidated in the following chapters. However, you may also want to consult the online materials provided with this chapter (at ), including links to additional background materials, and links to online NLP systems.

You may also like to Essay about History read up on some linguistics and NLP-related concepts in Wikipedia (e.g., collocations, the Turing Test, the The Negative Consequences US Intervention Guatemalan Civil War, type-token distinction). You should acquaint yourself with the Python documentation available at , including the many tutorials and comprehensive reference materials linked there. A Beginner's Guide to Python is available at . Miscellaneous questions about Essay about History of Smallpox Python might be answered in the FAQ at . As you delve into relationship, NLTK, you might want to subscribe to the mailing list where new releases of the about, toolkit are announced. There is Pressure groups also an about of Smallpox, NLTK-Users mailing list, where users help each other as they learn how to use Python and NLTK for language analysis work. Details of these lists are available at . For more information on is formative, the topics covered in 5, and on NLP more generally, you might like to consult one of the following excellent books: Indurkhya, Nitin and Fred Damerau (eds, 2010) Handbook of Natural Language Processing (Second Edition) Chapman Hall/CRC. Essay About History Of Smallpox. 2010. Consequences US Intervention In The Civil War. (Indurkhya Damerau, 2010)(Dale, Moisl, Somers, 2000) Jurafsky, Daniel and James Martin (2008) Speech and Language Processing (Second Edition). Prentice Hall. (Jurafsky Martin, 2008) Mitkov, Ruslan (ed, 2003) The Oxford Handbook of Computational Linguistics . History Of Smallpox. Oxford University Press. (second edition expected in 2010). (Mitkov, 2002) The Association for Computational Linguistics is the groups, international organization that represents the field of NLP.

The ACL website ( ) hosts many useful resources, including: information about international and regional conferences and workshops; the ACL Wiki with links to about of Smallpox hundreds of useful resources; and the ACL Anthology , which contains most of the NLP research literature from the The Negative Consequences of the US Intervention Guatemalan War, past 50+ years, fully indexed and freely downloadable. Some excellent introductory Linguistics textbooks are: [Finegan2007]_ , (O'Grady et al, 2004), (OSU, 2007). You might like to about History consult LanguageLog , a popular linguistics blog with occasional posts that use the techniques described in this book. #9788; Try using the Python interpreter as a calculator, and typing expressions like 12 / (4 + 1) . #9788; Given an alphabet of 26 letters, there are 26 to the power 10, or 26 ** 10 , ten-letter strings we can form. That works out to 141167095653376 . How many hundred-letter strings are possible? #9788; The Python multiplication operation can be applied to lists. What happens when you type [ 'Monty' , 'Python' ] * 20 , or 3 * sent1 ? #9788; Review 1 on computing with language.

How many words are there in text2 ? How many distinct words are there? #9788; Compare the lexical diversity scores for humor and romance fiction in 1.1. Which genre is more lexically diverse? #9788; Produce a dispersion plot of the four main protagonists in Sense and Sensibility : Elinor, Marianne, Edward, and Willoughby. What can you observe about the different roles played by the males and females in this novel? Can you identify the couples? #9788; Find the collocations in text5 . #9788; Consider the following Python expression: len(set(text4)) . State the dual relationship, purpose of about History of Smallpox this expression. Describe the two steps involved in performing this computation. #9788; Review 2 on lists and strings.

Define a string and assign it to a variable, e.g., my_string = 'My String' (but put something more interesting in the string). Print the contents of this variable in Pressure, two ways, first by simply typing the variable name and pressing enter, then by using the print statement. Try adding the string to itself using my_string + my_string , or multiplying it by a number, e.g., my_string * 3 . Notice that the strings are joined together without any spaces. How could you fix this? #9788; Define a variable my_sent to be a list of words, using the syntax my_sent = [ My , sent ] (but with your own words, or a favorite saying). Use ' ' .join(my_sent) to convert this into a string. Use split() to split the string back into the list form you had to start with. #9788; Define several variables containing lists of about of Smallpox words, e.g., phrase1 , phrase2 , and so on. Join them together in various combinations (using the what assessment, plus operator) to form whole sentences.

What is the relationship between len(phrase1 + phrase2) and len(phrase1) + len(phrase2) ? #9788; Consider the following two expressions, which have the same value. Which one will typically be more relevant in NLP? Why? #9788; We have seen how to Essay represent a sentence as a list of words, where each word is Imaging Difficulties a sequence of characters. What does sent1[2][2] do? Why?

Experiment with other index values. #9788; The first sentence of text3 is provided to you in the variable sent3 . The index of the in sent3 is 1, because sent3[1] gives us 'the' . What are the indexes of the two other occurrences of this word in sent3 ? #9788; Review the Essay about History of Smallpox, discussion of books conditionals in 4. Find all words in the Chat Corpus ( text5 ) starting with the letter b . Show them in alphabetical order. #9788; Type the expression list(range(10)) at the interpreter prompt. Now try list(range(10, 20)) , list(range(10, 20, 2)) , and list(range(20, 10, -2)) . We will see a variety of uses for this built-in function in later chapters. #9681; Use text9.index() to find the Essay History, index of the Sonographic, Imaging Modalities, word sunset . You'll need to insert this word as an History, argument between the parentheses. By a process of what is formative trial and error, find the slice for the complete sentence that contains this word.

#9681; Using list addition, and the set and sorted operations, compute the vocabulary of the History, sentences sent1 . sent8 . #9681; What is the difference between the following two lines? Which one will give a larger value? Will this be the case for other texts? #9681; What is the Essay, difference between the following two tests: w.isupper() and not w.islower() ? #9681; Write the slice expression that extracts the last two words of text2 . #9681; Find all the four-letter words in the Chat Corpus ( text5 ). With the help of a frequency distribution ( FreqDist ), show these words in decreasing order of about of Smallpox frequency. #9681; Review the discussion of looping with conditions in 4. Books. Use a combination of for and if statements to loop over the words of the movie script for Monty Python and the Holy Grail ( text6 ) and print all the uppercase words, one per History of Smallpox line. #9681; Write expressions for finding all words in text6 that meet the conditions listed below.

The result should be in the form of a list of words: [ 'word1' , 'word2' , . ] . Ending in ize Containing the letter z Containing the sequence of letters pt Having all lowercase letters except for an initial capital (i.e., titlecase ) #9681; Define sent to be the list of words [ 'she' , 'sells' , 'sea' , 'shells' , 'by' , 'the' , 'sea' , 'shore' ] . Now write code to perform the following tasks: Print all words beginning with sh Print all words longer than four characters. #9681; What does the monica hughes, following Python code do? sum(len(w) for about History of Smallpox w in text1) Can you use it to work out the of the US Intervention Civil, average word length of a text? #9681; Define a function called vocab_size(text) that has a single parameter for the text, and which returns the vocabulary size of the text. #9681; Define a function percent(word, text) that calculates how often a given word occurs in a text, and about of Smallpox expresses the result as a percentage. #9681; We have been using sets to store vocabularies. Try the following Python expression: set(sent3) set(text1) . Experiment with this using different arguments to set() . What does it do?

Can you think of a practical application for this? About this document. UPDATED FOR NLTK 3.0. Consequences In The Guatemalan Civil. This is a chapter from Natural Language Processing with Python , by Steven Bird, Ewan Klein and Edward Loper, Copyright © 2014 the authors. It is distributed with the Natural Language Toolkit [ ], Version 3.0, under the terms of the History of Smallpox, Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License [].

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10 Tips for Writing the College Application Essay. Essay History Of Smallpox. No subject is more fraught with anxiety for The Negative Consequences Guatemalan Civil the high school senior than the essay on the college application. Whether it is as bizarre as the University of Chicago's How do you feel about Wednesday?; University of Pennsylvania's You have just completed your 300-page autobiography. Essay History Of Smallpox. Please submit page 217.; or Tufts University's Are We Alone?—or whether it is Sonographic, and Their Corresponding, a more mundane question about a formative experience you've had in your life, or about Essay of Smallpox some controversial social or political issue, students tremble at Essay Wicca vs. Scientology the very thought of History, writing the essay and dual relationship being judged on it. Get updates from U.S.

News, including newsletters, rankings announcements, new features and special offers. Of Smallpox. We wondered what tips could be offered to ease the pain. For advice, we turned to visiting blogger Jonathan Reider, director of college counseling at San Francisco University High School, who before that was the monica books, senior associate director of admissions (and humanities instructor) at Stanford University. He should know; he's been on both sides of the high school/college door. Here are his 10 best tips. 1. Be concise. Even though the Common Application main essay has only a suggested minimum of 250 words, and no upper limit, every admissions officer has a big stack to read every day; he or she expects to spend only a couple of minutes on Essay History of Smallpox, the essay. If you go over 700 words, you are straining their patience, which no one should want to do. 2. Be honest.

Don't embellish your achievements, titles, and offices. It's just fine to be the Consequences US Intervention Guatemalan Civil War, copy editor of the Essay about, newspaper or the dual relationship, treasurer of the Green Club, instead of the about History of Smallpox, president. Not everyone has to be the star at everything. You will feel better if you don't strain to inflate yourself. 3. Be an individual. In writing the essay, ask yourself, How can I distinguish myself from those thousands of others applying to College X whom I don't know—and even the ones I do know?

It's not in your activities or interests. If you're going straight from high school to what assessment college, you're just a teenager, doing teenage things. It is about of Smallpox, your mind and Essay about Wicca vs. Scientology how it works that are distinctive. How do you think? Sure, that's hard to explain, but that's the key to about of Smallpox the whole exercise. 4. Be coherent. Obviously, you don't want to babble, but I mean write about just one subject at a time. Don't try to cover everything in an essay.

Doing so can make you sound busy, but at the same time, scattered and superficial. The whole application is a series of snapshots of what you do. It is inevitably incomplete. The colleges expect this. Dual Relationship. Go along with them. 5. Be accurate. I don't mean just use spell check (that goes without saying). Attend to of Smallpox the other mechanics of good writing, including conventional punctuation in the use of commas, semi-colons, etc. If you are writing about Dickens, don't say he wrote Wuthering Heights.

If you write about Nietzsche, spell his name right. 6. Be vivid. A good essay is often compared to a story: In many cases it's an anecdote of an important moment. Provide some details to help the reader see the setting. Use the names (or invent them) for about the other people in the story, including your brother, teacher, or coach. This makes it all more human and humane. Essay About Of Smallpox. It also shows the reader that you are thinking about his or her appreciation of your writing, which is Consequences Civil, something you'll surely want to do. 7. About Of Smallpox. Be likable. Colleges see themselves as communities, where people have to get along with others, in dorms, classes, etc. Are you someone they would like to have dinner with, hang out with, have in a discussion section?

Think, How can I communicate this without just standing up and saying it, which is corny. Subtlety is good. 8. Relationship. Be cautious in your use of humor. You never know how someone you don't know is going to respond to you, especially if you offer something humorous. Humor is always in the eye of the Essay about History, beholder. Be funny only if you think you have to. Then think again. 9. Be controversial (if you can). So many kids write bland essays that don't take a stand on anything. It is fine to write about politics, religion, something serious, as long as you are balanced and thoughtful. Don't pretend you have the final truth.

And don't just get up on your soapbox and spout off on relationship, a sensitive subject; instead, give reasons and arguments for your view and consider other perspectives (if appropriate). Colleges are places for Essay of Smallpox the discussion of ideas, and admissions officers look for diversity of Essay, mind. 10. Be smart. Colleges are intellectual places, a fact they almost always keep a secret when they talk about their dorms, climbing walls, and how many sports you can play. It is helpful to show your intellectual vitality. What turns your mind on? This is not the same thing as declaring an intended major; what matters is why that subject interests you. © Copyright 2010 Professors' Guide LLC. All rights reserved. Master SAT Command of Evidence Items. Students will find this question type in the reading and writing and language sections of the exam.

Washington College Road Trip: University of Washington. Discover what it's like to about History attend this public institution in Seattle. Washington College Road Trip: Gonzaga University. Relationship. Learn what it's like to History of Smallpox attend this Spokane, Washington school. Take a College Road Trip to Washington. Find out what it's like to attend college in this Northwestern state. Washington College Road Trip: Whitman College. Discover what it's like to attend this school in Walla Walla, Washington. Washington College Road Trip: University of assessment, Puget Sound.

Learn what it's like to attend this Tacoma, Washington school. Pitino Is 'Coach-2' in Federal Court Documents. History Of Smallpox. The Louisville head basketball coach Pitino may have helped funnel money to a top recruit in bid to secure his commitment. Modalities And Their. Different groups and organizations – from about History of Smallpox, tech companies to sororities – offer college aid for women. 10 Universities With Biggest Endowments. The endowment at each of these schools exceeded $8.7 billion for the 2016 fiscal year, U.S.

News data show. Ideal Choices in College Admissions. Learn how to make the best decision in common undergraduate admissions scenarios. Get updates from U.S. News, including newsletters, rankings announcements, new features and special offers. Video: Creating a College Short List. See the best National Universities, Liberal Arts Colleges and The Negative Consequences US Intervention Civil War more. Already know what you are looking for?

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Family Issues and Its Effects That Affects Student Academic Performance in Essay about History Secondary School. 1.0. Pressure Groups? BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY. The family is the child’s channel of contact with the world. The child as a result, acquires initial education and socialization from parents and other significant members of the family. History Of Smallpox? Agulana (1999) stated that the family lays the psychological, moral and Pressure Essay spiritual foundation in the overall development of the child. There is no such thing as the perfect family. About History Of Smallpox? Every family is unique with its own combination of strengths and weaknesses. Sometimes families get overwhelmed by what seems like an endless list of challenges when it comes to about vs. Scientology juggling work, school and individual family members' needs.

Over the past 20 years single-parent families have become even more common than the of Smallpox, so-called nuclear family consisting of a mother, father and children. Relationship? Today we see all sorts of single parent families: headed by mothers, headed by fathers, headed by grandparents raising their grandchildren. Life in a single parent household - though common - can be quite demanding and stressful for the adult and the children. Structurally, family/homes is either broken or intact. A broken home in this context, is one that is not structurally intact, it could be as a result of divorce, separation, death of one parent, economic status and illegitimacy. According to Frazer (2001), psychological home conditions arise mainly from illegitimacy of children, the label of adopted child, broken home, divorce and parental deprivation. Such abnormal conditions of the home are likely to have a detrimental effect on about the student performance in the school. However, the child also faces more indirect conflict with high academic achievement from Pressure Essay areas like; finance and family background. Families that are faced with financial challenges can have negative influence on the student intelligence and about social life. (Children Defence Fund, 1994)..

Effect of School Fercilities on Student Academic Performance. . of data collection should be firstly tackled because any (during data collection) of the project will go a long way to reflecting in the result . the data used in what assessment this project is a secondary data. OBJECTIVES OF THE SURVEY This can be summarized as follows: thus, to study: (a) Efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer application on hybrid of maize and sugar beet. (b) The effects of different rates(levels) of nitrogen fertilizer on Essay different varities of relationship, Maize and sugar Beet (c) To determine the highest yielding variety at a minimum nitrogen level (d) To determine optimum nitrogen level for high yield (e) Efficiency of the design used in analysis the data i.e. the latin square design and the randomized complete block design. 1.6 STATISTICAL TERMINOLOGIES AND THEIR DEFINITION Some terminologies used in Essay History this study include: TREATMENT: treatment or treatment combination is that which is applied to each experimental unit for which responses are expected. EXPERIMENT UNIT: The items used for an experiment are referred to as experimental unit. FACTOR: A factor is Pressure groups Essay a variable which is believed to affect the outcome of the experiment and is therefore under investigation. Experiments with more than one factor are called multifactor experiments. BLOCKING/BLOCKS: It is the stratification of experimental units into differently homogeneus groups. Essay About History Of Smallpox? PLOT: this is the experimental unit in the block.

PRECISION: this is the inverse of variance. RESPONSES: this is the numerical. Words: 1406 - Pages: 6. Significance Study of Factors Affect the Academic Performance of Selected Working Student. . the publish the relationship, homework or todays lesson on their blog.

Teachercan use the easy and ready made, free blog such as Blogspot or Multiply. So if thestudents are absent in class, he / she can view the teachers blog for todays lessonand homework. If they have any problem or question to ask, they can use the forumcolumn to discuss and exchange ideas. So this will make the learning process willbecome easier and improve their studies. The internet also let the students to be creative in studies. If they are havingproblem in studies or too afraid to ask their teacher about the studies, they can lookfor the information using the Essay, internet. The internet is a large and wide medium.

Sothe students can choose for monica books, what they want and what really suited with theirstudies. This will make them to be more creative and yet improve their studies. The internet is a very useful technology. The students should use thistechnology wisely. Its capability will let the students to enhanced their studies, to Essay about History bemore creative, and expand their knowledge besides letting them to interact witheach other. Combining all these benefits will help to improve the students studies “I began using the Internet in about my teaching practices because. ” was that it offered studentsmore resources. Other common responses were that it offered students easier access toinformation, that it motivated students to perform at a higher level, and that it providedcurrent information.

In addition to these high-frequency responses. Words: 561 - Pages: 3. Effect of Online Social Networking on Student Academic Performance. . work towards raising your GPA and it never seems to rise to the level you’d like? As college students, we are torn between academic responsibilities, athletic obligations, and of Smallpox even social activities. We drive ourselves crazy trying to The Negative Consequences of the US Intervention be everywhere and do everything. Even if it’s for fun, we rush and cram and soon life becomes overwhelming and the fun fades away. We need to Essay about of Smallpox stop spreading ourselves so thin and dual relationship start enjoying the things we do again.

We all perform better, whether in athletics or academics, when TIME MANAGEMENT EFFECTS ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE we’re having fun, because the less stressed we are, the more productive we can be. It’s 3 been theorized that optimally managing time can increase performance and achievement, but how true is this? Let’s explore how this theory’s been tested to Essay about History of Smallpox determine how efficient use of time affects the productivity of college students. Relationship? Britton and Tesser (1991) tested their hypothesis that college grade point averages could be predicted by time management practices. They had ninety freshman and sophomore college students at the University of Georgia answer a 35-question time management survey and Essay about submit their SAT scores. They found that two time management components directly affect the cumulative GPA; planning – including utilizing short and long term goals -- and time attitudes, or, the perception of dual, how their time needs to about be spent. Students that practiced both planning and Essay about vs. Scientology positive time attitudes found that they had. Words: 4426 - Pages: 18.

The Effects of Essay History of Smallpox, Parental Social-Economic Status on the Academic Performance of Secondary School Students. . schools in Lagos State. The ex post facto research design was adopted for this study. This is because the variables studied were not manipulated but studied retrospectively the example, way they occur naturally. The population of the Essay History, study covered the entire SS-2 students in Lagos State secondary schools. Out of this population, a sample of hundred and twenty (120) adolescent students was selected and used for the study; using the purposive and stratified random sampling procedures. Hughes Books? The instrument used to collect data for the study was a twenty-one item self-structured questionnaire. Three hypotheses were formulated and tested during the study using both Independent Sample T-test and Essay History One-Way Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) statistic tools. Each of the Wicca, results obtained from the tests was compared with its critical value at 5% level of History of Smallpox, significance. 5.3 Conclusion On the basis of the The Negative US Intervention in the Guatemalan, findings made in this study, we conclude that: (i) Working mothers’ absence influences adolescent students’ academic performance. (ii) The educational performance of adolescents with working mothers is Essay different from that of those whose mothers are not working. (iii) Working mothers’ absence affects the quality of home work done by dual relationship adolescent students. Essay? 5.4 Recommendations Based on the findings made in this study, we make the following recommendations. i) Secondary school heads should use Parent Teacher Association forum to educate parents, especially mothers on the essence of giving their.

Words: 8319 - Pages: 34. Effect of Broken Home on the Academic Performance Among Student S in The Negative Consequences of the US Intervention in the Guatemalan Secondary School. . child's upbringing suffer. It is less commonly used for parents who have simply split up, and Essay about are still noth in what contact, and on good terms with the child CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter presents the review of related literature and Essay about of Smallpox studies about is formative assessment, broken homes and their effects to children’s character. History? The review focuses on a number of different instruments used to prove that belonging to a broken family is the main cause for these children to possess strong character. The chapter begins with the definition of broken home, and then followed by its effects on the children.

The struggles faced by these children, and their perspective in life are discussed. 2.1 RELATED LITERATURE 2.1.1 INTRODUCTION According to Collins Cobuild Advanced Dictionary of English, a home can refer to a family unit. Wicca Vs. Scientology? Composed of the father, mother, children, and sometimes with any other members of the extended family, it is a place where one lives with one’s family. It is an institution where each member needs care, love, comfort, and Essay History of Smallpox sense of security. However, there are homes that are incomplete in hughes one way or another everywhere in the globe. Death or divorce may be the cause and they may have disastrous effects on a child’s development, in other cases the injuries may be insignificant.

Judging the situation of a child of a ‘broken home’ is never easy. A divorce is often followed by a long period of deep dissention, which certainly means emotional strain and discord. As a rule, the. Words: 620 - Pages: 3. Factor Affect Academic Performance. . Essay History Of Smallpox? students attain the Pressure, above goals. Essay About Of Smallpox? Incidentally, the dual relationship, learners have their peculiar characteristics which may manifest special learning needs (Elliot, Kratochiwill, Cook and Travers, 2001). Learners expect that the materials and method of instruction should be easily transferable to the real world. Thus, the task of the teacher includes, among others, to provide the materials and experiences to of Smallpox aid learning and meet the learner’s expectations (Ogwo, 2004).

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM There are many factors affecting secondary school students achievement in biology with particular reference to Ethiope East local government Area of Delta State. Such problems include; Poor equipped laboratory, insufficient textbook in libraries, poor classroom facilities, etc. This makes it difficult for proper learning and understanding to take place. The result is that the dual, teaching of the subject lays emphasis on accumulation of fact rather than the Essay about of Smallpox, development of scientific attitude in student. Essay? The Biology curriculum over the years has been delivered mechanically or by rote learning, which makes instruction teacher -centered. Hardly can vital abstract contents in Biology be effectively coteaching aidsunicated to the learners theoretically. They need to be taught using relevant materials. The teacher and Essay History his/her method of teaching may have being a major source of US Intervention in the Guatemalan, student’s poor academic performance in biology. Most teachers still prefer using the ‘chalk and talk’ method in. Words: 7055 - Pages: 29.

The Effects of Parental Social-Economic Status on the Academic Performance of Secondary School Students. . How to survive a thesis defense The thesis defence or viva is like an oral examination in some ways. It is different in many ways, however. The chief difference is that the about History, candidate usually knows more about the syllabus than do the examiners. Consequently, some questions will be sincere questions: the monica, asker asks because s/he doesn't know and expects that the candidate will be able to rectify this.

Students often expect questions to be difficult and Essay attacking, and Wicca vs. Scientology answer them accordingly. Often the questions will be much simpler than you expect. In a curious relativistic effect, time expands in the mind of the about of Smallpox, student. A few seconds pause to reflect before answering seems eminently reasonable to the panel, but to the defender it seems like minutes of The Negative Consequences of the US Intervention in the Civil War, mute failure. Essay About History Of Smallpox? Take your time.

For the same reason, let them take their time. Let them finish, or even elaborate on, the question. The phrase That's a good question is hughes books useful. It flatters the asker and may get him/her onside, or less offside; it gives you time to think; it implies that you have understood the Essay about of Smallpox, question and assessed it already and that you have probably thought about it before. If absolutely necessary, it can be followed by a bit more stalling Now the answer to that is not obvious/straightforward. which has some of the same advantages. Don't try to monica bluff your way out of a question. If someone has asked a simple question, and about History you answer with a torrent of jargon, or refer to some complicated equation, the. Words: 1053 - Pages: 5. Family Issues and Its Effects That Affects Student Academic Performance in dual Secondary School. . Essay History Of Smallpox? ; * Hardening the child’s attitude negatively towards the other parent; * Less opportunity for parents and children to spend time together; * Effects of the breakup on children's school performance and peer relations; * Disruptions of extended family relationships; The single parent can help family members face these difficulties by talking with each other about their feelings and vs. Scientology working together to tackle problems.

Based on the above, the History, researcher intends to investigate the relationship between the family issues and Sonographic, Imaging Difficulties example its effects on student’s academic performance in Essay History of Smallpox secondary school. The research confirms that adolescents have a different perspective than their parents on the family's style of education, on the attitudes and behaviors in school-family-community relations; all these influence their reactions and ultimately, their psycho-social development. Consider the overlapping spheres of influence theory, the representations that the student has acquired in dual relationship high school overlap with the representations of about History, his/her family experience, thus providing him/her with a new and broader horizon of understanding of the family microcosm in relation to the school and community environment. 2.1. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Some students are faced with different family issues thereby diverting them from focusing on their education and groups Essay thereby making them irresponsible citizen in the society at large. Efforts should be made by the nation to ensure that children.

Words: 1484 - Pages: 6. Effect of Broken Home on Student Academic Performance. . home. Stephen and Ceci (2001) observed that parent-child interactions are forces that lead to better academic performance. Also, Aremu (2000) found in his study that undergraduates that received democratic type of parenting performed better than their counterparts from autocratic homes. Essay About History Of Smallpox? In a study conducted on the effects of family structure and parenthood on the academic performance of what, Nigerian University students, Uwaifo (2008) found significant difference between the academic performance of students from single-parent family and Essay about History of Smallpox those from two-parent family structure. Uwaifo (2008) also noted that the relationship, school is responsible for the experiences that make up the individuals life during school periods. Indeed, parental involvement and individuals’ experiences at home play tremendous roles in building the personality of the child and Essay about History making the child what he is. Based on Pressure Essay the above increasing evidence that parental involvement are beneficial for children’s success in school, this study, therefore, seeks to find out the impact of Essay of Smallpox, family type on students’ academic performance among secondary school students in Ondo State, Nigeria.

Moreso, very few available studies have examined the dual relationship, influence of family type on students’ academic performance in Ondo State, Nigeria. Filling this gap necessitates the present study. Furthermore, many children have been hindered from reaching their optimum level in academic pursuit due to some negative factors arisen from home. These include lack of. Words: 3016 - Pages: 13. Factors Affecting Student Academic Performance in Biology in Senior Secondary School. . Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning , Vol.

9, No. 1, January 2009 , pp. 64 – 8 0 . Essay About History Of Smallpox? Factors influencing academic performance of students enrolled in a lower di vision Cell Biology core course Julio G. Soto 1 and Sulekha Anand 2 Abstract: Students’ performance in two semesters of what is formative assessment, our Cell Biology c ourse was examined for this study . Teachin g strategies, behaviors, and pre - course variables were analyzed with respect to students’ performance. Pre - semester and post - semester surveys were administered to about ascertain students’ perceptions about class difficulty, amount of Pressure Essay, study and Essay about of Smallpox effort put into t he course, and Essay about vs. Scientology professional goals . Chi - square ( ? 2 ) tests of independence showed that completion of chemistry requirements, passing the Essay about History of Smallpox, laboratory component of Cell Biology, homework, and attendance were related to passing our course . Logistic regression sh owed that perfect attendance followed by GPA, were the most important factors associated with passing the course. Hughes? Keywords: undergraduate, GPA, attendance, lower division cell biology, pre - requisites, assessment I. Introduction. About History Of Smallpox? As educators, one of th e most important goals of our teaching is to help students understand the course material. Equally important for science students, is the goal of obtaining a grade that will facilitate academic and professional advancement. Numerous science education stud ies have focused on the question of which teaching. Words: 434 - Pages: 2. Factors That Affect Academic Performance.

. Factors That Affect English Academic Performance of Grade 9 Students of Rosario National High School S.Y. 2015-2016 August 2015 Chapter 1: Introduction Academic performance is the outcome of student educational goals. It is hard to indicate or measure academic performance of such an individual. Specially, there are socio-economic, psychological and environmental factors. For the last three years, the Philippine government started to fallow K-12 standards. Hughes Books? The research focuses only on two groups of students who are divided into two; the one who improve and the one who does not.

According to Hansen, Joe (2000) student performance must not depend on socio-economic, psychological, environmental factors because of the new paradigm that considering oder factors, like race, gender, and about of Smallpox sex. Books? Mcdill (1989) tried to explain the link between students achievement between economic circumstances as a reason of becoming a out of school youth or drop-out. Essay? Effects of age, qualification, qualification distance from hughes learning place was pursued by BA Chemsaken and A. Mishaelaudis (2001). YB Walters (1998) stated that: “high school student’s level of performance is Essay about History of Smallpox with statistically significant different, linked to their gender, grade level, school location, school type, student type and socio-economic backgrounds. Students capability about patience was Kirby, Winston et. Monica Hughes Books? al (2002). Zajimes (1976) added that students stand outs if he gets along with his strata. Words: 1256 - Pages: 6.

Factors That Affect the Academic Performance of High School Students. . A. About Of Smallpox? Student Performance Galiher (2006) and Darling (2005), used GPA to measure student performance because they main focus in on the student performance for the particular semester. Essay About Wicca? B. Learning Facilities Karemera (2003) found that students' performance is significantly correlated with satisfaction with academic environment and the facilities of library, computer lab and etc. in the institution. With regard to background variables, he found a positive effect of high school performance and school achievement he found no statistical evidence of significant association between family income level and academic performance of the student. Robert Sampson (2011), found that the member of educational board will be educated and their impact on school is positive, for professional development it is essential for student learning. The students who are actively engage in the learning process are observed to History of Smallpox have a positive correlation with the Pressure, CGP. A Study effort from student and the proper use of the facilities provided by the institution to the student, a good match between students’ learning style and are positively affect the student's performance (Norhidayah Ali, et. al., 2009) Neil Flemming (2001-2011) described these four major learning preferences as follows: * Visual learners: students who prefer information to Essay about be presented on the whiteboard, flip charts, walls, graphics, pictures, color. Probably creative and groups Essay may use different colors and diagrams in.

Words: 491 - Pages: 2. Malnutrition and Its Effect to the Academic Performance of Selected Public High School Student in Gumaca, Quezon During School Year 2015-2016. . About History Of Smallpox? Impact of Poor Nutrition on the Academic Performance of Grade Seven learners: A Case of Zimbabwe Kudzai Chinyoka Great Zimbabwe University Department of Educational Foundations Email: Doi:10.5296/ijld.v4i3.6169 URL: Abstract This paper examined the impact of Essay vs. Scientology, poor nutrition on the academic performance of History, grade seven learners at two primary schools in Chivi, Zimbabwe. Its main objective is to monica hughes books identify mitigation policies and measures designed to reduce negative effects of poor nutrition on Essay about History of Smallpox children’s academic performance. Malnutrition remains one of the major obstacles to human well-being affecting all areas of a child's growth and development, including performance in The Negative Consequences War the classroom. The study is grounded in Maslow’s motivational and needs theory. About History? In this study, a qualitative phenomenological case study design was used with focus group discussions, interviews and observations as data collection instruments to twelve (12) grade seven learners, three (3) headmasters and four (4) teachers, purposively sampled in Masvingo province.

Findings revealed that malnutrition affected physical growth, cognitive development and Essay Wicca vs. Scientology it consequently impacts on academic performance, health and survival of learners. Malnutrition also deepens poverty due to Essay about increased health care costs. Monica Books? The study also established that hungry and undernourished grade seven learners were not able to take on physical work and sporting. Words: 5678 - Pages: 23. Effect of Broken Family in Academic Performance of Students. . About Of Smallpox? positive thing yet; it still remains negative. One of the dangerous effects is emotional and financial disruption of children’s lives.

Considering the above mentioned issues, I decided to conduct a wide-ranging study in order to understand the effects of family breakup on children. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The reasons today in Philippines is that the standard of education has fallen, thus leading to lots of is formative assessment, arguments amongst scholars, traders, civil servant etc as the immediate and remote causes of the failure and the factors hindering high standard of education while we may blame both government teachers and History children, the home which the pupils comes from leaves much to be desired. It is important to note that we cannot exonerate the home which the child comes from which we are taking about monica hughes books, pupils performance in schools. Of Smallpox? This skill living together as husband and wife or there have been separation in Consequences of the War the home , socio-economic status of the about History of Smallpox, parents level of education of parents, family size and Essay health facility. To deal with the effects of broken homes on the academic performance of students, certain questions were asked these include: - a. Cannot comprehend well in school because I don’t take my breakfast before going to Essay school. Pressure Groups Essay? b. I perform well in school because I live with my parents. c. Cannot pay my tuition fees because my mom and about dad have. Words: 1872 - Pages: 8. The Influence of School Environment on Students’ Academic Performance in Selected Secondary Schools. . solving. Donovan et al. (1999) also noted that it is important that both the school and classroom environments be learner-centered.

Teachers need to be aware of students’ cultural and learning differences and how these differences affect their ability to perform in the classroom. In addition, they suggested that, “…attention must be given to what is taught (information, subject matter), why it is taught (understanding), and what competence or mastery looks like” According to The Negative in the Civil War Aremu and Sokan (2003), and Aremu and Oluwole (2001), secondary school students’ poor performance may be hinged on about of Smallpox students because of their low retention, parental factors, association with wrong peers and motivation. The Negative Consequences Of The US Intervention Civil? Previous research evidence showed that poor academic performance at the secondary school level of education is a product of teacher, school and the home environment. According to Morakinyo (2003), the falling level of academic performance of secondary school students is attributable to Essay about History of Smallpox teachers’ non-use of verbal reinforcement. Also the home environment or family background of learners affects their academic performance (Ajila Olutola, 2007) The sharp decline in the academic performance at various levels of our educational system in Nigeria is largely attributed to the poor conditions in our educational institutions.

These include lack of modern instructional technology, poor classroom conditions and lack of adequate training programmes for is formative, teachers. Similarly, classroom learning.

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Essay: Workplace Conflict Resolution. This paper intends to look at the causes of conflict in the workplace and the effects that it can have on the employers, employees, and the organization as a whole. This is not a problem that started recently, this has been going on for years. Essay History! Conflict in the workplace can be resolved when addressed in a timely manner and ensuring that the correct tools are used in the process. Sonographic, Corresponding! The work environment has the normal stressors, so therefore creating an Essay about History of Smallpox, environment that is free from undue stress can be greatly rewarding. Morale and productivity can reach high levels when a pleasant work environment is created. Keywords: conflict resolution, workplace conflict. Workplace Conflict Resolution.

Conflict: ‘to come into collision or disagreement; be contradictory, at variance or in opposition; clash.’ How would it be to live this life free from conflict? We as humans would like to believe that conflicts never occur or if and what assessment when they do the resolution will be a favorable outcome for all concerned (, n.d.). Causes of Workplace Conflict. According to Crampton (2011) ‘workplace conflict is inevitable.’ It does not matter what type of Essay business we are in there is sure to be some kind of workplace conflict. If we know what those triggers are we will be better able to Pressure groups, deal with and try to settle the conflicts. There are everyday circumstances that can definitely lead to about, workplace conflict and this is not something anyone can gage or know when to Consequences of the in the War, expect. Essay History Of Smallpox! Just the circumstances and monica books situations of everyday life will cause undesirable circumstances. Individuals working together or living together for that matter will at some point will have person issues.

According to Crampton (2011) whether these differences stem from about History, ‘hurts, slights, rivalry or other conflict’ this can affect the goals and expectations of the organization. Groups! There will be some issues that we cannot leave at home and deal with when we return. When this happens it can and will cause a conflict in the workplace because some individuals will not or they are scared to Essay of Smallpox, discuss their personal problems with their boss or co-workers. This can cause a great misunderstanding in the workplace because everyone will be wondering what is going on. This does not happen only in business, but this happens in any area of life. When individuals fail to communicate or do not know how to communicate this can ruin any relationship. Verbal and groups Essay non-verbal communication is very important for one’s very existence and survival, so therefore we must be able to express not only our feelings, but workplace expectations. Today most people communicate using electronics, so therefore it is very hard to about, really get to US Intervention Guatemalan Civil, know how they are really feeling or thinking for that matter. In the workplace people used to walk around to of Smallpox, get answers to situations, but now everything is e-mailed.

I prefer the old-fashioned way which was management by walking around and talking to the staff face to Pressure, face. This would be a way to about History of Smallpox, really build a rapport. We all have been created differently with our own minds, thoughts, and attitudes. Dual Relationship! We are now in an age where we are more aware of the different generations we interact with on about History of Smallpox a daily basis. From the silent generation to Sonographic, Modalities Difficulties Essay example, what I would call the microwave generation that really believe in texting and only using shortcuts. History Of Smallpox! We are all working together and there can be some serious communication gaps which can lead to personality conflicts. Terms that are used by the more seasoned generation can be offensive to the younger generation and this can cause a conflict to occur.

This seems to be behind every ailment or confusion that may be happening in Consequences of the US Intervention in the Guatemalan Civil, the workplace. What if the secretary decides that he or she does not want to schedule an appointment and the administrative assistant decides she does not want to cover for the secretary in her absence, this could become a stressful environment. What happens when have someone in human resources delays sending an offer letter because he or she does not want to listen to the supervisor? Most of the time when this happens, the about History of Smallpox employees have miscommunicated the objective of completing a project and have his or own method of what is formative assessment doing something. This is where different levels of experience is a negative versus a positive. The employees are not allowing their experiences to play a role in having a successful outcome.

When this happens, the best thing to do is to ‘nip it in Essay, the bud’ or else the monica hughes books situation will be uncontrollable. There must be a meeting to discuss the genesis of the misunderstanding. We all have to vent at some point or we will blow up or have a very negative attitude. This is something I learned and I am still learning, the person that we vent to can turn what is said into the nastiest situation and this can create a hostile work environment. It does take two to have a conversation, but the Essay about History of Smallpox sad part is that we never know whether or not the dual other person has a hidden agenda and will take it to Essay about of Smallpox, the next level. How this is handled could predict whether or not the Imaging Modalities and Their Corresponding Difficulties person may or may not have a job in Essay about History of Smallpox, the end. This is Essay very difficult if not the most difficult situation to be handled. Some managers may not know they are too rough or may be coming off as really misunderstood. I had to Essay of Smallpox, deal with this situation years ago and this person was not just being difficult and not know it, he was actually harassing me and dual knew what he was doing.

There was no way to reach him, so the situation was resolved quietly, he was the type of person who deserved to Essay of Smallpox, work alone. As stated by D. Crampton, ‘a simple meeting to ‘clear the air’ may be all that’s needed to Wicca, resolve the problem’ (2011). Solutions to Essay about History of Smallpox, the Conflict. How conflicts originate or get started are different so therefore, they must be handled or settled using various approaches that suit the situation. Some of the tips used: ‘ approach must be clear, do not indulge in the conflict, personal attitude should not be the basis, others point of view must be acknowledged, use a mediator if necessary, and the superiors do not have to be involved’ (Farrell, 2014).

We all would love to have a conflict end where both sides will come out Sonographic, Modalities and Their Difficulties Essay example winning, but we know that that is not always the case. Hitt, Miller, Colella (2011) wrote the following are outcomes to conflict: Lose-Lose: Neither party gets what they initially desired Win-Lose or Lose Win: One of the party’s concerns are satisfied Compromise: Both parties give in to some degree on an issue or set of issues Win-Win: Both parties get what they want. (pp. 448-450) This last outcome is what we would like for all conflicts, but this will not always be the case or solution. Respect in the workplace should be at the very top of everyone’s list from the top manager on down. This would be going back to basics of treating people how we want to be treated. Below is a list of what respect is History (The Resolution Centre, 2009). 1. Always treat people with courtesy, politeness, kindness and ultimately how you would like to be treated. 2. Listen to what others have to say before expressing your viewpoint. 3. Never butt in or talk over another person.

4. Encourage others to express their opinions and ideas. 5. Improve your work by using others ideas and credit them for their ideas. 6. Never put people down, disparage them, call them names or insult them. 7. Do not belittle, criticize little things, demean or patronize others. Is Formative Assessment! A series of small comments over time can amount to bullying. 8. If you would prefer not to do a task, chances are neither would your co-worker.

Share the load. 9. Regardless of race, religion, gender, age or other orientation always treat people equally. 10. Ensure that your workplace maintains an equal opportunity policy and that you are familiar with it. 11. Ensure that praise, recognition and History appreciation is abundant in your workplace.

This is so easy to understand because we are trying everyday day to manage our own emotions, which we do not realize the other person may be feeling or going through something. There are ten simple strategies help reduce negative emotions: ‘delay, expectation management, appreciation, then correction, same side, relief, leverage positions, acknowledgement, your responsibility in the problem, your responsibility in Sonographic, Imaging Modalities and Their Corresponding Essay, the solution and sincere apology.’ Each one of Essay about of Smallpox these strategies must be met with sincerity or they will not work. (Polsky, 2011). ‘Don’t fear conflict; embrace it ‘ it’s your job’ (Myatt, 2012). Dual Relationship! What a concept. We all feel that conflict is the last thing that we would like to of Smallpox, deal with. The Negative Of The In The! We spend more time at work than we do at home with our families, so therefore we would like to be in a peaceful environment. It is so true that if the problem is not addressed it will not get resolved, it will only escalate.

Mike Myatt (2012) stated in his article ‘leadership and conflict go hand-in-hand.’ This is such a true statement, but no one wants to have to deal with conflict. Leaders and History managers must know how to handle conflict in the workplace. This is often swept under the rug hoping that the problem will go away and it does not, things just get worse. Do not be afraid. It is the believed that the person causing the conflict is a trouble maker verses someone who is bringing something positive to the table. Dual! We all have various opinions and ideas, so therefore there will always be some sort of conflict which must be addresses. Essay About Of Smallpox! Some organizations will just move the individuals or as it is Essay Wicca vs. Scientology said the problem around to make things better. Communicate.

What we all somehow fail to do effectively. One example is the History of Smallpox negative attitude which may happen over and over again and workers will eventually strike out at each other (Smith, n/d). When this happens the problem must be addressed and The Negative of the US Intervention in the Civil War there will be times when the individual may be the about cause of the problem, but do not jump to this particular conclusion prior to communicating effectively. Can be Positive. It is hard to imagine that such a behavior as conflict can be used as a positive. How can something that seems so dark be healthy and be used in what, such a positive way? Humans in about History, and out of the work center will express themselves at some point in assessment, time, and this is not something easily handled. Some people would rather avoid the conflict than address it. Kevan Hall wrote an article in about History of Smallpox, 2013 that contained four tips that can be used to turn conflicts into something positive. He stated ‘that ownership of the problem or paying the price are the choices that one has.’ The tips are as follows: ‘recognize and flag the problem, remain emotionally neutral, create shared purpose, and relationship learn from it’ (2013).

As long as we humans continue to Essay about History, exist, move, work and live among each other, conflict will be a part of this life. We have to what is formative assessment, learn to History, use the Imaging Essay example resources available to us to the best our being to try to resolve the History conflicts. There will be times when the outcome will not be what we want it to be or hope for, but we must press on and try to learn from those experiences to create an environment that will be free from monica hughes, conflict. The strategic implications of organizational behavior for resolving workplace conflict would be to try to create an environment that would be free of conflict or when it occurs try to Essay History of Smallpox, ensure that it will be resolved immediately. Imaging And Their Example! Training is needed so that individuals will be able to handle conflict as soon as it occurs. The most valuable lesson that anyone will ever learn will be how to communicate with each other. Essay About History Of Smallpox! Learning how to handle personal situations and teaching on how to respect each other versus taking each other for granted will certainly go a long way. The Negative Consequences Of The In The! The opportunities would be to have a great company and of Smallpox a team of workers that can get along with each other in a stress free environment. The challenges would be to actually get everyone to understand that they all have differences that can work as a positive but this does not always happen. Conflict. Pressure Essay! (n.d.).

Retrieved from Essay about, Crampton, D. (2011, September 15). A comprehensive article on what causes workplace. conflict. Pressure! TIGERS Success Series.

Retrieved from Farrell, A. (2014, April 28). Workplace conflict resolution: Best tips to overcome disputes. The Agile Zone. Retrieved from Hall, K. (2013, May 27). How you can turn workplace conflict into meaningful progress. Talent. Management. About History Of Smallpox! Retrieved from Hitt, M. A., Miller, C. C., Colella, A. (2011).

Conflict, negotiation, power, and politics. (3rd. ed.). Organizational behavior. (pp. Relationship! 448-450). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley Sons, Inc. Myatt, M. (2012, February 12). History! 5 keys of dual relationship dealing with workplace conflict. Forbes Leadership. Retrieved from Polsky, L. (2011, June 14).

10 ways to manage emotions during conflict in the workplace. Talent Management. Retrieved from Smith, Gregory P. (n.d.). Conflict resolution: 8 strategies to manage workplace conflict. Business Know- How. Retrieved from. The Resolution Centre. (2009). History! Respect in Essay, the workplace prevents conflict. Resolution Centre. Articles.

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